tv Politics and Public Policy Today CSPAN November 8, 2016 8:00pm-12:01am EST
tonight on american history tv, victory and concession speeches from three past presidential campaigns. beginning at 8:00, the 1980 election. president jimmy carter's concession speech and ronald reagan's victory speech. at 8:30, george h.w. bush and ross perot. then george bush and al gore's speeches. also the 1979 debate over the official title for george washington and subsequent leaders of the u.s. all of this tonight on american history tv on c-span3.
you know, we're all here but one n now. it's way past his bedtime. but let me -- let me just say first, let me just say first of all, this has been -- well, there's never been a more humbling moment in my life. i would have been -- [ applause ] not only humbled by the extent of what has happened tonight, even if it had been the cliffhanger that all of us, i think, were expecting, it would have been the same way. but just to have had the support of the people of this country. i consider the trust that you have placed in me sacred, and i
give you my sacred oath that i will do my utmost to justify your faith. [ cheers and applause ] earlier this evening, i spoke on the phone with president carter. he called. john anderson called, but the president pledged the utmost in cooperation in the transition that will take place in these coming months. i offered him my own cooperation. he graciously said that he wanted this to be the -- >> governor reagan, we just wanted to show you what the map of the united states looks like as of 8:00 tonight.
>> all righty. when that began to slide, i thought that maybe the world was going out just as i was getting in. but, anyway, as i say, the president was most gracious about this. and now all across america, there are some people that i owe a great debt of thanks to. there they are. they are meeting tonight in our national headquarters in arlington, virginia. the national committee people, the dedicated professionals who have made the campaign run. and in every state in the counties, the cities and the precin precincts, to all of them who worked so tirelessly, literally hundreds of thousands of
volunteers. and i've seen them at work throughout the country on this campaign. i just owe them an immeasurable debt of thanks. to george and barbara bush -- [ cheers and applause ] our running mates down in texas, no one has worked harder than they have. we only crossed paths a few times on this campaign and had to go out of our way to do it because their schedule was so heavy. and i can tell you that we're going to have a true partnership and a true friendship in the white house. and now, as i said before, my family. i'm so grateful to them for the love, for their support and for
the hard work because they were out on the campaign trail easily as much as nancy and i were. speaking of nancy, she's going to have a new title in a couple of months. [ applause ] and it isn't really new because she's been the first lady in my life for a long time. now we share that a little bit in the future. you know, abe lincoln, the day after his election to the presidency, gathered in his office the newsmen who had been covering his campaign. and he said to them, well, boys, your troubles are over now. mine have just begun. i think i know what he meant.
lincoln may have been concerned in the troubled times in which he became president, but i don't think he was afraid. he was ready to confront the problems, the troubles of a still youthful country. determined to seize the historic opportunity to change things. and i am not frightened by what lies ahead, and i don't believe the american people are frightened by what lies ahead. together -- together we're going to do what has to be done. we're going to put america back to work again. you know, there are -- trying to
tap that great american spirit that opened up this completely undeveloped continent from coast to coast and made it a great nation, survived several wars, survived a great depression, and will survive the problems that we face right now. when i accepted your nomination for president, i hesitatingly, but i asked for your prayers at that moment. i won't ask them for this in particular moment, but i will just say, i would be very happy to have them in the days ahead.
all i can say to all of you is, thank you, and thank you for more than just george bush and myself. thank you because if the trend continues, we may very well control one house of the congress for the first time in a quarter of a century. we have already -- we have picked up some governorships and bill brock told me on the phone just a few minutes ago, that it looks like in a number of states, we have turn the state legislatures around, and for the first time, they are major iity.
you did it. i have one message that i have to give before i leave. i've been upstairs on the phone trying to get a hold two of celebrations, two parties that are going on. one in tampico, illinois, where i was born and one in dixon, illinois, where i grew up. i've got two hometowns. and finally, we managed to get the radio station in that area, and they told us they would broadcast my message into the two parties going on there. so thank you all. >> ladies and gentlemen, president-elect ronald reagan! [ cheers and applause ] ♪
>> i promised you -- i promised you four years ago that i would never lie to you so i can't say that it doesn't hurt. the people of the united states have made the choice and, of course, i accept that decision. but i have to admit, not with the same enthusiasm that i accepted the decision four years ago. i might say -- [ applause ] i have a deep appreciation of the system, however, that lets people make the free choice about who will lead them for the next four years. about an hour ago, i called governor reagan in california, and i told him that i
congratulated him for a fine victory. i look forward to working closely with him during the next few weeks. we'll have a very fine transition period. i told him i wanted the best one in history, and i then sent him this telegram. i'll read it to you. it's apparently american people have chosen you as the next president. i congratulate you and pledge to you our fullest support and cooperation in bringing about an orderly transition of government in the weeks ahead. my best wishes are with you and your family as you undertake the responsibilities that lie before you, and i signed it, jimmy carter. [ applause ]
>> i have been blessed as only a few people ever have to help share the destiny of this nation. in that effort, i have had your faithful support. in some ways, i've been the most fortunate of all presidents because i've had the daily aid of a wise man and a good man at my side. in my judgment, the best vice president anybody ever had.
[ applause ] i've not achieved all i set out to do, perhaps no one ever does, but we have faced the tough issues. we've stood for n fought for and achieved some very important goals for our country. these efforts will not end with this administration. the effort must go on. nor will the progress that we have made be lost when we leave office. the great principles that have guided this nation since its founding will continue to guide america to the challenges of the future. this has been a long and hard-fought campaign, as you well know. but we must now come together as a united and a unified people to solve the problems that are still before us. to meet the challenges of a new decade.
and i urge all of you to join in with me in a sincere and fruitful effort to support my successor when he undertakes this great responsibility as president of the greatest nation on earth. we have a special country because our vast economic and military strength give us a special responsibility for seeking solutions to the problems that confront the world. but our influence will always be greater when we live up to those principles of freedom, of justice, of human rights for all people. god has been good to me, and god has been good to this country. and i'm truly thankful. i'm thankful for having been
able to serve you in this capacity. thankful for the successes that we have had. thankful that to the end, you were with me and every good thing that i tried to do. there's an old yiddish proverb i've often thought of in the days and months i've held this office. god gives burdens, also shoulders. and all the days and months when i have served you and served this country, you have readily given me your shoulders. your faith and your prayers, no man could ask any more of his friends. i wanted to serve as president because i love this country and because i love the people of this nation. [ applause ]
finally -- finally, let me say that i am disappointed tonight, but i have not lost either love. thank you very much. ♪ [ applause ] wednesday night on american history tv, highlights from the annual international churchill conference in washington, d.c., with discussions about the british prime minister's relationships with american presidents. the monarchy and european leaders. part of american history tv in
primetime each night this week at 8:00 p.m. eastern on c-span3. c-span's "washington journal," live every day with news and policy issues that impact you. coming up wednesday morning, we're starting an hour earlier at 6:00 a.m. eastern getting your reaction post election day, breaking down the results. join the conversation with your phone calls, e-mails and tweets. be sure to watch c-span's "washington journal" live at 6:00 a.m. eastern wednesday morning. road to the white house rewind continues with bill clinton's victory speech from 1992. this was recorded outside the old statehouse in little rock, arkansas. it's about 15 minutes.
>> my fellow americans -- [ cheers and applause ] on this day, with high hopes and brave hearts in massive numbers, the american people have voted to make a new beginning. this election is a clairion call for our country to face the challenges of the end of the cold war and the beginning of the next century. to restore growth to our country and opportunity to our people. to empower our own people so they can take more responsibility for their own lives. to face problems too long ignored from aids to the environment to the conversion of our economy from the defense to
an economic giant. and perhaps most important of all, to bring our people together as never before so that our diversity can be a source of strength in a world that is ever smaller. where everyone counts and everyone is a part of america's family. i want to begin this night by thanking my family. my wife, without whom i would not be here tonight. and who i will be -- i believe will be one of the greatest first ladies in the history of this republic.
>> hillary! hillary! hillary! >> you can cheer for her. i also want to say a special word of thanks to our daughter for putting up with our absence, for supporting our effort, for being brave in the face of adversity and for reminding us every day about what this election is really all about. i want to thank my mother, my brother, my stepfather, my mother-in law and father-in law,
my brothers-in law and my sister-in-law who carried this campaign across this country and stuck up for me when others were trying to put it down. i love them, and i thank them. i want to thank the people of this wonderful, small state. time after time, when this campaign was about to be counted out, the arkansas travelers exploded out of this state around the country to tell people the truth about what we had done here together. how we had pulled together. what we believed in and what we could do as a nation. i had the best staff and cabinet you can imagine.
they kept this state together, and even when we weren't here, we continued to lead the country in job growth and keeping taxes and spending down and in pulling the people of arkansas together to show what we could do if the nation pulled together and moved forward, too. i want to thank the people who were in that infamous group, the fobs, the friends of bill and the friends of hillary. no person who ever sought this office was more aided by the friends of lifetime and i will never forget you. i want to thank the people in the new democratic party headed by our chairman, ron brown. the new members of congress, the new blood, the new direction that we are going. and finally, i want to thank the members of my brilliant, aggressive, unconventional but always winning campaign staff who were unbelievable.
and they have earned this. i want to say, if i might, a special word of thanks to two people who lost their lives in the course of this campaign without whom we might not be here tonight. our friends paul tulley and dick razor. our prayers are with them. they're looking down on us tonight, and they're awfully happy. i received a telephone call from president bush. it was a generous and forthcoming telephone call of real congratulations, and an
offer to work with me in keeping our democracy running in an effective and important transition. i want all of you to join with me tonight in expressing our gratitude to president bush for his lifetime of public service, for the effort he made from the time he was a young soldier in world war ii to helping bring about an end to the cold war to our victory in the gulf war to the grace with which he conceded the results of this election tonight in the finest american tradition. let's give mr. bush and his family a hand. [ applause ] i heard tonight mr. perot's remarks and his offers to work with us. of all the things he said, perhaps the most important that we understand here in the heartland of arkansas is the need to reform the political system, to reduce the influence
of special interest and get more influence back to the kind of people in this crowd tonightor the tens of thousands, and i will work with him to do that. and finally, let me say how profoundly indebted i am tonight. beyond the folks at home, beyond the wonderful people who worked in this administration, the lieutenant governor and others to keep our government going, beyond all the others, i have to say a special word of thanks to my magnificent running mate, senator al gore and his family. [ applause ]
give him a round. i want to thank -- i want to tell you that al and tipper, hillary and i have become friends. i admire them for what they stand for. they are enjoyable to be with. they believe in our country. al gore is a man of almost unparalleled combination of intelligence, commitment, compassion and concern to the people of this country, to our obliigation to preserve our environment, to our duty to promote freedom and peace in the world, and together, we're going to do our best to give you a new partnership for a new america. i want to thank al's children, his brother-in-law and wonderful parents. i think we carried every state that senator and mrs. gore
campaigned in. their percentage was the best of all. i want to say that we have established a partnership in this campaign that we will continue into this new administration. for if we've learned anything in the world today, it's that we can accomplish more by teamwork, working together, bringing out the best in all the people that we see, and we will seek the best and most able and most commitmented people throughout this country to be a part of our team. we'll ask the democrats who believe in our cause to come forward, but we'll look to, among the ranks of independents and republicans who are willing to roll up their sleeves, be a part of a new partnership and get on with the business of dealing with this nation's problems. i remind you again tonight, this victory was more than a victory of party but a vuctry for the people that work hard and play by the rules. people who feel left out and
left behind but want to do better. a victory for the people ready to compete and win in a global economy but who need a government that offers a hand up, not a handout. that is what we offer, and that is what tomorrow we will begin to work to provide to all of you. today, the steel worker and stenographer, the teacher and the nurse had as much power in the mystery of our democracy as the president, the billionaire and the governor. you all spoke with equal voices for change. and tomorrow, we will try to give you that. you can trust us to wake up every day, remembering the people we saw on the bus trips. the people we saw in the town meetings. the people who never voted before. the people who never voted for a democrat. the people who had given up hope. all of them together are saying we want our future back and i intend to help give it to you.
i say to all those who voted for us, this was a remarkable coalition for change. many of you had to put aside this or that personal ambition to be a part of a broad, deep commitment to change this country. i ask you to keep that commitment as we move from election to governing. we need more than ever for those of you who said let's put the public interest over personal interest to keep it right there for four years so we can turn this country around. i say to all those who voted for mr. bush or mr. perot, those who voted for the president, those who voted for ross perot, you love your country, too. i ask you to listen to the voice of your leaders. i ask you to join with us and creating a reunited states. a united country with a new sense of patriotism to face the
challenges of this new time. we need your help, too, and we will do our best to serve it. deserve it. when we seek to offer young people the opportunity to borrow the money they need to go to college and the challenge to pay it back through national service, when we challenge the insurance companies, the drug companies, the providers and the consumers, the government to give us a new health care system, when we offer those on welfare new opportunity and the challenge to move to work, when we ask companies to take the incentives we offer to put american people to work and export american products, not american jobs, all of this is a part of a new patriotism to lift our people up and enable all of us to live up to the fullest of our potential. i accept tonight the responsibility that you have given me to be the leader of this, the greatest country in
human history. i accept it with a full heart and a joyous spirit. i ask you to be americans again, too. to be interested not just in getting but in giving. not just in placing blame but now in assuming responsibility. not just in looking out for yourself, but in looking out for others, too. in this very place, one year and one month ago today, i said we need more than new laws, new promises or new programs. we need a new spirit of community. a sense that we're all in this together. if we have no sense of community, the american dream will continue to wither. our destiny is bound up with the destiny of every american. we're all in this together, and we will rise or fall together. that has been my message to the
american people for the past 13 months, and it will be my message for the next four years. together we can do it. together we can make the country that we love, everything it was meant to be. i still believe in a place called hope. god bless america. thank you all. this is american history tv on c-span3. road to the white house rewind continues with the concession speech from president george h.w. bush in november 1992. he lost to bill clinton. this was reported in houston. it's about ten minutes. >> thank you very much. hey listen, you guys -- >> thank you, george! thank you, george!
>> thank you so much. here's the way i see it. here's the way we see it and the country should see it that the people have spoken, and we respect the majesty of the democratic system. i just called governor clinton over in little rock and offered my congratulations. he did run a strong campaign. i wish him well in the white house, and i want the country to know that our entire administration will work closely with his team to ensure the smooth transition of power. there is important work to be done, and america must always come first so we will get behind this new president and wish him well. and to all who voted for us, voted for me, here -- especially here but all across the country, thank you for your support. and we have fought the good fight, and we've kept the faith.
and i believe i have upheld the honor of the presidency of the united states. now -- and now i ask that we stand behind our new president, and regardless of our differences, all americans share the same purpose to make this the world's greatest nation more safe and more secure and to guarantee every american a shot at the american dream. and i would like to thank so many of you who have worked beside me to improve america and to literally change the world. let me thank our great vice president, dan quayle. [ cheers and applause ] in the face of a tremendous pounding, he stood for what he believes in, and he will always
have my profound gratitude and certainly my respect. and i would like to salute so many that did special work. rich bond up at the rnc, bob teeter who ran the campaign, bob mossbacker, our entire campaign team. and they've run a valiant effort in a very, very difficult year. and i also want to salute the members of the cabinet, all of whom -- who have served this nation with honor, with integrity and with great distinction. and i would like to single out two leaders who represent the ideal in public service. together they've helped lead the world through a period of unprecedented transition. i'm talking, of course, about my national security adviser, brent scowcroft and jim baker. [ applause ] and my good friend and fellow
texan, our secretary of state, jim baker. finally, of course, i want to thank my entire family with a special emphasis on a woman named barbara. [ cheers and applause ] she's inspired this entire nation, and i think the country will always be grateful. but tonight is really not a night for speeches. but i want to share a special message with the young people of america. i am absolutely --
you see, i remain absolutely convinced that we are a rising nation. we have been in an extraordinarily difficult period, but do not be deterred, kept away from public service by the smoke and fire of a campaign year or the ugliness of politics. as for me, i plan to get -- i'm going to serve and try to find ways to help people. but i plan to get very active in the grandchild business. and in finding ways to help others. but i urge you, the young people of this country, to participate in the political process. it needs your idealism. it needs your drive. it needs your conviction. and again, my thanks, my congratulations to governor clinton, to his running mate, senator gore, and a special thanks to each and every one of
you, many of you who have been at my side in every political battle. may god bless -- may god bless the united states of america. thank you very, very much. thank you so much. [ applause ] this is american huistory t on c-span3. road to the white house re wind continues with the concession speech from independent presidential candidate ross perot. he lost the election to democratic nominee bill clinton. this was recorded in dallas. it's about ten minutes. >> now wait just a minute. first thing we want to do, we'll be talking about this in a
minute. first thing we want to do is all team up together and try to make it work now, right? absolutely. you're not too happy, we can make some changes in '94, right? the main thing is time is precious. let's try to make it work. and texas all working together to make it work. i'll be talking about that in a minute. so we've got work to do starting right away because our country needs all of our help. i want to thank all of you who are here tonight, and all the people who have come together across the nation. starting last february, you did something that everybody said couldn't be done. millions of you came together to take your country back.
you gave washington a laser-like message to listen to the people. you have done an incredible job of getting this country turned back around to the tight country our founders established. a country that came from the people. and you have changed this country through your massive efforts. and i compliment you for it. and it was brilliant the way you did it. as i have said on a number of occasions, my role in life is that of a grain of sand to the oyster. it irstates the oyster and out comes the pearl.
i have been your grain of sand that you chose. it's been an honor to be your grain of sand in this process. and we will continue to work together to make pearls as necessary in the future. fair enough? [ applause ] the american people have spoken. they have chosen governor clinton. congratulations. [ booing ] >> whoa, no, nose. wait a minute. the only way we're going to make it work is if we all team up together. so let's give governor clinton a big round of applause. [ applause ] thank you. forget the election. forget the election. it's behind us. the hard work is in front of us. and we must all work together to
rebuild our great country. you, the american people, are the greatest people on the face of the earth. if we'd just put aside our differences and work together, we can rebuild our job base. we can eliminate the deficit. we can eliminate the debt and, most importantly, we can pass on the american dream to our children, right? and on the way, we can reform our government and get rid of some of these problems so damaging to us. now to the millions of volunteers who asked me to serve as your candidate, as long as i live, one of the happiest
memories of my life will be the memory of working with you. that memory will never dim. it's the nicest honor i've received in my life. thank you very much. [ applause ] there are people here tonight, and there are people across the country who literally gave it everything they had seven days a week since last february to take this country back and give it to the people to pay its debts, to pass the american dream on to our children, and i want you to know how proud i am of you, and how much all of us owe you for the tremendous effort you made. so god bless you, and thank you
very much. [ applause ] now it's just the beginning, but the next step is we need to take all of our energy and harness it and -- see, time is not our friend. time is our enemy. these problems our country faces need to be solved immediately. we need to all work together and work with the new administration and give it a world class best effort to get these problems solved now. because if we do, you benefit. the country benefits. your children benefits, and everybody wins. we've got to do it.
spend about ten minutes getting frustrated that your candidate didn't win then take all this creativity that you displayed and let's make it work at the national, state, county, local and neighborhood level and at every single school across the country, right? absolutely! now the fact that we will go anywhere any time and do anything that's good for our country to help the administration as an organization does not mean that we will compromise our principles or integrity in terms of what this organization stands for.
[ applause ] we will never change that one filter that everything has to go through in united we stand america. and that is, is it good for our country, right? is it good for the country? if it gets to that, then we'll back it hard and use all the enormous ability that you have to get things done for the benefit of our people and our country. now the main thing, the main thing is don't lose your enthusiasm. don't lose your idealism. don't lose your great love for this country. and please don't feel, gee, i'm powerless again. as long as we're together, nationwide, you have enormous voice in this country. so we will stay together and you will be a force for good for our country and our children.
thank you. you remember, the little children that are here tonight, the college students that have been at all the rallies all across the country, when you look at them, you are looking at tomorrow. and we must give them a brighter tomorrow than any other generation has ever had in our country. if we keep it that simple and that pure and that clean, then we can make an enormous contribution and that's what we must do. we will have our organization establish -- we have a nationwide network, a state by
state network, a community by community network, and we will keep it intact to be a force for constructive good throughout our country. tnchts best is in front of us. believe me. this is now time to get discouraged or though in the towel and this is time to redouble our efforts and work with the new administration to make sure that our country is a beacon to the rest of the world. to make sure that our cities undimmed by human tears and to make sure that every little child across america is only
limited by his or her dreams and their willingness to pay the price and make the effort to make those treatments come true. that's what america is all about. and that's what you're all about. god bless you. we love you. i want you to know that our love for you and my love for you is permanent and i will carry the memory of the past few months with me for the rest of my life and i am available to you any time, any place, anywhere as long as i'm around. god bless you. thank you very much.
>> wednesday night on american history tv highlights from the annual international churchill conference in washington d.c. with discussions about the british prime minister's relationships with american presidents the monarchy and european leaders. part of american history tv in primetime each night this week. at 8:00 p.m. eastern on cspan 3. >> after i came up with this idea i did research information and this is definitely the case with a lot of pieces that will be done for this competition but mental illness especially it's a complicated issue. it's not black and white and it's so multifaceted that i had to research to get a base knowledge of what i wanted to talk about in this piece. it's so complicated that i couldn't talk about it in 5 to 7
minutes. >> it's a broad topic and i thought it would be nice to have a vocal point i wanted to po cuss on so before i start interviewing my parents and before i got close and before i started shooting i researched this topic extensively. >> this is my dad's pharmacy and talked to the pharmacists there. i talked to my mom and her colleagues and co-workers and did a lot of internet research and i went to the library. >> a lot of internet research to find more facts and data and statistics. and to see what was going on. >> most of the information that i got off of the internet came from government founded websites so that's how i knew that the information i was getting is legitimate. >> this year's theme your message to washington defendant c. what was the most urgent issue for the new president and congress to address in 2017.
our competition is open to all middle school or high school students grades 6 through 12. with $100,000 awarded with prices. students with work alone or in a group of up to 3 to produce a 5 to 7 minute documentary on the issues selected. also exmother opposing opinions. the $100,000 in cash prizes will be awarded and shared between 150 students and 53 teachers and the grand prize, $5,000 will go to the student or team with the best overall entry. this year's deadline is january 20th, 2017. so mark your calendars and help us spread the word to student film makers. for more information go to our website student cam.org. >> road to the white house rewind continues with the victory speech by george w. bush in 2000. they defeated al gore in one of
the most highly contested races in history. it wasn't decided until five months after they stopped a florida recount and awarded the state's electoral votes and presidency to governor bush. this was recorded in the texas house of representatives in austin. it's about ten minutes. >> thank you. >> thank you very much. good evening my fellow americans. i appreciate so very much the opportunity to speak with you tonight mr. speaker, friends, distinguished guests. our country has been through a long and trying period with the o outcome of the presidential election not finalize for not longer than any of us could ever imagine. vice president gore and i put our hearts and hopes into our
campaigns. we both gave it our allful we shared similar emotions so i understand how difficult this moment must be for vice president gore and his family. he has a distinguished record of service to our country as a congressman, a senator and a vice president. this evening i received a gracious call from the vice president. we agreed to meet early next week in washington and we agreed to do our best to heal our country after this hard fought contest. tonight i want to thank all the thousands of volunteers and campaign workers who worked so hard on my behalf i also salute the vice president and his supporters for waging a spirited campaign and i thank him for a call that i know was difficult to make. laura and i wish the vice president and senator lieberman
and their families the very best. i have a lot to be thankful for tonight. i alabama thankful for america. and thankful that we're able to resolve our electoral differences in a peaceful way and thankful to the american people for the great privilege of being able to serve as your next president. i want to thank my wife and our daughters for their love. laura's active involvement as first lady has made texas a better place and she will be a wonderful first lady of america. [ applause ] >> i am proud to have dic
dick chaney by my side and america will be proud to have him as our next vice president. tonight i chose to speak from the chamber of the texas house of representatives because it's been a home to bipartisan cooperation. here in a place where democrat versus the majority, republicans and democrats have worked together to do what is right for the people we represent. we have had spirited disagreements and in the end we found constructive consensus. it is an experience i will always carrie with me and an example i will always follow. i want to thank my friend house speaker a democrat that introduced me today. i want to thank the legislators from both political parties with whom i have worked.
across the hall and texas capital is the state senate and i can't help but think of our mutual friend. >> and they continue to be a model for all of us. [ applause ] >> the spirit of co-op ration i have seen in this hall is what is needed in washington defendant c. it is the challenge of our moment. and work together to make the promise of america available for every one of our citizens. i'm optimistic that we can change the tone in washington defendant c. i believe things happen for a
reason and i hope the long wait of the last five weeks will heighten a desire to move beyond the bitterness and partisanship of the recent past. our nations must rise above a house divided. americans share hopes and goals and values far more important than any political disagreements. republicans want the best for our nation and so do democrats. our votes may differ but not our hopes. i know america wants reconciliation and unity. i know americans want progress and we must seize this moment and deliver. together guided by a spirit of common sense, common curtesy and common goals we can unite and inspire the american citizens. together we will work to make all our public schools excellent
teaching every student of every background and accent so that no child is left behind. together we will save social security and renew it's promise of a secure retirement for generations to come. together we will strengthen medicare and offer prescription drug coverage to all of our seniors. together we will give americans the broad fair and fiscally responsibility tax relief they deserve together we'll have a by par san foreign policy true to our values and true to our friends. and we'll have a military equal to every challenge and superior to every adversary. together we'll address society's deepest problems. one person at a time by encouraging and empowering the good hearts and good works of the american people. this is the essence of compassion and conservatism. and it will be a foundation of
my administration. these priorities are not merely republican concerns or democratic concerns. they are american responsibilities. during the fall campaign we differed about the details of these proposals but there was remarkable consensus about the important issues before us. excellent schools. retirement and health security. tax relief. a strong military, a more civil society. we have discussed our differences. now it is time to find common ground and build consensus to make america a beacon of opportunity in the 21st century. i'm optimistic this can happen. our future demands it. and our history proves it. >> a tie in the electoral
college and outcome into the hands of congress. after six days of voting and 36 ballots. the house of representatives elected thomas jefferson the third president of the united states. that election brought the first transfer of power from one party to another in our new democracy. shortly after the election jefferson in that letter title reconciliation and reform wrote this. the steady character of our countrymen is a rock to which we made safely more reasonable in manner. we should be able to hope to do a great deal of good to the cause of freedom and harmony. 200 year versus only strengthened the steady character of america and so as we begin the work of healing our
nation and solve any problem. something else to ask you. to ask every american. i ask for you to pray for this great nation. i ask for your prayers for leaders from both parties i thank you for prayers for me and my family and ask you to pray for vice president gore and his family. i have faith with that god's help we as a nation will move forward together as one nation indivisble. we'll create an america that's open so every citizen has access to the american dream. an america that is educated. so every child has the keys to realize that dream and a america united in our diversity and shared values that are larger than race or party. i was not elected to serve one party but to serve one nation. the president of the united states is the president of every
>> the outcome was not decided until five weeks after voters went to the polls. when the u. s. supreme court stopped a florida recount. this ultimately awarded the state's electoral votes and the presidency to governor bush. this is about 7 minutes. >> good evening just moments ago i spoke with george w. bush and congratulated him on becoming the 43rd president of the united states and i promised him that i wouldn't call him back this time.
and partisan feeling must yield to patriotism. i'm with you mr. president and god bless you. well in that same spirit i say to president elect bush that what remains partisan must now be put aside and may god bless his stewardship of this country. neither he nor ian gatt anticip this long and difficult road. neither one of us wanted it to happen. it came and it has ended. resolved as it must be resolved through the honored institutions of our democracy. over at the library on one of our great law schools is inscribed not under man but under rule and law. that's the source of our dell cattic libertieliberties. i tried to make it my guide throughout the contest as it guided america's deliberations of all the context issue of the past five weeks. now the u. s. supreme court has
spoken. let there be no doubt that while i strongly disagree with the court's decision, i accept it. i accept the finality of this outcome which will be ratified next monday in the electoral college and tonight for our sake and unity of a people and strength of our democracy i offer my concession and accept my responsibility which i will discharge unconditionally to honor the new president elect and do everything possible to help him bring americans together in fulfillment of the great vision that our declaration of independence defines and our constitution affirms and defends. let me say how grateful i am to all of those that supported me and supported the cause for which we have fought. we feel a deep gratitude to those that brought passion and high purpose to our partnership
and opened new doors not just for our campaign but our country. this has been an extraordinary election. but in one of god's unforseen paths this broken impasse can point us all to a new common ground. it can remind us that we are one people with a shared history and a shared destiny. indeed that history gives us many examples of contests as hotly debated as fiercely fought with their own challenges to the popular will. other disputes have dragged on for weeks before reaching resolution. and each time both the victor and the vanquished accepted the result peacefully and in the spirit of reconciliation. so let it be with us. but our disappointment must be overcome by our love of country.
i do not believe it need be so. president elect bush inherits a nation whose citizens will be ready to assist him in the conduct of his large responsibilities. we close ranks and come together when the contest is done and while there will be time enough to debate our continuing differences now there's time to recognize that that which unites
us is greater than that which divides us. while we do not yield our opposing believes, there is a higher duty than the one we owe to political party. this is america. and we put country before party. we will stand together behind our new president. as for what i'll do next i don't know the answer to that one yet. i know i'll spend time in tennessee and mend some fences literally and figuratively. some have asked whether i have any regrets. and i do have one regret. that i didn't get the chance to stay and fight for the american people over the next four years. especially those that need burdens lifted. especially for those that feel their voices have not been heard. i heard you and i will not forget.
i have seen america in this campaign and i like what i see. it's worth fighting for and that's a fight i'll never stop. as for the battle that ends tonight i do believe as my father once said that no matter how hard the loss, at the feet may serve as well as victory to shake the soul and let the glory out. so for me this campaign ends as it began with with the love of tipper and our family. with faith in god and in the country i have been so proud to serve from vietnam to the vice presidentcy and with gratitude to our tireless campaign staff and volunteers including all of those that worked so hard in florida for the last 36 days. now the political struggle is over. and multitudes around the world that look to us with leadership and the cause of freedom.
>> let us crown thy good with brotherhood from sea to shining sea. and it's time for me to go. thank you and good night and god bless america. >> cspan where history unfolds daily. in 1979 cspan was created as a public service by america's cable television companies. and it is brought to you today by your cable and satellite provider. >> it's a film promoting the advantages of replacing paper ballot with voting machines.
i am on my way to the grand opening of what i considered to be the greatest show on earth. first time its plagued our county but we think when the curtain closes tonight this will be a different place to live. i had a little something to do with it. that is a man i wrote about in a series of news stories did. my beat the county courthouse and if you know anything about county courthouses that's democracy's show place.
i don't have any free press passes for you but you can get good seats if your credentials say usa that probably gives it away. but we announce this is going to be a flag waving production. if that be niave let them make the most of it. if there's been more of it lately this show would play to standing room only. however there are plenty of seats. but it's curtain time.
>> you can legislate all the laws you want about the right to vote but whether you actually have an active electorate or not comes down like everything else to a matter of action on the part of a very few men and what kind of arrangements they make. in your community it may approximate some other official like your councilman. in ours it's the county commissioner that carried the assignment of seeing that there's a way and means of every american to run his country between 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. on that first tuesday in november.
all the voting machines are over 60 years old and are already being used by about half the voters in america. our commissioners still have h had to sell the idea here. a lot of work but they felt worth doing. they got me on their team when commissioner miller told me about the ease and speed of voting with machines over paper ballot. when the voter is properly qualified the election official admits him to the machine. and there's over 19 and a half centuries invested in achieving just that. the voter selects his candidate by turning down the voting pointers directly above the names of his candidate then
records and counts his own vote by returning the operating handle to the left that's all there is to it. he does not hand any papers to any human being. his vote is made and cast. untouched by other human hands or mine. and that's a long step up from ty tyranny. the ballot is right at the voter's wry level. easily read and all offices and all candidates are at the same eye level. no candidate suffers by being placed in an unfavorable position. it's all over the county when he addressed them by reminding them of the large number of societiers disinfranchised every year at the paper ballot polls by making mistakes.
state representatives but she marked 6. this is a no vote. simple mistake but out of every thousand people. some hurry. some nervous. some uninformed. how many do you think do it perfectly? the commissioner figures there's some excuse being d disenfranchised by war or fear. yes it can happen here. but not for well intentioned mistakes. not in this age of the voting machine. and pushing the pointer back up and has no pencil to break or paper to tear which will not let you vote for more than you're
allowed. it will not turn if you cast all of your votes. questions and issues if any are placed up here on the top of the ballot. the pointers are marked yes and no and for or against. the machine won't let you spoil your ballot by voting both ways. and when you're satisfied with with your vote a new privilege awaits you. you will register and count your own vote by returning this handle. walk away knowing your ballot cannot be disqualified thrown out nor miscounted. it's already counted the moment you leave. nor can the machine make a mistake. it cannot be opened except by a
voters voted by machine. why? why? well, newspapers run after answers. so did the commissioner and the first answer was it's so fast and so easy. just three simple steps. first move the red operating handle to the right. second select your candidate and third throw the red handle to the left to count and record your own vote. why else machine voting.
>> we've had no trouble about that in this county but we don't want to be either. the commissioners understood about fear. and it's a very, very subtle thing. this voters opinion is in the machine. not on any piece of paper that passes from hand to hand. why else voting machines? the automatic voting machine absolutely eliminates the disenfranchisement that comes from mistakes.
the count is mechanically accurate and of course of interest to me and 170 million others is the fact that immediately after the last voter the election results are available. the results are available right now. my paper can get the result which means that the radio and tv stations can get the results hours earlier. just read the figures off the counters to the recorders. then check the recorded figures back against the counters. announce the results in five to ten minutes.
>> if not if not well then it was five days. voting machines vote more people much faster. therefore you can consolidate your precinct. sometimes even two for one. cuts in half your need for hard to find election workers. madison wisconsin for example eliminated 170 election workers and multiply by a days pay and you see what kind of savings we're talking about plus the counting takes a quarter of an hour as opposed to 3 to 6 hours.
they had to compete in this county with the intention of people pressing the clock hard every day. it has to compete against speed and motion regretly even against america's second cup of coffee. everything else in the county competes hard for the citizens increasingly valuable time. our churches were modernizing with parking lots to get into faster. our schools modernize to command his respect and his tax dollar. the tools which our average citizen uses every day has become fantastically automatic and fast as industry moves to
automation. democracy is the foundation. the heart of that democracy is the poll which were still being run in our county the way they were when we held inauguration day on march 4th so the new president would have three months to iride his horse to washington. the driving question on the commissioners mind can democracy compete with it's right hand tied to a hitching post?
in primetime each night this week. at 8:00 p.m. eastern on cspan 3. cspan where history unfolds daily. in 1979 cspan was created as a public service by america's cable television companies and is brought to you today by your cable or satellite provider. >> he created ten commandments for presidential leadership. up next on the presidency, mr. boston discusses the commandments and provides examples of presidents that excel at each one. he is the author of cross examining history. a lawyer gets answers from the experts about our presidents. the denver forum hosted this hour long event.
>> he's a big time texas attorney. a major force in the legal community of texas. he wrote two books on baseball. really wonderful books and he came to the series to speak about one of the books and he then wrote a book and significant book but his new book is about leadership. and about leadership with the presidential level and there was a time in the history of politics and the history of governments and we need to understand what that really means. it seems to have greatly confused this election year terrific with wonderful kids and just a great texan which means
he's a great american. welcome please the one and only, the great talmige boston. good evening. thank you for making this wonderful evening possible. one of the great things about having a new book out and going across the krcountry is being ae to get in front of world affairs councils all over the country and see they carry on this important mission of adult education as well as reaching out to students and thank goodness we have organizations like the world affairs council because they make our world a better place. we are now less than a month away. from november 8th election day
when our country will finally be put out of its misery. and we will choose who will become the 45th president of the united states. many of you already know who is going to get your vote. there may be some in this audience that are undecided. the polls reflect that there are still people undecided. and the choice this year is shall we say complicated since both the candidates have negative approval ratings above 50% which means that both people are not really voting in favor of a candidate rather they are voting against a candidate. >> i'm not going to tell you who to vote for. i'm not going to say anything good or bad about either candidate. that would be foolish on my part because it would cutoff part of
my book sales. i'm going to give you something new to chew on between now and election day. you probably heard that most people love history for two reasons. the first reason is because it shows us how much things change and the second reason is it shows us how much things stay the same. and one of the main ways that history shows us how many things stay the same is the traits that make for a great presidential leader are the same in 2016 as they were in 1789 when george washington got sworn in. now for my new book cross examining history after completing my 31 interviews with with presidential experts i synthesize part of what i learn and what i call the 10 commandments of presidential
leadership. >> this audience is filled with with leaders. we have business leaders and civic leaders. all kinds of leaders and the young people future leaders. i believe these traits are important for all leaders. and face the most important decisions of their eras and met them in ways that set the standard. not just for presidential leadership but for all that are in leadership positions. >> he said something very important. nothing happens in our federal government without presidential leadership. and the reason for that is congress cannot take prompt action because they are truly a heard of cats. the president and only the president has to manage the process and if the president doesn't then the process doesn't
always do the right thing when times get tough and no one is looking and the president that set the standard and to get deeper on understanding george washington i interviewed david and gene hidler husband and wife historians that happen to live in colorado springs and just retired at the air force academy and they had a terrific biography that kacame out in th wall street journal. i want to understand how did it manifest itself. where did it come from? and it said well in terms of how he presented himself there was a strong physical component to it
he was a large man and 6'2". which would be like 6'8" compared to now. he had these pale blue eyes and broad nose and whenever he would speak publicly he always spoke very slowly. he did that to make sure he never misspoke. came across almost like the voice of god in the way george washington expressed himself publicly. when you have this huge presence and unusual speaking style whenever george washington entered a room people would stop what they were doing and take notice and immediately go into a mode of best behavior. >> where did it come from? how did he get an extraordinary
level of integrity? like most people speg riintegri begins as a child. he has wonderfully highly ethical parents. and how he ramped up his integrity came in his early teens when he was learning how to do cursive handwriting. that's his autograph. he had a strong hand with a great flourish to it and in george washington's era the way people learned how to do cursive handwriting is they got copy books. these were published books with beautifully elegant handwriting and people would copy them over and over again until their pen menship matched up with the standards and his favorite was written by jesuit priests and entitled rules of civility and descent behavior in company and
conversation so washington fell in love with this book and learned the rules backwards and forward and the idea you also disciplined your mind and it worked with george washington whose rules became his code for living for the rest of his life. i obviously read all 110 of them but two that stood out for me first every action done in company ought to be done with some sign of respect for all that are present and the second one which ties into the first commandment he said labor to keep alive in your breast that little spark of celestial fire called conscious. now as president he maintained his virtue by reading daily devotionals attending church every sunday and making sure that every action he took was in
complete come plie complete compliance with the new constitution as well as with the jesuit rules. he left in early 1797 and two years later he died and there was a partisan of the area that decided he wanted to do something special. he decided he was going to write a biography of washington. one of the most famous was george washington at age 6. i cut down the cherry tree with my had hatchet and that was an early 19th century version of
esop's fable but it absolutely told the truth and to be able to serve as conscious in chief. we get national scandals like richard nixon and watergate and bill clinton and his shenanig s shenanigans. when you see the washington monument think of it as a capital i that stands for the integrity of george washington. second commandment, a great leader shall stay above the partisan fray and should be able to build consensus. it's an essential part of the american success story and that's how government works. people going across the aisle having dialogue and compromising and being able to legislate
effectively. it means out of many, one. yes in most groups there's usually more than one faction. it's the great leader that has the horsepower to pull them together and get a collective enterprise going and eliminate the dysfunction and the president who was particularly good at staying above the partisan fray and being able to build consensus was thomas jefferson. the jefferson biographer was peter. he spent over 20 years. thomas jefferson foundation of history at the university of virginia and is the author of six books on thomas jefferson. since we live in a world where nobody is able to build consensus in our federal government i wanted to vote much
of the interview to understanding how did jefferson do it? particularly because he was operating at a difficult time where the federalist party controlled by john adams and alexander hamilton was in constant conflict with the republican party controlled by jefferson and james madison and it got so bad that during adam's presidency the congress passed the sedition act of 1798 that made it a prime punishable by incarceration when people are being thrown in swral fjail for speech and criticizing a political leader thomas jefferson became president when the country was barely a decade old and he made it his priority
to reach across the aisle and build consensus. in his first inaugural address close to the very beginning he said we are all featherweights and all republicans. don't we wish we had a candidate in 2016 that can express those kinds of sentiments. but beyond that how do you build consensus. politics is all about relationshi relationships. if you want to build consensus you can only do it after you built relationships with those across the aisle. he said throughout his presidency of 8 years thomas jefferson would have regular on going dinner parties at the e c
executive mansion where his only guests were the leaders of the party. and wonderful food and wine and thomas jefferson was a very charming character and ultimate renaissance man. he can talk about music and can talk about art, architecture, history, agriculture, you name it. and he was dazzling conversationalist about any subject. on going steady diet of dialogue with people on the other side of the aisle, the walls started coming down and peel started to be able to act together as americans and trying to make the government work. now we know what happens when we have a president unable to stay above the partisan fray and that lacks the tool to be able to build relationships so as to be able to build consensus with those across the aisle. we'll get exactly what we had the last pu years.
total gridlock and a government that doesn't work anymore. so when you're in washington defendant c. and you see the jefferson memorial, think of each of those columns as a faction. and think of them as all being unified together under the perfect jefferson dome and remember thomas jefferson the president that made it his priority to bring the factions together and make government work during his presidency. third commandment. a great leader shall know his limitations and know how to supplement his limitations. this takes self-awareness. this takes knowing what are your strengths and what are your weaknesses? and for those areas where you are weak being able to connect with somebody that's strong in the areas where you're weak and make it work. and the one that was the best at this trait was james madison. now for his strengths he was very smart.
he was brilliant. he also knew he was an extremely hard worker. he had a work ethic second to none. but for his weaknesses he was a >> and although he was brilliant in a level-headed sort of way, he lacked creativity and he knew that. so the madison biographer, for my book, is award winning david stewart, came out in 2015, madison's gift is about how madison went about building partnerships with those who were strong in the areas where he was weak. how did james madison compensate for being a skronny little guy who got lost in every crowd. he buddied up with great big george washington. and washington was smart enough
to know that he needed some more horsepower. he wasn't brilliant, he needed a little brilliance to add to the conservation. and so madison and washington locked arms at the constitutional convention and in the early days of the washington presidency and did more together than either of them could have done individually. so what did madison did to compensate for the fact that he had no charisma. david stewart said he buddied up with the dynamic of the founders. hamilton who had this great vision of how we're going to get the constitution ratified came up with the brilliant idea, the papers to be able to pull it off, he couldn't do it alone. he needed somebody equally hardworking, they joined forces, wrote the federalist papers and led the charge to get the states to ratify the constitution. so what did madison do to
compensate for not having any creativity, he buddied up with thomas jefferson, creative genius. jefferson was smart enough to know a lot of his creative ideas were off the wall, unrealistic, crazy, he needed somebody levelheaded to bring him down to earth. you have this perfect balance, levelheaded genius in madison, creative genius in jefferson, together they invented our federal government that has served us so well for so long. now, in washington, we've got the james madison memorial building at the library of congress. and inside the library of congress you have the original of the constitution. and when you look at the constitution, think about the fact that the only way its words have power is because the words are partnered together in s
synchronize, the word standing alone has no import. when you think about the constitution, think about james madison, the man we call the father of the constitution who had this extraordinary gift of knowing his strengths and his weaknesses in forming partnerships with those who were strong in the areas where he was weak. fourth commandment, a great leader shall persevere over setbacks, nothing stops the great leader. when the ops goes in the ditch, the great leader finds the way to get the ox out of the ditch. and the president set the standard in this trait was franklin roosevelt. for my book. on franklin roosevelt. i interviewed ken burns. i hope to you got to see the in the fall of 2014 and jeffrey ward ken's collaborator. written three biographies, one
of which was a finalist of the surprise and jamess toban, each of these biographers during my interview with him, focused on the fact until age 39 franklin roosevelt he love to dance, te love to work the crowds hard. all of a sudden in 1921 came to grimy halt when he was attacked and loss the use of his legs for the rest of his life. yes, he was a major set back hold him back for longs. he talked to his steadfast resolve and first class temperament and how because of that he maintained his self
confidence. he kept a smile on his face long after he had lost the bounce in his step. and by over coming and defying polio, he was the guy, his tenacity got the country to accept him at his word when he said, we've got nothing to fear but fear itself. by over coming the reality of a major disability, roosevelt grew the wisdom of joseph kimball. where you stumble that's where your treasures lie. by define polio, roosevelt found resources ie treasure that he didn't know he had, polio he is intellectual rich guy. he had the common touch and communicate with the masses and little people and middle people
because he knew the struggles of life -- and before -- franklin roosevelt memorial. when you look at, look at the strong countenance on his face. this is a guy who is capable of doing anything. but you notice that the rest of his body he's seated and cloaked so as not to draw attention to his legs. when you see that image, remember how important it is for president to persevere and triumph over setbacks like franklin roosevelt did. great leader should know how to play hard ball when necessary. the president of modern era who was particularly good at that was dwight eisenhower. from my book the writer was jean edward smith, a finalist who
during the interview and in his biography talked to one fantastic example of how eisenhower played hard ball with extraordinary skill. the year was 1956. it was one week before the november presidential election, eisenhower was basically finishing his first term and a week later be elected for what would become his second term. in all of a sudden, great britain, france and israel joined forces and seized the canal. they did it knowing that eisenhower was strongly opposed to doing they did it any and they thought they could get away with it. he doesn't want to lose the jewish vote. if this is what israel wants to do, they thought he would not respond and they were wrong.
he said i want you to go out and buy all the british pounds you can. once he had done that, eisenhower picked up the phone and called the british prime minister. he said if you don't get all those troops out of the immediately, i will drive the pound down to zero. -- what was he going to do, that's how you play hard ball when people get out of line and disrupt your tactics and goals for -- in this case, trying to maintain international order. . they can't seem to agree on design. when you're in dc. go to the arlington national cemetery and the tomb of the unknown soldier, remember that
before he was president the architect of the division -- d day invasion, excuse me, and he held that position in the military and he served with distinction as president, for many reasons. one of the main reasons was he knew how to play hard ball when people got out of line in order to make sure that his goals didn't get sidetracked. great leader never wants to appear that he's panicking, always wants to appear like he's in a mode of being able to make good decisions. the president who was particularly good was john f. kennedy. from our book, the kennedy biographer was sheldon stern. he was the historian resident of the library in boston for over
20 years and as the author of three books on the cuban missile crisis. you'll remember the soviet delivered nuclear missiles into cuba. obviously, we had to respond. john f. kennedy called his cabinet, his top advisers, called them the executive committee and these meetings took place over the course of 13 days. unbeknownst to everybody, those conversations over 13 days were secretly tape recorded. john and robert kennedy decided they wanted to record the meetings and they did it for the same reason nixon wanted to take tape record his oval office because they thought it would always be their personal property.
would never become available to scholars and the publicment sheldon stern was the first to listen to all 43 hours. what he learned from those tapes, that with each take, all of kennedy's advisers were ramping up their voess, insisting strong retaliation, which is necessary if you're going to go those missiles out of cuba. thank goodness the person who is in charge, president john f. kennedy. over the course of 13 days, calm head, negotiated an agreement that caused missiles to be removed from cuba. we there by avoided what surely could have been world war 3. when you see the kennedy memorial in washington, d.c., think about john kennedy, how he
kept us us from world war three and there by allowed us to continue to enjoy our american way of life which, among other things, includes the privilege of enjoying the arts. -- and seventh commandment and mindful and good timing when pursuing initiatives. the philosopher car las said warrior/great leaders recognize the cubic center meter of chance that can make or break them. when it pops up, they move on it with the necessary speed and paralysis to capital liez kapt the opportunity. on the modern era linden johnson, in the way -- and most important civil rights
legislation. -- i interviewed taylor branch and the head of the lbj library and johnson biographer. lbj's daughter and his white house counsel, larry temple. from then i learned the answer to troubling question, why in the world did linden johnson wait so long before he became champion of civil rights legislation. after all. he arrived in congress -- every single civil rights bill. in 1957 as the majority leader he took over out of the bill. it was passed but it had no effect. why did he wait until he was president before he final. and lbj, if you read much about
him, country expressions that were always right on the mark, why did you wait to you were president, he said, you don't try to kill the snake until you've got the ho in your hand. [ laughter ] okay. as president, he had the ho in his hand with jim crow segregation laws. you're aware, he had served in congress for 15 years with even his greatest admires acknowledged he didn't take his job seriously. he had no idea how to get legislation passed. and then as president, of course, the civil rights movement erupted. martin luther king was getting thrown in jail all the time. riots. timely after more than two years kennedy got serious and made a strong civil rights speech and submitted a strong civil rights
bill to congress, but got stuck in committee and had no idea how to get it out before he was assassinated. now, after kennedy's death with the ho in his hand, lyinden johnson moved forward, he knew he had a nation in grief with a loss over the young president. so he reached out to those in congress who were obstructing the civil rights bill and he used this argument, look, we all need to do something major, historic to preserve the important legacy and memory of our dear departed john f. kennedy, let's make him the martyr for the cause of civil rights and it resinated and people changed their minds.
busted the filler buster and passed the law in 1964. now larry temple both said, the conventional wisdom suggested after he had been elected before taking on such a highly controversial bill as the civil rights bill by then it would be too late and lost the momentum associated with the public desire to recognize and honor the beloved former president l.b.j. did the same thing with voting rights in 1965. nothing, nothing was happening. and then along came bloody sunday, selma, 1965 when police troops started beating up
unarmed peaceful as a protest against the lack of voting rights in alabama the image of these police beating up the african-americans reminded of nazi germany and it was moral outrage over bloody sunday and lbj saw cubic center meter of chance, now is the time. his we shall over come speech and immediately submitted a bill to congress, which soon became the voting rights act of 1965. -- the house refused to agree a version of the bill, how are we going to get this unstuck, boom. martin luther king was assassinated. april 4, 1968, just like you've
done with kennedy, lbj reached out and said this was a major leader. we've got to do something historic to preserve his legacy, let's make him the martyr for fair housing. within a matter of days the house agreed to senate version and fair housing act of 1968 was passed. so in washington, d.c. you have the linden b johnson department of education building move with perfect timing in pursuing his initiatives that allowed us to have integration sooner rather than later he communicated and followed through the best was ronald reagan. the people i interviewed for my book on reagan were his chief of
staff and second term james baker and his biographer finalist hw brant. i talked to them about many aspects of reagan's life, but i wanted to zoom in, what made him the great communicator. well, the aknee jerk reaction, e knew how to look the camera in the lie with full dramatic force. no. no. it was a lot more than that. was the disposition in the spirit of optimism that we've got better days away and that gave americans hope and allowing him to channel the inner voice of the american people. jam james baker said it was
consistent. you know in the modern era, in the final draft. -- the most important speech attempting to bring an end to the cold war. he said, tear down this wall. now, the speech with that line went through many drafts. every time his speech writers kept taking the line out, they thought it was too inflammatory and would alien nate. reagan knew better. he kept putting the line back in. he knew june 12, 1987, the time was right. the place was right. his entire foreign policy, first
political speech in 1964 has finally arrived and the speech writer, he gave us the word that will forever give him a special place in our history. tear down this wall. and clear and passionate and right on the market and kept that momentum going and completed with his successor, george h.w. bush. when you go to washington, you fly into reagan airport, you think about aviation. aviation is all about having optimism and having clarity and consistency and having follow through, if you're doing to land airplanes successfully and being the key of what make ronald reagan the great communicator.
great leader put people's interest above his own personal political interest. person who was particularly good in that was george h.w. bush. from my book, i learned about president bush from his buy ago g -- biographer. and now 1988 republican republican convention i'm sure you remember now was his prime time speech national television, he said six very important words, read my lips, no new taxes and the convention cheered and he got elected in 1988. well, the tax issue was politically huge.
and in our national deficit, our federal deficit. and became aware that we had to do something because the rest of the world was buying fewer t bills over concerns about the strength of the american economy, with the record level. when the 1990 budget talks came along in both houses of congress were controlled by the democratic party's attempt who absolutely refused to cut any aspect of spending, if you're going to have any money available to try to cut the deficit, that's only way to do it, new tax revenues. not only were new tax revenues going to be needed to cut the deficit. but the iraqi army had just invaded kuwait. bush saw leaning on the horizon,
expensive military work there, which, of course, became the gulf war and it didn't want to fight a war on borrowed money. so president bush broke his convention pledge, agreed to new taxes and it triggered an immediate newt gingrich and republican party and certainly a factor in his losing 1992 election. could president bush kept that convention. because he had it would have been in 1990 budget talk. shutdown and no money would have been available to address the increase that was in the world, lack of confidence that would continue to grow. we'll put the country first over his own personal political. washington, d.c. we had the
george w. and head -- say it remember, president bush there's a courageous president who is willing to for the good of the country -- the great leader and shall find ways to shape it so as to align with his own vision. and the president who was the best of this was our greatest. abe lincoln sentiment is everything. whoever mold -- the decision.
out of the judiciary. the two lincoln was great and two chapters in my book, two different top historians. who last year won the lincoln prize regardless of what seemed lincoln historian. he's written dozens of books on lincoln and ronald white, who wrote three books on lincoln, his book a lincoln, "new york times" best seller during by 2009. i believe is the best biography of lincoln. so public sentiment, how do we get our arms around public sentiment. lincoln knew in his day he wanted to understand what the people were thinking the best way was to stay connected to the people who ran the local newspapers in each of the towns.
he always made a point of stopping at the newspaper office talking to the publisher and editor and the reporter and so he could narrow the talk of their town. once he found out what people were thinking, he then could come up with the strategy to get their thinking to move in the direction of his vision and that certainly what he did as president by the way he approached, then he went very complicated and controversial issue of slavery during the civil war. now, obviously, the civil war was raging. it was a huge issue. and lincoln decided he wanted the issue an emancipation proclamation. first was issued right after september 22, 1862. that was preliminary version and final was issued january 1, 1863. now, i don't know if there's anybody in this audience who has
ever read the emancipation proclamation from beginning to end, it's not particularly long. it is a pretty boring, not eloquent document. people have said it reads like a bill of lading. they drew it up airtight because he knew he was going to have pass constitutional mustard and emancipation, slavery, surely somewhere in that document there would be reference to the immorality of slavery, the unjust fact that people of different races were treated differently and that that would be the basis for why we need to emancipate the slaves, but you won't find that language in there. and the reason you won't is because lincoln new public sentiment. he knew that some people in the north and many people in the border states had not made up their mind on what to do about slavery, do you abolish
immediately, over time, do we need to abolish it at all. it was high uncertainty about the best way to go about abolishing slavery. lincoln knew that and he knew that if he had set the basis for the emancipation proclamation was moral justice basis, they grew a lot of push back because there was so much -- such of a mixed reaction and mixed perception on what to do about slavery. but also because he knew public sentiment, he knew there was one thing that the public, 100% agreed upon. and that was we need to bring an end to the civil war asap. we need to stop the killing and the wounding and the disruption. if you, as commander in chief, think that as a matter of military necessity, that's the language lincoln put in the emancipation proclamation and issueness is a matter of awe then tis, so that those slaves who escaped could join the union
forces. you think that's what we need to put an end to this war, go for it. we're all for you. it was very little push back on the emancipation proclamation. it sets the stage for the 13th amendment, which became the subject of the steven spielberg film. so when you go to washington, d.c., you see the lincoln memorial inside. you see the statute, great emancipator, i hope when you look at that you look into his eyes. you think, oh my god, she's looking in my eyes. say, no, he's looking beyond me. he had a personal vision. but he had a long range vision. he knew how to figure out what the public sentiment was and shape it aligned in bringing the country back together.
-- now in the days ahead i hope everybody in this room will go to a quiet place by yourself and think about ten questions i'm about to ask that are tied to the ten commandments you just heard. now, i'm not going to tell you how to answer these questions with people you respect. if i believe that by answering these ten questions based on these commandments from the pages of presidential history, it provides a really good method for what voters need to be thinking about that very important happens and you vote on november 8. who is better suited to be
conscious. who is more likely to stay above above the partisan stray. who is going to have the awareness to be able to recognize the strengths and weaknesses and align with those people who are strong in the areas where he or she is weak. . this is a matter of record of persevering over setbacks. who is more likely to play hard ball skillfully when necessary. who is likely to replain calm and make good decisions in a crisis. who is more mindful of the cubic centimeter of chance and perfect timing when pursuing initiati s initiatives. who is better communicator and will follow through on what he
or she says? who is going to put the nation's interest above personal interest? who is going to say abreast public sentiment and find ways to shape to move in ways that align with his or her vision? i hope you will think about these questions until now or the time you vote. you'll be aided by blessings from presidential history. i had the great privilege of lying over the last three years and interviewing the top presidential experts both scholars who did the heavy research as well as insiders who worked side by side. our president, those who have served so well now, thank you very much. [ applause ]
. >> we're coming. >> yes. >> each of the presidents and doing the president and interviewing here in advisory and historians. which is more compelling to you as a personality. zbh as a personality -- not only did he have responsibility for dealing with great depression, also world war ii, but to do it in the mode of his disability and always be in the mode of giving the country hope in our darkest hours.
nobody had to deal with that kind of disability, nobody persevered and rose to the highest possible -- as you were setting this book and all different personalities, what surprised you the most about whom. >> the most surprising thing that i learned in the book was about the john f. kennedy and cuban missile crisis. because after john f. kennedy was assassinated. then, within a matter of time, bobby kennedy decided he wanted to run for president. bobby kennedy begin writing the
book for 13 days, the cool head in the room. while he was writing this and showing it to the others who were there at the meeting. they said, that's not the way i remember it, bonny. bobby's response was, my brother would understand. he was assassinated and he completed the job and portrayed bobby as the hero he wrote 13 days and arthur acted like it was. that bobby was pounding the table the same as everybody else. so it is a very important lesson about how always go to the best sources and when you're taking somebody's word, or conduct, you better do some real due diligence to make sure that there's accuracy and
arrival and absolutely top price and so i feel very good about the caliber about each of the president. understand, look, i did not find a biographer of every american president. if i had found for every american president -- it will be 1,300 pages instead of 500 pages. i identified who i thought -- and nobody deserved, but nonetheless, he was the president when the great depression hit. and so i found a major -- for every significant president some of the key lincoln, fdr, because it was so weird, had actually
two historian chapters -- i thought in 2016, we did not have this deep public fascination for the life of philip. i think many of our presidents were, in fact, insignificant. 500 pages is the length of the book and it's big enough and heavy enough as it is. i will tell those of you who encouraged to keep up the book, read about the presidents of your lifetime, first. you don't have to read this book in particular order. you don't have to start on page one with george washington. read about the president of your lifetime, you know the most about them. the questions are going to plug right in. and they'll get you comfort wbl the question, answer format of the book and once you finished those chapters will go read about the presidents who preceded the lifetime. that's my recommendation on how
i think you'll enjoy the book the most. >> thank you so much. and thank you to everyone for coming. we have a distinguished member of the audience. and i know you have great taste in history. you, too can be an owner of the book. it has the best cover of any book in publication. thanks to cspan for filming this tonight. thank you all for coming to get the upcoming program, we hope a big surprise in november. . we look forward to seeing you on the 26th. he'll have two of us trying to replace her. she's coming back from around
>> talks about her book for fear of an elective king, george washington and the presidential title controversy of 1789. because of concerns that the position will become too much like a mon narc, george washington university hosted this event as part of celebration honoring the first president's birthday. . it's about an hour.
history of washington, d.c., unparalleled. the third verse is that this is the first year that we featured one of the own history phds. this -- claimed study of the presidential title of 1789 the subject of tonight's event. this year george washington lecture is a little different. we felt this year, this made more sense, to welcome more audience participation. so, please, have your questions ready, in addition, immediately following the conversation,
there will be a reception in the lobby and she'll be signing her book. i brought my copy. if you forgot yours it will be on sale out there. for a few introductions, first our speaker's husband, welcome. >> editor, but also for a couple of reasons, first for participating in the george washington lex in 2012 and also for working closely as she was visiting scholar, at the first federal commerce project. finally we welcome, a treasured alone of gw and guest experience
of george washington mount vernon. welcome, jamie. >> featured doctor in history of 2010. she's also a visiting scholar of the president. think that mount vernon, organization of -- the daughters of the american revolution and while working as chief and information management for the wild life service and as director of fish and game, and california state land
commission. >> amazing research tells the story of how actively establishment of the government under the constitution, congress, individual all debated more than 30 titles so that we're a nation. a few that did not make the cut, included his heinous and the favorite, se screen heinous. washington 44. as a mags prepares to lesser successor, to the office of george washington defined 225 years ago we couldn't be any luckier to have someone with the original. welcome to the stage.
>> you know, i love this book. what i really wonder about, why historians for so long have dismissed the controversy, just the curiosity, something that will be a paragraph or something in a book. . i'm interested how you came to this topic? >> first of all, they were wondering other historians wondered why spent so much time on it when they could have been working on them the amendment or
what we know what they didn't quite realize how important it was -- on what they were going to do. about how washington became. and i came across -- you know, washington's presidency was trapped of the republican candidate. -- i didn't believe it. i thought it must have been dynamic also. . and he started talking about
controversy and republican gave the idea and happened to mention that they have this multitude material -- the more i thought about it -- so. >> that was the best time. >> great. let's take a step back. it's not often to people today. i think we take it for granted. the presidency. this is something of radical creation. if you can say a little bit the american people have of the presidency, of this new executive office -- and place within a popular sovereignty is complicated and the presidency was quite controversial in the beginning. the american nation had just
bought a war and years after the end of the war, this new constitution, untried featured a federal single central executive with no term limits and vaguely de defying -- what kind of a president does the country that were worried that the president would turn into all powerful mon narc, too much like what the traditional kind of king would be. another group of americans worry about weak executive that would be subject to corruption.
-- they would be more interested in a strong title to kind of act this week, this weak president. >> it seems like all sides agreed, though, that the person should be in george washington. >> yes. >> he was the obvious choice. >> yes. he was really -- he was the most trusted man in america, i will say he's the most president in the western world, at that time, really. when you think about it. and so he studied at the end of the war -- he and the nation were one, the union.
-- people celebrated him, though, with such enthusiasm that he was -- for the presidency, a blessing, as i said, trusted guy that he was, but he was on the kusle for the presidency as well. -- it was almost like a rapture in people at times. the public loved him and they loved to celebrate him. and as a result he brought this rift of monarchy to the presidency just in the wake of people celebrated him and that was a problem for the presidency for this office that he was going to be occupying. so, yes, he was a terrific guy and only -- the only choice for a really successful first
president because of the trust that people had in him that he could inhabit the presidency, this controversial position and they could trust him in that position. but he brought with him some problems. >> uh-huh. >> question i sometimes get, and you probably do as well, if not washington, who would be the next obvious choice, the answer there wasn't another choice. he was indispensable man at that moment. >> yes. >> that brings us to this question of what to call him, this debate that you write about, you know, the title controversy. i wonder if you can give us a little bit of background to the debate -- the constitution says this person will be the president of the united states, why did they feel like they needed something more than that.
>> once the senate convened. wa -- he starts making his journey from -- he's coming to new york, the senate is convening. and it's really no surprise that people start wondering what are we going to call him once he arrives. are we going to call him mr., i don't think so. washington had been already addressed as general and your excel len si during the revolutionary war. at that time, governors were addressed as your excel len si. the governor of georgia, in the
constitution it said that he must be your honor. it actually specifies a title for him. so with washington coming, this person who so celebrated like a king calling him your excel len si which is the highest title along with general that he holds and it's also the same title that's held by all of the state governors and, yet, he's suppose to be the head of this new federal government. the question was, what should we call, not just washington, but what should we call the president. and they merge somewhat because he was so celebrated. your excel len si did not seem quite mo jestic enough for him. at the same time, it was already used for state governors and so what are we going to start this new federal officer.
wonders what he suppose to do. think he's going to go to the senate. he's the president constitutionally. this was something that he pushed -- one thing i really like about your book, other people just dismiss out of the kind of crazy or kind of ridiculous thing he did. there were reasons. >> right. >> yeah. >> for. >> even though he was a high federalist. adam was more concerned about a weak executive than a strong executive. okay. he was concerned that the executive would be corruptible, i think, when he had been in britain as an ambassador, there,
perhaps he had seen king george manipulated by his court. so he was worried and richard henry lee the senator from virginia was also very worried about lead executive. so they felt one of the ways to shore up the executive was to give him some tremendous title. and this would somehow help. now the senate majority felt this way. part of the reason that they did was -- was that they really found themselves in a bit of the bind, the senate did. because the people who will most cheerful of this executive, those that they thought would be the most manipulative of the
executive senate, state. and adam was very afraid that the state elite would over power executive. not so much washington with his incredible authority, but all the presidents to come. so the senate did find itself in a bit of a bind if they didn't give the president a high title, then they would be accused an aris crated body to avert his aauthority. they gave him a high title, they accused of being monarchs. >> you'll have to give us a few titles. >> well, the senate and people, you know, the american people devoted over 30 titles, most with royal over tones, especially various forms of
heinous and your majesty, elective majesty, sacred majesty, okay. majesty, washing put forth as denver said, because shouldn't all the other presidents try to be as wonderful as washington was? you know, they should aspire to his -- to the grandness of his name. there was a suggestion that at least for washington, his name should be the delight of humankind. >> there was president general, it went on and on. president was one of the suggestions. some people were like, forget all this, let's call him president. there was a large and vocal
group. there were a lot of other titles. the senate findingself in this bind as it was. especially with the house being adamantly opposed. the house was always composed, to the title. and in subcommittees when they would try to meet to come up with some other title, the house would not budge. and so eventually what happened in in the end after the three weeks of legislative debate on this issue, during what i call the legislative phase of the controversy the senate capitulated completely to the house, went with the simple title of president with no introductory elaborate extra address. however, in that resolution,
they begin with the recommendation that the senate felt that his title should be his highness, president of the united states and protector of their liberties. >> that would be a mouthful. president and protector obama. you know, i mean, really, that's what it would have been if the senate would have had their way. >> it's an amazing story. and something that you accomplished, i think, i really admire, how you treat washington in this book. because there's this long tradition suggesting that during this whole debate. somehow washington's in the background cheering for one of these illustrious titles. you show the opposite. tell us about washington's role and what you think was on his mind during this period. >> i want to say the title controversy is riffe with gossip
and innuendo. my book is filled with catty facebook posts. and yet in all of that. all of that gossip and innuendo, never did i find any evidence that washington supported a title. that's my first argument against it, i have several in the book. one of the big arguments against washington supporting a title is that he wrote in a letter to his son in law, david stewart and a grand confidant. a grand friend of his controversy, before he arrived on the scene in new york.
he predicted the uproar it would cause. and the harm it was doing to the perceptions of the new federal government. he was from virginia. i think they ratified the constitution by one vote. his neighbors were already going, you're going to be the first president? the last thing he's going to want is anything that will exacerbate negative attitudes toward the new federal government, among his friends and in the larger population. also in that letter to david stewart. he expresses specifically his irritation with john adams for pressing for a high title.
the other piece of evidence i bring, is that he was not in favor of a high title. is by looking at james madison during this period. i think it's very important for all of us to look at james madison and to listen to what he's saying, to read what he's writing during that first year of washington's administration. during that first year, washington and madison who was a representative from the state of virginia and the house. and in some ways de facto head of the house. madison and washington were very close. they were two of the founders that were at the constitutional convention every day in philadelphia.
washington and madison, adams was in britain. jefferson was in france. hamilton was there for a while and then he left and went back to new york to run his legal practice. really, it was madison and washington there every day bonding over these arguments for the constitution. and very committed to the constitution's success in the beginning of washington's administration. if you listen to what madison is saying, he argues on the house floor. he speaks basically. on a lot of issues. and he's washington public voice. really i think you can -- what you're hearing is washington fields. on the title issue. madison speaks on the house floor. against titles. against in particular, the title
of high mightiness, which was the title give tonight state holders in the netherlands. he basically just totally ridicules that title, which is the title which is sometimes erroneously associated with george washington today. he denigrates that title. then he goes on to say in his speech on the house floor, he alludes to washington and says that any title would go against the true dignity of the first executive. he refers to washington and washington's displeasure, titles his relief over the outcome of the simple title in letters. to jefferson and several others.
>> i think it's very persuasive. it fits with a part of washington that is sometimes lost, and that's that he was a great politician. i think he understood the optics of this, this was bad politics. and we know that in part what happens after the debate in congress, you describe how the controversy becomes a more public controversy. it enters the public sphere. what happens then. when the american people find out what the senate's been doing for the first three weeks of the session, what do they say? >> remember the senate met behind closed doors at this time, so they've been arguing about a title for three weeks from april 23rd which was the day when they first started the resolution to come up with a title for the president, former
committee. and which happened to be the same day washington arrived in new york. i don't think there's any doubt that it was not a coincidence. washington's arriving. they're like let's get a committee together to figure this out. they don't figure it out. washington goes on to be inaugurated a week later, they're still arguing behind closed doors. on may 14th, 1789, they capitulate to the house formally, it goes into the senate journals. but the senate journals aren't growing to be published right away. they have to be cleaned up and eventually they come out usually in the press six months later. the titles of the resolution was leaked to the press almost as soon as the ink was dry. the boston papers get it first, and then the new york papers get
it right after that. it's almost word for word. somebody wanted it to know. as soon as the public finds out about this debate, some of the elites already knew. their friends told them it was going on. when the general public finds out about it, it's not like everybody says, oh, great, this is what they're going to do. and yawns, instead, everybody has an opinion about titles. it was like the twitter feed gone viral. for the next three or four months throughout the summer of 1789 and into the fall. it was this cathartic and fierce debate that sold lots of newspapers. it was obvious the press was like, oh, my gosh. let's write up some things on titles. and sell more papers.
and the public needed to debate this. they had to debate whether the senate had made the right choice, it eventually became obvious that a majority of americans agreed with the senate. that they were happy with what had happened and what came out of this, the reason i call it cathartic is that as a result of this, some of the public's fears about their new government, their congress and their new president were resolved. they gained more trust that the new federal government, that these legislators could argue something as politically volatile as they thought a title for the president was, and come up with a solution, and the choice that the people agreed with. it was a good thing. >> yeah, i mean, it really
landed upon the small r republican solution of this. i wonder if you could talk about some of the lasting impacts that this controversy had on the office of the president. and then i actually -- i love what you write about the vice presidency. maybe the president first. what does this mean in the long term for the office. >> okay. the simple title gave the people some relief. it did give them some relief. as a result of the title -- of this title controversy, happening so quickly, in the
earliest part of the washington a administration. as the people gained confidence it allowed them to relax about the presidency. just a little bit. and basically the outcome of the title controversy helped the power of the presidency, helped the presidency fledge its power by not flaunting its power. >> it's a neat idea. this makes the presidency stronger in the end. in a way, adams got what he wanted. >> ironically, yes. you know, we can argue that the presidency would have been strong in any case. but my argument is, because the people were more comfortable with the presidency, it was like i said, it could start to spread
its wings and they could explore the power of the presidency more easily without the added baggage of a high title attached to it. as far as the vice presidency is concerned. my feeling is very strong that the presidential title controversy is one of the great casualties of the presidential title controversy, is the relationship between the presidency and vice presidency. i feel that because of the vice presidential title controversy, we basically have the diminished vice presidency that we see to this day. washington backed away from the extremely unpopular atoms. adams, among his colleagues was
called behind his back his rotundaty. that's how they felt about him. among the public he was referred to as the dangerous vice. because of a poem that came out called the dangerous vice, that linked the vice of monarchy and the vice president. only a heartbeat away from the presidency. he was called the spawn of satan in that poem. washington backed away from adams, basically, never to return is the vice president. a member of -- is he a cabinet -- is he a member of washington's cabinet? no, could he have been? i argue washington could have done whatever he wanted with that vice presidential position. he basically did nothing. now, on top of washington backing away from the vice presidency. because of adams' unpopularity,
adams himself contributed to this. he discounted that role as being just sort of the place holder. if something happened to the president, the vice president was there. adams felt that his main job was to be president of the senate. where he became -- he irtated a lot of the senators by trying to throw his weight around. and admittedly over the years, adams casts a lot of deciding votes when the senate was tied, but his influence within that body waned, so the vice presidencies in the legislature diminished. and i think it all starts with the presidential title controversy.
>> in the beginning. a lot of people didn't know whether this was an executive branch office or a legislative branch office. >> it became neither. >> your description of the political rhetoric from the 1790s, makes me think of our own rancorous election that's going on. some of you may have heard about that. and i would like to know what you think about -- if washington -- what would he think? you know what? what kind of things could our current presidential candidates learn from washington's example? >> well, washington threw the -- in this whole presidential title controver controversy, what i learned is that washington really, and the people -- washington and the
people developed what i consider to be the first principles of american executive leadership. and this -- these are principles that really help the presidency find no problem with democracy and strength. as i said, it helped the presidency grow stronger. through this whole cathartic controversy over a title. and these -- they developed these first principles. first moddessty and restraint, which the people got by the simple title. that washington supported. a sincere nod to the people, a sincere understanding that there exists an interdependence
between the presidency and the people. the president and the people are connected. and the people got that by washington supporting the simple title of president which matched the bulk of popular opinion. so restraint and a nod to the people, i feel are these first principles of executive leadership, you see at the beginning of the administration. now, in terms of today, we often here the presidency referred to as the modern presidency. and that modern presidency no longer adheres to these particular principles you might argue. at the very least, if you look at the way president dents try
so hard to appear like one of us, hating broccoli, playing the saxophone. playing basketball. clearing brush. loving football. in today's parlance, it's often called relatability. i think these could be a cautionary tale. restraint, a nod to all of the people of the united states. not just a small minority. that these could be a cautionary tail for those running for the
presidency today. >> so a big dose of humility? >> yeah, yeah, i -- because really by doing that, you gain strength is the way. you gain trust, and that trust -- people trust you to go ahead and be the leader that they want you to be. if you don't think that people want a strong leader, they do want a strong leader, they just want someone they can trust. >> watch out, you might get nominated. that's good stuff. there's other people to consider in this story, and there's other titles at the time. and i am dying to know about martha washington. what did people call martha. you say mr. president comes later in the 19th century, and i don't think first lady exists, but i don't know -- washington was never addressed as mr.
president. don't let anyone tell you he was. he was sir, general, your excellency. and president. to the end of his days. just that washington's name attached to treaties and proclamations helped elevate the title of president. but because he had that kind of gravitas. so mr. president, though. the simple title of president allowed for mr. president to be something that could come along naturally. for the women at the time, among the federal elite they were referred to as lady. lady jay. martha washington was called
lady washington. she was also called the lady of the president. and she was also called, quite often, more often than you might think, the president's amiable consort. she was -- in a poem, she was addressed as our fabian queen. and in that poem, that poem is dedicated to the amiable consort of the illustrious washington. so lady, lady of the president, amiable consort. >> maybe just mrs. washington. >> and mrs. washington, i'm sure. >> one other note, i think i mentioned earlier that john adams had been ambassador to britain. as ambassador to britain, he was called your excellency as was abigail. they were both excellency in
britain. i found evidence that when abigail was back in the united states after that, she was still getting correspondence addressed to her excellency. mrs. john adams. so she was still excellency to some of her friends, probably -- her friends in britain. >> i'm going to ask one more question, and then we're going to turn it to the audience opinion please get your questions ready. >> one other thing that's been on my mind with the current presidential election. there's a better chance there will be a woman elected president this year than any other time. if hillary clinton was elected president, will there be a new presidential title controversy. will there be a new debate? or pretty settled what she would be called? >> it's in -- many women are the head of organizations, and they're normally called madam president. i would assume she would be called madam president. i don't think there would be a lot of debate about that.
i think most other women who would be president, they would be called mr. or if they had a title like dr. or lieutenant they would be called that. they would maybe be called the first gentleman, i can see that happening. and i ask see the first gentleman being used for bill clinton. he's a special case. he was president, he's still president clinton. so the controversy that i can see would be when hillary clinton and bill clinton would be referred to at the same time. president clinton. president clinton. they'll have to work that out. maybe they'll always have to identify hillary and bill by their first names or madam. i'm not quite sure how the press -- how newspapers and
writers would deal with that. but they're -- the presidents clinton? i'm not sure. i could see where there would be confusion. because of this -- still to this day, just like back then, you get a title and it follows you forever. >> you're the person they might ask, be ready just in case. >> it's right. maybe i'll get another npr question. >> we love to have questions from the audience, we have a microphone at the back of the room, if you want to walk back there to the microphone, just tell us your name, what you do. and any question on your mind.
>> hi, i'm larry ross, i'm the librarian here at the law school. was there concern that by not giving the president of the united states, especially the ones following washington, a grand title, that that would put them in a position of weakness when dealing with foreign ambassadors and dignitaries. >> absolutely. this is a big problem, a big concern for -- you start to see in the literature people are worried about this, they're worried about who will follow washington. i mean, in one note, they were worried that first there's washington. but the next president might be slushing ton. just this bear -- a shadow of
what washington is. and so he needs this high title. but as the -- as you read the literature on it, what you see is that people start to say, you know, washington got all of his accolades, and all of his reverence and respect without a title. he didn't need a high title along the way to get our respect. so what we need to do is to have these other people try to rise to the top, show what they are, without the noise and confusion that a title could bring. that is sort of the way that argument eventually turned out. >> thank you. that was a terrific question. i think we have another question. >> i'm wondering what influence the events in france at this point are having on what's going on.
things are sort of unraveling in france. >> of course, the events in france, the revolution is -- the news of it is happening slowly. over to america. it's starting to arrive in the summer of 1785. it really doesn't affect the legislative phase. you don't see anything in the newspapers or in their conversations about it, during their time of april and may. by july things have changed. news is coming and people first what you see in the press is a lot of excitement that france has gone the way of the congress went. getting rid of titles, throwing titles away, so even though the
violence that accompanies the french revolution, people start to distance themselves from the french revolution a little bit in the papers as they start to hear about the violence. the fact that they have tossed away titles and basically submerged the aristocrisy. the american example is part of that, it really does help to squelch strong title commentary. so at that point france is on the side of angels. you do see that in some of the commentary. this helps our -- this helps our position. and it throws away any arguments
in favor of a high title. >> thanks. >> so another question i had, you mentioned the modern presidency. the caller also referred to the presidency today. the imperial presidency. physical george washington comes and sees the presidency today. what does he recognize. what's completely foreign to him. is it totally different? >> i want to say on this whole imperial presidency concern, that crops up periodically, i view it as just part of this -- this protectiveness toward the presidency that really started with the ratification of the con sti tugs.
there's among all of this gossip, innuendo on both sides. what you see is that all sides are very protective toward the office they want their leader to succeeds. they're protective about the office of the presidency. about the imperial presidency, it's part of that tradition of protectiveness toward the office. what would washington -- how would washington view the. i think he would be relieved there was an amendment that made
the four-year term. he would be appalled when a president served 16 years, i don't think he would be happy about that at all. you couldn't have convinced him it was a good idea just because we were at war, for example. i think he might be a little alarmed to see so many executive orders going-forward. but the veto was a power that was very strong from the very beginning. was something that was discussed in -- during the time in the summer of 1789 it was already being discussed. congress was making their decisions about an executive veto. that's not something he would be surprised to see. i know -- i don't know if he had
the right to name a supreme court justice in the last year of his term, i don't think there's any doubt he would feel it's his duty and his right within the power of the presidency to make that choice and make that nomination and send it to the senate. he would expect the senate to act. >> well, i think it's amazing how closely he followed the constitution, we know this from the copy of his constitution. >> that's fabulous. >> it's washington's library in mt. vernon, he actually wrote in the margins about what he was supposed to do. how powers require a president. i think that's the definition of constitutional governance, right? you can't imagine a innapoleon does the same thing. it really did obey the limits. yeah, i think as it got further along in his administration,
there's more and more controversy about some of the choices he's making, i don't go into that in my book. this is something that i'm very interested in, is the evolution of executive powers in the -- in the time that he was president. it's obvious to me with the title controversy. a sincere respect for their opinion. and i think a lot of it is because he was a virginia. the virginia ans were suspicious of the constitution. washington and his good friend george mason basically became estranged over their differences of opinion about the
constitution. so he lost a friend during that period. as a result, he was always concerned about following the constitution, doing the right thing, not alarming the people. what i would like to see is explore more. during the rest of his administrati administration. how much of the majority did he take into account. there's letters that show you stuff about the title controversy. i'm not sure whether he is open enough in some of his other decisions later on. but that's something that i'd like to explore. >> we think of public opinion as such a new thing, it's there at the very beginning. i mean, he's having his friends and associates go out and talk to the people. and he wants to know what's on
their minds. >> david stewart didn't just write to him by happenstance and say, oh, how do you feel about the title controversy? washington had told stewart you need to write to me and tell me what's going on in virginia. i want to know what's going on in virginia, you're going to be my ears on the ground. he's writing back to stewart, a part of the reason. he wants stewart to spread the word of what he's saying, he wants to hear, he tells stewart in another letter, he tells him, you know, i want to hear what the people are thinking, what the people of virginia are thinking, because if i've made a decision, they don't agree with, he actually says i will reconsider. i will reconsider what i've done. and affect a solution. if i need to. >> that's great. the last present day thing i've
been thinking about is political parties, they're so important today to our system of government. i wonder if you could say a little bit about that, why didn't washington detest political parties so much. >> well, you know, now when i realize when you say this, i realize that one of the things would washington recognize today. really the president is the leader of the political party that he's associated with today. and a president's legacy, part of his legacy is how strong he leaves his party at the end of his administration. and so i think washington would not be happy with that, he
thought that parties brought -- and factions, brought too much self-interest. >> they were in it for themselves, not the country. >> yes. >> that he really -- he really wanted to try to keep the government on a republican sort of a -- a disinterested civic virtue kind of footing. and he wanted to keep the constitution as free of politics as it could be. and so he really did view parties as just self-interested opportunities for mischief. and in his presidential -- in his first inaugural address. he encourages harmony. and he encourages no
factionalism. and harmony among the house and the senate. and in the title controversies in the senate's final resolution on titles, one of the things in there, besides the recommendation of the high title but the total ka pit tu lace in favor of the president. in there, among the wording, the senate actually says at one point, to keep harmony with the house we're going to agree with them. so that's not something you see today any more. and i think that washington would say that part of the reason for that, is the self-interest that comes with parties. >> well, thank you so much. you've given us so much to think about during the election season. it's really fantastic. we really appreciate it. we have a small gift from your alma matter. a token of our appreciation.
appropriate for the occasion, a bust of george washington. >> oh, terrific. >> again, thank you so much. >> hello there, george. >> thank you so much. >> i appreciate it very much. i really do. >> thank you for this. >> thank you for coming tonight. i appreciate this. after i came up with this idea, this is definitely the case with a lot of pieces that will be done for this competition. mental illness especially. it's a complicated issue, it's
not black and white. i had to research to get a base knowledge of what i wanted to talk about in this piece. and obviously there was a lot of -- it's so complicated i can't talk about it all in five to seven minutes. >> before i started moving to my parents. before i -- i researched this topic. i talked to the pharmacist there. i talked to my mom and her colleagues and co-workers. and i did a lot of internet research. and went to the library. >> a lot of internet research to find more facts and data and statistics about employment of those with developmental disabilities. to see really what was going on. most of the information i got off of the internet came from government founded websites. that's how i knew most of the
information i was getting was legitimate. >> what's the most urgent issue for congress in 2017, our competition is open to all middle school and high school students grades 6 through 12. students can work alone or in a group of up to 3 to produce a 5 to 7 minute documentary on the issues selected. include some c-span programming and explore opposing opinions. the $100,000 in cash prizes. the grand prize, $5,000 will go to the student or team with the best overall injury. >> this year's deadline is january 20th, 2017. help us spread the word to student filmmakers.
c-span, where history unfolds daily. in 1979, y-span was created as a public service by america's cable television companies and is brought to you by your cable or satellite provider. next, ronald reagan's election night victory speech from 1980, when he defeated jimmy carter with 51% of the popular vote. this coverage is from nbc news. ♪
[ cheers and applause ] >> thank you. thanks very much. thank you. you know, here we are. this is -- you know we're all here but one, and they just took him off stage. it's way past his bedtime. let me just say first of all, this has been. there's never been a more humbling moment in my life. i would have been the -- not only humbled by the extent of what has happened tonight. even if it had been the
cliffhanger that all of us i think were expecting. it would have been the same way, but just to have had the support of the people to this country. i consider the trust that you have placed in me sacred. that i will do my utmost to win your faith. earlier this evening, i spoke on the phone with president carter, he called. john addison called, but the president pledged the utmost in cooperation in the transition that will take place in these coming months. i offered him my own cooperation.
he graciously said that he wanted this to be the -- >> governor reagan, we wanted to show you what the map of the united states looks like as of 8:00 tonight. >> hey. >> it's all yours. >> all right. when that began to slide, i thought that maybe the world was going out just as i was getting in. but anyway, as i say, the president was most gracious about this. and now all across america there are some people that i owe a great debt of thanks to. there they are, they're meeting tonight in our national headquarters in arlington, virginia. the national committee people, the dedicated professionals who
have made the campaign run. and in every state in the counties, in the cities, and the precincts to all of them, who worked so tirelessly. literally hundreds of thousands of volunteers. and i've seen them throughout the work on this country. i just owe them an immeasurable debt of thanks. to george and barbara bush. our running mates down in texas. no one has worked harder than they have. we only crossed paths a few times on this campaign. and had to go out of our way to do it, because their schedule was so heavy. and i can tell you that we're going to have a true partnership, and a true friendship in the white house.
and now as i said before, my family, i'm so grateful to them for their love, for their support, and for the hard work, because some of them were out on the campaign trail easily as much as nancy and i were. speaking of nancy, she's going to have a new title in a couple mont months. and it isn't really new, because she's been the first lady in my life for a long time now we'll share that a little bit in the future, abe lincoln, the day
after his election to the presidency, gathered in his office, the newsman who had been covering his campaign. he said to them, well, boys, your troubles are over now. mine have just begun. i think i know what he meant. lincoln may have been concerned in the troubled times in which he became president. but i don't think he was afraid. he was ready to confront the problems, the troubles of a still youthful country determined to seize the his toric opportunity to change things. and i am not frightened by what lies ahead. and i don't believe the american people are frightened by what lies ahead.
[ applause ] >> together we're going to do what has to be done. we're going to put america back to work again. you know, i aim to try to tap that great american spirit that opened up this completely undeveloped continent from coast to coast. and made it a great nation. survived several wars. survived a great depression. and we'll survive the problems that we face right now. when i accepted your nomination for president, i hesitating ly but i ask for your prayers at
that moment, i won't ask them for this in particular moment, but i will just say, i would be very happy to have them in the days ahead. [ applause ] >> all i can say to all of you is, thank you, thank you for more than just george bush and myself. thank you because if the trend continues, we may very well control one house of the congress for the first time in a quarter of a century. we have already picked up some
governorships, and bill brock told me on the phone a few minutes ago. it looks like in a number of states, we have turned the state legislatures around, and for the first time, they are majority. so you did it, i have one message i have to give before i leave. i've been upstairs on the phone two celebrations going on. one in illinois where i was born. one in dixon, illinois where i grew up. i have two hometowns. finally we managed to get the radio station in that area. and they told us they would broadcast my message into the two parties that are going on. to all of them, thank you too, back there in the hometown. thank you all.
>> i promised you -- i promised you four years ago that i would never lie to you. i can't stand here tonight and say it doesn't hurt. the people of the united states have made their choice, and, of course, i accept that decision. but i have to admit, not with the same enthusiasm i accepted the decision four years ago. i might say -- i have a deep
appreciation of the system that allows people to make the free choice of who would lead them for the next four years. about an hour ago i called governor reagan and i told him i congratulated him for a fine victory. i look forward to working closely with him in the next few weeks. we'll have a very fine transition period. i told him i wanted the best one in history. and i sent him this telegram, i'll read it to you. it's now apparent the american people have chosen you as the next president. i congratulate you and pledge to you i will fully support in bringing about a transition in government in the weeks ahead. my best wishes are with you and your family, as you undertake the responsibilities that lie before you. and i signed it, jimmy carter.
good man at my side. and my judgment, the best vice president anybody ever had. >> i've not achieved all i set out to do, perhaps no one ever does. but we have faced the tough issues. we stood for and we fought for, and we have achieved some very important goals for our country. these efforts will not end for this administration. the effort must go on. nor will the progress that we have made be lost when we leave office. the great principals that have guided this nation since it's founding, will continue to guide america to the challenges of the future. this has been a long and hard fought campaign as you well
know. but we must now come together as a united and a unified people to solve the problems that are still before us. to meet the challenges of a new decade. and i urge all of you to join in with me in a sincere and fruitful effort to support my successor when he undertakes this great responsibility as president of the greatest nation on earth. ours is a special country. our vast economic and economic military strength give us a special responsibility for seeking solutions to the problems that confront the world. but our influence will always be
greater when we live up to those principals of freedom. of justice, of human rights, for all people. god has been good to me. god has been good to this country. i'm truly thankful. i'm thankful for having been able to serve you in this capacity. thankful for the successes we have had. thank you that to the end you were with me and every good thing that i tried to do. an old yiddish proverb i thought of, it says simply, god gives burdens, also shoulders. in all the days and months when i have served you and served this country you've readily given me your shoulders, your faith and your prayers, no man could ask any more of his friends. i've wanted to serve as president because i love this
wednesday night on american history tv, highlights from the annual international churchill conference in washington, d.c., with discussions about the british prime minister's relationships with american presidents. the monarchy and european leaders. part of american history tv in prime time each night this week. >> cspan's washington journal live every day. coming up wednesday morning, we're starting an hour earlier at 6:00 a.m. eastern, getting your reaction post election day. breaking down the results. join the conversation with your phone calls, e-mails, facebook comments and tweets, be sure to watch c-span's washington journal, live at 6:00 a.m. eastern wednesday morning.
road to the white house rewind continues with bill clinton's victory speech from 1992. this was recorded outside the old state house in little rock, arkansas, it's about 15 minutes. >> my fellow americans. on this day, with high hopes and brave hearts and massive numbers, the american people have voted to make a new beginning. [ cheers and applause ] >> this election is to face the
challenges of the beginning of the next century. to empower our own people so that they can take more responsibility for their own lives, to face problems too long ignored from aids to the environment to the conversion of our economy from a defense, to a domestic economic giant. and perhaps most important of all, to bring our people together as never before, so that our diversity can be a source of strength in a world that is ever smaller where everyone counts and everyone is a part of america's family. i want to begin this night by thanking my family, my wife without whom i would not be here tonight.
and who i will be -- i believe will be one of the greatest first ladies in the history of this republic. >> hilary. hilary. >> you can cheer for her. >> hilary. >> i want to say a special word of thanks to our daughter for putting up with our absence, for supporting our effort, for being brave in the face of adversity and for reminding us every day, what this election is really all about.
i want to thank my mother, my brother, my stepfather, my mother-in-law and father-in-law, my brothers in law and my sister-in-law, who carried this campaign across this country and stuck up for me when others were trying to put it down. i love them, and i thank them. i want to thank the people of this wonderful small state time after time when this campaign was about to be counted out the
arkansas travelers exploded out of this state around the country to tell people the truth about what we have done together. what we believed in, and what we can do as a nation. i had the best staff and cabinet you can imagine. they kept this state together. and even when we weren't here, we continued to lead the country in job growth, in keeping taxes and spending down, and in pulling the people of arkansas together to show what we can do if the nation pulled together. and moved forward to. >> i want to thank the people who were in that infamous group, the fobs, the friends of bill and friends of hillary. no person who ever sought this office was more aided by the friends of a lifetime, and i won't forgive you. i want to thank the people in the new democratic party headed by ron brown, the new members of
congress, the new blood, the new direction that we are giving. and finally, i want to thank the members of my brilliant aggressive unconventional but always winning campaign staff. they were unbelievable. and they have earned this. i want to say if i might, a special word of thanks to two people who lost their lives during the course of this campaign, without whom we might not be here tonight. our friends, paul tully and vick razor, our prayers are with them, they're looking down on us tonight and they're awful happy.
not very long ago, i received a telephone call from president bush. it was a generous and forthcoming telephone call of real congratulations and an offer to work with me in keeping our democracy running in an effective and important transition. i want all of you to join with me tonight to express our gratitude to president bush for his lifetime of public service. to helping to bring about an end to the cold war, to our victory in the gulf war, to the grace with which he conceded the results of this election tonight. in the finest american tradition. let's give mr. bush and his family a hand.
i heard tonight mr. perot's remarks and his offer to work with us. i say to you of all the things that he said, i think perhaps the most important that we understand here in the heartland of arkansas is the need to reform the political system. to reduce the influence of special interest and give more influence back to the kind of people who are in this crowd tonight for the tens of thousands and i will work with him to do that. and finally let me say how profoundly indebted i am tonight. beyond the folks at home, beyond the wonderful people that worked in this administration beyond all the others, i have to say a special word of thanks to my magnificent running mate, senator al gore and