tv The Civil War CSPAN November 5, 2016 6:00pm-7:06pm EDT
p.m. on sunday, american history tv >> up next, edward alexander talks about the engagement around petersburg, virginia the spring of 1855. he argues despite being commonly known as the siege of petersburg, both armies were mobile along the battle line. he focuses on the federal assault of april 2 which finally broke through the confederate line. after this attack, robert e. lee retreated west from richmond and petersburg. one week later, he surrendered, ending the civil war. this hour-long talk was part of a symposium hosted by the civil war blog. something called the best for last. of the many books we have talked never seen a more
solid piece of writing across my until the first draft of the donnawn of victory. chris will work on the history and stuff like that. me theward sent dawn of victory, it was pristine. seen writing that was more pristine, more magnificent, more readable. it was fantastic telling of a story that is often overlooked. about it.get it is so overlooked and underrated. edward does a magnificent job. of the civil phase war. it iswill share with us,
the breaking point that leads to the end. without further ado, i will injuries my friend, mr. edward alexander -- i will introduce my friend, mr. edward alexander. [applause] chris, fornk you, that very kind introduction. on thisputting fantastic symposium that everyone has enjoyed so far. talk oncerivilege to more. an empty room -- we get that way. it is great to have a wonderful turn out to explore the great civil war. --s will be a very biased this is the greatest attack of the civil war. it is the most decisive, the most well executed, and has
tremendous implications on a very poorly understood campaign. and stress the word campaign here because it should not be viewed as a siege. i will call that a siege at some point -- the description. not, but it is heard as a siege of petersburg. mostly due in part to the massive fortification constructed by the union and the confederate army. during the campaign, but it is not constant over the top frontal charges. april 2,ugh assaults 1865, is the first large-scale assault against fixed
fortifications that ulysses s. grant ordered since july 40 the previous year. the campaign at much more maneuvered then it is given credit for. whole talks toe get is from petersburg's eastern front to grant's final offensive. i will skip through that context simply to say by late march of 1865, grant has captured most of the supply lines leading into petersburg that ultimately had approximately 20 miles north of richmond, virginia for confederate capital. so, with the arrival of phil sheridan's calvary in late march, grant made the final strike, but it is not intended to go directly into confederates
behind their entrenchments. grant wants to operate to the southwest and try to capture two final supply lines in the south side railroad. grant has a few aces up his theve in addition to calvary, he has three divisions transferring from richmond bounds of petersburg. that friesen from having just == him up.frees sheridan's calvary, and the second corps moves into position for the newly arrival of the division leading up to march 29 and the final push.
griffin's divisional advance or force back after two hours of fighting into the earthworks. lee in response to this new offensive that grant is launching will bring george pickett's division down from solve a lensouther station. the horses have no food available so they are bringing in the calvary into action here in late march. lee will have to take troops
along the earthworks constructed and transfer them down to the road which meet the threat posed by the federal fifth corps. they are maneuvering at this point based on the evening of march 29 and early into march 30. the problem is what place many , the weather does not always cooperate. it rained very heavily. unfortunately for phil sheridn , whdan, who is shaking like a leaf, he wants to get going. unfortunately, it is not cooperating. he will at least maneuver further into position. will haveo, warren one of his divisions left
exposed. this is what i hope everyone takes away from the petersburg campaign is the confederates never stay behind the fortification. they never just sit there and wait for the next assault and abandon the supply line. lee and thebert e. fortifications run richmond of 1852, what is his intention? a springboard. a springboard to attack. a last-ditch, but the idea is to move forward from this earth works. he was going to make a slight rearrangement. striking at the flank. successfully, sam
crawford tries but they are repulsed. he is looking for an reinforcements to push a confederates are completely off their position on the board and plank road. as former virginia governor , sending them back running for the trenches. this right here represents that he goes of joshua lawrence chamberlain as single-handedly manages to drive all three confederate brigades back into their own entrenchments. what happens here is the fifth isolating, on march
31, perhaps the most successful they you will experience in the american civil war. calvary as he expects him to going up to the critical intersection. lee was able to push across his cavalrysent a federal back to the county. offensive, trying to end this maneuver. by this point, nightfall had set in and he realizes he is cut off from the rest of the confederate army. sheridan is quite embarrassed.
day ofaps has his worst the american civil war. he's not too happy. he needs to get his revenge on that. "if i am cutnt off of the rest of the federal army, surely pickett is cut off from the rest of his. no man of his command should ever be allowed to return to it." pickett as no choice but to fall back. the famousm up in position with the angle on their left flank. sheridan's hopping mad in pursuit and calls upon federal infantry to support him. delay, considerable
warren is in position to assist for the big push to what the confederates off the map. the problem is sheridan tells e,rren that the angle her located further to the east, warren using that faulty reconnaissance is going to move into position to strike the angle head on. meanwhile, all day long, sheridnaan's calvary is pinning the confederates down. are push back by the calvary. he is unaware of anything. he is where his name is located right now. he is north of patchehatcher's run. it has been a good haul.
the fish out of the rivers. rumors through barbecues and fish fries of my own -- i can choose to accept these r -- no-s- celebration has not gone without booze. he is not present with his men. no federal attack will miss the mark. it actually works out for the best. able to get around the monfederates and mop the up. a moment of glory is out. been too slow ever since the start of the overland campaign.
he just needs everything set of perfect on paper before he will move forward. you always see a problem that does not exist. we will see how it breaks out. you rarely have these perfect situations open up. the cannot have someone on the precipice of victory dragging their feet. griffin isut, in. the confederates continue to shift. continue to extend their lives further and further. that don't have the manpower to do so. ulysses s. grant finally, upon hearing word of the victory at five forks does what he has not done since july 30 -- all the staff officers, great job,
congratulations. grant calmly walks to his tent, scribble down dispatches, passes them out and then nonchalantly mentions an assault all along the lines. originally, it was supposed to take place as soon as the generals received the orders but george meade does it the first thing next morning. these various attacks that rentable order, sheridan is uncharacteristically cautious. feetdan will also drag his and not do much of anything. corps will get a late start and they are attacked and not be much of
consequence. his front is not allowed for a large-scale assault. major general john parks, commanding the federal ninth corps, does lunch a very =-- launch a very intrepid assault. it is not really of much significance as far as and in the campaign. april 2, decisive of 1855. fishhookrs along the of the federal lines. welch, the sixth corps. it is featured here. most accounts -- you see it in almost every theater.
they are hunkered down. ats is the sixth corps fredericksburg. at fredericksburg, at the second battle of fredericksburg, the establishesreally an identity of doing the impossible of succeeding where others have failed of carrying out a series of impressively designed, executed rental assaults, including one we walk into tomorrow of the same position a. slides, next series of we will not be talking a lot about them, the context, the impact. i want to focus on the tactics to understand how the sitxth corps developed a way to bash
the enemy with bayonet charges. no context here given. tomorrow morning, we will have an incredible walking tour of the second fredericksburg battlefield but note how different this is from the picket charge. going in then previous december. look up different. these tactic these tactics are. worth mentioning -- this will be important later -- mississippians so long the moving forward to november 7, 1863. gettysburg,miss
mostly occupy a reserve role. the impacting of other corps. even more overlooked battle, the employed nice tactics to have this fortified bridge. all these maps oriented to give us the perspective of the attackers. 7 at dusk, the same units that spearheaded fredericksburg's assault will move forward and say it was not found. they were able to get a foothold. two more sent to their aid and the confederate focus on those that were assaulted, even leaving themselves vulnerable and attacking into the flank. at this point, the confederates
lose contact with their only way back across. the rappahannock river. as the federals continued to thes their assault, confederates tried to get over the river but the federals cut them off. forcing those confederates who were unable to make it across the river by swimming to brigades and two union and northouisianans carolinians. courthousevania actually delivered earlier using guesss my favorite -- i -- interpretive tools. the human map. assaultill see the animated, bringing that contact
formation. because the confederates had willingly, accidentally left the picket line, able to move these forces in. lay down, preparing for the moment of assault. when it do assault, using that contact probation to have specific instructions for the first line, expand breakthrough to but others behind. chris mentioned that don't have the support. ultimately, the attack will not succeed its true objective but they are able to have the earthworks and capture a decent amount of prisoners. one final battle to look at for we get to the breakthrough. june 3 and the failure of those attacks. june 1, two federal brigades are able to utilize, later known as
bloody run, temporarily pierced the confederate earthworks for reserves. keep these things in mind. compact formations. use of the ravine. use of darkness. overwhelming. all will be on display when hor atio wright unleashes his masterpiece in 1855. the sixth corps, after the harbor and a brief stay of several weeks in petersburg, have a relative vacation compared to everyone else. they are sent to washington. they certainly have a bloody autumn of that year in the shenandoah valley. they can establish a bond with sheridan.
he wanted the sixth corps consent of the fifth corps. it was not located in position to provide that existence. they didn't have a static front during the previous, or first slide that i showed. march 25, 1865, after lee's failed desperate breakout event, sense is that they are weakening by shifting units. to testeade would allow the strength of the confederate ticket and lead enthusiastically response in the bur affirmative. regiments areur quite easily repulsed under the confederate ticket. to reallyses wright continue the probing of the line
and wright returns with two full divisions. 3:00 in the afternoon of march strike five. 25. converging fire from the confederate lines, mostly from artillery batteries, as well as creek will stop any federal advances. what it accomplishes, the lines are push board for the federals. he takes the confederate ticket line almost like a foxhole to ease its way into envision and re-faces all the way around. they can use it for their own benefit. other events are going to significantly reduce confederate ability to withstand an assault.
we saw that in the previous slide. 2.5 brigades are sent down to the white oak road, leaving the confederates without any reserves, forced to simply spread themselves out. paces, soldiers a swedish born kernel. colonel. ands henry is unfortunate they will be the victims. the other two, wilcox, under the came command of hill. the confederate defense, 2000 sol800 soldiers.
because of the gained ground here out in front of the union lines, confederates are sending their strengths elsewhere. union officers show support on the left. on the right, they will go out shouting out in front, sending a more personal look. they had a signal tower behind their own lines. far, soonly see so accurately from the signal s. things in the few confederate earthworks that they cannot see from the tower. we will zoom in. we have a union line. meant totructions block an attacking force from
moving forward. road leading out or in through those obstructions. because of the gained ground that the tickets are able to most importantly, grant is able to get into no man's land and discover the location of those wagon roads because of the confederate attractions. if they are ever order to ich theyin whc they believe their men. . a. here is a drawing. you will be looking out into a very dense fort.
ground preserved by the civil war trust in the last four years, cleared by the civil war trust shows the battlefield of soldiers seeing it, barren of those trees. that is where lewis addison grant will go, commander of the sixth corps. it wasut there scouting, determined that arthur is the avenue of approach for an attack. someu follow arthur, portions, that will lead you to the confederate earthworks. that will lead you to the openings where they cannot construct the earthworks. one other thing to mention about arthur's swamp, we have the headwaters of arthur's swamp. just closer to the city of petersburg, you have rehobeth
creek. here thatwater landed goes into rehobeth creek. it will end up in the chesapeake bay. and goes all the way down to help at arthur's swamp. what this means is what the waters of rehobeth creek, the confederates construct a dam in front and in pounds the water, making it in passable along a decent stretch of their lines for any union soldiers to cross. there are reports they also constructed tunnels, mines near battery forward and pass them with gun mines and threatened to ignite them should battery 45 ever be attacked head-on. archaeologists have found the tunnels, mines, there is no would have been packed
with gunpowder and would have been detonated but propaganda is good enough. no month is ever attacking battery 45. swamp, going out of the confederate earthworks, had not been impounded. this shot taken from out in front of fort welch. we have arthur's want right here on this would line from the confederate earthworks. march 25, here is where the picket lines are located. after march 25, that is the gained ground that the federals have seized. here is the confederate perspective. pitch 400 yards out in front of the mainline.
having aio wright, full half-mile to work with is going to have an incredible impact because he is able when he receives ulysses s. grant instructions on the evening of april 1 to launch a full-scale assault, he is able to pass his entire 14 thousand strong sixth corps in between the own 000 strongions -- 14, sixth corps in between their own fortifications. they can push forward and not have to go over top, wind their way through their own of obstructions. horacio stacks hi s men. each of these brigades are lined up most with a single regiment front.
some, like oliver edwards' briagade, chose to spread their men out. you have to do that, but they are lining the meant up one regiment behind the next. waves being sent over into this assault. what did you do as a brigade commander when you're being told you were stacking your regiment one behind the next? up was going to be that hope front? a the senates, from william henry an from new jersey. fantastic fighters throughout the war. i know at least three monuments
within a 15 minute drive from where we are now to these bravery on the battlefield. new jerseye infantry. these are not the patriots of 1861. late are the draftees of agency for. 1864.her they have given penrose all kinds of grief. they will put new jersey up front. leaving the veterans to follow in their wake. all these regiments will have a number of things in their way before they get to fight with the confederates, which was their intention. the first is the rifles. small, little almost foxholes,
constructed. they could be a fighting position but they are the eyes and ears anticipating an assault which is going to start at 4:00 the morning which starts at 4:40 a.m. they can see that general direction. the idea is the form those 14000 and out in front of the earthworks, ready for the attack before they can be seen so don't take as much fire from the enemy, particularly in the picket. obstacle is the branches out in front of the earthworks. specifically instructing each brigade commander to situate a number of acts in the front ranks. some like colonel edwards doubles and triples the front,
even sending those to clear the obstructions which are placed in front of the reports. earthwors. they might be so inclined to re nownd return fi that there is branches. you will never win a gunfight behind those sticks. confederate artillery. with the confederates lacking infantry, they have more than enough artillery to make things deadly for the sixth corps should they not press forward, continuing this assault. commandedight removed. to ben to be they were unable to fire.
they were not supposed the fire, they were swiftly use the bayonets once they got through the othe obstructions. the could raise to about 12, 20 feet from the bottom to the top. these are the earthworks we have preserved. we have offered a concrete exhibit. the scale of these earthworks that will be overcome. have you overcome that? well, you find whatever you can. they take some of that and throw that in to the ditch, hoping they can raise their way across. others will boost each other up and over the top. some take the bayonets out and climb up to the top. however you can, that 20 feet. it has been so rainy, three feet
of water inside the ditch. men is what wright has his going into on april 2. there were supposed to attack altogether the guiding along grant's brigade. he is going to be the one going through the ravine. everyone else guiding into his position. 30 seconds later, striking the left. a lot of damage. i've taken reports from the soldiers. who they passed, with a mingled with and try to show more accurately what the attack might actually look like. it is not that one going in altogether. units jumping over others, losing their way in the darkness.
the first one to reach the earthworks had been charles gilbert gould of the fifth vermont infantry. gould has quite the story for himself. wo years old, in vermont, all the family is there. knows something delightful. charles -- that smells on?cious -- what's going he is climbing up to get a better view. he loses his balance and tumbles over into the pot. his leg is burned so badly he cannot walk without assistance until after his sixth birthday. judith, beside
herself. how could she let this happen to her poor boy? charles wants to go out and play with his friends. no, no. you are not well enough. you were going to get yourself hurt. she tries to coddle him. i will teach you how to sew. we can knit together. what will be the result of that? the biggest daredevil in vermont, he gets the reputation for himself. he is only 17 years old. he wants to go into the army but mama says he will get yourself killed. your not leaving my sight. awaylists 20 miles into the vermont infantry. gould spends the first few years of his war in washington
defenses. the first action is pretty close by on may 18, 1864 in spotsylvania. gould does well enough for himself that he is an company eight during the time of the breakthrough. captain gould, that morning as they are trying through the obstructions, his legs churning, he will be the very first to reach the wall. mounts the top. confederate rifle musket to his chest. he's relieved by the click of a misfire. before he could catch his musket will be plunged into his jaw.
bayonet will, one not stop him. e bayonets out, and i jumps into the confederate earthworks, slashing away with his sword. he is outnumbered at this point. first up and over the top. while he's swinging with the sword, confederates are converging. 37th north carolina battering him. he's striked over the top of his head. gould puts himself back over. a confederate says uh-uh, yanks him back. one more bayonet into his back. while all of this is going on,
at least halfng, northn with thei carolinians who are watching, go leadershipced, his will get the rest of the company h moving forward. the corporal grabs gould's body. he receives a gunshot wound and tumbles into the ditch. after several minutes at the bottom, comes to. stumbles back to union lines. up. himself patched he says all of his wounds were noisy. scar from the first
bayonet. he survives all those wounds. he scar.beard to cover teh down at theo settle pension office and patent office. they a gun cleaner because he likes going hunting. he pence a gun cleaner so we can go back hunting in vermont when he visits. he was the first soldier to the wall and will be one of the recipients of the medal of honor. the last thing gould remembered when he was pulled over the top was sergeant jackson george going over the top with the stars and stripes. morning first flag that
for which he will receive the medal of honor beared to his chest. flag duringhe that day. sergeant,kson corporal charles over the tar on,houting come boys. they would be shot and killed on top of the wall. sergeant william kimberly will go into the first plot that gou ld breached that morning. the confederate side is small as far as killed and wounded. two casualties. william nicholson on the left. he lost his brother eight days earlier. joshua bowman on the right has four kids that are nearly put up for adoption by his widow until
sistery -- the widow's called the family. it is small in this attack. the federals lost almost 1000 and eight and 55. -- in 1865. an approximate location where charles gould would have been the first over-the-top coming in and over the confederates. to the left, artillery's in a narrow opening. lieutenant,first sees confederates closing a shell. fires at the rest of the fifth vermont. that narrowwards opening. before the confederate gunner theyank the needinlanyard,
confederate drops it and will surrender. he gives out his location to the north that major william joseph is able to see the confederate canyon loaded, ready to fire. he will turn action rear among the confederates who are starting to fall back from this initial point that the vermonters have broken through. he looks for employment in which to fire the cannon. he grabs one of his soldiers rifles, aims it into the vent, pulls the trigger and fires into the confederate that they try to rally. to fire one dozen rounds in this fashion before he turns it over to 17 members of the first rhode island artillery who made this assault, carried
lanyards. one guy had to be that guy with a bucket of water. will firee islanders among the confederates as they tried to rally. another recipient of the medal of honor. ps soldiers received the medal of honor for their actions. does.ime than this ,nly 60 minutes of combat april 2, 18 city five. 65. perhaps the biggest impact resides captain gould, that is corporal john watson moch of 138th pennsylvania that shoots into the chest of the commander riding into the scene, killing
hill instantly. immediately after the breakthrough, it all falls apart for the confederacy. pivots, only one confederate brigade makes it out. they will join up and push to the north, trying to catch the south side. it does not matter. the south has no importance when the sixth corps and three divisions of the army have already made the final push. a brave stand by 300 greggsippians at fort prevents the army of the james from cake walking into the city. it buys time for robert e. lee to work nice an evacuation of petersburg.
immediately receiving news of the breakthrough, particularly learning after, the magnitude of this attack. the greatest attack, the most significant attack of the american civil war. the secretary of war that he sees no prospect any further and the need to abandon the city. jeff davis, confederate it will bechimes in nice to have a little heads up. he rips the telegraph to shreds. i cannot hold this line. what do you mean you need more advanced warning? a disconnect between lee and davis. it would be evacuated. the government goes west. lee is able to get his army, what is left of it, and he is going to be heading towards the west, trying to get to the
railroad, get down into north carolina, link up with joe johnson. there are all sorts of what if's about this time. e period. they are not fond of lee's timeframe. grant is the one in the driver seat from here through the next seven days. because of the sixth corps victory, because this assault was so well-designed, well executed, it is the union who possesses the initiative. firmly within the grasps for seven days later and the final surrender at appomattox. thank you. [applause] >> questions for mr. alexander.
[laughter] >> tell us about the ninth corps. edward: they launched attacks the plank road on petersburg southeast in front. they do get it within their grasps. it was at fort mahone. they had differences. john brown gordon's entire second corps. they can support one another. on the western front, the confederates are too stretched out., 65, day long, april 2, 18 through 94 the confederates are starting to evacuate.
it is similar to the bloody angle. inintensity, though otnot memory, at fort mahone. if you see any photographs of petersburg fortifications, if you see any photo of the fortifications besides the aerial shots, they come from fort sedgwick and fort mahone, including the famous photos of the fallen confederate soldiers. >> it is a bit of an inside joke, you wrote this wonderful book. this is a wonderful but. ook, but you don't mention the ninth corps. it is a book about the breakthrough. sometimes you cannot please everyone. other questions? yes? mention artillery at the
point of the breakthrough. can you elaborate little more about that, because you described how the confederate line was so stretched out as far as infantry was concerned. edward: this is one of those things where -- i will make this a call -- if anyone has any resources on artillery of april 2, 1855, above the see them. we have so few information. a great account from a private john walters who is situated to the north of the breakthrough who writes about the front. outside of that, not a lot of confederate genres. they will not begin to count the federals until after the signal drawing for the assault.
there was an overnight co bombardment. had the confederate gunners known that wright was forming his men into a compact wedge with the confederacy, had they known that, they could have been pounding those men overnight. some of them for five hours before the attack kicked off. the confederates do not start to shoot into the sixth corps until the signal sounds. at that point, it is 5, 7 days. they will take their most damage from the artillery. they lose -- a very brief during -- probably 800 that push to the earthworks and that is because of the
confederate batteries. simply without adequate infantry support, once the federals get to the wall, they immediately sees the confederate camp because no one is there to protect the confederate gunners. >> one last question. >> this attack had written all over it. what happened in the final breakthrough? edward: everyone will be participating in what was called the battle at selma, alabama. it starts in command of the battery. it serves as infantry command in the sixth corps. james wilson -- the cavalrymen. he is not present at the breakthrough but he does have
his footprint all over it. recognizes,rps right after the war of similarities, the pages of the national tribune will be glowing about their success. really showed we were the ones who could attack the earthworks. they compact their men. scenes from the confederate picket lines. it has its footprint all over it because of the mention of all the previous lies not at petersburg, but leading up to the final moment. >> thank you very much. [applause] >> this weekend on american history tv on c-span3, tonight at 8:00 eastern, colin callaway
on nativeth college american history from the colonial area through westward expansion. they presented themselves to us as allies and friends of the future, are clearly our enemies. it is the one thing we are fighting against. at the same time, by cutting off withholding gifts, refusing to , that is essentially a declaration of hostile. >> later at 10:00 on railamerica, we look back to the 1966 campaign for california governor between edmund g brown and ronald reagan. >> my experience turns to me inevitably towards the people towards the answers of problem instinctively. i find i believe in but my faith in the private sector of the economy. i believe in the people's, ability to have their own
affairs. >> every single solitary --egory of this list business tells whether or not california's economy is good as proven that we have done a good job. >> sunday morning at 10:00 eastern on road to the white house rewrite -- >> next tuesday, all of you will go to the polls and make a decision. i think when you make that decision, you should ask thanelf are you better off you were four years ago? >> our proposals are very sound to stimulate jobs, improve the industrial complex of this country, create tools for american workers and anti-inflationary nature. >> the 1980 debate between jimmy carter and ronald reagan. at 7:00 -- when not have
devoted his life against fighting slavery. of the union for the cause of slavery would be caused by work by the two unions. the result may be an extra piece of slavery from this will confident and calamitous and this course of events must be so glorious would be the final issue. i dare not say it is not to be desired. >> at the new york historical society, the author of john kagan adams and robert debate the question would john quincy adams the realist during the discussion. they talk about the foreign policy and the legacy of the president. for the complete american history tv schedule, go to c-span at work.
the state of arizona has a rich political history. we visit the university of arizona political archives to learn more. >> clear at special collections at the university of arizona libraries. collectione a large of congressional papers related from territorial times up until the present. generally we work with congress people to obtain their collection after they retire. today we are talking about a couple of arizona politicians known not just locally in tucson, but nationally. first, stewart udall, then his brother morris udall, and congresswoman gabrielle giffords. stewart udall was in arizona congress met that it was a big supporter of john f. kennedy. when kennedy was elected, he appointed udall to be his secretary of the interior. he continued that position under
lyndon johnson. this is the exhibition case for stewart udall. we have several things related candidate, a picture of you don't with kennedy. -- related to kennedy, a picture of udall with kennedy. we have his prayer card from the funeral last. aough stewart udall was, e wasr of the cabinet, h on a trip to japan during the assassination of john f. kennedy. he found out about the assassination while he was on the plane on the way to japan. what we have in the case are his notes that he wrote to himself on the plane. they are physically notes that he has documenting his initial shock and dismay and deep sorry at the death of john f. kennedy. we have a best-selling book written by stuart udall while he was secretary of the interior.
crisis,"lled "the quiet a history of the environment and future as well as america. he was an early environmentalist and generally ahead of his time in the conservation movement. morris udall was the brother of stewart udall. he took the congressional seat. morris udall represented arizona as a congressman for 30 years until 1991. he was known for many things -- his work in conservation, also known for his likability and sense of humor. his autobiography was titled "too funny to be president." morris udall did desperately want to be president. the closest was running for the nomination of the democratic party, where he was narrowly beat by jimmy carter. here we have some buttons
representing the morris udall campaign. morris udall was very popular in arizona, as well as in congress. he was continuously reelected for 30 years, despite the fact that his civil views did not always represent the views of his constituents. morris udall was known from working with all kinds of people that did not represent his liberal views. we have a letter to him from barry goldwater, a famous conservative from arizona. also pictures of him shaking hands with jimmy carter, who as we know, beat him for the democratic nomination in 1976. we have pictures of horace udall shaking -- morris udall shaking hands with john f. kennedy and ronald reagan. gabby giffords served from 2007 known2, perhaps best nationally as the survivor of
the nest sheathing in tucson on january 8 -- mass shooting in tucson on january 8, 2011. we have a simple -- a sample. we are seeing some of her work with the nasa team. we have her work with nancy pelosi and her husband mark kelly. when we see congressional papers of gabrielle giffords, what is different from other papers is that it documents not only her work in congress, but her recovery as well as the aftermath of the mass shooting. her collection is a lot of get well cards sent not just locally, but all over the country. many were sent from school kids, famous people, people from all over the world. here we have a shoe that was sent to her, one of the most unusual items in the collection. it is basically a get well card that was mailed as a shoe.
this is a proclamation by president obama honoring the shooting victims of january 8, 2011. it is important to have a collection related to political activities in tucson and washington dc, because they document what was happening at the time locally and nationally. >> is weakened, we featured the history of tucson, arizona together with our cox communications cable partners. learn more about tucson and other steps on our cities tour at c-span.org/citiestour. you are watching american history tv -- or we can, every weekend on c-span3. >> at the outbreak of world war i, england implemented a naval blockade to prevent its enemies from having trade access. in 1916 the german submarine deutschland bypassed the british blockade to trade with the u.s., at the time a neutral country.