tv Winston Churchills American Mother CSPAN November 11, 2016 2:00am-2:55am EST
very first one was in 1,900. he came as a young man and yet even so thanks to the fact that he had good social connections he was 25-26 and he gets to meet the president. it starts something that builds over time the next trip is 1929 and that's the longest gap in this whole series. he comes in 29. he had just left the chancellor ship. he was traveling as a private citizen they were on this
wonderful long trip around the country staying with the incredible place now at state park in california in 1942, jumping ahead and i'll come back, he took that round trip on the boeing 3/14. only in 1943 did he come twice in the same year. i am convinced that this had to do with me. i was hatched in this town as jim said, in april of 43, sir winston came to check me in may and came back in august to make sure i was still here and all is well. sadly, i don't remember these, i wish i did.
i was living up in cleveland park just a few miles from the white house. i want to talk next about some of the -- reviews about visits to congress and visits to parliament, specifically. on three of his trips he addressed a joint session, when addressing one is unusual. we've already heard about that first one where he made the very may fous statement if his father had been american and his mother, british, as he said. i feel i might have got here on my own, and the congressman enjoyed that and remembered him. during his longest trip to washington, he made a side trip up to ottawa and has already been mentioned. he had this famous photograph taken.
most of you have probably heard the story. this is not about washington. it's about ottawa. he had just addressed the canadian parliament. he comes in to the anteroom. he's briefly introduced to a very young photographer. and you've heard the story, i assume it's true. but somebody here set it straight. that looking it wasn't quite the right image. he reached forward and took the cigar out of either churchhill's mouth or hand and then immediately flashed the picture. what you're looking at is churchhill wondering who is this young welt and why did he just do what he did. as we also know, i think there's a second day and third photograph. the second one is the cover of the program for this conference, which the family did like better, he is smiling. he's not looking quite as angry this, of course, is the iconic
picture that virtually everybody remembers and has seen before. congress, by the way. did not forget him after all those visits. when he died in 1965. congress stood up, most of them and said something about sir winston, most of the remarks forgettable, which is probably why they were published in one of these hard cover black volumes that congress will issue members when think die. now what about the prisons. ten of the trips, as he put it, were to parlay, his word, to parlay with american presidents. the four are easily the best known and they were the longest visits. we can argue they were the most important because they helped to define the direction of the war,
at least, for the an glow american side. but i want to look, as i said, i want to look at the post war trips. he came to visit them relatively new president true man in 1946. the trip, then, included the famous uncontroversial iron speech that we've heard mentioned several times. the wonderful long trip out to jefferson, missouri, drinking, talking, maybe getting some sleep, i'm not sure. and then the car to fulton. i want to recommend because i'm betting most of you have never been in fulton. it's a little out of the way. i strongly recommend you go. it is a wonderful visit, very peaceful, small town, small campus with that christopher church totally reconstructed having to destroy during the war. that's why you need to do two things if you go to fulton.
again this is not washington. for a moment i have a podium upstairs, the christopher redone and i was there luckily once when the oregon was playing and you could really imagine it back at its original london location. and then downstairs, very spectacular church hill museum dramatically redone five or six years ago now well worth it. all right. so he comes four times to see true man, three times to see eyesen hour, i mentioned the first trip to see true man. they have a brief meeting in blair house, not because he's unimportant, but although he is out of power, as he was in 46, but because the white house was being rebuilt and the troou man's live in blair house most of that period of type.
in 1952, january of '52, church hill now, back, of course, back in power. focused on his attempts that were very very strong as we've heard several people say in his second period as of here, focused on, number one, the attempt to rebuild, strengthen special relationship, which, of course, had been fdr and church hill, not true man who was so out of the loop he didn't know about the atomic bomb until after fdr died and he was briefed. finally, 1953, church hill hosted at dinner, i believe, at the british embassy for the then out going harry true man and his top aids. . sarm trip.
he sees in new york, begins to rekindle, which may have been stronger in church hill's mind than they were in ike's, little hard to tell if you follow events over the coming years, that seems to be a point. in 1954 on the second event, and shortly before he left downing street. church hill tries to get to agree to developing a summit meeting with the soviet. and it is a new team headed. eisenhower wasn't having any of it. part of it, i think john foster dulles, wonderful cook. . he was -- he was totally unimpressed with john, who took a rather black and white view
view of the world. he wasn't having the notion of the summit meeting. the american government was not at all convinced this was the time. the feeling was this might be perceived as a sign of weakness and so it was in time, this was perhaps, the biggest sad moment and that's under stating it. in church hill's professional life after the war that he could not get that summit meeting and then the summit meeting actually takes place after he has left downing street. his last visit to seek ike is in 1959. and he is, of course, churchhill, is, of course, is retired. he visits with ike here and also in ike's farm and they overlook some of the famous battle scenes in the american civil war.
that was also an interesting trip. it was his 13th and last to washington, barring one thing, which i'll get to. and it was his first run trip by jet airliner. in 1959 that was still relatively rare, jets had gone into service only the year before, but comic was britain's attempt to win a piece of the market in airlines and there i go on a different hobby of mine, sorry. in 1963, that's one slide too soon. i hit a button. but i'll leave it there because it's a positive thought. in 1963, in a sense, he has one more trip. he cannot come himself. he is too weak and ill, but.
>> i think, time, for some q and a, i realize, we're holding you up from lunch. we've taken away the slide so you don't get too carried away. where is our mike? okay. >> you had 11 sliz its, 10 visits to presidents, but but the visit with true man after they had left the white house. >> it was just as he was leaving. the real problem, i shared
something with sir winston. had never been a strong point of mine. i may have possibly miscounted even with very very small numbers. other questions. >> church hill's visit to the white house. >> we all know the story of winston church hill before president roosevelt saying something to the effect, you see mr. president i have nothing to hide. could you comment on the significance of that meeting and possibly the circumstances of how it came about, we're led to believe sir winston church hill invited in the south and the rest, of course, being history.
>> they weren't sure they wanted church hill on their laps. he came over, i think it's a very important meeting. it was first serious wartime meeting all country, therefore it's not talking about both countries were at war. it was the first, i would argue serious face to face attempt to develop policy and particularly, particularly the europe first, the germany first. there was great portion, especially, in the american navy and admiral came to go at the war on the pacific and japanese as the real push in europe wasn't that crucial. i think that meeting part kept the german first very much alive. question here, one more.
>> this one looks at the life and influence of churchhill's american mother who was born in brooklyn, new york in 1854. >> we're absolutely thrilled, jenny and i to be here with you this evening, to share with you this very special history of your great city and also our family. can i ask, how many of you here are from brooklyn? quite a few of you. great. well, that's absolutely fantastic because jenny and i l also feel very much part of brooklyn, as well. tina, i want to thank you for being such a dedicated
supporter. you have been absolutely magnificent and it has really brought so much life to the legacy of my great grandfather. jennifer, thank you very very much for all you have done and to the students of hunter and all your supporters for coming here this evening to support us. the college is clearly thriving and i just wonder whether the college was founded in 1870 and jenny was born in 1854. is it not possible that she might have had some studies, but history doesn't tell us the answer to that, so i'm absolutely thrilled to be here and thank you very very much jennifer, very warm welcome and we're very keen to make sure that everybody gets a great opportunity, and particularly, goals in this generation. i brought two special guests of
my own, this evening. it is particularly that my sister and the name sake of our great great grandmother, jenny is here with me tonight. she will naturally be paying an important role in tonight's p proceedings. we're also fortunate who have been absolutely magnificent and provides so much support to everything churchhill. and he also, looks after -- has the responsibility of looking after lady thatcher's archive, which includes her handbags. . this talk will be slightly different from those who receive in this excellent series, and i am not a historian. i am not an outside observer. i am family -- my own career has
been in the i proposed to my wife on the statten island ferry. i did not know my famous great grandfather as i was born a couple of days before his death. ever since i can remember i have been aware of his influence, not just from those around me, but from those people all over the globe and, especially here in the united states. i was brought up, surrounded by many of his treasures belonging to him and by those who knew him best. i now live just a stones throw from his home at chapel and since my father's death.
i have become charity of many organizations that work so hard to keep the legacy alive. from this unique perspective. i can tell you how important our american heritage is to my family. that is why tonight here in the city, i want to put a spotlight on church hill's extraordinary mother, jenny jerome of brooklyn, new york, the woman who became lady randolph church hill. she was a passionate vital and dynamic personality who launched the career of her eldest son, winston. but before we embark on jenny, let's start for no evening is complete with church hill humor. this is out for the evening, a female reporter in new york once asked church hill, doesn't it thrill you to know every time you make a speech, the horde is packed over flowing.
whenever i feel this way, i always remember that if it's instead of making a political speech, and matters were further -- somebody caught me here this evening is the daughter who brought winston back to good care. but any way, this certainly appealed to winston, when he was in the hospital, he under the supervision of doctor oto who prescribed for winston as part of his recovery, requiring him to have alcoholic spirits 200
currently live in. but many people said he said was that americans could always be trusted to do the right thing once all other possibilities are being exhausted. it's impossible for the sacrifice that was made in securing victory, not in just one, but two world wars. church hill only became prime minister after it had become clear that the policies had failed appeasement may have been born of the desire to avoid another war, but in the end, it had given hitler all he had needed to dominate europe. later reflected i saw it all coming and cried aloud and to the war, but no one paid any
attention. i felt walking with destiny and that all my past life within weeks sr. surrendered no one foresaw such a military defeat. if it had not been for the miracle of kirk and the extraordinary evacuation for the royal navy we might have lost the entire force, some 340,000 men were plucked off the nearby. churchill's first speech as prime minister on 30 may 1940 illustrates his determination to
lead from the front and put heart back into the nation. you ask what is our aim. i can answer in one word -- victory. victory at all costs. victory in spite of all terror. victory however long and hard the road may be for without victory there is no survival. and i have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears the and sweat. britain was alone in europe supported only by her empire and commonwealth. she resolutely endured the blitz and the nazi onslaught until the germans foolishly invaded the soviet union. japan decisively changed the course of the war with their appalling attack in december 1941 on pearl harbor. churchill knew at that moment the great republic, as he termed your country, would come to liberate the old world and their mother country. and he felt confident that the result would not now be in doubt. before we turn properly to jennie and her influence on
churchill's life, i must set in context various things. it might be inspiring for any struggling student to know that for four years churchill was held back in the bottom class. indeed, he only got to sandhurst academy on his third attempt. churchill's parents initially saw few signs of greatness in their son. he rebelled against authority even after being viciously beaten at school. he refused conventional learning. and he was always in trouble. his school reports, which you read there, indicate that he was only consistent in his inconsistency. and in a letter from lord randall to his son in august 1893 when winston was 19 years old, lord randolph wrote, my dear winston, i am rather surprised at your tone of exultation over your inclusion
in the sandhurst list. there's two ways of winning an examination, one incredible, the other reverse. you have, unfortunately, chosen the latter method and appear to be much pleased with your success. the first extremely discreditable feature of your performance was missing the infantry for in that failure is demonstrated beyond reputation your slovenly happy go lucky harum-scarum style of work for which you've always been distinguished at your different schools. never have i received a really good report of your conduct in your work from any master or tutor you've had from time to time to to deal with. always behind hand, never advancing in your class, incessant complaints of total wont of application and this nature which was constant in your reports has shown the latter results clearly in your last army examination. sadly, and it was with great
regret to winston and he thought about this a great deal in his later life. lord randolph died when his son was only 20 years of age so he assumed that churchill would be one of those upper class wastrels. yet, with the responsibility of being head of the family, churchill rose to the challenge and, as i will relate later, helped by his amazing mother, he made his name as a brave soldier and a daring war correspondent. he saw action in cuba, india, africa. it's extraordinary to think this man, who lived to see yuri gagarin travel into space in 1961 also participated in one of the last great calvary charges in the historic battle in the sudan in 1898. it's extraordinary how technology has moved ahead. some things change, some do not, for perhaps it's even more extraordinary to remember that young winston fought in those very same valleys of afghanistan and pakistan where american and
british forces are serving bravely today. in the first world war, after the disaster whereas first lord of theed a mir alty, churchill sought to open a new frontal gallipoli away from the trenches and the barbed wire on the western front. he resigned from government, and i don't think you'd have any minister or congressperson do this and he went to serve on the front line with the soldiers. winston was a man of action and he understood how the ordinary man an soldier felt. how many near misses he with death was extraordinary. he always believed in his own destiny. winston was also a great man of words. it is now extraordinary but it's 50 years on from the day john f. kennedy was assassinated in november 1963. earlier that year on the 9th of
april was the first person to be made an honorary citizen. kennedy proclaimed win the had mobilized the english language and sent it into battle. i will now show a very brief clip from december 1941 just after pearl harbor where winston addresses the joint houses of congress and there's a lovely excerpt about his mother. >> to think that my american forebearers after so many generations played their part in the life of the united states and that here i am, an
englishman, welcomed in your midst makes this experience one of the most moving and thrilling in my life, which is already long and has not been entirely uneventful. i wish indeed that my mother whose memory i cherish across the veil of years could have been here to see it. by the way, i cannot help for reflecting that if my father had been american and my mother british instead of the other way around, i might have got here on my own. >> so very good. so let's turn to the
extraordinary coincidence of fate that caused lord randolph here to meet jennie jerome 140 years ago in 1873 on a small island called kyles in the isle of white where queen victoria went each summer. i will now ask my sister jennie to come up and join me for what better way to tell the story of randolph and jennie than from their own words and their own letter. in case you were wondering i will take the part of my great-great-grandfather also randolph churchill and jennie will assume the role of her great-great-grandmother. so excuse me but this is randolph and jennie in the roles of randolph and jennie. 140 years ago a beautiful
american girl and a young british airist o accurate met by chance. lord randolph was the youngest son of the duke of marlboro. jennie jerome had been living with her mother and sisters in paris without their meeting on the isle of white in 1873 there would have been no winston churchill. without that meeting it well may be that many of us in this hall tonight would not be here today. but my sister jennie and i would not be here. so we offer the following story in homage to our namesake and great-grandparents. >> of course, leonard jer open, jennie's flamboyant father knew the isle of white well. his ancestors were first on the island in 1710, either as islanders or fleeing from france as french protestant hugo naughts. leonard returned and was one of the conspirators of the union club in new york in 1866 when a
bet had been placed of which leonard was the guardian for the first race across the atlantic that december known as the world's first ocean race. in a dramatic race, the hen reetta arrived at the island on christmas day have a having trfled up to 18 miles in one day. she scooped up the first prize of $90. in 1871, 1872 and 73 leonard went to the island for his family having been present to prince and princess of wales, jennie, her sister and mother were invited to a dance at the invitation of queen victoria's son, the prince of wales, on the guardship hmsariadne on the 12th of august 1873, 114 years ago. >> what's quite remarkable is we have the invitations still, both that jennie and lord randolph
kept. jennie was 19, randolph 24. he arrived from the royal yacht squadron steps to see jennie and her sister clarita talking with merry people. she worn a dress adorned about fresh flowers. randolph arranged an introduction. though he suffered from headaches from dancing, something that carries on in the family, he asked jennie to dance, a quadrill of which he was unsure of the steps. after wards they sat and talked and talked sipping champagne. he was captivated by the grey-eyed beautiful jennie. her effect on him was powerful and he was captivated by the young a ris o accurate. it was love at first sight. >> jennie convinced her mother to invite lord randolph to dinner at the rented villa rosetta. randolph, of course, was delighted to accept. the dinner was a success.
the jeromes kept a french cook so the food was excellent. the night was beautiful with an occasional breeze and bright stars in the sky. afterwards, jenniy confided in clarita se had a presentment this was the man she would marry. many years later she recorded that they had spent a very pleasant evening, my sister and i, playing duets at the piano and chatting merrilmerrily. >> after they left, randolph confided to his friend, the colonel, he would like to make the dark one his wife. >> jennie and randolph met the next day by accident. when she took her daily walk along the island's esplanade and he walked his pug dog pugle, but mrs. jerome refused to allow jennie to invite him to dinner. however, jennie implored and as the following day was rand dolph's last on the island, her mother relented.
she received a handwritten invitation on the back, i shall be most happy to see you at dinner this evening. truly yours, c.h. jerome. it was once again a bewitching evening at villa rosetta. jennie played the piano. she later described randolph's proposal to her at this their third meeting. she wrote that she and randolph had walk in the garden, when finding ourselves alone for a moment, he asked me to marry him and i said yes. we agreed not to say anything to my mother as she would not understand the suddenness of it. they were engaged to be marry within two days of meeting. >> and i i think you can see why randolph was so keen to propose to jennie. she was such a beautiful girl. jennie and randolph met the next day -- randolph was met to leave the following morning but postponed his trip sending
jennie this note, dear miss jeannette, i missed my boat and have not been able to go so shall not start until early monday. thank you so much for the which is much better than the others. shall hope to see you after church tomorrow. you see, i keep turning up like a bad shilling. randolph kept his invitation card for that first dinner in his black metal box amongst his most treasured possessions for the rest of his life. >> jennie also kept her invitation to the dance on hmsariadne and marked it off, to meet randolph. >> they agreed for the time being it must remain secret. randolph postponed his departure another four days. >> before randolph finally left, jennie told her mother about the engagement. when mrs. jerome heard the news, she was not at all pleased. she believed that a second son
like randolph was not much of a catch and felt that her daughter could do so much better. mrs. jerome told her that she could never agree to anything so precipitous. jennie wrote to her father in new york saying she was engage. he replied provided always he is not a frenchmen or any of those continental cusses. jennie wrote to randolph that same evening, i cannot bear to have you leave the island without a last good-bye. i have told mama who although she likes you very much won't hear of it. but i'm sure we shall easily get her on our side later on when we see you in london or perhaps here. god bless you, darling. >> randolph was equally optimistic and wrote the next morning to jennie telling of how her note which he had receive just as he was leaving the island had cheer him up wonderfully. i cannot think, he continued, your mother will really not hear of our engagement only i'm sure
she thinks we have known each other for too short a time. you and i do not think so, but it's natural your mother should. he would miss her, he added and he would certainly visit her in london. >> there was further consternation when randolph broke the news to his mother at blend him palace. the third daughter of the third marquis of londondery was most displeased that randolph should have been anything so contrary to her own ambitions for him. the very idea of marrying an american was in and of itself immensely displeasing and for him to contemplate doing such a thing after such a short acquaintance was folly. >> despite his mother's displeasure, randolph was deeply committed to his intended bride. mrs. jerome had forbidden jennie
to correspond with him. but randolph wrote passionately from blenheim. my own darling jeanette, i cannot let another day pass without writing to you. i do not think i've ever had such a day as yesterday, such a melancholy journey away from you, then to have the listen to the toddling gossip of my mother and sisters when my hearts and thoughts were elsewhere. it's so curious that my rooms and my things and occupation here which i used to take an interest in are quite hateful now and all i can do is keep re-reading your her and looking at your photographs until i get quite stupid. i do not think, dearest, you have any idea of how much i love you or what sacrifices i would not make to call you my own. my whole life and energies should be devoted to making you happy and protecting you from harm or wrong. life should be to you like one long summer day. then randolph wrote to his
father. i do not think that if i were to write pages i could gibb you any idea of the strength of feeling of my affections and love for her. all i can say is that i love her better than life itself and that my one hope and dream now is that matters may be so arranged that soon i may be united to her by ties that nothing but death itself have the power to sever. he understood that his father might be very much surprised, but he added that despite the rapidity of his decision, it was one in which he believed absolutely. >> the duke of marlboro, unconvinced by his son's letter, delayed his reply while he made inquiries about leonard jerome. initially he opposed the marriage, writing, never was there such an illustration of the adage love is blind. for you seem blind to all consequences in order that you may pursue your passion. matters went from bad to worse when on hearing of the duke's opposition for the union, leonard went into a rage and wrote, my consent withdrawn.
european aristocracy impressed leonard less than they impress themselves. moneywhile, a chill descended on blenheim, what were americans, rebels against the british crown and did one marry them? but first the ceremony was to be delayed for a year, then only until after the general election in february 1874. randolph duly became the mp for woodstock and jennie became lady churchill at a ceremony on the 15th of april 1874. winston was born on the 30th november that year. >> to quote their son, my great-grandfather, sir winston churchill, where does the family start? it starts with a young man falling in love with a girl. no alternative has yet been found. thank you, jennie. well done. [ applause ]
so what an extraordinary chance meeting of two individuals from such vastly different cultures who fell in love and became engaged in such fine style. the jennie jerome that lord randolph met was strikingly beautiful and can't rating. at 19 she spoke languages flutely was a concert pianist and could write as well as any man. but what of her ancestry? jennie's father leonard jerome pictured here with a very splendid cigar, his mustache and a second painting there, a lovely portrait i'm lucky enough to have in my home. leonard was descended from well-to-do pioneering stock. however, there was little money and he was the fifth of eight brothers and there was also one sister. but leonard was a young man in a hurry who learned to live by his own achievements.
his four older brothers went to priston, but then the money ran out, so leonard was sent to the village store on the salary of $1 a week. later when his elder brother had earned enough money to pay for him, leonard spent one year at princeton. he arrived with nothing save a brave heart and a keen brain. leonard was an intelligent man with great wits, sporting prowess and musical skills being a violinist of high repute. many of these talents were passed to his daughter jennie and then on to his grandson, winston. he always believed passionately in his daughter's abilities and talents as jennie would believe in her son's. leonard came from a long line of pioneering an cysters. timothy jerome, the first to become american, was a protestant who left france in 1710. he settled in england in 1717 but then sailed from the isle of white to settle in connecticut. it was through leonard jerome
that churchill was extremely prud of his revolutionary blood. churchill claimed that he had at least two forebearers who fought against the british in the american war of independence. one great grandfather samuel jerome served in the berkshire county militia while another the fourth massachusetts regiment marched and fought with george washington's army at valley forge. furthermore, leonard jerome's maternal grandfather, rubin murray, served as a lieutenant in the connecticut and new york regiments. leonard met clara hall and leonard showed good initiative here. here is a lovely drawing of clara. then there's a second painting of clara which i'm lucky enough to have at home. and clara was one of two orphaned sisters and she luckily came with a very decent sized
dow ary and they were married in 1849. it is reputedly through clara and winston the other family members believed this that churchill thought he was descended from iro coy indians allowing him to respond to president roosevelt's account of how his family had arrived from europe with the reply, my relatives were there to greet you. in fact, clara, who was brought up by her aunts, the aunts were nicknamed sitting bull and hatchet. whether or not churchill had native american ancestries, he certainly had strong north american pedigree with ancestors who could trace back to the earlier settlements and who would subsequently fight along washington in the war of independence. it is true that jennie was related albeit distantly through her mother to george washington.
leonard and clara had four daughters and one of whom sadly died at the age of 8. jennie, their second daughter, was born on the 9th of january, 1854 at 426 henry street in the cobble hill district of brooklyn, and we visited the house on sunday, and it's a very beautiful area. it was believed that jennie was born at 426 henry street, but the difficulty was with the huge snowstorm that in fact jennie's uncle lived around the corner and it's some doubt at which house she was born in, but it's very nice to keep some mysteries. what's also of interest was there were no birth records kept in new york until 1866. so there's no record of her birth. and one day i'd love to look at the christening records of the local churches to see what detail there is yet there, but we haven't got around to looking
at that. clara, jennie's parents, leonard and clara jerome had recently returned from trieste. clara had been captivated by europe but leonard loved new york and delighted being back in the city. although he returned to find the family's stockbroking firm failing having left it in the hands of his brother addison. the family fortunes began to increase again with leonard becoming a triumphant railway king. jennie and her older sister clarita adored their generous father who often appeared laden with gifts. the young jennie would spend summer with her family in newport where leonard kept a yacht so they could commute to new york. but life would change again for jennie when at the age of 4 she move to paris for a year with her sister clarita and her mother. leonard left his young family in paris. it was then in 1860 that he built himself a magnificent
mansion on madison and 26th street, which is on madison gardens, and this was the mansion that leonard built. to the left you had the stables for his 40 horses and the mansion included a theater that could seat 300 people. the stables housed carriages and horses and it was suitably magnificent. so when jennie and her family return to new york, i'm afraid it was to manhattan rather than brook hin. brooklyn. a lovely image, this is of the cover of a fabulous leonard jerome. and there he is taking his family and friends to the racing at jerome park race course which he founded, which is terrific. and the next slide shows the racing at jerome park. which is actually now the reservoir in your part of the
city. leonard jerome now owned "the new york times" and together with his business partner he founded the jockey club. he purchased 230 acres outside new york to build a race course. jennie attended the first race meeting at jerome park in september 1866. jen jennie was always delighted to visit the park with her father. not only was leonard heavily involved with horse racing but a prominent member of the new york yacht club and spent much time racing his yacht. he was certainly a man of great passion and zest for life. and there we've got a lovely image of the three beautiful jerome daughters with jennie on the left, leone and collar eat ta. clara's leonard's wife, was not enamored, clara leonard's wife was enamored with paris society and returned with their daughters. leonard made the sea crossing
but returned to new york alone. it was in paris that their mother arranged intensive course of studies for her daughters. life for the wealthy was centered around the court of the emperor louis nap ole onand empress josephine. clarita made her debutante appearance at the royal court but this care free existence came to an abrupt end when france went to war with prussia and clara and jerome and her daughters left paris on foot taking with them only what they could carry. they arrived in brighton, england, from where they traveled to england staying at browns hotel. when jennie later returned to paris when she was 16, she wrote there was ruin everywhere. the site of the tulleries made me cry, some of our friends were killed and others were in mourning and all broke hearted and miserable hiding in their