tv Modoc Indians in Photography CSPAN November 5, 2016 2:15pm-3:20pm EDT
, talks about the photographic betrayal of native americans during the 19th century. .articularly the modoc indians we also hear about how photographs of native people were used to promote native expansion after the civil war. the california historical society hosted this event. makeda: -- now, she is revising a book and previously co-edited a volume title. she has forthcoming articles with the anthology truth. multi-discriminatory research essential lens. that was produced by the organ public television. and as she watched several episodes of that, i loved it and i learned a lot.
you can check it out on youtube and other places. and her work is fantastic. to readitely feel free her articles and explore her work and think deeply about how representation and identity is connected to photography. this is what the exhibition is about. mikitall handed over to best, a much better speaker than myself. have a great time. she will speak for 45 minutes and then we will open up to the queue and day. can ask questions. so think up some great questions. [applause] thank you for that wonderful introduction. the best introduction i have ever had. very nice. so i think can the lights go down a little lower?
are the lights going to go a little lower? oh, ok. so i am interested into questions today. about more significant photographic portraits in terms subject matter and technique. the other subject matter is about the historical context ed drew during this. to answer these questions, we need to think back to the 19th century. we need to understand how the native americans entered the .isual record how photography adapted the same attitudes. the history and production of photographs of native americans in this region of the country,
california and the modoc indians war with photography and media. so depictions of native people the unitedis time, states in the 1820's marked the emergence of a particular interest in producing a visual record of native peoples. this coincided with the concept of the manifest destiny. an idea that held western expansion across the continent was inevitable and preordained. this highly influential concept was originally articulated by a wrote, ourwho manifest destiny is to overspread the continent allotted by providence for the free development of our multiplying millions. the ideao this idea is --race -- based on the a based on the idea that is indigenous cultures would
inevitably does a beer -- inevitably disappear. in madison's painting, we see multigenerational families of native americans at lance and. the sun is fading against their body. cool, helping to express the harshness of the landscape and perhaps a metaphor for their own existence. they are left with nothing. the young woman leans heavily and sits on the ground. the young man seems resigned while the elder male seems to accept their fate. storm clouds are gathering. american artists, including george kaplan, alfred miller and about b are stacked set creating works that responded to these interests and ideas. this came in a variety of forms. paintings, photographs, engravings.
cap glenn described his mission -- "armed and equipped and supplied, i started out in the year 1832 and penetrated the vast and pathless wild which perdomo attlee dominated the far western continent. inspired with an enthusiastic hope and reliance that i could meet and overcome all the hazards of a life devoted to the production of a literal and graphic manner, customs and character. of the interesting race of people who are rapidly fasting rapidly passing away. lending a hand to a dying nation who has no historian or biographer of their own. to betray with fidelity their native looks and history. thus snatching from a hasty open livia and. what could be saved from posterity with a fair and just
monument to the memory of a truly lofty and noble race." work.ple bought the also translated into other formats. piece, ad own a souvenir, of the very idea that he is talking about. george crowfoot, a publisher of travel guides, commissioned the american progress by the painter john daft. this is a picture of the manifest destiny, representing the extension of civilization over wilderness and the uncivilized. notice the emblem of civilization. a telegraph wire. and also families. a visualing is narration of westward expansion. male miners come first in the bottom and establish
civilization. native americans and wildlife are cowering in the darkness at the left of the painting. light comes from the east and arrives in the west. other tropes existed. such as the good indians and the bad indians. where westernns clothing. he has his haircut. he is combed and he sits with other emblems of civilization. a dog. education. you can see he has achieved these things. versus the bad indian on the left, your left, uncontrollable emotions. nudity and wild gestures. and notice the tones here. the tones are important. the war tones in the painting versus the cooler tones earlier
on in the other work by thomas madison. how weones influence read these images and also the color of the people that we see. the earliest photographs made in american studio was made by thomas easterly. karyotype.are a -- visiting st. louis. he is posing in a studio and he wears it bear claw necklace and a piece metal and ho's -- and holds a silver tipped cane. remember this resembles a three develop -- a three-dimensional image. it is three-dimensional. so when this way, a viewer can actually imagine that they were
actually holding him in their hands. they are holding a miniature version of him. known as watchful fox. he also rose to prominence during the dramatic exchanges with u.s. authorities. and he is a controversial figure. -- what is now kansas. negotiatedht a settlement with government officials and had replaced and other leader who had been more resistant to the diplomatic talks. his willingness to sell tribal made and caused political division among his tribe. many refused to leave. kansas andreturn to then later returned to iowa. of --sterly made images and he, like kaplan, wanted to sell his images to artists who
were interested in the subject. portrait islier probably the first known photographic image of a native american but it was made in a scotchtain by photographer. are differentphs from the gerry and types in that they are paper-based. you can even see the paper that they used. you can see the fibers of the paper. and that is why it is grainy. a piece of coding paper with a photosensitive material. that is the precursor to what modern-day photography is. these portraits were made outdoors. that is why they look strange under the lighting. depicts -- peter jones.
they made three portraits of him in "indian dress." heirloomis not kind of . it was given to him by someone during his visit to england and so it wasn't cultural or tribal. is fascinating about this image is that, notice how supposedly, it native people don't understand technology, right? but as is pointed out, he clearly poses and assumes different roles. what hely understands is doing. he clearly understands the process of picture making. photographic, documentation again supersedes paintings and drawings. photographs and -- photographs of indians provided a means to view the unfamiliar.
yet exciting. most ofsay unfamiliar, that would be east of the mississippi. so completely unfamiliar. they could view these images from the comfort of their home. without a direct encounter. also, the cultural association of the photograph was evidentiary truth which meant they could powerfully serve to reinforce and enforce prevalent ideas about native people. important to note that the emergence of native americans is a subject in photography each coincides with other important technical and cultural factors. technical factors include the expansion of photo processing. cameras. a handheld camera. formats and printing capacities. paper-based photographs versus the gerry and types which could be inserted into books.
they could be distributed and shared. cultural factors include increasing numbers of settlers in the regions. the expansion of media and the group -- the growth of tourism. some photographers are going to take up themes we have already seen. the north american indian contained over 1500 images and was published in 1911. this was criticized for the unethical methods which included directing his subjects. this was aided in the printing format. the soft brownish color that you observe is characteristic of the format used here.
so he is using a particular format in order to enforce the sense of the past. image, as a textured rich brown. he used that to distribute his work in books and also, we have to understand it influences how we read and interpret the subject matter. to considerful here broad categories of images of native people. one category is the anthropological image. right? the second half of the 19 oftury saw the rapid growth the scientific study of historical peoples and cultures. the organization of it in the united states came under the control of the u.s. government which was established in 1879. the function was to describe and record native american peoples and cultures. now, the photographers here are interested in reproducing for us
and demonstrating signs of cultural difference and distinction. right? we have facial peters, cheekbones, four heads. viewers are looking at the dark skin. the long hair. jewelry. also notice the items that are crowded around him. all of the golden tapestries. to enforcerther used and represent his difference, his culture, to the viewer. another category we can identify is a government survey and expedition. a former sullivan, civil war photographer worked on federal surveys under clarence king. and produced hundreds of photographs. tose surveys worked
"determine facilities for rail or common roads or note " but they also sought to discover the "numbers, habits and dispositions of indians in this section, among other activities. and notice the official markers. the fields. the titles. the back of one of the stereo graphs. you can see that these images were used and they were used for reports and presentations. to convince other congressmen to appropriate money. toy were used to demonstrate congressmen the need for certain types of legislation. so these images were actively used, handled and distributed. common type of image are delegation images. delegation portraiture.
century, theth violence and the disputes over white settlement in native land really lead the u.s. government to invite delegations of native american leaders to washington, d.c. to negotiate treaties. and it was common for these visitors to be recorded by the leading photographers of the area. many of whom had studios in washington. now, alexander gardner here presents a portrait which is seemingly a document of the visit. notice the power here. how he intervenes in this image. note that he directs the gaze of each of the men. they don't look at each other and they don't engage with each other. their gazes and poses are controlled. he controls where they sit and how they stand. so it does appear to be a simple portrait but in fact, he has intervened here to show us a
particular kind of representation. and this particular image was reproduced on the cover of harpers weekly. and just to show you how these images start to show up in the media. perhaps less well-known are images -- this is a particular genre of a photographic era called the editorial is him. internationaln photography movement that essentially rejected the mechanical aspects of photography in favor of the labor-intensive processes which would emphasize the artistry of the photographer. they wanted to reject the idea that the photographer was a near mechanic and that photography was an instrument of recording and that it wasn't art. so they adopt these labor-intensive processes and manipulate photographs in order to introduce texture and tones.
make aessentially photograph in the same way that an artist or painter might make a painting. -- was aapher gertrude leading figure in this movement. and she began photography figures with buffalo bills wild west show during 1888-1889. this is the subject of her man." t titled "the red and that comes from a centuries long notion of racial stocks. the idea that each race belongs to a different type of -- the idea that each race belongs to a different category and that each of these races had different characteristics and the emphasis there is that they have lesser characteristics than others. the image is close up and it is moody.
what you can't tell you here is the texture of the image. it is very textured in its production and the tone of it, as well. but here, another stoic indian. staring back at us. isther type of image frontieres village and reservation life. 1880-1920, the hopi snake ceremony known as the most dance, was the popular and widely depicted southwest native american ritual. it became a very popular tourist attraction. august torformed in ensure abundant rainfall, the ceremony involved live snakes. public learned of and became interested in the ritual through the work of ed work ofcurs -- photographers.
with the introduction of the handheld camera, tourists from around the world went there themselves to take pictures. see -- iis what you don't know if i have a pointer here -- that is what you see on the right of the image. and on the left. all of the westerners are essentially crowding into make images to observe the ceremony. some of these are amazing because some of the dancers, they barely have any room because there are so many tourists there, crowding in with their cameras to make photographs. some images are more documentary. than others. here we see the image of arthur french. it speaks to the development of photography after 1850 and
interrelated the commercial opportunities available for photographers. the -- youts were could not is only multiples and they were fragile. viewing was not possible. was limited to two restrictions and when you look at these photographs, we need to remember and acknowledge that they were biased by their makers. for example, photographers tended to minimize successful adaptations. even as they purported to document actual practices. these photographers were exposed abouttemporary rhetoric native americans. and most of the time, these images were being made for commercial regions. you didn't just pop out with your camera and go on a survey.
so these photographers worked under the influence of another body or entity. now, photographs of native americans in california are rare for various reasons. native people in other areas of the country were more likely to be photographs. government survey expeditions to the northwest and well-known photographers set up ranch studios in places like iowa and st. louis. now the process that we have come to know as photography introduced to the world in 1839, the only surviving image speaks to 1850 and it depicts a group that resided in what is now the sierra nevada valley. -- these two
images, they are not those images but they are also the same group. in a publication or a series of publications by lawrence house worth from san francisco. series.ed this kind of native americans were part of the series. you see the number there, 595. they were part of the series. they were affirmed that sought to acquire images made by other photographers. and these images would be sold to eastern audiences. are called stereo graphs. we have seen them already. they consist of two nearly identical photographs together and they are paired to give the illusion of a three-dimensional image.
of like the things that kids have for you put it in -- i forget what they are called but they are the toys that kids have. anyway -- yes, viewmaster. [laughter] you do need to view through a stereo graphs with the viewer. so you had the first real effort to document people in california. were from sanople francisco and they venture out from there. of -- isauthor speaking next week and he makes a powerful case. he makes us aware of the way that the modoc indian war was a result of various attitudes. among those, a policy of extermination which was absorbed by the public through the media.
the pedagogiclls violence. that we havens is a moment in 1850 when images of california native americans are per trade romantically, as we have seen. and then as more settlers come we see more images like this begin to appear. and the modoc indian war becomes part of the story. for example, described the massacre of 1852 which was the turning point because it was sanctioned by the state. hadr killing campaigns occurred through the second half of the 19th century. , the topic ofok indian extermination, in the media, that is an important theme in the book. and what we see in the images. right?
the modoc indian war or campaign, for those who don't know the background of it occurred in northeastern california at southwestern oregon between 1872-1873. captain jack, 50 two warriors in a band of more than 150 modoc people who left the reservation. they established defensive the lower bed national monument. and what happened was that they managed to reduce the united states army for months. in 1873 there was a piece commission hearing and captain jack and others decided they would attack. a general up killing and reverend and wounded others. and they had an assumption that if they attacked then it would
encourage americans to leave. this did not happen. and they fled back to the lava bed. -- and aftert's, that, u.s. forces were eventually, modoc indians surrendered. and what you are looking at here are images released after captain jack and other warriors were captured. a were tried for murder. captain jack and others were exaggerated and others sentenced to life imprisonment. why is it important? the most costly wars in u.s. history. it cost about $10,000 to subdue the modoc's in the battle. there are as many as 1000 u.s. troops at the height of the conflict. this was an international media event. 100 modoc indian photographs are known to exist. different types.
portraits or stereo graphs. we will see landscapes. --se images were made by photographers are still technically limited in their capacity to record movement. they are not really recording movement at all. basically, the state teams. and they can't really record actual action. well-known but he where hed in 1855 learned photography and practice there. he immigrated from germany to new york. california in 1852. and he began offering services as a photographer. so he began photographing the modoc indian war in 1873, before anyone else. the media gets onto it.
and some of the viewers of the images are known to have been staged. a will come back to that in moment. and -- arise later. a week later. first on the scene, he photographs the event that i the general was murdered. he photographed an image of the effigy. now he was working to cover these events. but hepublishes them makes the unfortunate decision to work with another to publishes images and what happens is that he gets the credit for the images and he kind of disappears from the public record which is why we don't really know that he was even there because the images actually say on them that they are copyrighted to carlson walk-ins. bridge -- i will come
back later to another portrait by heller. i will come back in a second. let me talk for a second about white bridge. an english photographer known for pioneering work on a motion and earlier motion picture projection. moved to san francisco in 1885 where he worked as a bookseller. and then he worked as a professional photographer in the city. he became the most successful through his association and collaboration with stamford. he is also known for his romantic depictions of native american life. he produced stereo graphs through various agreements. the see that here and what is
fascinating about these images is that they often deconstruct the homes or teepees of native peoples in order to photograph them. it is if you notice, they don't have the capacity to light external they use lighting so he has deconstructed half of the structure in order to let light in order to make the photograph. so he makes these photographs with the romantic titles. right? telling us who they are or what group they belong to -- it is just under the heading of "the indians of california." seriesic title for the and a generic name for this particular work. similar here. "medicine man asleep." and remember again, these are stereo graphs which would have looked 3-d when you look through a viewer.
so why are these people sitting on the ground, why these people sleeping. thingare the kinds of that people would have picked up on. they are passive. he communicates the idea of passive anti-and a lack of modernity. ofack of activity and a lack modernization. so he goes to work under the employment of the united states army. so he arrives later than heller to the field. and he becomes the one who is known as a photographer of the modoc indian war even though he arrived later. and you see this in his images that he is working for the government. mckay whoaphs donald wasnot a modoc indian that a scout for the united states army. he worked in a variety of
positions. and they play an important role in this conflict because mckay attempted to speak to the modoc indians and it was unsuccessful. but they did work as an intermediary and liaison. so here, the pictures are here as a friend. atwers would have looked these images and see a friend to the united states side. a figure of great interest to the public because of his role with aiding the united states army. image onsee another the pic of duty. to our good back indians, bad indians and allergy. these indians are helping united states army. they are offering their services. they are watchful and they are doing what they're supposed to be doing. these are the kinds of things that viewers would have been looking at.
so it is hard not to -- we understand but we can't understand the war without looking at contemporary media. press was established when the civil war had become a major force in american life. photographs shared the public space. fear with the public wood engravings. they compete with these would engravings and here we see an imaginary scene based on witness accounts and other media stories but this is what photographers are competing with. the depictions with opening up the magazine. spread.a full-page this is a large magazine. bigger than two sheets of paper. thatu have the images photographers had to compete with. event ins a media chicago and london and new york.
images were produced at harpers weekly and other publications. now, photography was associated truth. so photographers couldn't create the fancy scenes of people shooting each other. these kindst show of action scenes. so photography was associated with truth. and they had a function that others cannot. there are other factors at work here. to help understand that the images are true. and so photographers had the hand over illustrations. photographers do try to compete.
we see the modoc indian brave lying in wait for a shot. he is not a modoc indian at all. he is one of the warm indian springs scouts but is posing for an image. see them maketo it image that would captivate audiences. the man has no shirt on. he is clearly in profile. trying to compete with drawings and illustrations. now, photographs like this seem banal. why would anyone want to look at piles of rocks or a cave? this is is the setting, where it was taking place. with is an obsession geological formations and also fears of caves and of native americans in hiding in different
spaces. up thee images play fears and cultural associations. but again, it also goes back to the notion of truth. the detail that viewers would have loved, loved to see this in 3-d. the actual cave where supposedly the modoc's were living and hiding. no matter whether this was an actual cave that they used, it was a cave and it did serve as a of whatnforcement people have been reading about. similarly here, the stronghold after capture. see you have to understand that , you looked graphs at them in sequence. so it was a kind of a story. and you tell the story one at a time by loading that into the stereo graphs viewer. and so something like this, you
see the number here, and you load them up as if you are looking at a story. so here, it is offered up at the end. , byf we saw this before 1618, it is all over and the people are captured and now the americans have taken over the space. a story hereelling and reassuring visitors that it is all over. beentory and narrative has closed. and peace has been brought to the scene. notice that he is going all the way up to the side, all the way up to the top of the rocks. using the background of the sky to show these people. to make sure we see them scattered around the space. portraits probably made involuntarily, have another kind of appeal.
they were on this wildly popular cover of the illustrated news. getting the scoop on harpers weekly, the competitor. and here is, much like looking a the lava beds, we have viewerson to give access to these images and faces of the deviant others. modoc indians have been demonized in a popular society and media. so the idea of seeing these places up close when you hadn't been able to see these spaces before was something that was quite sensational. now what is interesting here is that, we will go back for a second, to heller's images, notice here on the bottom, the certification of authenticity. i certify that heller has taken
the photograph of the modoc indian, prisoner under my charge. so there was a certificate. and not only that, that we had general davis saying that he is cognizant of the above fact to isther emphasize that this true. he has been captured and he is here under my charge. so viewers would have noticed and they would have enjoyed seeing this. and they would have seen the names. -- bostons of names charlie. notice the conflation of races here. is associated with the asian cultures here. and jim is associated with african-americans. becomeive americans have a confliction of racial anxiety in these images versus our friend mckay, who sit with their
hands, in their laps as they show us they are peaceful, good indians, here to help. now what is fascinated -- what is fascinating about the heller cover and if you read the text that accompanies it, is that he actually includes people who are not actual murderers. captain jack was a leader in the center but so is donald mckay on the left. so all these figures get wrapped up in the bad indian and deviant other image, even though some of them were actual helpers of the united states side. there actually aiding that side. he is here, in this representation here, passing into a long history in which
good and bad indians are pictured in the media. images of bads or they are notorned, wearing any of their coulterville markers. they wear plain clothing. they stare directly back at us in these grim faces. right? of images are important because they are like a mug shot. were sold for four dollars a dozen. you can also buy large card versions. and there were also enlargements suitable for hanging up in solutions for private rooms. but hewidely sold introduces this arrangement with watkins and what happens is that he is not credited, he ends up uncredited for his work.
now the images, of course, are broaderon a wider and fear of ethnic "others" in america at this time. why is the modoc indian war story sensational? because of the xena phobic rhetoric that dominated the stoked bydia and was the popular media at this time. we see in this cartoon, all of the ethnic others. the african-american in the background. i forget what he is saying, i don't know if you can read it that he says something like -- they are coming for me. but the african-american and asian person, everyone here is looking at their fate and understanding that their time is nigh. the brings us to significance of the images that surround us. we have talked about
photographs made of, rather than by, with the center of native american subjects. -- theyes images involve actual -- the reproduction actually involves liquid material. a sheet of coding metal with a different material. the image is reversed, left to right. and it was a cheaper alternative. these seemaspects of apparent in the richness of the images. apparent. way, as career minded and author as this who writes for "native american thinkraphy," writes, we of them as recipients of a dominant power acted upon by an
abstract force. rather every step of the way, native americans found ways to eradicate their culture and themselves. social, political change the inevitable results of such interactions, but the change in both indigenous and colonizing populations. we are looking at images of dead, mute,are manipulated. they are not allowed to speak. the others are very probably alive. thank you. [applause] >> please go to the mic stand if you do have a question -- yes.
>> actually, i was going to ask agency in related to resistance. one of the photographs that you showed at the beginning, it was the hope beat with the textiles in the background? hopi with it was thehop the tech stuff in the background? >> yes. >> he was averting his eyes and a way. >> yes, definitely, what is fascinating about photography at momentment is it is a where you have someone resisting or you see the process fail. in those moments, relationships and personalities and ideas are revealed.
as you saw, the man averting his eyes, not doing what he was told, right? yes, definitely you do see those things. and you also see efforts to position certain -- people are told to use certain items and it might be something another not meaninks it did what he thought it meant. yes, you do see these acts of resistance. you do not see many. but for me, i think of them as the intersection between the technology itself failing and the subject resisting. he could not keep making more. he could not go again, again, again. you've got to keep that image. >> [indiscernible]
>> so, the question is, did these subjects no exactly what was happening to their image -- know exactlyects was happening to their image? >> [indiscernible] are kind of two questions. how evolved -- i think in the case of delegation photographs, they saw their image reproduced in those journals and they knew that it occurred with other people. right? they knew that their file -- their photograph was probably made and they had seen copies of these newspapers, so they probably knew in some way their image was being reproduced. what is interesting about some of the delegation photographs, there are other types where you see the subjects being treated just as any other subjects of era, just as president
lincoln or anybody else. that is one example. -- did theyestion write down ideas. most often, people write down feelings about their subjects which are derogatory. they write down derogatory ideas they have about the subjects, those types are riding. did they work in collaboration with these people? like -- a controversial figure -- edward curtis, right? he would do a lot of riding, a lot of talking, using props. there was probably a awareness in his use of subjects in the process. we do not know a lot about the other side.
>> [indiscernible] remain basically after 1860 you have to remain somewhat still. you do have to remain somewhat still, yeah. but it's not as difficult as it .ad been what i'm showing you now are yes, there are images where people moved and you see images where the depth of field is not quite correct. things would be out of focus. it's not a perfect technology. >> thank you for your talk. [indiscernible] what generation are you having access to? a fairly early generation?
of congressbrary has stamped most negatives -- they don't want you to handle actual objects because if you were doing that, they would not last very long. one of the drawbacks of looking at negatives is you are looking at images that perhaps may have never made it anywhere because it does not necessarily mean that they had a lot of images. you try to stick to -- how can i show that they were actually used? how can i find other examples that demonstrate the particular parameter that was observed and kept. is at the that library of congress is not necessarily something out in the
world. you have to be aware of those things. but in doing research, you mostly look at copy -- it's open to everybody, right? they can't have everybody coming in and having these things. >> [indiscernible] or how or can you give examples of how these photographs were used? whether there are superintendents who use these pictures? >> delegation starts -- photographs are used in one example to try to figure out the inber of people who lived
one region. right? they would try to look at the photographs and say, what kind of people are they? type lived there? you can't judge that by looking at a photograph. they would try to figure out who region? this type of you also have to understand it's not just those photograph? givingtograph is just visual records. they are not necessarily looking at records by themselves and saying, aha. that's it. they are looking at drawings. they are looking at maps. manyare looking at different objects. people would view massive amounts of paper. emphasis tovisual what people are riding in the
reports. this is how people dress. this is how they lived. and the judgments are made from there. fromhe entire settlement the southwest is based on this type of survey. railroad talk about surveys, but where is the best place to put the track? what about elevation? native americans are kind of secondary. they are not looking at them as an obstacle. >> thank you. >> do we have images of east coast tribes and people?
>> yakima that is an interesting question about why certain areas we have more documentation. i mean, the east is already settled, right? so, there is that issue. but also it is important to remember the cultural fantasy and the cultural hold of the west on the imagination of this country. the west in its landscape is the place that is unique about america. yosemite,discover once they discover these places, they call niagara falls is nothing compared to what they see. the west is told it has a .pecial function
if not necessarily california first. it's much closer to the recipient and against further out from there. the east is settled. the west has this fascination. you have a lot of paintings and drawings. you look at other kinds of images. you have wooden engravings. you have other kinds of documentation. that we don't have photographs. i assume that at the time native people were not living out in the west. >> right. it is as close as you might find in photography. >> anyone else have a question?
>> i was really struck by the image of captain jack. it just looked to me so much like -- [indiscernible] >> because it really strikes me they work captured. thinkn -- do you [indiscernible] -- widelye photographs are distributed. heller lived in new york. before the civil war he was out in the west.
>> there are slight differences. there is that one guy who looks like he is in a calvin klein ad. and in the middle here, they do not look as heroic. they are physical, but in a different way. something just reminded me of them. >> what is really interesting are the faces versus the gardener one which was the body. who are these people who took from us? and they want to see the whole body. they want to feel the body and what happened to those bodies. versus these people is more about the faces and confirming
i just feel that there is so much of missing because it is limbs, andly missing -- this is what happens. my family comes and asks me be hardest questions and i get interrupted. but, no. i'm glad you picked this up. this is what happens. this is the problem with this history. and this is why this work is also important. to speak back. that is part of the project, to create a record that speaks back to the historic record. many other native artists'
effort to speak back to history. it really does create the question, how do we recover something of the experience of the people on that other side and how do we ask questions about what we are looking at and not continue to take them as just documents. thank you. >> [indiscernible] i was looking at the style of photographs. >> remember, europeans do not need to tell themselves cultural
myths and stories in the way that americans do. no, they are making different types of images. they are a smaller country, talking about france and great britain. they don't need photography in the same way americans do. >> well, let's give around of applause. -- [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] you're watching american history tv. all weekend, every weekend on c-span 3. to join the conversation, like us on facebook at cspanhistory. america," "reel
ister american, dwight d. .isenhower, the campaign film a going to the library of congress, this 14-minute new shown inyle dome was movie theaters and distributed to civic organizations. style film was shown in movie theaters and distributed to civic organizations. ♪ >> through 20 years of wavering and wondering through hot and cold wars, the american people are hungering for leadership founded on integrity and wisdom and courage. need a