tv John Quincy Adams Debate CSPAN November 6, 2016 7:00pm-8:01pm EST
>> thanks very much. tonight bob and i are having a , but it won't be that kind of debate. to tell you not to publish your tax returns if you ask me not to publish my e-mails. >> and i won't deny things i said in the past. i will admit everything i said. >> we will try to work our way towards shedding light on something we both think about and write about and talk about a lot. i'm going to take the privilege, since it is my book of going first and saying a few things and bob will tell you why what i said was wrong.
our subject is was john quincy adams a realist? we are talking about his worldview. in my book i say not only did john quincy adams have a worldview, but he probably was to have astatesman coherent view, which brought together a sense of domestic policy and foreign policy. i should give a brief shadow because there was a very good about atoms that came off while i was writing my book. i'm asleep, though not wholly agree with what he says. if i had to summarize what my sense of his world you was, it
would be something like extent that expansion at home and restraint abroad. you try to think of a modern analogy to that, it is something that those chinese used to use and the last no longer do. that is the sense that here was this immense continental power with huge latent strength, and all of the work out internal dynamics and contradictions, it was essential to have a tranquil world abroad. summarizest briefly his views. the first great document that lays out the strategy of american policy was george washington's farewell address.
and washington cautioned against areng standing alliances antipathies. the part we tend not to notice as much was his statement that thanks to our detached situation, the period is not far off when we make a fine material injury. because of that someday, maybe someday soon it would become a great nation. it was very important it keeps self remote from all of these european royals. i think of atoms as someone who needs these principles with the doctrine.
he was a senator in the early 19th century. he was a supporter of the louisiana purchase at a time when virtually everyone else saw a rightly that it would dilute the power of new england. it was this incredible gift that america had received that would allow it to fill its destiny as a continental nation. when he was secretary of state 12 years later he drove a ruthless bargain. a line across the pacific. it was a hypothetical thing.
he thought it was the greatest achievement of his life in america had made its connection to the pacific ocean. if you think of his time as president, very ambitious of a government driven expansionary policy. on the one side of adopting policies that are drop -- that achieve greatness. we can talk later about what that word means. this deep sense of and need for prudence and restraint.
in the 1790's when he was a diplomat both england and france the fervor.d basically ending this lucky situation. a good or a safe foundation for policy measures, fewer americans would have to be disposed to go further than i would. passion is the most treacherous. putin is the most faithful. this idea really comes to a head during adams 10 euros secretary of state and that is the moment where we dispute how thinking
about his foreign policy becomes the most acute. who request -- the question was what should america do with its power now that it was no longer cowering behind the atlantic? day,leading figures of the felt that henry clay america needed to champion the in southliberty abroad america where spain's colonies had declared independence and clear themselves as republicans. -- as republics. aam's most famous speech was july 4 operation he gave, which was his intended answer. this is where he set the thing
for which he is most famous, america has abstained from interference and the concerns of others, even when the conflicts have been to principles of which he clings. and then she goes not abroad insurance -- in search of monsters to destroy. she is the champion and indicator only of her own. america should limit its role abroad to that of well-wishers, even when the values that america holds dear are being threatened. this issue then becomes part of the debate inside the cabinet in 1823 when they decide to deliver the address we now know as the monroe doctrine. this is the advantage of keeping a diary.
the only person whose description we are reading today is atoms. it is clear there is no disagreement that the united states must make a strong statement that no colonies will be permitted to be established in the new world, either in north america or south america. the 50 seat is what shall we say about events that are specifically in europe. and john calhoun, the secretary of war, were eager to speak out against the french. the french had overthrown republican rule in spain. as thelt it was crucial great leader of republicanism to stand up and speak out, as well as this ongoing question about greece's role with turkey. adams sharply disagreed. he said doing that would be seen as a sentence to arms against all europe and exclusively
european policy. then describes his pursuit of munro, practically pinning him to the wall to get munro to agree that this was the thing he must not say -- indeed he finally succeeded. he succeeded in getting munro to camp down. spain, butallude to he doesn't mention france or the holy alliance, which is the alliance of autocratic nations. in the language adams used two years before of events in the quarter of the globe, we have always been anxious and interested spectators. nevertheless in the wars of your pm powers in matters relating to the cells, we have never taken any part nor does it conform with our policy to do so.
when i use the word realism and when others look back to adams as a real list, they are thating of this idea america should follow its national interests, those --ional interests suited the interests should be separate from the values we hold dear and betweend the balance adams own passion and prudence, one should lean towards prudence. say either i've mischaracterized how you understand adams or maybe that would be a correct characterize asian but not a correct characterization of realism? >> or some combination of the two. let me just say this debate is an excuse to talk about this wonderful book that jim has
written. i'm a big fan of talking about john and history now. i want to congratulate you for being here. i basically wanted to be put and roused on november 9. i'm so touched by the idea that this is coma inducing. >> this is preferable to a coma. i will admit we have done this before. he has honed his argument. one of the things i particularly there is athis book, givendous amount of space
to john quincy adams postpresidential career. really the most extraordinary postpresidential career anyone has ever had, which is to say he entered congress as a member of the house and spent most of his life fighting -- fighting slavery, which was an extraordinary thing for an express it to do. it tells you a lot about what kind of person he was and certainly why he was not anyone's definition of a real list. a realist would not have devoted his life to fighting slavery. a dissolution of the union because of slavery followed by a war between two separate portions of the union, it seems to me to be the extrication of slavery from the continent, his gloriousmust be -- so would be its final issue that i
dare not say it is not to be desired. he said that in 1819. if you look at me decisions he -- look at many decisions he made, he puts moral slavery -- he puts -- over the national interest. it's about economic well-being. the realists look at western expansion including the acquisition of the former mexican territories of the southwest as in the national interest. they are perfectly willing to ignore the fact that those acquisitions led directly to the civil war and half a million and how that is in our interest i will never understand.
is something adams had on his mind a great deal. are many ways to define realists and realists are very clever. called ave to be realist because you are realist and that makes the rest of you unrealistic, it is great to be a realist. realism,offensive there is defense of realism, neorealism. realism is are of that moral answer may or may not be something for individuals to pursue. but they are not what nations should be focusing on. and people who are stewards of the nation foreign policy must focus on what realists referred to as national interest. crusades, as they would put it.
much less ideology at the center of one's decision-making. in that respect i would say that is not the way of describing john quincy adams. he had a very strong sense of expanding the power of the country. but he also had a clear and strong moral sense about the purpose of the united states. this quotation he has used is the realist mantra. abroad in search of bob's -- in search of bombs to destroy. speech, whichr was pulled out to make a point about the way we ought to be isnking about foreign policy
as so often the case with these wonderful perfect quotations taken out of context and misleading, really, if you think about what is going on both in terms of what adams was thinking and in what americans in general were thinking. the line is from a july for speech. most is an attack on great written. i'm pretty sure no one at the time paid attention to monsters being destroyed or not being destroyed. they paid attention to was adams going after britain for its evil principles and extolling the belief at individual rights that americans stood for. there was even a moment in that speech where he speaks to the people.
roughly people living under the boards and asking them to go out and look -- go out like ways. schu this was not a cautious statement by people in europe. it was the russian foreign minister that adams was inciting revolutionary revolt. let's go back to do some history. one thing the speech as the people pull out, they generally do violence to what is going on. jim has laid it out to some extent. when adams's suggestion that we should not go in search of monstrous -- what is he talking about? is he talking about launching an armada across the atlantic? sending american soldiers to europe to fight, or sending them anywhere for that matter? whether tobating
extend recognition to the latin american republics. out, jonathan is engaged already in a presidential campaign. even a wonderful servant of america like john adams was also a politician. he and clay were in a war with each other. and they were using policy as a wake of -- as part of their war. the truth is adams thought his transcontinental treaty was going to be a major success that will help launch them into the presidency. henry claytrue agreed and would have loved to see that treaty fall apart. henry clay was for recognizing those right away. and john quincy adams was not for doing that because he worried spain would walk away from the treaty.
we were not destroying monsters. it was a question of recognizing latin republics are not recognizing latin republics. we didn't that here. we did two years later. we went ahead and recognize those republics. no harm came to the united states from the killer monster destruction. you could argue the harm became to the united states was a result of the transcontinental treaty. they were ultimately aware of the because of territory that and partave territory of the great debate. latinnly recognizing the republics does not have any negative effect on american interests, when we did. not only was this a temporary dispute, but then when you look at john quincy adams behavior
afterwards, after he has gotten his transcontinental treaty, after the united states has gone ahead and recognize these latin theblics, listen to instructions that john quincy adams gives to the new american who have been sent these latin republics. it is quite an extraordinary set of instructions. he instructed diplomats that the emancipation of the south american continent has open to the whole race of man prospects of maturity in which the united states will be called in the discharge -- in the discharge of it was theto itself duty of yunnan states to establish relations with south america upon principles of wereics and morals that distasteful to the other world. he goes on to say american
ministers should use donations to support the principle against any local hankering after monarchy. the new world on the one hand and the monarchical system that prevails in europe. he goes on to explain what the dispute is, the ideological that is animating world affairs at the time. the european alliance of emperors and kings have assumed the doctrine of alienable allegiance. we have considered it as an assertion of natural right.
this is instructions to ambassadors. was ideology and morality part of john quincy adams thinking? absolutely. americans are not the only ones thinking ideology -- ideologically about the world. 1820,anish revolution of which overthrows a monarchy and is then reversed by a french the french have their own revolution overthrown, all of which is under the overall guidance of czar and he stands for absolutism. unholy together the alliance.
out on to snuff them both sides of the atlantic. you there is some kind of threat that the holy alliance will send over to the new world to impose monarchies and destroy this revolution. policy,ook at british the policies first of castle ray allthen of canning, it is about balancing themselves between this radicalism of the new world and the absolutism of the eastern monarchies and britain trying to find its place in the middle. the entire discourse is ideological. and adams is a full participant in that discourse. it may be true that you could say he was being prudent, but since no one was recommending any for forces be sent anywhere, i don't know what he was being
prudent against. there was never a suggestion that the united states was somehow going to become involved in sending forces over to do anything about it. the monroe doctrine is also one of the most misunderstood pieces of american policy in history because it is thought to be a division that is geographical between the new world and the old world. as adams understood it, as monroe understood it, it was a divide that was ideological. it is a concern that monarchy would be transplanted in the new world. they didn't want these countries having colonies. the big division was an ideological division. i'm arguing with somebody who is not here.
and i'm arguing against a real list in the true sense. this man was ultimately willing to sacrifice any definition of the national interest, if doing so was necessary to defeat slavery. in 1840 in meant colluding with to take control texas listed texas become part of an abolitionist movement. consciously limiting american sovereignty on the continent if that sovereignty was going to lead to slavery. >> so you would have even more material to use against me if
you heard the most recent talk i gave about adams at the massachusetts historical society. classic example of moral terrorism. and lincoln was an example of a politician. bob has said that realism is a kind of species of moral indifference, to care about morality is to lead yourself. i think we're disagreeing not all about adams but this word, and i want to say why i think the word is relevant and also i want to bring it up today. adams was a completely, morally driven person. have foundwouldn't
him such a compelling figure. there was an element of realism. donations are not driven by moral principles but objective interests. premise of the munro doctrine is there are competing political systems in the world. this idea that being a republican means you are going to have the same foreign policy similarly situated authoritarian countries. i would say he's a realist in some meaningful sense. this question of whether it is in america's interests to pursue, to seek to have its ,alues replicated abroad whether it is possible to have
it replicated abroad, this is a burning question today. when we talk about realism, not in the academic sense but in the newspaper sense, the question often arises to what extent can't united states and should seek to engagees in democracy promotion. and a whole series of other policies. adams was deeply skeptical. first of all, like many realists of -- not today. the classic realists, like in the 1950's, adams thought the united states ad to choose between having
far more outgoing and aggressive policy, which he feared would be would be a terrific to mystic policy. and he tended to see the two as being antithetical to each other. if you go back to that july 4 speech, he says that if the nation involved itself, as he was claiming henry clay would, and it was not only a matter of the spanish republic -- if the united states did that, he said, the fundamental maxims of her policy would insensibly change from liberty to force. she might become the dictator of the world. she would no longer be the ruler of her own spirit. that is to say that in order for the united states to maintain its republicanism, it would have to engage in a special kind of restraint abroad. this is what george kennan said in the famous speech he gave
about the spanish-american war, which he saw as the great example of the united states having lost sight of its traditional sense of realism. is that adams was profoundly skeptical about the beacity of other states to changed by the united states, and themselves to change. a deep,a kind of learned skepticism, i would say from his years in diplomacy. -- before he gave that speech in 1821, he was reacting in part to a conversation he had with clay. clay had come to him in the spring of that year and given his ideas about why the united states needs to champion
democracy abroad. this is what adams said to clay. he said, so far as they were contending for independence, i wished well to their cause, but i have seen and see no prospect that they would establish free or liberal institutions of government. they are not likely to promote the spirit of freedom or order by their example. arbitrary power, military and ecclesiastical, was stamped upon their education. anyone who has read the famous as a by jean kirkpatrick called dictatorship and double standards, it basically explains why all the countries jimmy carter was in love with would never become democracies. that was what she thought and what many people described themselves as realists think. i hesitate to use this word invented in the 1950's, realist,
which has specific resonances for our own time. though,it's useful, because we still have with us today this debate about how the united states should behave in the world. i don't think that debate simply breaks down to, do we think the only thing that matters is interest, or do we think the only thing that matters is values? it also breaks down to what our own experience has told us. i'm far more on bob's side of this question about realism and whatever we call ourselves who aren't realists. yet the fact is that the last dozen or so years has been a very chastening one. it has me many people have deep second thoughts about this sort respectd it is in that
that i find adams so interesting. before, the united states hadn't been through any of these experiences at all. he already had this deeply chastening mentality. i really have a hard time squaring what you're saying with what he was talking about at that time. ,ere is a man who did use force directly, in order to convince spain to agree to give up everything they gave up. he was delighted that andrew jackson was running around florida, beating up spaniards, and used that as part of his negotiation to conquer a vast continent. by the way, which was not an empty continent, and his attitude toward the poor inhabitants of that continent was that they could either civilize themselves or get out of the way.
so this is this man was worried about -- we are so interested in power that we are going to lose our soul. the man had no difficulty wielding power in ways that we might think today, and there were some who thought at the time, at all kind of immoral consequences. when he is talking about whether republics,e latin he's not even talking about using force. you are right about one thing. what he doubted was that these catholic countries could possibly become democratic, and the prejudice against catholic countries becoming democratic was as old as protestant america. there was this whole belief about the spanish black history, that these people have been taught the worst elements of a brutal catholicism, and right up until the 1950's, it was an
article of faith even among an article -- among american political scientists. that was this particular prejudice he had. is, that is what monarchs always say, that men are incapable of being educated to democracy, but we americans don't believe that's true. and of course that is the argument that we've been having, and not just for 15 years, but for 60 years or more, ever since the united states was in a position -- james: you and i would be on the henry clay side. john quincy adams was on a different side. robert: except when john quincy adams wasn't arguing with clay. when he was secretary of state, he was talking about these issues. -- areians don't always not always consistent.
i know, that are shocking to all of you, but even john quincy adams i think was capable of talking himself into something. the extreme rhetoric he used to talk about monsters being destroyed when no one was talking about doing any such thing, that is neither here nor there. i do think it is a relevant question. it has been a key question for americans in even talking about it. by the way i'm not talking about invading countries. we never invade countries to promote democracy. but whether countries we are dealing with are capable of democracy, we've gone through an evolution. we believed catholic countries could not be democracies. we believed for a long time that asian countries could not be democracies. with catholics it was the pope who was in control. they had a rigid hierarchy. we've gone through every racial and ethnic group in the world
and overcome this belief, we've adopted clay's view that people are capable of it, except now with one exception, and that is we do not believe -- i don't mean me -- that islamic countries can be democratic. having dismissed all the others and decided, apparently catholics and asians can be democratic, but muslims cannot be, that is sort of where we are right now. even on that issue, and we can have a lengthy debate on that, i am still more with clay then i am with the anti-catholic john quincy adams. james: let me stop you for a minute. i want to give anyone who would like to ask a question a chance to do so. anyone who would like to ask a question, please come to the microphone on either side.
we have until about 7:30. we want to make sure we get everybody home before the first pitch is thrown in tonight's mets game. i know your minds are already shift into that. if nobody has any questions, bob and i will be really related to continue talking. robert: we've answered all possible questions. james: right. i'm just going to continue until somebody gets up there. i can't tell. sounds like you're saying you think these passages that i've read are actually kind of the minor key, and the major key is adams' moralism. i think you're quite right in saying someone as deeply thoughtful as adams doesn't fully square his own practice with his principles. that is why i say that i see him as every bit as supremely morally driven as you do, and it may be that it is therefore
contradictory for him to be dispensing this advice, which he does from the time he's 25 to the time he's 70, about the need to adopt prudence rather than passion. think the george kennan types who seek that in adams and find it in adams are not perverting the meaning of the man. they actually are seeing a kind of knowledge that came out of his own experience in europe that was something that was mostly new in american life, and to at least adams' mind, was part of a coherent worldview. robert: my objection, a particular objection to what kennan is guilty of and others who have followed our guilty of,
which is trying to go back to the past to find a usable past. james: but you are writing a history of american foreign policy. is that a usable past? busable it is oan a past. james: your history talks about america as an ideological country. robert: it is an ideological country. history is supposed to make sure you understand the issues in context. it is very tricky and usually dangerous to pull things out and find what you need for your own period of time. we are all guilty of it to some extent, but we need to be cautious. a lot of the discourse about john quincy adams has nothing to do with the time he was living in. there are things you can find in washington's farewell address that realists like, except that washington wasn't talking about any of those things in the
farewell address. so they find words that are useful for their purposes, as we all can. i would caution all of us read history and write history. it is very important not to read history backwards. you have to read history in its context and read it forward. james: i'm someone who doesn't actually share the realist point of view. i'm almost -- by the third time we get to this i'm going to talk you out of it. >> do we have realists and moralist today? i heard you invoke jimmy carter. was he a moralist? view, when you come to american-statesman and american foreign policy and what america actually does, the dichotomy is useless. there is always a moral and ideological element to
everything that anyone ever does. whenever we talk about this, people don't say realist, they say pragmatist, and my question is, pragmatist toward what? whether you are pragmatic or not has to do with what you are trying to accomplish. people take for granted what it is they're trying to accomplish. america is always animated by the fact that we are a democracy, that we have principles that we believe are true, and we are also animated by tangible interests. sometimes these things conflict and we are constantly trying to find our way through it. to say anyone is just a moralist or a realist is absurd. james: in his book, henry kissinger sadly concedes that all presidents at least instead he was about have basically been roosevelt have
basically been moralists. it is deeply in the american among and there are few us, except perhaps kissinger. >> does the role adams played in the amistad case give evidence of him being a realist? james: from bob's point of view, it shatters my whole argument. robert: all his work with regard to slavery is clearly expressing the moral core. he doesn't in fact devote his life to extending american power. he takes steps that could destroy america in the name of purifying its moral strain. james: if one thinks to be moral is not to be a realist, i think
it is clear, one must not describe him as a realist. i hold the argument that it is possible to be one or the other in a meaningful but limited stents. his role in the amistad is a heroic one. he ends by giving a nine-hour speech before the supreme court and he points to the declaration of independence on the wall and by that document on that wall, you must let my defendants go free. people were weeping. there were eight justices at that point, of whom seven had been appointed by slaveowning presidents, and he won seven to one. >> can't we just say he's a republican, because republicanism is always a mix of idealism and realism.
it is also very highbrow and soaring. he's a cicerone and. his lectures at harvard actually are all cicerone and in nature. that is characteristic of republicanism. james: it is the word he would have used for himself. robert: let's not let ourselves off the hook. republicanism is a revolutionary doctrine. its consequences have been revolutionary. the united states is a revolutionary power, not a status will power. it has been revolutionizing the world. republicanism is not to be pragmatic in the context of the world as it existed. the republicanism is a good description of adams' since
of himself, when he looked at the republicanizing mission of the french revolution, he saw nothing but harbor and disruption. americans who thought their own republicanism was reflected in the french revolution, adams had a reaction that was -- >> that's not really a republican revolution for adams. james: the french were looking -- proclaiming everywhere they went, they were creating republics, and adams thought that was madness. >> i always thought john quincy adams ran a couple of the nastiest political campaigns in our history, and how can you call him a moralist when he reminds me very much of what's going on right now? defend do you want to adams' political campaign? james: ok. i would say you are half right.
thing which isa brutal and ugly, you are morally responsible or it. it is still different from richard nixon making secret phone calls in the basement. torn by was profoundly his own ambition. he could not accept the idea that he was ambitious. you can be ambitious for great things. you can be ambitious to be a great republican leader, but the idea of personal ambition was an anathema to him. when it came time to act in a way where you can only succeed by fully accepting and acting upon your own personal ambitions for yourself -- he was forever disclaiming the consequences of his act, or finding ways of not having to know about it.
the 1824 election was really dirty. in 1928 election, possibly dirtier. in 1828, when he was running against jackson and got his , henry clay and daniel webster were basically his campaign managers. you see all these letters between them saying, i found this editor in cincinnati who i think is going to be great for us and the editor in cincinnati is printing articles that say o andw jackson is a mulatt his wife is a harlot and jackson is responsible for the murder of american soldiers, horrible things. clay and webster are saying, how can we get some money to this
guy? adams didn't know about that. he was not running the campaign. but it was done on his behalf. >> he didn't know? james: i'm quite certain he didn't know. >> his e-mails were never -- [laughter] james: clay and webster knew he would never want to know. they would never tell him. robert: but can i just say, your point is well taken and i want to make the further point that a person who is willing either to preside unknowingly or be conducting as vicious a campaign to get elected, we can't imagine him exaggerating how he felt about recognize the latin republics, but he was a politician. we have to understand that he would say things -- james: you are saying that the parts of that are sincere are the parts that you agree with. robert: i'm saying when he's writing private instructions to
his ambassadors as secretary of state when the issue is no longer relevant are different from things he says in a campaign speech. i think i trust more what he said in things that he never thought would see the light of day. james: where we disagree is, i'm totally agreeing with you about his moral driven this, yet i'm saying there is an element that is useful and correct to describe as realism which has to do with his policy, his distrust of the kinds of passions which today arguably led to, i don't know, the war in iraq. i was trying to not say that. but i said it anyway. robert: you can't go from the transcontinental -- something in between. james: something in between woodrow wilson's -- robert: let's not go there either. that's a second debate.
james: anyway, there is a doctrine of restraint and prudence which is very much anticipatory of the kind of language -- robert: let me ask this question. if he did not have the andscontinental treaty up if he were not running for president, do you think he still would have opposed the recognition of latin republics? james: no. his opposition to the recognition of the republics was completely tactical. robert: he makes a timeless statement about a tactical decision. that'sso you're saying purely political and i'm saying that reflects some deep thought in him. because that is consistent with so many other things he said, it shouldn't be dismissed. >> on the question the gentleman , politicalaised
campaigns in the first half of the 19th century, the 20th century had nothing on the 19th century in terms of dirty politics. if you study the history of the press in this country, it was pretty rotten. my question, if i was parachuted in here knowing nothing about quincy or anybody else, i would assume that quincy was a fairly independent agent as secretary of state. you really spoke about nothing about the dynamic between quincy and his boss when he was secretary of state. robert: they had a very long debate, monro and adams, about the munro doctrine. i think the debate ended more in the middle. the reaction of europe was exactly the same as it would have been if monro had said everything he wanted to say. metternich, who is the great sort of looks men and defender
of absolutism, is outraged by nroe doctrine statement. it was annexed for everything to assert. extraordinary thing to assert. he heard loud and clear the fact that americans really did favor the greek revolution, really did favor liberalism in europe. so actually won that debate is an interesting question. -- in a way, you give him a lot of credit for winning the argument. should we have an alliance with the british? even jefferson, the great anglophone of all time, was all for it at that moment. reasonshe adams was against it, was they wanted to declare cuba off-limits.
adams was not going to declare anything off-limits. one of the reasons he didn't want the deal was, he didn't want to take cuba off the table for eventual act was in, which brings us to the spanish-american war. said the right word for him is republican and perhaps it is. he was also a nationalist. treaty,scontinental where everybody said, enough already, he said, i'm going to get more. he disagreed sharply with munro. bob referred to jackson's rampage through florida. everybody said, we've got to stop this guy. he totally violated the instructions monroe the instructions
you. they will be signing books for a little bit. one more thing i just wanted to point out, our film series is starting on friday. it does tie into this conversation. man,"called "the best about two presidential candidates, one moralistic, the other more ruthless, who are vying for the candidacy. please join us for that at 7:00. again, thank you all very much. some flyers are outside too if you want to pick one up. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> you're watching american
history tv, 48 hours of programming on american history every weekend on c-span 3. follow us on twitter for information on our schedule and to keep up with the latest history news. monday night on "the communicators," craig erin, president and ceo of free press, and the director at the center for internet communications and technology policy, talk about the technology issues hillary clinton and donald trump have discussed on the campaign trail. also, the top tech issues for congress and the next administration to address. they are interviewed by a technology reporter. >> the key elements that interest me most are her commitment to really expand broadband access, and with a lot of talk about competition and bringing the benefits to all americans. i think there's another theme around the idea of inclusive
innovation. how do we make sure the entire country, everyone actually shares in the benefits of the internet economy? ofi think there's a lot sharing of goals and objectives. i think we all want to see the benefits of the internet made available to all. i think we want to see more rapid innovation. i think we want to see lower prices. i think mr. trump is saying the path to those objectives is less regulation, lower taxation. >> watch "the communicators" monday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span 2. >> the richard nixon presidential library and museum only completed a major renovation. reopeninghe library's ceremony in yorba linda, california. speakers include pete wilson and the archivist of the united states.
this event is about 50 minutes. >> for today's invocation, please welcome lawrence baird, pastor of our lady of mount caramel church in newport beach. his presence today honors the late don vendetti, former chairman of the nixon foundation board. don and his lovely wife, dorothy, have been devoted friends and supporters for over 25 years, working with president nixon and architects, john oversaw the construction of the original library. ladies and gentlemen, lawrence baird. >> almighty god, how good it is for us to come together as one as we dedicate this historic museum and library which houses