tv Public Affairs Events CSPAN November 11, 2016 2:54am-8:01am EST
leonard made the sea crossing but returned to new york alone. it was in paris that their mother arranged intensive course of studies for her daughters. life for the wealthy was centered around the court of the emperor louis nap ole onand empress josephine. clarita made her debutante appearance at the royal court but this care free existence came to an abrupt end when france went to war with prussia and clara and jerome and her daughters left paris on foot taking with them only what they could carry. they arrived in brighton, england, from where they traveled to england staying at browns hotel. when jennie later returned to paris when she was 16, she wrote there was ruin everywhere. the site of the tulleries made me cry, some of our friends were killed and others were in mourning and all broke hearted and miserable hiding in their houses and refusing to be
comforted. jennie had witnessed a darker side of life and became more worldly for her young age as a result. clara and her daughters returned to live in a very different and depressed paris. all the social structures had disintegrated and life in paris was quiet. it was in these circumstances that they decided to visit kyles. she took the daughters to kyles, the isle of wight who had suffersuffer ed huge losses with the crash of the railroads. jennie gave birth to baby winston on the 30th of november 1874 at blenheim palace. do we have an image of blenheim palace? oh, that's not it. she stood out because of her beauty and intelligence but because of the way she eschewed
snobbery and tradition, two qualities that would serve her well all her life. let me give you an example. in 1876 as a result of her husband lord randolph's forthright views the couple was banished along with the family from the court circles and english high society. lord rand dolph had made the mistake of publicly accusing the prince of wales of double standards so they moved to dublin where lord randolph's father was made viceroy. jennie was clearly not happy with how they were banished from the royal court, but she got on with it. at the time in ireland there was great poverty and famine and lord randolph stood up against the feudal landlords and accused them of neglect. they threw themselves into helping the destitute, setting up and running soup kitchens, jennie against official approval visited prisoners to see and campaign against the appalling conditions they suffered. with lord randolph's parents,
the duke and duchess, they raised a vast sum for the relief of poverty but made a great difference to the poor. their work there was recognized by queen victoria who made a donation to the fund herself. i would argue that the compassion, care and good will towards other people that churchill developed was a direct result of his mother's can do attitude to life and jennie like her husband randolph was fearless of authority and they did what they believed was right in life, something churchill was never unsteady about. as a mother children were cared for by others. jennie might have felt distant from young winston. he was brought up by his nanny. but she would always help him. when she found he was beaten at school he wasted no time in
removing him from that school. abo with the death of his father jennie became his advocate. she was at the center of the political elite and was the magnet for political salon. therefore when churchill was seeking his commission in the army it was jennie who got the colonel to arrange for the duke of cambridge for him to fulfill a vacancy in the regiment. it was also through her american friend burt cochran that churchill was first introduced to new york high society in november 1895. he was clearly impressed with his mother's hometown, though he disliked the dollar bill and the vulgar newspapers. churchill -- there he is in his uniform -- was like his jerome grandfather, a buccaneer keen to make a name for himself. jennie was his it will rather agent while he was away in the army, gaining him contracts from the london publishers,
proofreading his articles and placing them in the newspapers. winston bored with regimental life in india and was determined to see more action, he turned to his mother. he was firmly told he could not join the expedition to the sudan to quell the tribes that had murdered general gordon at the famous siege of khartoum. his request was denied because winston had become critical of the policy on the northwest frontier of india and kitchener was having none of it. jennie discussed this with the general of the army, sir eveline wood and churchill was assigned to expedition serving at his own expense. churchill ingratiated himself further with kitchener during the campaign by delivering a report to kitchener personally
on his magnificent white charger. churchill remarked on his mother. she left no wire unpulled, no stone unturned, no cutlet uncooked. the year after churchill was dispatched as journalist to south africa for the confrontation brewing against the early dutch settlers known as the bar war. this was an unpopular war in america because it was a typical british colonial war. churchill's younger brother jack was commissioned in the south african force where he served alongside churchill. meanwhile, jennie -- and i think this is so new york style -- jennie refused to be idle. she raised money from american friends and she paid and organized for a hospital ship to go to south africa to care for the injured. the next picture shows jennie in the middle as chief nurse on
board her own hospital ship she had organized. i think that takes quite a lot of courage to do that. unfortunately, winston was trusted in looking after his younger brother jack and winston took his younger brother jack to go and see some action. and within 15 minutes, jack was shot in the leg. and here is jack being cared for by his mother on board her hospital ship. indeed, jennie's work in the south african campaign was so admired by the soldiers that a huge cannon involved in the siege of ladysmith was renamed the lady randolph churchill. you might notice it but on the other side of the carriage is written the lady randolph. that's what we used to bombard the poor bores. it was a role that jennie also reprised during the first world war.
she persuaded the famous american mr. paris singer, the famous sewing machine company, to offer his residence old wayhouse pinkton in devon to use as a hospital. it was turned into a well equipped 255-bed hospital which included operating theaters. throwing herself into raising money for the fund to finance the hospital, jennie became chairman of the executive committee while paris singer was the vice chairman of the hospital in his property. there was a staff of 151 which included 8 surgeons, 15 american nursing sisters, 17 english sisters and 21 probationers. can we go back, the previous photograph? in this photograph here, this is an image of jenny helping winston become elected to parliament in 1900.
in those days it was very unusual for a woman to take to the stand. as we can see jennie was multitalented. there is no doubt that churchill inherited his literary and political skills from his maternal lines as well as his paternal one. jennie published articles and edited a transatlantic publication called the anglo-saxon review. though she could not stand for parliament or even vote until 1918, there is no doubting her power on the political stage at least initially she was as famous as her son and she personally canvassed for her husband lord randolph in woodstock in 1880s, then helped winston win his first election. she remained vital to the political careers of both father and son.
this image here shows she wrote and put on her own plays in the west end. mrs. cornwall is west was her second husband's name. jennie also remained a great beauty all her life and she was very confident of it. she later married george cornwallis west when she was 64 years old and porch was 42, younger than her son, winston, who was then 44. that did create a bit of a stir for her family. and i must say she remained a complete star. when jennie was 67, she fell down the stairs and contracted gangrene. even then her instructions to
the surgeon were typically brave and precise. make sure you take the leg off high enough up. and here we have jennie's obituary, which makes clear that she was the best ambassador america had. jennie was honored by queen victoria and king edward vii with five medals which my sister is wearing tonight. the first, the pearl and turquoise cipher was awarded to jennie in recognition for her work for destitute women and was insignia of the imperial crown of india. queen victoria as empress of india personally pinned the medal on jenniey's left shoulder sticking the pin into jennie's flesh. the second medal was awarded to jennie for services on the american hospital ship during
the bore war in south africa. king edward conferred upon jennie the honor of a lady grace of st. john's jerusalem. the third medal also presented to jen i by king edward vii was the order of the royal red cross. and the other two medals were to commemorate coronations. my great machine great grandmother jennie represents so much of what's made your country great. she had a zest and determination for life. she was passionate about the suffering. and she was not shy about entering the political fray. she was a very modern woman who stood on her own two feet for what she cared about and believed in. her greatest trait was the spirit of freedom and liberation pioneered by the early americans. it is not surprising that her father was a king of wall street and her ancestors were fighters for independence.
in the modern world, there are no more important documents for freedom and liberty than the british magna carta of 1215 and the declaration of independence of 1776. churchill deliberately licked them in his great multivolume history of english speaking people. 2015 will be the 800th anniversary of the magna carta but also the 50th of my great-grandfath great-grandfather's death. and the 75th of his greatest hour. the shrines of our hard earned freedoms might have been forgotten, trampled under foot with the triumph of barbarism and totalitarianism and the world we live in now might be still in a long, dark abyss. tomorrow, our families's having an immensely proud day. churchill's bust is to be unveiled in statuary hall in the united states capitol in the
presence of secretary of state kerry and your four house leaders. the speaker of the house of representatives in support of the resolution authorizing the placement of the bust said that winston churchill was the best friend america ever had. i would love one day to see a memorial in new york city to the daughter of that great city who gave to her mother country a son who stood resolutely in the face of evil, preserved our inheritance, and was such a fantastic person for the city. in my view, the strength and enduring qualities of churchill's character can largely be attributed to his mother. her character resonates in her thoughts and enduring words in the history of world war ii, in defeat defiance, in victory
magnanimity, in peace good will. i firmly believe that churchill's greatness was a gift born on the bedrock of your great city. thank you. [ applause ] >> that was wonderful. good evening. in the interests of time because randolph has to go to washington, we're going to skip the q&a. my name is lewis frumkes, i'm the director of writing at the hunter college writing center. a few minutes ago i received a telegram that i'd like to read
to you. it says, dear lewis, thanks so much for co-hosting this splendid evening and the series with president rob and roosevelt house. if i'm not mistaken it was in the hunter writing center years ago that i first delivered the admonition to one of your students ending a sentence with a preposition is something up with which i will not put. in any event, lewis, please tell my great-grandson randolph that he gave a superb talk tonight befitting a churchill and that clementine and i are very proud of him. speaking of clementine, my thanks also to tina santy flaherty, little clemmclementinr her kind words and for underwriting the churchill series. i was always fond hf her and considered her my great goddaughter once removed. i know randolph has to fly to washington directly after this event to be there tomorrow when john boehner, secretary kerry and other dignitaries install
the new oscar neiman bust of me in the capitol so i won't ramble on. thanks to lewis for your generous invitation to be the keynote speaker at the writers conference this coming june. unfortunately, i can't make it, but james mcbride and nickelson baker are terrific replacements. also good to get my good get with my old friend sir harold evans is one of your great thinkers. is he still married to tina brown in please send harry and tina my best and remember me to your lovely wife. signed, winston. thank you very much for coming. [ applause ] friday american history tv in prime time features veterans
day themed programs. 8:00 p.m. eastern first ladies, then at 10, first ladies in the military with laura bush and michelle obama. real america featuring the film "the unknown soldier." and at 10:35 american artifacts on woodrow wilson and world war i. and at 11:15 p.m., world war ii veteran stories. on friday, the wreath laying ceremony at the tomb of the unknown soldier followed by a program hosted by the veterans department at the sem cemetery aim pa theater. >> with donald trump elected as the next u.s. president, melania trump becomes our nation's second fortune-born first lady since louisa catherine adams. learn more about the influence of america's presidential
spouses from c-span's book "first ladies." it's a look into the personal lives and influence of every presidential spouse in american history. it is a companion to the biography tv series and featuring interviews with 54 of the leading first ladies historians, biographies and archival photos from each of their lives. first ladies published by coming up tonight on c spacspan 3, the international winston churchill conference. first a panel on his friends and contemporaries. then his romantic imagination. after that, his time in washington, d.c. and later, a panel on the life and influence of his american mother.
next from the annual international churchill conference, historians and authors discuss the friends and contemporaries of winston churchill. this is 90 minutes. >> good morning churchillians. i want to begin by congratulating all of you, you hearty churchillians for joining us at this un-churchillian hour of 9:00 a.m. churchill was, we all know, a man of tremendous energy. but i can't help but feel that if we lived in a true spirit of churchill, we'd probably all still be in bed at this point in the day though, of course, we would have read all the newspapers and work through all of the daily correspondence by this point. now, of course, unfortunately, i feel many of us are probably lacking in the amount of domestic and sectarial assistance that sir winston had. perhaps our failure to emulate
his morning routine is pardonable. i'm a senior research fellow at the margaret thatcher center for freedom at the heritage foundation in washington, d.c. the title of our panel today on great contemporaries has a truly churchillian ring to it. i'm delighted to be joined by three churchillians who will be discussing men who played very different roles. sir john anderson, mckenzie king and lord morin. our first speaker tells me that it rhymes with pain, if that's useful to you is professor of modern history at christchurch university in canterbury in the united kingdom. his latest book charts churchill's evolution as a nuclear statesman and has been described as hugely impressive, gripping reading and the best book yet written on the nuclear churchill. so go buy your copy immediately.
today dr. ruwayne will be looking at his relationship with a man he described as unjustly unsung, sir john anderson who led the british wartime effort to build an atomic bomb. our second spooker, mr. terry reardon began his career at english banking, continued in canada bridging both countries sparked his interest in the relationship between two great prime ministers, winston churchill in the united kingdom and mckenzie king of canada. he'll speak on king and churchill, the sfbts his superb 2012 book "winston churchill and mckenzie king, so similar, so different." our third and final speaker, dr. john mather is a british import and scotsman no less, i should add, who served his adopted country the united states in the u.s. army for 30 years. he's distinguished physician whose been elected to several medical organizations including the royal society of medicine in the united kingdom.
he's a medical pathographer and biographer and is an acknowledged expert on the medical issues that affected winston churchill. he will speak on a gentleman who was a diarist and a physician, lord morin who carried -- coordinated the care for churchill in the medical realm for the last 25 years of churchill's life. each of our speakers today will speak for about 25 minutes which will leave us time at the end for about 25 minutes worth of q&a. let's go to our first speaker. [ applause ] >> good morning. it is an un-churchillian hour. thank you, ted, for the introduction. thank you for giving me this
platform. it's wonderful. it's a real honor. and thank you, as well, for lending me your ears for the next 20 minutes. to begin at the beginning, in january 1945, as winston churchill prepared for the long trek for his second wartime meeting with franklin roosevelt and josef stalin, he wrote a letter to the king, george vi concerning the future, if -- if something went wrong. if either he or his heir presumptive anthony eden, the foreign secretary, should perish on the way to or the way back from the crimea. now in that letter, churchill said if tragedy befell him there was only one man, the king should send forth to replace him as prime minister, and here he
is, sir john anderson. back still in the uk is met with a sir john who quite often. his pick was sir john anderson. john anderson in 1945 was an independent mp, capital "i." the member of the war cabinet since 1940 and presently a member of the -- churchill was giving praise for anderson. anderson was not only well adapted by character and outlook but to shoulder the burden of the premiership but also because of the, and i quote, the general regard attaching to him from all political parties. as you know, he also was code named argonauts. and they returned safely. and history, whether it's churchill's or britain's or the
worlds was what it was. nonetheless, i still think we ought to ask the question, what was it about this man, john anderson, that won him such a churchillian vote of confidence. what was the relationship between these two men? personal as well as political. now here's the thing. today in the uk, never mind the united states. if john anderson is remembered at all, it is for this kind of corrugated iron, garden-based construction. but also very effective anderson shelter. in the hope of giving the british public some protection from german bomb iing. i think anderson is more than a bomb shelter, and so i'd like the anderson rediscovery process to begin now, if you will allow
me. he was born in 1882 in scotland, in edinburgh. he was a proud scot. he graduated brilliantly from his hometown university in 1903. his secretariy subjects were ge science and mathematics and a postgraduate year at leipzig university where, and the relevance of this will become apparent shortly, he did a study of the chemical properties of something called uranium. in 1905, however, he rejected a career in science and, instead, he entered the civil service. a string of appointments followed. at the colonial office, the national insurance commission, the board of land revenue to name but a few. everywhere he went, anderson's work ethic and organizational prowess won him golden opinions. in 1920, he took up a new and dangerous appointment. about 38 at that stage.
he became joint permanent secretary for ireland. based in dublin castle within a short pace of time on the sinn fein assassination hit list. two years later, he is back in england and becomes permanent under secretary in the home office. it's the top civil servant in the home office. it's a plum job for a civil servant. over the next decade, anderson forged, and i'm quoting now the oxford dictionary of national biography. he forged a reputation as the greatest administrator of his age, perhaps of any age. his home office staff began to give him a nickname, jehovah. the all wise. in 1932, though in a dramatic shift, anderson heads east to become governor of bengal, another perilous assignment as
churchill himself attested. anderson riskted his life with the utmost composure in carrying out duties and twice narrowly missed assassination. 1937, anderson is back in england, and he begins a new career in politics. he entered parliament as an independent mp, capital "i" independent mp for the scottish universities. an ex-civil servant, he didn't think he should nail his political colors. he shouldn't have been explicit party allegiance. but he fully supported the national government. anderson's star soon rose. in 1938, the home secretary, samuel hall, recognizing his administrative omni competence, gave him the task of overseeing national evacuation policy. this being the time of the sir dayton crisis and attendant war scare. a little later, the prime
minister neville chamberlain appointed him to a cabinet level position where he was given in 1939 special responsibility for, wait for it, air raid precautions. hence, you can fill the silence almost, the anderson shelter. but he was in charge of civil defense in general. at the outbreak of war, anderson became home secretary and also continued as de facto minister for home security. that was a pretty daunting portfolio which he initially retained in churchill's ministry when it was formed in may 1940. anderson wasn't a member of the small war cabinet wubecause amongst those whom churchill ordered to be present on all occasions. in september 1940, churchill made him lord president of the council, and this time that job
had a seat in the cwar cabinet. soon anderson was doing what anderson did best. handling with great skill a wide range of unspectacular but vital domestic issues. price controls, wages, rationing, food policy, social services, allocation of manpower. churchill was grateful. he came to call anderson, quote, the automatic pilot of the home front. he was grateful because what anderson did was allow churchill to concentrate on what churchill wanted to concentrate on, which was basically winning the war. the military conduct of the war. now here's the thing. historians have often found churchill's regard for, quote, this doer and unattractive victorian. i'm quoting the late robert rhodes james there. something of a mystery. now i think it's true if you look at the slide that in dress,
department, anderson bore an uncanny image to mr. saurbury, the undertaken in charles dickens' oliver twist. a man whose features were not naturally intended to wear a smiling aspect. and it was also said to continue this, that an anderson speech could sometimes resemble a funeral oration which sounded as though he had not known the dear departed very well. but churchill looked beyond the saurbury front. he looked beyond the pompus edifice that was john anderson to see a man in churchill's words of far wider outlook than his civil service background might suggest. he was segacious. not just a great personal courage exemplified by his time
in india and in ireland, but he was the possessor of, quote, an acute and powerful mind. a firm spirit, and long experience of widely buried responsibilities. a bit of a dull dog socially, by all accounts. you might not want to be stuck in a lift for a long time with john anderson. he never gained admittance to churchill's inner circle of boon companions. one of those boon companions, brendan brackon was forever sneering and sniping about antderson's small-minded bureaucrats' outlook. bracken thought there was something wrong with the world when a servant could somehow rise to become a master, or at least a minister of the crowd. but winston doesn't look happy, does he really, in this picture. maybe they've been stuck in a
lift together for a while. lord morin, and more of him shortly. churchill's physician admitted that anderson's solid gifts were not those that set the mind on fire. although winston trusted him and respected his judgment, he did not always find him -- it's a slightly damning word, congenial. but at the same time, morin was convinced that churchill has great need of such a man. a more to the point, so did churchill. now in researching my book, churchill and the bomb, i rediscovered anderson, happily so, i have to say. we didn't share a lift, but happily so. but i found something else. i found that churchill's faith in anderson's ability to get any job done, and done well, extended into the realm of atomic energy. you see, in addition to all
anderson's other cares and concerns, in september 1941, churchill gave him ministerial responsibility for something called tube alloys. the top-secret british effort of that point to create an atomic bomb. in my remaining time, if i may, i'd like to dwell a little on this churchill/anderson atomic relationship. now in churchill's orders, this race, this quest to harness the power of nature in a bomb before nazi scientists gave on to hitler was amongst the most closely guarded secrets of the war, as you all know. in britain, not even the chiefs of staff or service ministers knew very much other than in a dim way about what was going on until pretty near the end. in fact, there were only, i'd say, three individuals who knew how the whole thing fitted
together in its vast scientific industrial, technical, military diplomatic financial complexity. one of those was churchill, obviously. but churchill's interest in the bomb during the war oscillated. sometimes he was keenly and intensely interested. at other times, and i don't wish to be flippant, he had a war to run. and present danger more than futuristic possibilities preoccupied him. the secretary individual is here in his trademark bola hat. frederick lindman, the prof, as he was widely known. lord charwell from 1941, churchill's very close friend and his scientific mentor. the third individual, he's not in the picture, you've already seen him, is john. john anderson. he was the glue, i would suggest, that held the whole thing together.
the war horse. but anderson, belying his solid demeaner, also turned out to be something of a nuclear visionary. n that for me was the big surprise with my research. let me explain. as the war wore on, and as at atomic weapons development gathered pace, anderson became convinced of the need -- wait for it -- to inform the soviet union of what the british and the americans and the canadians were up to. now his reasoning was simple. the soviet union, he felt, had the raw materials. the soviet union had the scientific brains. the soviet had the industrial potential after the war to create atomic arms. it just did. it was foolish to think otherwise. so in anderson's mind to avoid a future catastrophic nuclear arms race in future, in the present,
it was necessary to apprise stalin in the most general, vague way of what the manhattan project was all about. to tell him that the british and americans were working on an atomic bomb and tell him that when one was ready it would be used against the common enemy. no more, no lerks just that. for anderson, this was the minimum show of anglo-american faith necessary if the soviet union was later to abandon any thoughts of developing its own superweapons and work with the british and the americans and the canadians after the war in creating what was called at the time a system of international control. a way of chaining up this calamitous power that has been unleashed. a way of directing atomic power toward constructive rather than destructive ends. now, as many of you may know, this man here, the revered
dani danish physicist neals bore is regarded as the foremost wartime advocate of post war international control. in september 1943, in london, and it is suggested that he fell under bore's spell. not so. anderson, to me it's cleerks had worked out this thing called international control a good year before he met neills bore. from 1943 what you have is anderson, churchill's go-to man and bore, and bore later wrote they were as close as brothers, working almost as co-conspira r co-conspirators within the grand alliance to try and move the two key figures, winston churchill and franklin roosevelt, towards acceptance of the idea of international control and
beginning with a very vague casting of the fly over josef stalin. churchill, however, john anderson really had his work cut out. churchill was an avid atomic monopolist, determined to keep the bomb a close anglo-american secret. canadian secret, for that matter. but anderson chipped away. and in may 1944, thanks in no small measure to anderson's behind the scenes maneuvering, churchill agreed to give neils bore a half an hour of their time. their meeting at number 10 downing street say very famous moment in atomic history. it was a total disaster for neils bore. churchill was under great strain as d-day loomed. he was also in a foul temper from the beginning of the meeting and briskly dismissed the dane and all his ideas. now john anderson was as dejected by neils bore at
failing to get a churchillian hearing, but thanks to the intervention of another bore admire ir, this time u.s. supreme court justice felix frankfurter. franklin roosevelt agreed to see neils bore and gave him half an hour of his time at the white house. and this time, bore seemed to make an impact. fdr was impressed. yes, he said maybe stalin ought to be told. yes, international control. that may have something to go for it. yes, churchill's monopolistic outlook is a problem said bore, but i'll take care of churchill. alas for bore and anderson it was really, i suspect, churchill who took care of the president. at any rate, when they next met in september 1944, the president's hyde park home, churchill and roosevelt initialled an atomic understanding which is best understood today for affirming
their desire for joint anglo-american atomic cooperation, not just in wartime but going into the peacetime as well. but that document also contained a repudiation of neils bore and international control. now historians debate whether fdr bowed before the churchillian storm or whether fdr never really agreed with bore's ideas. he just let him think he agreed with them. but churchill's anti-bore prejudice is, i think, unquestionable. the scientist churchill wrote at the time, and he was wrong on this. winston was all for giving away to stalin every last secret. no, he wasn't. but bore in churchill's mind was very close to, quote, the edge of mortal crimes and churchill wondered whether he ought perhaps to be locked up. anderson was rather shocked by churchill's attack on an honorable man and did his best to put it in straight and
maintain his integrity for the rest of the war. over the last eight months of the warks anderson continued to try and subtle various ways to sell international control to churchill but he got absolutely nowhere. indeed, once the trinity test out in the wilds of new mexico in july 1945 proved the atomic bomb was a real weapon, not just a theoretical weapon, his monopolistic intentions hardened and churchill began to entertain the idea that the bomb and the anglo-american monopoly of the bomb might just be used as a diplomatic lever to make stalin accept a settlement in europe, particularly over poland, based on western democratic preaccepts. to anderson, though, such thinking was an athma. a guarantee of a murderous
nuclear relationship. and their relationship became strained. in the event churchill had no real time to factor the a-bomb into his soviet diplomacy, the 1945 general election saw him lose office soon thereafter. as for anderson, he was retained by the labor government as an economic adviser for 18 months. i think testimony to the respect that all political parties had for a man with a reputation of putting national interest ahead of personal or partisan political interests. in the end, as we all know, international control never materialized. instead the cold war and the nuclear arms race that anderson bore and a lot of other people had feared came to pass. and it left the world teetering on the brink of calamity. anderson, tired and disillusioned stood down as a member of parliament in 1950. but a year later when churchill returned to power, he asked anderson to join his government.
anderson declined. he needs you, said lord morin, admonishing him, to which anderson replied he could not, quote, afford to join the government. what he may have meant was that he was going to find it impossible to provide his wife, the socialite, and some would say social climbing ava, known to her close friends as becky, with the lifestyle she admitted on her ministerial lifestyle. ava was the widow of the foreign office official who in the 1930s applied churchill with vital information on german rearmament before his untimely death. anderson did, however, accept a -- he continued to advise the government informally on atomic matters. he died age 76 in 1958.
so then, shortly before his death, anderson fell to reminiscing about the war with j. robert oppenheimer. of hours, the director of the manhattan project, los alamos bomb lab. anderson, a really sweet guy, oppenheimer recalled, had never, and i'm still quoting oppenheimer, had never been reconciled to the fact that bore's counsel had not been followed by churchill or roosevelt in 1944. nor anderson might have added, his own counsel. i think however one regards the atomic aspect of sir john anderson's career, and his outlook does now seem idealistic, unrealistic, naive, even. knowing what we know about stalin's nuclear ambitions, i hope you'll agree that anderson's importance to churchill and churchill's dependence on him at times makes
anderson deserving of being remembered for something more. important though it was, but something more than a garden based bomb shelter. thank you very much for your time and attention. [ applause ] good morning. thank you, ted, for those initial words. william mckenzie king. well, the major participants on the allied side in the second world war were britain, the united states and the soviet union. the contribution by what could be called the second division was a significant factor in the successful outcome of the war.
this sector included the members of the british empire and commonwealth. of the dominions, the major contributor in the war was canada. the contribution of that country and the war was opined by the british historian richard holmes in his book, in the footsteps of churchill. holmes wrote in 1940, 1941, britain would not have survived as an independent nation, had it not been for the agricultural, the industrial and financial aid received from canada. holmes also wrote in that book the canadian contribution was remarkable. in terms of manpower, it produced over a million volunteers for the allied armed forces with 42,000 killed out of
a population of 11 million. as usual, only the squeaking wheels get the grease. the quietly competent canadians and their low-key prime minister deserve more credit than they have received or than i can give here. the low-key prime minister was william lion mackenzie king born december 17th, 1874, just 17 days after the birth of winston churchill. they were similar in height, 5'6", and in the color of their eyes, blue. however, that similarity did not extend to their scholarly achievements. whereas churchill was an indifferent scholar, king was a brilliant student with degrees from the universities of toronto, chicago and harvard.
harvard wished him to join its faculty and it took an intervension by canada's prime minister to insist that king's future was in canada. although only 26 years of age, king occupied the senior civil service position of deputy minister of labor when winston churchill arrived in ottawa in december 1900 to speak on his war exploits. the two men met, but it was not a success. king found churchill drinking champagne at 11:00 in the morning and the rather priggish ging was not impressed. king had achieved success in solving dispupts this came to the attention of the president of the united states, theodore,
teddy, roosevelt. the president was concerned with the numbers of japanese arriving in the united states. and he invited king to meet him. the result of the meeting was a request that king intercede with the british government which had a friendly relationship with the japanese government to put pressure on japan in that regard. in march 1908, king sailed to england and met with sir edward gray, the british foreign minister. the result was a much-reduced flow of immigrants and improvement in anglo and american japanese relations. on that trip to britain, king met churchill again, and his diary showed that his opinion of churchill had much improved. he wrote, one cannot talk with
him without being impressed with the nimbleness of his mind. his quickness of perception and his undoubted ability. that same year, 1908, king was elected as a member of parliament. appointed canada's first minister of labor. just three years later, the governing liberal party was defeated, and king lost his seat. with the coming of war in 1914, the almost 40-year-old king was an unlikely candidate for the military. another prospect soon presented itself, however. his impressive record in solving labor disputes had come to the attention of the rockefeller foundation, which was involved in a serious and bloody dispute in colorado. and king was invited to join the
foundation as director of research with the salary of $12,000 a year, a substantial income in those days. king solved the colorado dispute, and he later worked for other u.s. companies, such as bethlehem steel, general electric, standard oil and the carnegie corporation. but he returned to ottawa in 1919 to contest the leadership of the liberal party, and he was successful. two years later, a general election was held with the liberal party assuming office, and king was now prime minister. just nine months later, in september 1922, britain in the form of the colonial minister, winston churchill, requested that canada pledge troops to a possible military action against the turkish army.
king responded that the request would be considered by canada's parliament. however, king had no intention of exceeding to the request. canada had suffered 61,000 fatalities in world war i with a further 172,000 wounded out of a population of just 8 million. and king knew that people would not stand for the further shedding of blood. that matter blew over but it emphasized to king that canada could no longer continue in a subservient position. when britain had declared war on germany in 1914, canada was automatically at war. and king was determined to change the basis of the relationship. at the imperial conference of
1923, the autocratic british foreign minister, lord kearsen, put forward a resolution that when the british foreign minister spoke, he spoke not just for britain but for the whole of the empire. countries such as australia and new zealand agreed, as they looked for britain's protection. but canada in the form of mackenzie king disagreed. king won the day, and his further efforts resulted in the balfour deck larician of 1926 which stated that the united kingdom and the dominions are, quote, autonomous communities within the british empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another. in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs. king's liberal party lost a
general election held in 1930, which was fortuitous as the conservative government had to deal with a great depression. the liberal party was re-elected in 1935, and king was again prime minister. the following year, he was in london, and he met with churchill. and he was told britain was never in greater danger. and that inside of five years, it was possible that she would be a vasile state of germany. king was not supportive of churchill's efforts to sway the government. and with his background in labor negotiations, he fully supported the appeasement policy of neville chamberlain. in may 1937, king was in london for the coronation of king george vi and met with the
german ambassador to britain, von riventrop. it was a common link at von riventrop had worked in england prior to the firt world war. he suggested that king should meet with hitler. that was arranged, and in june 1937, king presented himself at the hindenberg palace. king recorded the conversation in his diary. and he makes an astonishing reading and went to great lengths to portray himself as a man of peace. quoting from king's diary, he went on to say, as far as war is concerned, you need have no fear of war at the instance of germany. we have no desire for war, and we don't want war. it is i myself who have been through a war and not one of us
wants to see another war. he was impressed and relieved by hitler's statement, but to his credit, he did state that if britain was attacked, he would come to britain's aid. whether that made any impression on hitler is -- but it certainly made no impact on his future decisions. on september 3rd, 1939 with britain declaring war on germany, king broadcast to the people of canada. this included the forces of evil have been loosed in the world. i appeal to my fellow canadians to unite in a national effort to save from destruction all that makes life worth living. and to preserve for future generations those institutions
which others have bequeathed to us. and september the 9th, canada's parliament passed legislation declaring war on germany. it is one thing to be at war and another to be able to wage war. canada in 1939 was totally unprepared. however, deficiencies were quickly remedied. on september the 26th, canada agreed to be a training ground for airmen from britain, australia, new zealand and canada. it achieved spectacular results with 130,000 pilots and air crew trained, and with canada assuming three-quarters of the cost, of $1.6 billion. president franklin roosevelt
later declared that canada was the aero droem of democracy. king's liberal party won in a landslide. churchill cable came the next day, sincere personal congratulations on your victory. i am very glad we shall continue our work for the common cause. when churchill became prime minister in may 1940, king sent him a telegram assuring him of the wholehearted support and cooperation of canada and his government colleagues and himself. and wishing him, quote, vision and endurance in guiding public affairs at this most critical of hou hours. though churchill and king knew that to win the war the united states had to join the allies.
but in the spring of 1940, president roosevelt was far from convinced that britain would survive. this was illustrated by secretary of state kordell hall requesting that king line up the dominions to bring pressure on britain, not to make a soft peace with hitler. and if britain was to be defeated, then prior to this happening, the british fleet should be sailed to ports in the north american hemisphere. king wrote to churchill explaining the united states concerns. the following day, churchill responded pointing out that if the united states within the war and britain was conquered, then the fleet would be transferred from the clutches of germany. but if the united states
continued to be neutral and britain was overpowered, then he couldn't tell what policy would be adopted by a pro-german administration. king forwarded churchill's response to washington. needless to say, roosevelt and hall were most concerned with churchill's attitude which they considered was, quote, alarming and distressing. and they asked king to continue to dialogue with churchill giving the dubious reason not on the basis of an american plan, but primariy iey ies to save th british empire. king was uncomfortable being the linchpin in the correspondence, and he assured churchill of canada's continued support. which he illustrated in a radio broadcast on june the 7th, 1940.
i speak the heart and mind of our country when i say that every fort in canada will be another calais. and every harbor will be another dunker before the men and women of our land allow the light and life of their christian faith to be extinguished by the powers of evil or yield their libertiors to nazi brutality. the following month, the attitude of roosevelt had changes after churchill's action in attacking the french fleet to keep it out of hitler's control. the president was now determined to provide support which initially came in an innovative plan to provide britain with 40
destroyers. this action was welcomed by king as was roosevelt's proposal of the establishment of a joint board comprosed of an equal number of representatives from the united states and canada to devise strategies for ensuring protection of the northern half of the western hemisphere. what became known as the ogdensberg agreement basically agreed that the united states would help protect canada's territory. king and roosevelt kept in regular communications and at the request of king, they met in april 1941 at the president's home hyde park, new york. king pointed out that britain was basically bankrupt, and canada had a serious shortage of u.s. dollars. king suggested a form of barter.
canada would manufacture ammunitions for the u.s. in exchange for the purchase of american war material. while roosevelt was initially against the agreement, as it might be going too far, something manufactured in canada for the united states to lend lease to britain. however, the concerns were overcome and the hyde park declaration was a significant achievement, and ended canada's financial difficulties for the remainder of the war. on june the 1st, 1941, king broadcast to the people of britain, and this included, we have been inspired by your bravery, your undaunted courage and your determination to fight to the end. may i send to you mr. churchill
warmest greetings and remembrances. and what, to me, has been a valued friendship of many years. to us, you are the personification of britain in this, the greatest hour. churchill responded the next day to the people of canada, and this included your comradeship in this mortal struggle. cheers and fortifies of these islands. it must seem that canada, free from all pressure, so many thousands of miles away, should hasten forward into the van of the battle against the evil forces of the world. the people of great britain are proud of the fact that the liberty of action they have won through their long romantic history should have taken root
throughout the length and breadth of a continent from halifax to victoria. in august 1941, king flew to britain and spoke in a dinner in the mansion house. he started by speaking of the courage and commitment of the british people and especially of the londoners. he then addressed churchill. by the power of your eloquence, by the energy of your conduct, and by the genius of your leadership, you have galvanized a great people into heroic action. rarely equaled and never excelled in the history of warfare. king concluded with a familiar theme. that to win the war, it was necessary for the united states to be a full participant. the united states did enter the
war in december 1941, and churchill arrived to discuss strategy and speak to congress. he then traveled to ottawa to address the canadian parliament. the toronto globe and mail reported, puffing a big cigar and smiling broadly, winston churchill, the empire's great war leader, arrived today in the senior dominion to receive a welcome which he will remember to his dying day. his speech to the canadian parliament included his some chicken, some neck reference. s after he was followed by -- and the roaring lion portrait resulted one of the most famous photos in the annuls of that medium. clementine churchill later told king that she did not like the picture and neither did winston. well, king kept a low profile.
in december 1941, he addressed the pilgrims of new york. and he took the opportunity of pointing out the contribution that canada was making in the war. he gave many statistics on the canadian war production. and while many facts were difficult to assimilate, one statistic was easily understood. we are supplying 200 pounds of food per annum for every man, woman and child in the king was content to let churchill and roosevelt make the maj major war decisions with canada accepting whatever it was allotted. however, when canada was not given recognition on its imparting both the invasion of
sicily in june 1943 and motherern france in june 1944, he reacted with fury and corrections were made. with the end of the war, a general election was held in canada. the conservative opposition built its campaign and criticism of the government's handling of the war effort. where as king adopted a positive program, of future prosperity and they won a clear victory. in november 1947, king was if london for the marriage of princess elizabeth and prince phillip. he dine with churchill and by this time his opinion had changed. he wrote in his diary, i confess that as i looked at him across the table, i felt that perhaps in more respects than one he was the greatest man of our times.
king, his health deteriorating, retired in the summer of 1948 after 21 years as prime minister. this was and still is a record for longevity of a prime minister in all of british and common wealth history. king died in 1950. on january 14, 1952, winston ch churchill spoke at a dinner in ottawa on king. i made a life-long friendship with him. and i shared my grief with all canada and indeed the free world. at his death, after so many years of the faithful and skillful service to the grate clauses which we uphold today. thank you. [ applause ]
>> thank you for your kind introduction. i think my mother would have been delighted. but on the other hand, my father would have been amazed. as you might imagine, there's a lot of ground to be covered here and you'll find that i will not always read the text on the slides. so i ask you to read them as you listen to my additional comments with your active listening and talent. we've got the slides up? we going or not? go ahead, sorry.
>> thank you, john. in some 50 years this year since warren published his diary and created an uproar. yet his son tried do something about it, though he died a couple years ago, published his father's book in two volumes. in 2003 his volumes 1940, years 1940, 1945, and in 2006, covering the years 1945 to 1920. with several -- with several additions and rewriting of the last five chapters of the book where the essay was one of a few pages, and he omitted the word
decrepit and which upset the family very much. that quote, the controversy be put to rest. the controversy played out in the times in many different ways and the correspondents sort of concludes with trying to defend himself in this way saying simply he doesn't understand churchill's health issues, you don't understand churchill the last 25 years of his life. this was complete in june 1951 and hangs in the royal college of physicians. which he was president from 1941-1950 and succeeded by his friend, lord bram. some of his friends and detractors commented that this pour tr
portrait reveils much about his character and his personality thought to be somewhat cunning. and yes some 75 years since churchill met morin or morin met churchill, as would he put it. he made his way it add my rmira hous house. he stood there for some time waiting for a response and eventually the churchill made the comment, i don't know why anyone will bother to see me. this is right ridiculous. all i have is dispepsia. that's not all together true. an orthopedic surgeon published in a book about his issues. later he goes on to say that morin was a self-promotor and a matter of the spin citing culver's comment that morin was
rarely a center of event but would be invited to lunch the next day and told what happened. >> they were poej patient of morin in his private practice. each of them had pulmonary and chest problems. familiar with the general notion that churchill had a quote, weak chest. we know also that he didn't like either of these gentlemen which i suspect was someone significant as well. and he had something besides dispepsia in his past history and we don't know if morin got a full accounting of all of thesish ice. what was this weak chest? he nearly died of pneumonia.
it affected lungs while at school in brighton in 1896. hence he went to harrah's school and not to eaton which is where his father went. the sense is, why? because harris school is on a hill where the air would be less putrid. you can read this along as i go with a few comments. he was a writer before his father, general practice, insisted he two to medical school. he did go to medical school there at st. mary's. i think the most interesting correlation here is the remark that morin makes about himself here. churchill wrote also in the biography of marlboro about churchill. mr. churchill, the compression of circumstances, twinges of adversity, spur of slights and
taunts -- sorry, am i flicking on? in early years i needed to evoke that ruthless purpose and tenacious mother wit without great actions are seldom accomplished. a hint here that both of them had some sense about their own childhood. so what of his personality and his character? he served in the first world war in the trenches. he wasn't particularly interested in people coming from the front to be examined and was thought there were skrim shankers and sent back to the front. later on he catches on maybe that there is something -- sorry, i beg your pardon. later on he catches on that something else is going on here. when he is researching there, poisoning with mustard gas and bringing along a number of these young people. he gets to the sense that maybe something different is going on. and so, coming to the end of
things with the ravages of war, he really has a serious effect on the sense that this is a serious effect on the innate ability to soldier on. it is the first time you really get the sense of this comment of battle fatigue and shell shock and now what we understand to be ptsd. he wanted to get churchill's blessing on his book. he thought this would be something to be very useful in getting it published. churchill once invited a preface to the book. unfortunately morin was mistaken and churchill declined after he dipped into the text saying they might injury recruiting and besides he had no patience with all of the damned psychological nonsense. maybe this was a shadow of his black dog. oh, his plaqblack dog? oh, my goodness. one of the things that upset people most in the family is that for the first time, or they thought it was the first time, this black dog was surfacing and
had some sense of a stigma attached to that. maybe some remembered churchill's observation of psychiatrist. i shall restrict as much as possible the work of these gentlemen, capable of doing an immense amount of harm. may very easily degenerate into shy try. the ties of hand shall be kept over them. so what really did morin believe about this business of his black dog? is this more than just in fact a reaction to circumstances and thwarted ambition? or was there a trait going back as far as first two? suffice it to say that churchill was a moody man and they had to upgrade the belligerent streak and his son is eloquent in his interview with a psychiatrist about his father's mood swings. well was morin any good as a private care physician in
collecting good doctors? probably for the most part he did. so thomas dunhill was 71 years old when he operated on church and was a pioneer in thyroid surgery. he was doing a hernia. sew practiced on several national health service patients before he cut on churchill in 1947. an expert in the use of medication of mmb and was flown in from italy to consult on this drug for churchill's pneumonia in 1943. morin does not mention the bottle or his vital role in his diary. what did he think of those he chose? well, this his diary, he wasn't exactly the nicest about his two colleagues. chuck kul vin and his diary,
downing street diaries, published in 1985 comments on morin, though morin is vein, egotistical and indiscrete, his judgment is often shrewd but by all means always right. he did have some good friends. and lord richardson is the second to churchill and here he is with his wife dorothy who had become a great friend of lord richardson's wife, cybill. richardson's daughters, ann and claire to his right, both still alive. was he any good as a doctor? well, this is a particularly interesting incident. ch churchill said, well, he had a heart attack. morin is on his own. he is if washington and in the white house in december 1941.nf
white house in december 1941. w white house in december 1941. churchill calls the next morning and said i was trying to lift a window and i got this pain in my left arm. warren jumped on it. he didn't have access to an ekg machine but concluded by the description that churchill had indeed add heart attack. he said, you got to rest.hdd he. he said, you got to rest.add he. he said, you got to rest. d hea. he said, you got to rest.ad hea. he said, you got to rest. heart. he said, you got to rest. the next day he is in front of congress giving talk. then in ottawa giving a talk. then churchill thought possibly he did not have a heart take. so john parkinson's notes, which do not appear in morin's diary, he makes the point to churchill, you think you add coronary thrombosis? sir, you didn't. your ekg shows you have no damage to your heart. the best i can imagine is you have a slight embarrassment to
your heart circulation maybe angina. this leads out the idea i think a lot of people had had -- i didn't advance. i beg your pardon. sorry, i should have shown that slide. and the lead to the myth that churchill had a dicky heart. that maeneans he had to have medications for his heart very soon after that. only time he had to have digitalis is when he had double pneumonia and his heart was in fact failing. so what about the last 25 years of the churchill's medical issues?
these are pretty straight forward and the family add comment all along and that was when they felt that churchill had something wrong with him, you first called lord morin who then called for the real doctor. a lot of other things that lord morin didn't mention in his book at all, little copy to these other things, that there is very little in the diary of specific medical issues, such as blood pressure, heart rates or temperatures. one exception in january 1947 where he says, when i examined winston's arteries, i found definite hardening of the arteries but not more than one would expect after the stress of the war. i i ma'am inabout the various
medications churchill was give kwen by lord morin, as can coming on and i don't think morin was a bender of no, sir trums, he gave churchill his pills whom he put in his own pill box that he took when he felt like he needed them. fortunately there were different colors. so when it was a red, he was able to find the red. when it was green he was able to find the green. the actual pill box does exist. it is in a collection in the university of charlston south carolina. john, i just messed up again. i'm sorry. just hit that? i got it. i got it. sorry. >> the one interesting thing that warren gave to morin was amphetamines. he had his stroke in 1953. the question is would he be able no go to the conference and did a spectacular performance.
two days before, he gave him his amphetamines and he said, oh, my head is clear. he gave a spectacular performance. even smiling and laughing and in fact his son-in-law, very concerned, i'm not sure if you can see it in the back with the grim face but he was very, very anxious that that his final was going to be able to pull it off. so what does this tell us of moran's character? he was trying to get organized with the national health service coming on board. he wanted to make sure they got more money than the general practitioners. british association add different view and was very angry when he was able to succeed in that. so they thought he demonstrated
excellent skills and his opponent thought he was devious and got the nick make brings charming. and did this dog him the rest of his life? this is a portrait by lady li cybill richardson. he said, when i put down my pen, i want it make suto make sure t reported faithfully those who have talked to me about churchill. for instance, the hip repair in 1962 does not appear in the diary. certainly the event are are completely inaccurate. some physicians are not in the source notes and some are written out. just as i mentioned. but will a reason for many to be upset with the publishing of another book. lord brooke published another book in 1957 which surprised
churchill. and there were comments by lord am brooke that i don't think churchill would have appreciated. he said, churchill is the most difficult man i have worked with but i would not miss the chance of working with him for anything on earth. quickly after churchill's death, in august of 1945, publishing her book and maybe she is be absolved as she was known to be a close friend of winston. likely, agree be with the tone of her book, with churchill's statement, we are all worms but i believe i'm a glow worm. so what might be said in some degrees of commentary of others about this furor? i think to get some insight into who was as mad as all get out about the book being published, though morian said he told her
and there is no efd that he dev that he did not tell her. there is some sense that there is support in no uncertain terms of winston and so she just in general would be upset with the book being published. randolph was mad. as he was the official buying fer and felt that moran compromised the publishing of his first volume. the rest of the family, the words appear, they felt bemur muched and stig my advertised. his political colleagues eventually published a book in 1968 entitled "action this day working with churchill" to correct jer oes of perception and historic inaccuracies. what about the british medical association? well there's a resolution of abstention which he just brushed off. that the bma. but today, the release of confidential medical information on public figures is controversial. there is an article recently in
the journal of medicine tracing out fdr's medical recently release end attitude and again criticized the notion of people revealing things in a confidential thing about their patients. okay, what does this finally conclude? others have identified moran's correctness in hpublishing his diary, besides the historians, the topical question will a patient's confidence has been outraged by a physicians account of him both in his strength and in his weakness will no longerage state the reader. this is an article of about year ago when this historian really looked at the issue of confidentiality. and said probably when everything was done, moran
publishing his diary broke the code on confidentiality with notable people. is that the last word? well, i don't think so. lady psalms herself probably should have had the last word. she commented always the gracious lady you would maybe some misgivings lord moran understood winston thoroughly and was man that understood not only the medical considerations and risk to his patient but who is also fully aware of the implications with regard to the office he held and his condition at any time. i think churchill should have the last word. he relied heavily on lord moran and add great affection for him saying you kept me going for so long and actually 85 when he said this and you know he lived another five years. i think moran did become very close to churchill. as moran himself claims did help
churchill open his heart and feel better for his candor. this is closing of such intimacy of moran may have especially disturbed his family and colleagues. his revelations opened up the possibility that churchill was human after all and worthy of admiration and honor. both men's lives will be admired for generations to come. yes, admired. churchill's reputation still remains undiminished. thank you for your attention, and it's question time. [ applause ] >> thank you very much. thank you to all three the presenters for staying so closely to time. that gives us about 15 minutes or so for questions, and of course answers. so if you can raise your hand i'll identify you and if you have a question for everyone,
that's excellent. if you would like to direct it to a particular speaker, please say so. the gentleman right at the back. thank you. >> thank you. i would like to just ask a question about the atomic bomb diplomacy. you mentioned the break down in the relationship with moran's proposal but you didn't have a chaps i guess to continue what happened with the u.s./british relationship after the war. you mentioned the joint agreement signed but did the same way that perhaps bore was too idealistic, was churchill too idealistic in terms of expecting the united states to actually continue sharing the atomic diplomacy? or was he bitter when it was all -- when it broke down? thank you. >> that's a good question. >> can you hear me? is this working? can you hear me now? no? yes. okay.
okay, right. false start. it's a good question. i've reached the conclusion that for somebody who loved america so well, that sometimes i felt the churchill didn't always understand the american rules of governance. and constitutional niceties. and there are two critical agreements he reached with roosevelt during the war. one is august 1943. at quebec. that's a very important one. that's the mutual consent agreement. in other words, the bomb will not be used against a third party unless both america and the uk agree. that's one. the other one is in september 1944. that's the one i showed on the slide. and what that refers to is the desire of both fdr and churchill to continue atomic collaboration going into the peace times. so it wasn't just a war time expedient. now what happens after 1945, of
course, is that, a, fdr is dead. b, churchill kicked out of office. and c in 1946 the u.s. congress in what you could call sort of nationalist spasm decides that the bomb and whatever wart on agreements existed were immaterial. and i think probably constitutionally it was absolutely right that the executive agreements hammered out in war time did not have standing in the peace time. now churchill is aghast by the act. when he comes back in 1951 it is his firm desire, he felt those two fdr agreements were the bedrock of future -- and it had not been passed had he been in power and was a way to protect
themselves against a socialistic government in the uk. and after 1951 especially when eisenhower comes back it try to get back to those kinds of thing. was he idealistic? i think the idealism is toward the end of his life. where if you read, if you're aware of his brilliant march 1955 h bomb speeches, where he is virtually coming up with destruction, he's a nuclear visionary himself. he is coming very close to embracing towards the end of his political career the kind of things that i think anderson would have liked him to embrace earlier on. i hope that answers in some way your question. that's a great question. >> let's go to the gentleman on the close front side of the room. >> good morning. this question is directed to john. often you hear from not
churchillians, and i often hear this from churchillians, that winston churchill was an alcoholic and a drunk. and we know the famous quote that churchill said, that said something to the effect that he gets more out of the effect of alcohol than alcohol out of him. being a physician and reviewing a lot of the medical information winston churchill, was there any indication that had any of the medical problems we lated to alcohol consumption?rwe lated t alcohol consumption?ewe lated t alcohol consumption?e lated to alcohol consumption? lated to alcohol consumption?lated to alcohol consumption? >> i tried to leave that out. it is an interesting question because he clearly had a lot of alcoholic beverage. clearly he was able to handle it very well. we do know of a situation that if you steadily envibe alcohol especially as man, you are able to do more to process the
alcohol as you invibe more and more. he rarely drank quote alcoholic beverage outside of meals. when he did, he had this little whiskey snifter that lady mary showed me one day, taking a large glass and filling it up with ice and putting i think maybe more than a thimble full of scotch and soda. he would sip on it all day. probably keeping his coronaries open all day anyway. was's classic alcoholic? the answer is we only know of one time when he was completely as they say, s-canned. that is when he was actually in moscow and was meeting wi stali. they were plying them with alcohol. and eaton and churchill were
licking back the vodka. unfortunately, stalin licking back the water in his glass. in the end they walk out and his sergeant, manners, who i believe still lives in california and had the role of being his security adviser, watched them. he says, wobble down the street to their hotel and refused to get into their taxi. so that the only time i know of for sure there's an eyewitness to the fact that he was an alcoholic. one other time alluded to. lord moran caught him, thought he was drunk in the war room, so here was the barbitol on board and yes indeed he probably did wobble out from bed taking his afternoon nap. i don't think he was drunk. >> i have to say that that advice on alcohol consumption may be the most encouraging thing i've heard for a very long time. let's go to the gentleman at the book of the room now.
>> i would like to start by saying how much i appreciate the canadians arrival in england in 1940. the first canadian division arrived and they were virtually the only group or troops we had to protect us. i also appreciated them because i can remember them with our feet up on our fender in our kitchen. giving me lollipops and american comics, including little orphan annie. the question i would like to ask is that at the end of the war i believe the canadians forgive britain debt. i would like to ask, if you know, how much that was in financial terms. i'm not sure exactly here. okay. i'm not sure exactly how much
they gave. the total amount that canada gave to britain and to join the war was $3.2 billion. that was used for manufacturers and food stuffs and machinery and military equipment. but after the war, as you probably know, the united states and canada gave $5 billion. gave a loan at 2% interest and $5 billion. this was just -- came into prominence just maybe seven or eight years ago when the loan was paid off. and all i remember about that time was that the united states $3.8 billion loan was paid off. i didn't see anything about the $1.2 billion loan at the same time, which was paid off to canada. and when, as you know, not throwing the flag around too much here, but as you know, with
the united states having ten times the population of canada, mathematically canada gave over three times as much and that's the loan, the low interest. >> i think we have time for one more question, if the question and answer are both sufficiently wreef. brief /* brief. i saw the gentleman in the back there so i will turn to him.bri. i saw the gentleman in the back there so i will turn to him. >> i will direct this to the gentlemen about churchill and the bomb. i can make a couple of comments of how the soviet union addressed this at the time. the simple fact of the matter is during the teens, 20s and 30s, there are were many conferences, some of which sponsored by kneel neil spore where scientists and western scientists interacted. there is a cross of ideas.neil spore where scientists and western scientists interacted. there is a cross of ideas.
and the fact that the west took the assumption that soviets knew nothing about these matters really is in retrospect is correct. they were behind in engineering of how to con frukt a bomb with you the thee rhettics of it they had mastered. as we go forward and jump forward from mutual assured destruction, the fact is, that in peace time alone there had been a thousand nuclear detonations by testing and by war in the last four or five decades. and both the soviets and our scientists came to be very concerned about not just mutual assured destruction but assured destruction of life on this planet if a large number were brought to the surface of our devices and detonated at the same time. as it turned out, it was the green party of the russian
orthodox church to convince the committee's considering reagan's strategic defense initiative to go ahead, ignore the sdi, and proceed and accept treaties. this is a fact not commonly known, that russian orthodox church played a role in that. >> okay. very briefly. both point are very well made. and very interesting. i will just comment in return on the first point. i think it is one of the many, you could almost say, tragic incidents of history. that discovery of nuclear chain reactions merely occurs as 1939 is born. and so there is a world war looming at that year. that is what propels things forward thereafter. you're absolutely right, in the so-called international republic of science, the idea is about
nuclear fish and up to september 1939 there were martin is her win estimated something like 90 serious papers published in country after country around the world. you name it. so when all that internationallization of knowledge kind of grind to halt when the war starts, the fact is the jeannie is out of the bottle and i think people like bore, and people like anderson, and i do think his scientific background here, they knew this thing if it worked wouldn't just be a greater aggregation of tnt and so on and so forth. they knew this was a potentially apocalyptic development and very naive and prezum shoe sumptuousy could get this. bore was in favor of war time
use. anderson as well. but what you do afterwards. that was a step that churchill rightly or wrongly and i think con tektly we can understand what he did what he did, refused to take it. but your point are very well made. i appreciate them, thank you. >> thank you very much. i think we all know what we have to do after this panel, which is step outside for a couple minutes for a cup of coffee then return to andrew roberts. let me close with a thanks to all three panelists. and turn it over. [ applause ] >> i want to thank all of the panelis panelists for reaffirming the brilliance of the chairmen of the conference. we will take our break and resume promptly at 10:45. thank you.
friday, american history tv in prime time features veterans day themed programs. at 8 will okay p.m. eastern first ladies during prime time. then at the:10, first ladies in the military with laura bush and michelle obama. at 10:05, real america. featuring 1921 film, "the unknown soldier". then artifacts on woodrow wilson and world war i. then world war ii stories. on friday, the wreath laying ceremony at the tomb of the unknown soldier. followed by the veterans department at cemetery amphitheater. we will have live coverage at 121:00 a.m. eastern on c-span. >> this weekend on american history tv, on c-span 3, saturday night a little after 7:00 eastern, kings college
london visiting professor andrew roberts discusses the roll of u.s. chief of staff george c. marshal. arguing his skills transformed the army. >> this man with a beautiful manners with a was incorruptible, aun astonishingly calm considering the pressure is on him. >> then the 1921 silent film honoring the unknown soldier of world war i. >> it was tremendous. the streets of washington were lined with thousands of folks who waited for the casket to be removed and brought by the honor guard down pennsylvania avenue and then across the bridge into virginia. and i think what i've read is one of the largest turnouts for any parade in the city. >> sunday evening at 6:00
eastern, when american artifact. >> beautiful building. from the moment it opened, it was already too small for what it was about to face. constructed to handle about half million people a year and ended up handling in 1907 alone, 1,200,000 people. >> toured ellis island to learn about the experience. just before 9:00, in 1916 president wilson nominated boston lawyer louis to the united states supreme court becoming the first jew to sit on the nation's highest court. in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of his nomination, author of louis brandeis, talks about the career and legacy. >> what brandeis is trying to do here is limit the court to a very specific rule. and which limits or should limit
any one branch from exercising power beyond its described provance. >> for more information, go to c-span.org. >> next, american history tv featuring another panel from the annual winston churchill conference. historians and authors discuss the romantic information and sensitivity of sir winston churchill. this is 45 minutes. >> thank you, david. very much enjoying my first experience at the international churchill conference. and i'm very pleased to be introducing our next speaker, andrew roberts. coming from the national world war i museum and memorial with youth enjoying the center and looking forward to the partnership this weekend at the centennial symposium and i'm very excited to work with the
churchill center, and i don't know where he is right now, on a new young professionals group that will be having a churchillian event next saturday. hopefully we have a whole new wave of churchillians joining in the future. that event is completely sold out. very exciting for everyone here. as soon as works in social media 24/7, i can't help but wonder what churchill would have done if he had access to twitter. especially at 3:00 a.m. but i encourage everyone to tweet out using the hashtag churchill2016. the team at the churchill center has bb doing a wonderful job, john olson here. and andrew robert is on twitter as well. so that means it's absolutely okay. so i e-mailed andrew robert a few times before -- as i was constructing this introduction. i asked him to give a highlight
to which he replied, this is not a direct quote, i've written 13 books. so i do have the amembers honino introduce andrew roberts, 13 times over an incredible author. andrew roberts is presently a visiting professor at war studies department at king college london and lecture at new york miss core cal society. he has written or edited 19 books which is translate need 22 languag languages. his works include churchillians, hitler, and the storm of war. he is presently writing a biography for penguin which will be published in 2018. speaking today on the romantic i imagination of churchill, please welcome, andrew roberts. [ applause ]
>> ladies and gentlemen, it is great honor to to be invited to address you again and thank you megan for those kind words. i've put a book over there and not because it has anything whatsoever to do with my speech today. but simply because i believe in the power of subliminal advertising. in august 1933, churchill wrote that american audiences quote yield to none in the interest attention and good nature with which they follow a lengthy considered statement. it is up to you ladies and gentlemen to keep that tradition going. for at least the next 45 minutes. the concept of the british stiff upper lip was invented by the victorians and especially prevalent in the upper classes where it was considered in for dig to show ones emotions hopely
to where one's heart on one's sleeve. it was widely believed that the british empire itself depended on the capacity of officers and gentlemen to rise above their natural human emotion answers stay calm and collected regardless of whatever appalling thing was going on. very center of that british belief system which some including chur of hi including churchill's grandson had broken down at the death of diana princess of wales in 19 the the to be found in the british army.9 the the to be found in the british army.9 the the to be found in the british army.1999the the to be british army.he the to be found british army.1999e the to be found in the british army. the to be found in the british army.1999the to be found in the british army.he to be found in british army.1999e to be found in the british ar . to be found in the british army. a admiral w admiral horatio's, and all carrying the coffin down the halls of the cathedral was in tears as well as at least half of the all-male congregation. regency men were not expected to
have to control their emotions in the way that their victorian grandsons and great grandsons were. yet there was one victorian upper class british army officer and gentleman who cried in public to such an extraordinary extent, that it was marked upon on so many occasions that we need to regard him instead of being a victorian chronologically speaker. actually born out of his time. winston churchill was a man of such powerful, deep emotions with profoundly romantic imagination and capacity for empathy and also such a disregard of what others thought of him. that if he felt like crying, he did. such was his historical imagination too. that this astonishing lachrymosity could be unleashed at greatest occasions,
especially if music were involved mp in 1983 churchill's last private secretary, brown, was interviewed by john, about churchill's tepd ency to weep. in his early days when i was with him about three months he wept a lot, anthony told john. he told me after dinner, i blubber an awful lot, you know, you have to get used to that. he was asked, what would stimulate that. anthony replied, tales of heroism. he loved animals. noble dogs struggling through the snow to his master would inspire tears. that was touching. found it perfectly acceptable. when it come to blood, toil, tears and sweat, churchill knew about all of them and especially tears. as lord halifax described him as having a curious mixture of a child's emotion and man's reason. so here are a few occasions taking chronologically through
your churchill's life in which he is recorded as crying. on 30 september 1897, he wrote to his mother, he i rarely defect a genuine emotion in myself. his great friend, william brown clayton, was killed close to him on an expedition. i must rank it as rare instance that i cried when i saw brown clayton literally cut to pieces on a stretcher. churchill wept on sir henry wilson, commander in cheer of the british expeditionary form departing for france in 1914. i never liked him so much, wilson wrote about him. on the 10th of august that year when his faithful man servant died, he worked for his father before him. he wrote to clementine after the funeral. i lost this humble friend, devoted in true, whom i've known since i was a youth. few other aristocrats would describe his man servant as a
friend. he added there were about 40 mourners including all household who wept bitterly. it is fair to assume he could be included with them. in 1824 when baldwin asked if he would serve as chancellor, chancellor assumed it meant dutch of lancaster and said of the dutchy and baldwin said no of the aschecka and tears came into churchill's eyes wauz he said that he would be able to vindicate the chancellorship of his late father. on the death of efy smith, churchill's great friend, in 1930, last night winston wept for his friend, clementine wrote to margaret. he said, sometimes i feel so lonely np p november 1934, ivan, whose is brilliant diaries have just been published and edited
sue pee superbly by gabriel god rof ski. i was atebding ttending a weddi. churchill looked deeply moved and at one point seemed to wipe his eyes with a handkerchief. i remember how churchill shed tears at lawrence's funeral. wrote captain basil little heart. and after lunching with churchill on the 11th of december, day after his abdication p, as i saw mr. churchill off, there were tears in his eyes. but they were royalist tears. because as during the coronation of george vi, six months later at precise moment the queen consult was crowned, churchill, eyes full of tears, turned to clementine said, with you are right. i see now that the other one
wouldn't have done. during the munich crisis there was a din ear during which it was discovered that neither anthony eaton clementine would join him. make nothing further concession eats the expense of the checks. recalling how the telegram was not dispatched and one by one our friend went out defeated. winston remained sitting in his chair, immobile, frozen like man of stone. i saw tears in his eyes. i could feel the iron entering his soul. his last attempt to salvage what was left of a honor and good faith failed. i spoke of bitterness of those who refused even to put their names to principles and policies which they had professed. then he spoke, what are they made of. the day will come when we won't have signature to gives but lives. lives of millions.
can we survive when there is no courage anywhere. three days later on second of october, when cooper resigned. churchill cried again. in 1940 when harry hopkins told churchill he would get a million rifles from the usa churchill was vicely moved it tears. on the 13th of may 1940 coincidentally on the same day as blood toil tears and sweat speech, george recorded the the mp and dirist carol nicholson. tells winston how fond he is of him. winston cries slightly and mops his eyes. as church -- sorry be lord george's private secretary aj sylvester recorded. winston's eyes filled with tears. he buried his head quickly in his left hand and wiped his face. on the fourth of july 1940 he cried after the decision to sink
the french fleet. when churchill finished his seat and the whole house irrespective of party affiliation jumped to its feet and applauded the prime minister for several minutes. loud powerful ovation. sitting on the treasury bench, tension draining, churchill lowered his head and tears ran down cheeks. a strong scene. at least a real leader was the cry ek yog through the lobbies. winston left the house and of course winston churchill's private secretary of the day, recorded of that occasion winston left the house viably affected. i heard him say to alicia, this is heart breaking for me. visiting an air raid shelter after the first big raid of the blitz on the 8th of september 1940. churchill in the words after
letter from the military second to the war cabinets broke down completely at his welcome. you see, he cares. he really cares, a woman called out. he's crying. f two months later, another mp and to lord halifax noted at nefl chamberlain's funeral, winston had the decency to cry when he stood by the calfin. one of those present, american an bas ambassador wrote in his memo, this was hard for churchill to not be overcome with emotion. we had two lovely films after dinner. waun called squot escape "and
the other was a comedy called "quiet wedding." also several short reels from the ministry.other was a comedyt wedding." also several short reels from the ministry.was a comedy calle wedding." also several short reels from the ministry.other was a comedyt wedding." also several short reels from the ministry. winston managed it cry through all of them, lady cooper wrote, including the comedy. in 1941 there were tears in churchill's eyes when he met the japanese ambassador. when george was asked why, he was told with a smile, tears in his eyes, yes, that happens to winston. he is a very emotional man. so what. now he has tears because he wants to crush hitler. within a year he may have tears because of the shock and horrors of war. things change. needless to say, because of lord
george to have made. in 1841 elizabeth nell joins the typing team taking dictation from the prime minister. sometimes his voice would become thick with emotion and occasionally a tear would rundown his cheek. the next month he cried when visiting the destroyed chamber of the house of commons. didn't make any attempt to wipe away the tears. when in june 1941 following month therefore, spy chief, met churchill in london. the permanent undersecretary at foreign office in theed the prime minister crying the following month also while watching that hamilton woman, great lawrence owe live yay vivian lee movie about nelson. on the next month, on a
journalist present noticed how churchill was affected as i knew he would be. his handkerchief stole from his closet. that november, writing to his brother tom about the effect of the bombing of cities and wait it affected churchill personally, in particular he wrote to the prime minister's extreme sensitiveness to suffering. i remember some years ago his eyes filling up with tears when he talked of the suffering of the jews in germany. while i recall the tones in which looked -- he looked at blitzed houses and said poor little homes. it is a side of his character that is not always appreciated. the very fact ladies and gentlemen that so many people mentioned it, shows in it and of itself how unusual it was for men to cry in public in those days. even something as mundane as
lunch for lobby journalist on 9th of march 1942 set off churchill's water works. major general john kennedy recalled one on that particular day with a good pararacing with tears that brought him applauds. he was moved to tears in cabinets by a speech by christian smuts, prime minister of south africa. next know cried again during the army that and begin in tripoli in february in the 51st division. the bands beautifully turned out and near lay hundred strong led the march called "colonel m. jake opd, to the cabinet. down in the cloudless sky when the union jack from the star set up over an arch way on the upper part of the ruined castle and armed century stop. all around with veterans of the eighth army standing in the lost
city of mussolini's empire, no wonder the tears rolled down the prime minister's cheeks as he took the salute of one of our finest divisions. the bitter moment in the white house when tabrooke fell was swallowed up in the joy in the morning of tripoli. when the prime minister was taken to visit the saub marine crew, churchill made a delightful speech and he came way with tears running down his cheeks. cunningham feared actually on that occasion. he talked about always talk walking in the valley of shadow of death. it certainly didn't seem to effect the morale of the submarine crews that day. that november during the cairo conference, one day after lunch with the president, churchhill asked his daughter, sarah, to arrange to go to the pyramids to
see if he could get cloegs enough -- close enough to take fdr there. mr. president, you simply must come to see the sphinx and pyramid, and sink back again, churchhill turned away and said, we'll wait for you in the car. outside, sarah, saw that his eyes were bright with tears, i love that man, he said simply. the end of that same conference in sarah's words, as it was thanking giving we had turkey. the president carved the giant turkey like a skilled professional. made speeches afterwards, the par with tears flowing down his cheeks. band composed of american boys played beautifully in the background and everyone sang. new year in 1944, saw church hill seriously hill with
pneumonia. he made an unexpected return to the house of commons. he was flushed with pleasure and emotion and hardly has he sat down when two large tears began to trickle down his cheeks. he marked this clumsily with a hugehandkerchief. my friends told them, when the guards club -- sorry, when the guard's chapel was hit and 121 people were killed in 1944, he saw the arc lights shining on the ceiling and illuminating winston churchhill who stood on the rubble weeping. after deliberation in 1944, church hill was presented an attractive ox. on opening the casket, recorded one onlooker, he found it contained not a scroll, but the
nazi flag that had flown over the town hall during the occupation and the tears poured down his cheeks. he cried in april 1945 at fdr's memorial service, also when he visited the grave after the war. on the fourth of may, they were celebrated drinks, fourth of may 1995, celebrated with the chiefs of staff. and there, kworgt allen brooks diary, tears in his eyes for all he had done. one of the chief of staffs. later that month in the coalition after the coalition government had broken up. church hill was at home for those who had served there
during the war. he wrote in his diary of how standing behind the familiar green bay's cabinet table now draped as a buffet. he addressed this with tears streaming down his cheeks. he said we had all come together, let's stay together as united band of friends in a very trying time. history would recognize this. the lights of history will shine on helmets, he said, two months later, patrick and elizabeth sat crying with him when the results of the 1945 election came through. so did the tears. in may 1947, the french politician presenting -- presented the military to impeccable choice having won as a sergeant during the defen wept with emotion during his speech. particularly delighted by the sadly story that had the right
to be driven home without charge by the police. there's a photograph on the zercht of may on the congress of europe and there was another moment for church hill during a conservative party meeting, the same month. the council of europe in 1949, he was acclaimed in the city by cheering crowds. he wept. he spoke in french and gave wisdom and guidance to the council. when on returning to office in 1951. church hill learned the government had decided should no longer be played by the air force or the canadian navy. he had the, by now, defense minister complain to the prime
minister. he almost decided that he would council his visit in 1952 after the matter. he was persuaded to -- persuaded not to, according to, threatened to close down and move by the sea. when he disembarked from the sleeper at the station opposite the chateau, the world canadian air force struck up and church hill wept and from then on in the words, nobody ever dared to utter even mildest criticism of or of canada. the death had the effects that you would, by now, at this point in my speech have expected. when i went to the prime minister's bedroom, he was sitting alone with tears in his line looking straight in front of him and reading neither his official papers nor his
newspaper. i have not realized how much the king met him. i tried to cheer him up, but all he could say he did not know her and she was only a child. he nonetheless went down down to meet and took jane to whom he dictated in the car who recalled how he was in a flood of tears. he later broke down in tears when rehearsing his speech, the one he was going to deliver to the house of cards. the following year on the death of king's mother, nicholson recorded, queen mary dies at 1020 and winston announces it in songs at 10:45. jane's son, the present archbishop remembers him being in tears when he'll be visited number 10 as a boy. only yesterday i heard that winston church hill also use to cry when he would recite such as
the lays of an comment rome. on july 1955 the oxford historian al rouse visited it. we talked about the zijing of the bismark, he recalled. he spoke effectingly of how bad it was to wake up in the morning and hear the news of a great british ship. what was the name of that ship, yes, the hood he said, tears in his eyes. in 1950s when sarah church hill reminded him how he told her back in 1922 she needed to grow up. i looked her up to him and to my surprise found his eyes wiped with tears. church hill rang waiverly, ava anderson saw it earlier today to console her on the death of her second husband, john anderson and ended by shedding tears when discussing her first husband.
at august, brendon died of e f esophagus cancer. he took up his seat in the house of commons. there are reports he went on hearing the news of president kennedy's assassination that he certainly did on his own birthday in 1964. the american journalist charles e frank who went to london to cover church hill's funeral two months later wrote of how many recall church hill himself of tears pride of humility, story and photos were relished. they should be, they show an intensely emotional man, completely with the prevailing stiff upper lip. i would like to thank john for pointing out that church hill has even been recently diagnosed with the specific illness, known
as pba be doctor of neurology in charlotte, north carolina. however as john points out that this condition could only have taken place after his stroke in 1953 when his specialist noticed the increase in the nationality in church hill. as we've seen, he was clearly profoundly emotional throughout his life. he felt things and expressed itself again and again. and if anyone here can think about the documented times he cried out, i would love to know i've been building up his file the last 20 years. and in that letter about the death of his brother officer brown in -- he told his mother, i think a keen sense of necessity or in justice would make me sincere but i rarely detect genuine emotion in myself. all too often this has been taken at face value.
i think, now, especially considering this sheer number of times that he cried, we can discard it. plenty of people get emotional at weddings and funerals. but church hill cried of those, but as well, also, at resignations, movies, the blitz, the sinking of the french fleet, holocaust and parades, and noble dogs struggling through the snow. he had the moral courage necessary to cry when all of his contemporaries were keeping stiff upper lips. there's nobody else who comes anywhere near the church and amongst his contemptist. as we can see, winston church hill was a slaf to his emotions. because they were fine and honorable ones, this is something that we should -- we should applaud. the decision to fight on against the zwrer mans after dawn, it's
not much emotional decision as anything. certainly it didn't seem to have much rationality as military decision at the time. we can be thankful that church hill wore his heart on the sleeve in the extraordinary way that he did. thank you very much. david tells me we have 15 minutes four q and a. it does not have to be about >> david tells me we've got 15 minutes for q and a, it doesn't haven't necessarily need to be just about this subject, whatever you like. john. >> thank you for coming, a couple of assistance to you to me. to pick up on that last point of pvp. clearly, church hill was a very emotional man and laughed. but by the time he had had his first stroke in 1949 and in '53,
the sense i get is that there were times when it was sort of unprovoked. you can understand circumstances of funeral when we're starting to tear up for the notion you walk into the front door and start tearing up, not necessary expect that. that's more of a feature of pbb, sort of palsy that, in fact, you can be emotional on top of that, the sort of times will be totally unexpected. >> how interesting, i haven't heard of him just crying for absolutely no reason whatsoever. i think all of the ones that i've been trying to track down do have an actual stimulus to them. so if you -- if you can come up with examples of times that you -- he just cries, do tell me, i'll add them to this list. it will be medical expression for what the sign out for emotion to the actual tear
ducts. but as i say, i've only been found outside stimulus for this. >> the rights of man, everything like that. and the battle of the republic on board the great ship. but i know that church was greatly effected when six months later the prince wells and repulse was singapore and i was always told that influx of tears over that. >> thank you. that's really helpful. and, of course, if you cried over the sinking of the hood by bismark, then one can certainly understand and so many of the
ships that we fault the second level with, have been put down admiralty, of course, so he knew these ships. he knew the man in them extraordinarily well. it makeser fekt sense if he cried when those two great ships were sunk in 1941. >> hi, wonderful, of course. i actually do really remember being one of our great pleasures was a -- sometimes it went wrong when the tracks went off. but grandpa pa definitely cried. he cried all sorts of films -- one of them lady hamilton. but the one, i particularly, we had many many times was city lights about the fly girl and charlie chapman was a great friend of his, too, he cried, i know, during that film. >> thank you very much.
that's marvelous to know. anyone else. >> i have a question about an occasion when winston church hill should have cried and that was jefferson, his representative here in washington during world war ii. i don't know how many people in the audience know about, but he was church hill's representative on the joint chiefs of staff died here in november 1944 was given funeral here and buried in arlington, is the only member of another nation's military, i believe, who was buried in arlington. church hill referred to his dilly dally, and i read about masters and commander was curious, if church hill ever really re-evaluated his opinion. >> yes, it's interesting question. i think one can expect him to cry if everyone dies.
you know, it will hard on him to expect that, it strikes me. the burial plot of field marshall is one of the magnificent cemetery, of course, is magnificent. but any of you are going to visit it at all, do go to see sir john dill's grave. because it has a full scale e questions streeian statute of the marshall. it's in such extraordinary detail that the -- the medals that are on his breast, you can tell the individual medals, including the ro sets that are placed on certain medals. this is in the most extraordinary kind of representation.
so, yes, he did dilly dally because he wasn't impressed with the way in which he chaired the chiefs of staff. and that was why in december 1941 he swapped him with -- or at least he sent him off to america and brought in brook who he knew he would have lots of problems with and have lots of arguments with and boy did he, you only have to look to see that he did. and there are occasions when brook would sit in front of church hill in chiefs of staff meetings, breaking pencils in half, saying, no, i disagree with you prime minister. must be very off putting to have a sort of tall strong angry break pencils in your face. but nonetheless, he appreciated that it was really important to have somebody who would say no to him. unlike so many politicians who would love to surround himself
with yes, man. he surrounded himself with no man, knowing he would have to win the argument in order to get what was needed to be done, done. and that shows, i think, tremendous amount of morale courage. >> wonderful point how inston nev -- winston never said no. facing directly opposite where winston seats the three chiefs of staff and there was a great place in front of them, which has never moved and e from queen victoria that defeat is not an option in this house and i think it sums up perfectly the position, the commanders could argue with him, but not over
victory. >> i like the way this is turning into a church hill seminar. >> there have been reports that winston wept or dabbed his eyes when watching the film of the burning of dead bodies, after the destruction of dresden, of course he was followed by church hill's note in which he questions the policy of the german cities at that time. of course there's a tremendous push back from harris. and i would be very interested to hear your comments about that. >> yes, the phrase that you're referring to is are we baess.
which immense detail in my book. is highlighted as the sort of most outrageous act of the combined offensive. i do not see it in that way at all. i think it was necessary both to because the russians had asked us to do this and to smash the railway lines connecting east and west because they were moving men from the west to try to shore up their position on the east and front, the germans. the large numbers who died there, the large be the fault of the light who unbeknownst to the british and americans have built know deep air shelters in dresden except for himself and his family.
and many other factors that one can go into the creation the way in which it was killed some 20,000 people, which is nothing like, ladies and gentlemen, the 120,000 people, states, let alone stated at the time of the bombing. so, look, there are operational reasons for that, did it effect winston church hill, yes, of course. and there's something magnificent about that, to be able to cry over the enemies, as well as your own, i think shows universist that was mentioned yesterday by canvas, about the way in which he was able to say in his speech -- if -- he would hopefully be fighting in the field immensely controversial thing to say. he went on saying the same kind
of thing when he praised rummel, which was, you know, is a good general. it's not the kind of thing you hear during wars, but nonetheless, it showed that he has a capacity for largeness, for big statements and that, i think, was the reason that he cried over the deaths in dresden. the question, are we beast, it's a good one for him to have asked, but i don't believe that we were beast. i think the key thing was is that all of those men, harris, included, were desperate to end the second world war as soon as possible and church hill is being advised as others, the way to do this was to destroy german capacity to produce. when you look at the -- i've actually gotten one of these grafts in my book, it goes up
and up and up until other cities in 1943 and then it cuts off and it doesn't get down, as you wouldn't expect it to. it looks that expo nenl kind of trajectory that it had up until that point. and so i think church hill comes out very well, indeed, from that. >> one more question, whoever get it is mike first, i think, basically. >> thank you. you have an ensiclowe -- enshy clowe peadic -- people who had a little bit more of display of this kind of emotion. >> i think it would be helpful in your presidential election at the moment, for the candidates
to cry, rather than the whole of the rest of the nation. with regard to as being a man who would be moved to tears. he was profoundly emotional man and he cried a lot. otherwise, it not a trade off and founding in great leaders and so i thought that was the reason that it would be worthwhile to collect these examples that would be happening, and thank you very much indeed, randolph and allen for coming out with a few extra ones. ladies and gentlemen, thank you very much indeed.
10:35 american artifacts. at 11:15 p.m., world war ii veterans stories. coming up friday morning afghanistan and iraq veteran will join us. they'll talk about their military experiences and their transition back to civilian life. also, health care journalists and arthur of suzanne will be on to talk about issues facing veterans. be sure to watch washington journal live at 7 eastern friday morning. join the discussion.
>> fort knox was chosen because of america's most location. it was the depository, there have been lots of gold already transferred there. and so secretary of the treasury, henry morgan, gives permission to use a portion of the depository for these documents. >> sunday night on q and a, arthur talks about the decision to move america's most important historical documents to fort knox on december 26th, 1941. >> has to make a decision, what documents are going to be there. the original engrossed declaration, the original engrossed constitution indefinitely. the articles of federation preconstitution, for sure. the gettisburg address considered critical. he makes this decision very methodically, i think, on what's
going to go to fort knox. these are considered the most valuable documents in the country. and it's he's been asked to preserve for the break. >> sunday night on q and a. >> chris was born in washington, d.c. but grew up in wisconsin where he earned all of his degrees at the university of wisconsin, including his first degree in political science. so i'm happy to welcome him as a fellow political scientists. if you want to know about things
as trans atlantic ocean liners, the history of commercial aviation, military communications, including i dare say heel og gra fi and other kind of things i can recommend his more than two dozen books to you. but for many years, he's has a great interest in winston church hill. and as someone who enjoys all of church hill's books and also books about church hill, i can recommend, especially, chris sterling's book reviews and finest hour to you, which are wonderful for distinguishing between books that must be read and books that one ought not to read. he's, of course, been a working journalist. he was a professor and then, for a while, on the dark side, even a dean at the george washington
university. and in all of these years of the church hill center, now, again, the ics endeavors to establish a permanent home in washington was a great friend of this effort, which is now coming to fruition today. so i'm delighted to introduce chris sterling to talk on church hill in washington. >> thank you, jim, i sent to david last night, what had i done wrong. how had i made him unhappy. number one, to be the last speaker after lunch comes after
round trip ong one of those when it was incredibly rare to fly one way across the atlantic, let alone both ways by the time he was done. so over six decades he came to the united states 16 times half of those 13 trips came after the well-known world war ii trip. very first one was in 1,900. he came as a young man and yet even so thanks to the fact that he had good social connections
he was 25-26 and he gets to meet the president. it starts something that builds over time the next trip is 1929 and that's the longest gap in this whole series. he comes in 29. he had just left the chancellor ship. he was traveling as a private citizen they were on this wonderful long trip around the country staying with the incredible place now at state park in california in 1942,
jumping ahead and i'll come back, he took that round trip on the boeing 3/14. only in 1943 did he come twice in the same year. i am convinced that this had to do with me. i was hatched in this town as jim said, in april of 43, sir winston came to check me in may and came back in august to make sure i was still here and all is well. sadly, i don't remember these, i wish i did. i was living up in cleveland park just a few miles from the white house. i want to talk next about some of the -- reviews about visits to congress and visits to
parliament, specifically. on three of his trips he addressed a joint session, when addressing one is unusual. we've already heard about that first one where he made the very may fous statement if his father had been american and his mother, british, as he said. i feel i might have got here on my own, and the congressman enjoyed that and remembered him. during his longest trip to washington, he made a side trip up to ottawa and has already been mentioned. he had this famous photograph taken. most of you have probably heard the story. this is not about washington. it's about ottawa. he had just addressed the canadian parliament. he comes in to the anteroom. he's briefly introduced to a very young photographer. and you've heard the story, i assume it's true.
but somebody here set it straight. that looking it wasn't quite the right image. he reached forward and took the cigar out of either churchhill's mouth or hand and then immediately flashed the picture. what you're looking at is churchhill wondering who is this young welt and why did he just do what he did. as we also know, i think there's a second day and third photograph. the second one is the cover of the program for this conference, which the family did like better, he is smiling. he's not looking quite as angry this, of course, is the iconic picture that virtually everybody remembers and has seen before. congress, by the way. did not forget him after all those visits. when he died in 1965. congress stood up, most of them and said something about sir winston, most of the remarks
forgettable, which is probably why they were published in one of these hard cover black volumes that congress will issue members when think die. now what about the prisons. ten of the trips, as he put it, were to parlay, his word, to parlay with american presidents. the four are easily the best known and they were the longest visits. we can argue they were the most important because they helped to define the direction of the war, at least, for the an glow american side. but i want to look, as i said, i want to look at the post war trips. he came to visit them relatively new president true man in 1946. the trip, then, included the
famous uncontroversial iron speech that we've heard mentioned several times. the wonderful long trip out to jefferson, missouri, drinking, talking, maybe getting some sleep, i'm not sure. and then the car to fulton. i want to recommend because i'm betting most of you have never been in fulton. it's a little out of the way. i strongly recommend you go. it is a wonderful visit, very peaceful, small town, small campus with that christopher church totally reconstructed having to destroy during the war. that's why you need to do two things if you go to fulton. again this is not washington. for a moment i have a podium upstairs, the christopher redone and i was there luckily once when the oregon was playing and you could really imagine it back at its original london location. and then downstairs, very
spectacular church hill museum dramatically redone five or six years ago now well worth it. all right. so he comes four times to see true man, three times to see eyesen hour, i mentioned the first trip to see true man. they have a brief meeting in blair house, not because he's unimportant, but although he is out of power, as he was in 46, but because the white house was being rebuilt and the troou man's live in blair house most of that period of type. in 1952, january of '52, church hill now, back, of course, back in power. focused on his attempts that were very very strong as we've heard several people say in his second period as of here, focused on, number one, the attempt to rebuild, strengthen
special relationship, which, of course, had been fdr and church hill, not true man who was so out of the loop he didn't know about the atomic bomb until after fdr died and he was briefed. finally, 1953, church hill hosted at dinner, i believe, at the british embassy for the then out going harry true man and his top aids. . sarm trip. he sees in new york, begins to rekindle, which may have been stronger in church hill's mind than they were in ike's, little hard to tell if you follow events over the coming years, that seems to be a point.
in 1954 on the second event, and shortly before he left downing street. church hill tries to get to agree to developing a summit meeting with the soviet. and it is a new team headed. eisenhower wasn't having any of it. part of it, i think john foster dulles, wonderful cook. . he was -- he was totally unimpressed with john, who took a rather black and white view view of the world. he wasn't having the notion of the summit meeting. the american government was not at all convinced this was the time. the feeling was this might be perceived as a sign of weakness and so it was in time, this was
perhaps, the biggest sad moment and that's under stating it. in church hill's professional life after the war that he could not get that summit meeting and then the summit meeting actually takes place after he has left downing street. his last visit to seek ike is in 1959. and he is, of course, churchhill, is, of course, is retired. he visits with ike here and also in ike's farm and they overlook some of the famous battle scenes in the american civil war. that was also an interesting trip. it was his 13th and last to washington, barring one thing, which i'll get to. and it was his first run trip by jet airliner. in 1959 that was still relatively rare, jets had gone into service only the year
before, but comic was britain's attempt to win a piece of the market in airlines and there i go on a different hobby of mine, sorry. in 1963, that's one slide too soon. i hit a button. but i'll leave it there because it's a positive thought. in 1963, in a sense, he has one more trip. he cannot come himself. he is too weak and ill, but. >> i think, time, for some q and
a, i realize, we're holding you up from lunch. we've taken away the slide so you don't get too carried away. where is our mike? okay. >> you had 11 sliz its, 10 visits to presidents, but but the visit with true man after they had left the white house. >> it was just as he was leaving. the real problem, i shared something with sir winston. had never been a strong point of mine. i may have possibly miscounted even with very very small numbers. other questions.
>> church hill's visit to the white house. >> we all know the story of winston church hill before president roosevelt saying something to the effect, you see mr. president i have nothing to hide. could you comment on the significance of that meeting and possibly the circumstances of how it came about, we're led to believe sir winston church hill invited in the south and the rest, of course, being history. >> they weren't sure they wanted church hill on their laps. he came over, i think it's a very important meeting. it was first serious wartime
meeting all country, therefore it's not talking about both countries were at war. it was the first, i would argue serious face to face attempt to develop policy and particularly, particularly the europe first, the germany first. there was great portion, especially, in the american navy and admiral came to go at the war on the pacific and japanese as the real push in europe wasn't that crucial. i think that meeting part kept the german first very much alive. question here, one more.
sir. >> i had what's an obvious question. you speak of his discussion in congress that had his father been american and his mother british, he might have gotten there on his own. wasn't he also an american citizen, no, he did not, officiall officially. >> i'm looking for confirmation, or jenny, i'm looking for
>> we're absolutely thrilled, jenny and i to be here with you this evening, to share with you this very special history of your great city and also our family. can i ask, how many of you here are from brooklyn? quite a few of you. great. well, that's absolutely fantastic because jenny and i l also feel very much part of brooklyn, as well. tina, i want to thank you for being such a dedicated supporter. you have been absolutely magnificent and it has really brought so much life to the legacy of my great grandfather. jennifer, thank you very very much for all you have done and to the students of hunter and all your supporters for coming
here this evening to support us. the college is clearly thriving and i just wonder whether the college was founded in 1870 and jenny was born in 1854. is it not possible that she might have had some studies, but history doesn't tell us the answer to that, so i'm absolutely thrilled to be here and thank you very very much jennifer, very warm welcome and we're very keen to make sure that everybody gets a great opportunity, and particularly, goals in this generation. i brought two special guests of my own, this evening. it is particularly that my sister and the name sake of our great great grandmother, jenny is here with me tonight. she will naturally be paying an important role in tonight's p proceedings.
we're also fortunate who have been absolutely magnificent and provides so much support to everything churchhill. and he also, looks after -- has the responsibility of looking after lady thatcher's archive, which includes her handbags. . this talk will be slightly different from those who receive in this excellent series, and i am not a historian. i am not an outside observer. i am family -- my own career has been in the i proposed to my
wife on the statten island ferry. i did not know my famous great grandfather as i was born a couple of days before his death. ever since i can remember i have been aware of his influence, not just from those around me, but from those people all over the globe and, especially here in the united states. i was brought up, surrounded by many of his treasures belonging to him and by those who knew him best. i now live just a stones throw from his home at chapel and since my father's death. i have become charity of many organizations that work so hard to keep the legacy alive. from this unique perspective. i can tell you how important our american heritage is to my family. that is why tonight here in the city, i want to put a spotlight on church hill's extraordinary
mother, jenny jerome of brooklyn, new york, the woman who became lady randolph church hill. she was a passionate vital and dynamic personality who launched the career of her eldest son, winston. but before we embark on jenny, let's start for no evening is complete with church hill humor. this is out for the evening, a female reporter in new york once asked church hill, doesn't it thrill you to know every time you make a speech, the horde is packed over flowing. whenever i feel this way, i always remember that if it's instead of making a political speech, and matters were
further -- somebody caught me here this evening is the daughter who brought winston back to good care. but any way, this certainly appealed to winston, when he was in the hospital, he under the supervision of doctor oto who prescribed for winston as part of his recovery, requiring him to have alcoholic spirits 200 cubic centimeters four times a
day. in the 1950s he had dedication ho asked may i have water. winston reported -- drink it too. strong drink, responds i have been long looking for a drink like that. very apt for the times we currently live in. but many people said he said was that americans could always be trusted to do the right thing once all other possibilities are
being exhausted. it's impossible for the sacrifice that was made in securing victory, not in just one, but two world wars. church hill only became prime minister after it had become clear that the policies had failed appeasement may have been born of the desire to avoid another war, but in the end, it had given hitler all he had needed to dominate europe. later reflected i saw it all coming and cried aloud and to the war, but no one paid any attention. i felt walking with destiny and that all my past life within
weeks sr. surrendered no one foresaw such a military defeat. if it had not been for the miracle of kirk and the extraordinary evacuation for the royal navy we might have lost the entire force, some 340,000 men were plucked off the nearby. churchill's first speech as prime minister on 30 may 1940 illustrates his determination to lead from the front and put heart back into the nation. you ask what is our aim. i can answer in one word -- victory. victory at all costs. victory in spite of all terror. victory however long and hard the road may be for without victory there is no survival. and i have nothing to offer but
blood, toil, tears the and sweat. britain was alone in europe supported only by her empire and commonwealth. she resolutely endured the blitz and the nazi onslaught until the germans foolishly invaded the soviet union. japan decisively changed the course of the war with their appalling attack in december 1941 on pearl harbor. churchill knew at that moment the great republic, as he termed your country, would come to liberate the old world and their mother country. and he felt confident that the result would not now be in doubt. before we turn properly to jennie and her influence on churchill's life, i must set in context various things. it might be inspiring for any struggling student to know that for four years churchill was held back in the bottom class. indeed, he only got to sandhurst
academy on his third attempt. churchill's parents initially saw few signs of greatness in their son. he rebelled against authority even after being viciously beaten at school. he refused conventional learning. and he was always in trouble. his school reports, which you read there, indicate that he was only consistent in his inconsistency. and in a letter from lord randall to his son in august 1893 when winston was 19 years old, lord randolph wrote, my dear winston, i am rather surprised at your tone of exultation over your inclusion in the sandhurst list. there's two ways of winning an examination, one incredible, the other reverse. you have, unfortunately, chosen the latter method and appear to be much pleased with your success. the first extremely discreditable feature of your performance was missing the infantry for in that failure is
demonstrated beyond reputation your slovenly happy go lucky harum-scarum style of work for which you've always been distinguished at your different schools. never have i received a really good report of your conduct in your work from any master or tutor you've had from time to time to to deal with. always behind hand, never advancing in your class, incessant complaints of total wont of application and this nature which was constant in your reports has shown the latter results clearly in your last army examination. sadly, and it was with great regret to winston and he thought about this a great deal in his later life. lord randolph died when his son was only 20 years of age so he assumed that churchill would be one of those upper class wastrels. yet, with the responsibility of being head of the family, churchill rose to the challenge
and, as i will relate later, helped by his amazing mother, he made his name as a brave soldier and a daring war correspondent. he saw action in cuba, india, africa. it's extraordinary to think this man, who lived to see yuri gagarin travel into space in 1961 also participated in one of the last great calvary charges in the historic battle in the sudan in 1898. it's extraordinary how technology has moved ahead. some things change, some do not, for perhaps it's even more extraordinary to remember that young winston fought in those very same valleys of afghanistan and pakistan where american and british forces are serving bravely today. in the first world war, after the disaster whereas first lord of theed a mir alty, churchill sought to open a new frontal gallipoli away from the trenches and the barbed wire on the western front.
he resigned from government, and i don't think you'd have any minister or congressperson do this and he went to serve on the front line with the soldiers. winston was a man of action and he understood how the ordinary man an soldier felt. how many near misses he with death was extraordinary. he always believed in his own destiny. winston was also a great man of words. it is now extraordinary but it's 50 years on from the day john f. kennedy was assassinated in november 1963. earlier that year on the 9th of april was the first person to be made an honorary citizen. kennedy proclaimed win the had mobilized the english language and sent it into battle. i will now show a very brief clip from december 1941 just
after pearl harbor where winston addresses the joint houses of congress and there's a lovely excerpt about his mother. >> to think that my american forebearers after so many generations played their part in the life of the united states and that here i am, an englishman, welcomed in your midst makes this experience one of the most moving and thrilling in my life, which is already long and has not been entirely uneventful.
i wish indeed that my mother whose memory i cherish across the veil of years could have been here to see it. by the way, i cannot help for reflecting that if my father had been american and my mother british instead of the other way around, i might have got here on my own. >> so very good. so let's turn to the extraordinary coincidence of fate that caused lord randolph here to meet jennie jerome 140 years ago in 1873 on a small island called kyles in the isle
of white where queen victoria went each summer. i will now ask my sister jennie to come up and join me for what better way to tell the story of randolph and jennie than from their own words and their own letter. in case you were wondering i will take the part of my great-great-grandfather also randolph churchill and jennie will assume the role of her great-great-grandmother. so excuse me but this is randolph and jennie in the roles of randolph and jennie. 140 years ago a beautiful american girl and a young british airist o accurate met by chance. lord randolph was the youngest son of the duke of marlboro. jennie jerome had been living with her mother and sisters in paris without their meeting on the isle of white in 1873 there
would have been no winston churchill. without that meeting it well may be that many of us in this hall tonight would not be here today. but my sister jennie and i would not be here. so we offer the following story in homage to our namesake and great-grandparents. >> of course, leonard jer open, jennie's flamboyant father knew the isle of white well. his ancestors were first on the island in 1710, either as islanders or fleeing from france as french protestant hugo naughts. leonard returned and was one of the conspirators of the union club in new york in 1866 when a bet had been placed of which leonard was the guardian for the first race across the atlantic that december known as the world's first ocean race. in a dramatic race, the hen reetta arrived at the island on christmas day have a having trfled up to 18 miles in one
day. she scooped up the first prize of $90. in 1871, 1872 and 73 leonard went to the island for his family having been present to prince and princess of wales, jennie, her sister and mother were invited to a dance at the invitation of queen victoria's son, the prince of wales, on the guardship hmsariadne on the 12th of august 1873, 114 years ago. >> what's quite remarkable is we have the invitations still, both that jennie and lord randolph kept. jennie was 19, randolph 24. he arrived from the royal yacht squadron steps to see jennie and her sister clarita talking with
merry people. she worn a dress adorned about fresh flowers. randolph arranged an introduction. though he suffered from headaches from dancing, something that carries on in the family, he asked jennie to dance, a quadrill of which he was unsure of the steps. after wards they sat and talked and talked sipping champagne. he was captivated by the grey-eyed beautiful jennie. her effect on him was powerful and he was captivated by the young a ris o accurate. it was love at first sight. >> jennie convinced her mother to invite lord randolph to dinner at the rented villa rosetta. randolph, of course, was delighted to accept. the dinner was a success. the jeromes kept a french cook so the food was excellent. the night was beautiful with an occasional breeze and bright stars in the sky. afterwards, jenniy confided in clarita se had a presentment this was the man she would marry.
many years later she recorded that they had spent a very pleasant evening, my sister and i, playing duets at the piano and chatting merrilmerrily. >> after they left, randolph confided to his friend, the colonel, he would like to make the dark one his wife. >> jennie and randolph met the next day by accident. when she took her daily walk along the island's esplanade and he walked his pug dog pugle, but mrs. jerome refused to allow jennie to invite him to dinner. however, jennie implored and as the following day was rand dolph's last on the island, her mother relented. she received a handwritten invitation on the back, i shall be most happy to see you at dinner this evening. truly yours, c.h. jerome. it was once again a bewitching evening at villa rosetta. jennie played the piano.
she later described randolph's proposal to her at this their third meeting. she wrote that she and randolph had walk in the garden, when finding ourselves alone for a moment, he asked me to marry him and i said yes. we agreed not to say anything to my mother as she would not understand the suddenness of it. they were engaged to be marry within two days of meeting. >> and i i think you can see why randolph was so keen to propose to jennie. she was such a beautiful girl. jennie and randolph met the next day -- randolph was met to leave the following morning but postponed his trip sending jennie this note, dear miss jeannette, i missed my boat and have not been able to go so shall not start until early monday. thank you so much for the which is much better than the others. shall hope to see you after church tomorrow. you see, i keep turning up like
a bad shilling. randolph kept his invitation card for that first dinner in his black metal box amongst his most treasured possessions for the rest of his life. >> jennie also kept her invitation to the dance on hmsariadne and marked it off, to meet randolph. >> they agreed for the time being it must remain secret. randolph postponed his departure another four days. >> before randolph finally left, jennie told her mother about the engagement. when mrs. jerome heard the news, she was not at all pleased. she believed that a second son like randolph was not much of a catch and felt that her daughter could do so much better. mrs. jerome told her that she could never agree to anything so precipitous. jennie wrote to her father in new york saying she was engage. he replied provided always he is not a frenchmen or any of those
continental cusses. jennie wrote to randolph that same evening, i cannot bear to have you leave the island without a last good-bye. i have told mama who although she likes you very much won't hear of it. but i'm sure we shall easily get her on our side later on when we see you in london or perhaps here. god bless you, darling. >> randolph was equally optimistic and wrote the next morning to jennie telling of how her note which he had receive just as he was leaving the island had cheer him up wonderfully. i cannot think, he continued, your mother will really not hear of our engagement only i'm sure she thinks we have known each other for too short a time. you and i do not think so, but it's natural your mother should. he would miss her, he added and he would certainly visit her in london. >> there was further consternation when randolph broke the news to his mother at
blend him palace. the third daughter of the third marquis of londondery was most displeased that randolph should have been anything so contrary to her own ambitions for him. the very idea of marrying an american was in and of itself immensely displeasing and for him to contemplate doing such a thing after such a short acquaintance was folly. >> despite his mother's displeasure, randolph was deeply committed to his intended bride. mrs. jerome had forbidden jennie to correspond with him. but randolph wrote passionately from blenheim. my own darling jeanette, i cannot let another day pass without writing to you. i do not think i've ever had such a day as yesterday, such a melancholy journey away from you, then to have the listen to
the toddling gossip of my mother and sisters when my hearts and thoughts were elsewhere. it's so curious that my rooms and my things and occupation here which i used to take an interest in are quite hateful now and all i can do is keep re-reading your her and looking at your photographs until i get quite stupid. i do not think, dearest, you have any idea of how much i love you or what sacrifices i would not make to call you my own. my whole life and energies should be devoted to making you happy and protecting you from harm or wrong. life should be to you like one long summer day. then randolph wrote to his father. i do not think that if i were to write pages i could gibb you any idea of the strength of feeling of my affections and love for her. all i can say is that i love her better than life itself and that my one hope and dream now is that matters may be so arranged that soon i may be united to her by ties that nothing but death
itself have the power to sever. he understood that his father might be very much surprised, but he added that despite the rapidity of his decision, it was one in which he believed absolutely. >> the duke of marlboro, unconvinced by his son's letter, delayed his reply while he made inquiries about leonard jerome. initially he opposed the marriage, writing, never was there such an illustration of the adage love is blind. for you seem blind to all consequences in order that you may pursue your passion. matters went from bad to worse when on hearing of the duke's opposition for the union, leonard went into a rage and wrote, my consent withdrawn. european aristocracy impressed leonard less than they impress themselves. moneywhile, a chill descended on blenheim, what were americans, rebels against the british crown and did one marry them? but first the ceremony was to be delayed for a year, then only
until after the general election in february 1874. randolph duly became the mp for woodstock and jennie became lady churchill at a ceremony on the 15th of april 1874. winston was born on the 30th november that year. >> to quote their son, my great-grandfather, sir winston churchill, where does the family start? it starts with a young man falling in love with a girl. no alternative has yet been found. thank you, jennie. well done. [ applause ] so what an extraordinary chance meeting of two individuals from such vastly different cultures who fell in love and became engaged in such fine style. the jennie jerome that lord
randolph met was strikingly beautiful and can't rating. at 19 she spoke languages flutely was a concert pianist and could write as well as any man. but what of her ancestry? jennie's father leonard jerome pictured here with a very splendid cigar, his mustache and a second painting there, a lovely portrait i'm lucky enough to have in my home. leonard was descended from well-to-do pioneering stock. however, there was little money and he was the fifth of eight brothers and there was also one sister. but leonard was a young man in a hurry who learned to live by his own achievements. his four older brothers went to priston, but then the money ran out, so leonard was sent to the village store on the salary of $1 a week. later when his elder brother had earned enough money to pay for him, leonard spent one year at princeton. he arrived with nothing save a brave heart and a keen brain.
leonard was an intelligent man with great wits, sporting prowess and musical skills being a violinist of high repute. many of these talents were passed to his daughter jennie and then on to his grandson, winston. he always believed passionately in his daughter's abilities and talents as jennie would believe in her son's. leonard came from a long line of pioneering an cysters. timothy jerome, the first to become american, was a protestant who left france in 1710. he settled in england in 1717 but then sailed from the isle of white to settle in connecticut. it was through leonard jerome that churchill was extremely prud of his revolutionary blood. churchill claimed that he had at least two forebearers who fought against the british in the american war of independence. one great grandfather samuel jerome served in the berkshire
county militia while another the fourth massachusetts regiment marched and fought with george washington's army at valley forge. furthermore, leonard jerome's maternal grandfather, rubin murray, served as a lieutenant in the connecticut and new york regiments. leonard met clara hall and leonard showed good initiative here. here is a lovely drawing of clara. then there's a second painting of clara which i'm lucky enough to have at home. and clara was one of two orphaned sisters and she luckily came with a very decent sized dow ary and they were married in 1849. it is reputedly through clara and winston the other family members believed this that churchill thought he was descended from iro coy indians allowing him to respond to president roosevelt's account of how his family had arrived from
europe with the reply, my relatives were there to greet you. in fact, clara, who was brought up by her aunts, the aunts were nicknamed sitting bull and hatchet. whether or not churchill had native american ancestries, he certainly had strong north american pedigree with ancestors who could trace back to the earlier settlements and who would subsequently fight along washington in the war of independence. it is true that jennie was related albeit distantly through her mother to george washington. leonard and clara had four daughters and one of whom sadly died at the age of 8. jennie, their second daughter, was born on the 9th of january, 1854 at 426 henry street in the
cobble hill district of brooklyn, and we visited the house on sunday, and it's a very beautiful area. it was believed that jennie was born at 426 henry street, but the difficulty was with the huge snowstorm that in fact jennie's uncle lived around the corner and it's some doubt at which house she was born in, but it's very nice to keep some mysteries. what's also of interest was there were no birth records kept in new york until 1866. so there's no record of her birth. and one day i'd love to look at the christening records of the local churches to see what detail there is yet there, but we haven't got around to looking at that. clara, jennie's parents, leonard and clara jerome had recently returned from trieste. clara had been captivated by europe but leonard loved new york and delighted being back in
the city. although he returned to find the family's stockbroking firm failing having left it in the hands of his brother addison. the family fortunes began to increase again with leonard becoming a triumphant railway king. jennie and her older sister clarita adored their generous father who often appeared laden with gifts. the young jennie would spend summer with her family in newport where leonard kept a yacht so they could commute to new york. but life would change again for jennie when at the age of 4 she move to paris for a year with her sister clarita and her mother. leonard left his young family in paris. it was then in 1860 that he built himself a magnificent mansion on madison and 26th street, which is on madison gardens, and this was the mansion that leonard built. to the left you had the stables for his 40 horses and the mansion included a theater that could seat 300 people. the stables housed carriages and
horses and it was suitably magnificent. so when jennie and her family return to new york, i'm afraid it was to manhattan rather than brook hin. brooklyn. a lovely image, this is of the cover of a fabulous leonard jerome. and there he is taking his family and friends to the racing at jerome park race course which he founded, which is terrific. and the next slide shows the racing at jerome park. which is actually now the reservoir in your part of the city. leonard jerome now owned "the new york times" and together with his business partner he founded the jockey club. he purchased 230 acres outside new york to build a race course. jennie attended the first race meeting at jerome park in september 1866.
jen jennie was always delighted to visit the park with her father. not only was leonard heavily involved with horse racing but a prominent member of the new york yacht club and spent much time racing his yacht. he was certainly a man of great passion and zest for life. and there we've got a lovely image of the three beautiful jerome daughters with jennie on the left, leone and collar eat ta. clara's leonard's wife, was not enamored, clara leonard's wife was enamored with paris society and returned with their daughters. leonard made the sea crossing but returned to new york alone. it was in paris that their mother arranged intensive course of studies for her daughters. life for the wealthy was centered around the court of the emperor louis nap ole onand empress josephine. clarita made her debutante
appearance at the royal court but this care free existence came to an abrupt end when france went to war with prussia and clara and jerome and her daughters left paris on foot taking with them only what they could carry. they arrived in brighton, england, from where they traveled to england staying at browns hotel. when jennie later returned to paris when she was 16, she wrote there was ruin everywhere. the site of the tulleries made me cry, some of our friends were killed and others were in mourning and all broke hearted and miserable hiding in their houses and refusing to be comforted. jennie had witnessed a darker side of life and became more worldly for her young age as a result. clara and her daughters returned to live in a very different and depressed paris. all the social structures had disintegrated and life in paris was quiet.
it was in these circumstances that they decided to visit kyles. she took the daughters to kyles, the isle of wight who had suffersuffer ed huge losses with the crash of the railroads. jennie gave birth to baby winston on the 30th of november 1874 at blenheim palace. do we have an image of blenheim palace? oh, that's not it. she stood out because of her beauty and intelligence but because of the way she eschewed snobbery and tradition, two qualities that would serve her well all her life. let me give you an example. in 1876 as a result of her husband lord randolph's forthright views the couple was banished along with the family from the court circles and english high society. lord rand dolph had made the
mistake of publicly accusing the prince of wales of double standards so they moved to dublin where lord randolph's father was made viceroy. jennie was clearly not happy with how they were banished from the royal court, but she got on with it. at the time in ireland there was great poverty and famine and lord randolph stood up against the feudal landlords and accused them of neglect. they threw themselves into helping the destitute, setting up and running soup kitchens, jennie against official approval visited prisoners to see and campaign against the appalling conditions they suffered. with lord randolph's parents, the duke and duchess, they raised a vast sum for the relief of poverty but made a great difference to the poor. their work there was recognized by queen victoria who made a donation to the fund herself. i would argue that the compassion, care and good will
towards other people that churchill developed was a direct result of his mother's can do attitude to life and jennie like her husband randolph was fearless of authority and they did what they believed was right in life, something churchill was never unsteady about. as a mother children were cared for by others. jennie might have felt distant from young winston. he was brought up by his nanny. but she would always help him. when she found he was beaten at school he wasted no time in removing him from that school. abo with the death of his father jennie became his advocate. she was at the center of the political elite and was the magnet for political salon. therefore when churchill was seeking his commission in the army it was jennie who got the
colonel to arrange for the duke of cambridge for him to fulfill a vacancy in the regiment. it was also through her american friend burt cochran that churchill was first introduced to new york high society in november 1895. he was clearly impressed with his mother's hometown, though he disliked the dollar bill and the vulgar newspapers. churchill -- there he is in his uniform -- was like his jerome grandfather, a buccaneer keen to make a name for himself. jennie was his it will rather agent while he was away in the army, gaining him contracts from the london publishers, proofreading his articles and placing them in the newspapers. winston bored with regimental life in india and was determined to see more action, he turned to his mother. he was firmly told he could not join the expedition to the sudan to quell the tribes that had murdered general gordon at the
famous siege of khartoum. his request was denied because winston had become critical of the policy on the northwest frontier of india and kitchener was having none of it. jennie discussed this with the general of the army, sir eveline wood and churchill was assigned to expedition serving at his own expense. churchill ingratiated himself further with kitchener during the campaign by delivering a report to kitchener personally on his magnificent white charger. churchill remarked on his mother. she left no wire unpulled, no stone unturned, no cutlet uncooked. the year after churchill was
dispatched as journalist to south africa for the confrontation brewing against the early dutch settlers known as the bar war. this was an unpopular war in america because it was a typical british colonial war. churchill's younger brother jack was commissioned in the south african force where he served alongside churchill. meanwhile, jennie -- and i think this is so new york style -- jennie refused to be idle. she raised money from american friends and she paid and organized for a hospital ship to go to south africa to care for the injured. the next picture shows jennie in the middle as chief nurse on board her own hospital ship she had organized. i think that takes quite a lot of courage to do that. unfortunately, winston was trusted in looking after his younger brother jack and winston took his younger brother jack to go and see some action. and within 15 minutes, jack was shot in the leg.
and here is jack being cared for by his mother on board her hospital ship. indeed, jennie's work in the south african campaign was so admired by the soldiers that a huge cannon involved in the siege of ladysmith was renamed the lady randolph churchill. you might notice it but on the other side of the carriage is written the lady randolph. that's what we used to bombard the poor bores. it was a role that jennie also reprised during the first world war. she persuaded the famous american mr. paris singer, the famous sewing machine company, to offer his residence old wayhouse pinkton in devon to use as a hospital. it was turned into a well equipped 255-bed hospital which
included operating theaters. throwing herself into raising money for the fund to finance the hospital, jennie became chairman of the executive committee while paris singer was the vice chairman of the hospital in his property. there was a staff of 151 which included 8 surgeons, 15 american nursing sisters, 17 english sisters and 21 probationers. can we go back, the previous photograph? in this photograph here, this is an image of jenny helping winston become elected to parliament in 1900. in those days it was very unusual for a woman to take to the stand. as we can see jennie was multitalented. there is no doubt that churchill
inherited his literary and political skills from his maternal lines as well as his paternal one. jennie published articles and edited a transatlantic publication called the anglo-saxon review. though she could not stand for parliament or even vote until 1918, there is no doubting her power on the political stage at least initially she was as famous as her son and she personally canvassed for her husband lord randolph in woodstock in 1880s, then helped winston win his first election. she remained vital to the political careers of both father and son. this image here shows she wrote and put on her own plays in the west end. mrs. cornwall is west was her
second husband's name. jennie also remained a great beauty all her life and she was very confident of it. she later married george cornwallis west when she was 64 years old and porch was 42, younger than her son, winston, who was then 44. that did create a bit of a stir for her family. and i must say she remained a complete star. when jennie was 67, she fell down the stairs and contracted gangrene. even then her instructions to the surgeon were typically brave and precise. make sure you take the leg off high enough up. and here we have jennie's obituary, which makes clear that she was the best ambassador america had.
jennie was honored by queen victoria and king edward vii with five medals which my sister is wearing tonight. the first, the pearl and turquoise cipher was awarded to jennie in recognition for her work for destitute women and was insignia of the imperial crown of india. queen victoria as empress of india personally pinned the medal on jenniey's left shoulder sticking the pin into jennie's flesh. the second medal was awarded to jennie for services on the american hospital ship during the bore war in south africa. king edward conferred upon jennie the honor of a lady grace of st. john's jerusalem. the third medal also presented to jen i by king edward vii was the order of the royal red cross. and the other two medals were to
commemorate coronations. my great machine great grandmother jennie represents so much of what's made your country great. she had a zest and determination for life. she was passionate about the suffering. and she was not shy about entering the political fray. she was a very modern woman who stood on her own two feet for what she cared about and believed in. her greatest trait was the spirit of freedom and liberation pioneered by the early americans. it is not surprising that her father was a king of wall street and her ancestors were fighters for independence. in the modern world, there are no more important documents for freedom and liberty than the british magna carta of 1215 and the declaration of independence of 1776. churchill deliberately licked them in his great multivolume history of english speaking
people. 2015 will be the 800th anniversary of the magna carta but also the 50th of my great-grandfath great-grandfather's death. and the 75th of his greatest hour. the shrines of our hard earned freedoms might have been forgotten, trampled under foot with the triumph of barbarism and totalitarianism and the world we live in now might be still in a long, dark abyss. tomorrow, our families's having an immensely proud day. churchill's bust is to be unveiled in statuary hall in the united states capitol in the presence of secretary of state kerry and your four house leaders. the speaker of the house of representatives in support of the resolution authorizing the placement of the bust said that winston churchill was the best friend america ever had. i would love one day to see a
memorial in new york city to the daughter of that great city who gave to her mother country a son who stood resolutely in the face of evil, preserved our inheritance, and was such a fantastic person for the city. in my view, the strength and enduring qualities of churchill's character can largely be attributed to his mother. her character resonates in her thoughts and enduring words in the history of world war ii, in defeat defiance, in victory magnanimity, in peace good will. i firmly believe that churchill's greatness was a gift born on the bedrock of your great city. thank you. [ applause ]
>> that was wonderful. good evening. in the interests of time because randolph has to go to washington, we're going to skip the q&a. my name is lewis frumkes, i'm the director of writing at the hunter college writing center. a few minutes ago i received a telegram that i'd like to read to you. it says, dear lewis, thanks so much for co-hosting this splendid evening and the series with president rob and roosevelt house. if i'm not mistaken it was in the hunter writing center years ago that i first delivered the admonition to one of your students ending a sentence with a preposition is something up
with which i will not put. in any event, lewis, please tell my great-grandson randolph that he gave a superb talk tonight befitting a churchill and that clementine and i are very proud of him. speaking of clementine, my thanks also to tina santy flaherty, little clemmclementinr her kind words and for underwriting the churchill series. i was always fond hf her and considered her my great goddaughter once removed. i know randolph has to fly to washington directly after this event to be there tomorrow when john boehner, secretary kerry and other dignitaries install the new oscar neiman bust of me in the capitol so i won't ramble on. thanks to lewis for your generous invitation to be the keynote speaker at the writers conference this coming june. unfortunately, i can't make it, but james mcbride and nickelson baker are terrific replacements.
also good to get my good get with my old friend sir harold evans is one of your great thinkers. is he still married to tina brown in please send harry and tina my best and remember me to your lovely wife. signed, winston. thank you very much for coming. [ applause ] friday american history tv in prime time features veterans day themed programs. 8:00 p.m. eastern first ladies, then at 10, first ladies in the military with laura bush and michelle obama. real america featuring the film "the unknown soldier." and at 10:35 american artifacts on woodrow wilson and world war
i. and at 11:15 p.m., world war ii veteran stories. on friday, the wreath laying ceremony at the tomb of the unknown soldier followed by a program hosted by the veterans department at the sem cemetery aim pa theater. >> with donald trump elected as the next u.s. president, melania trump becomes our nation's second fortune-born first lady since louisa catherine adams. learn more about the influence of america's presidential spouses from c-span's book "first ladies." it's a look into the personal lives and influence of every presidential spouse in american history. it is a companion to the biography tv series and featuring interviews with 54 of the leading first ladies