tv American History TV in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania CSPAN November 20, 2016 1:50pm-4:01pm EST
upbringing in the sense he was raised in the 1930's. he was the child of a single mom. his father left his mother when he was only three. and then was a distant figure, unreliable. sometimes even say he would come to see his son and not show up. i think that reinforced the tendency alan had to live inside his own head. >> go to booktv.org for the complete schedule. welcome to pittsburgh on american history tv. it is located in western pennsylvania had the junction of three rivers. pittsburgh begin as a strategic military location, but grew with the mass production of steel and glass industries. over the next few hours we will share the story of pittsburgh's growth. it's really the gateway to
the west, prior to st. louis being the gateway. a pittsburgh native who took the art world by storm. a visit to the andy warhol museum. >> he grew up in pittsburgh. he was born in 1928, the youngest of three siblings. he grew up really religious. they revise and team catholics. -- byzantine catholics. >> we begin at the heinz history center for the look at innovations created right here in western pennsylvania. >> pittsburgh is an amazing place. it is a city with a tradition of innovation. for 250 years people have come from all over the world to the forks of the ohio, the place for
the allegheny and monongahela river comes together to form the ohio river. it is a place where ideas have converged. now follow me and let's take a look at 250 years of pittsburgh innovation. 20,000 years ago, people started coming to north america. no one is native to north america. they all came from someplace else. about 30 miles west of pittsburgh is a place called the meadow cropped rock shelter. it is the oldest side of human habitation in north america. this figure is representative of those first peoples in western pennsylvania. when the first europeans arrived they found native peoples here. peoples who had settled at the confluence of the three rivers. when george washington arrives in 1753, he wanted to meet queen alaquipa. she was a chief. she was already probably already
in her late 70's or 80's when 21-year-old george washington arrived. 21-year-old washington was six feet, two and a half inches tall. big and strong with red hair. he was trying to build a career. the governor of virginia hired him to come to the western wilds and chase out the french who were building forts along the allegheny river. george was captured. he nearly drowned in the allegheny river but he kept coming back. and he secured the forks of the ohio as they called them for the british empire. lewis and clark started their expedition right here in pittsburgh. meriwether lewis was at fort fayette, which replaced fort pitt. he and william clark set out on a transcontinental exploration in 1803. they built a boat right here in
pittsburgh, a 55-foot boat. on the very first day of the expedition lewis took his air rifle, a 22 shot air rifle, didn't use powder or flint, and he gave a demonstration on bruno's island, the first island on the ohio river as you head west. he was an expert marksman. you put a mark on a tree and fired seven times and hit it bullseye each time. a local man said that is amazing. he pulled the rifle from his hand. it went off and shot a woman in the head. she went down, feathers from her hat flew into the air. he thought the first day of the exposition and i have already killed someone. he learned some first aid from dr. rush in philadelphia and applied direct pressure to the
gushing head wound. in a few minutes he got her back on her feet. she was wobbly that she was alive. he said, boys, let's get out of here. they set off on their 8000 mile journey. the first day was a little rough but things got better. pittsburgh industry started early because pittsburgh was the gateway to the west. think about that for a minute. we often think of st. louis as the gateway to the west, but in 1803 this is where lewis and clark started their expedition. this was where things could be manufactured. iron could be used for boilers, for steamboats, for tools of all kinds, packaged foods, clothing could all be acquired here is -- as people headed west into the wilds. we will go this way and look up as you come through. you will see the vin fizz, the first airplane to make a transcontinental flight from coast to coast in the united states.
a pittsburgher, cal rogers was its pilot. vin fizz was the name of a great soda that sponsored his expedition. think about this. how many airports do you think there were in america in 1911? zero. he had a land on cow pastures, abandoned roads, baseball fields. any place he could. he crashed 20 times on his flight across the country but he made it and dipped his wings in the pacific ocean had long -- at long beach. let's head in here and learn a little bit more about pittsburgh, the arsenal of the union. during the civil war pittsburgh was going 24 hours a day turning out cannons and munitions. the largest cannons ever made in american history were made here in pittsburgh during the civil war, including an 80 ton behemoth designed by thomas jackson rodman. it was 20 inch caliber.
it through a 20-inch ball 4.5 miles when loaded on top of 200 pounds of mammoth gunpowder. a special kind of powder that he invented. pittsburgh was the arsenal of the union. it was going 24/7. women and girls rolled cartridges at allegheny arsenal. they turned out thousands and thousands of them every day using a machine that was invented by thomas jackson rodman that could turn out these mini balls, these lead bullets very uniformly and by the thousands. but on september 17, 1862, a tragedy struck. a spark ignited the gunpowder that those women workers were using. it blew up allegheny arsenal. three blasts rocked the city. windows were broken for blocks around and 78 of those women and girls perished in the flames. it was the worst industrial
accident of the civil war. after the war the energy industry grew up as the steel industry grew. people used the natural gas here in pittsburgh to fuel industry. they used the soft coal that was natural here. they burned it and made coke out of it. coke was used to fuel last -- blast furnaces that made the steel. pittsburgh also used oil. in 1859, the first commercial oil well was drilled by a man named drake. and then another inventor used that oil and refined it to make gasoline. they called it rock oil in those days because it came out of the rocks. it replaced whale oil that was used extensively for lighting america. pittsburgh is still an energy center today.
not the coal center it once was, but now shale that is frakked and sucked out of the earth. it is one of the largest deposits of its kind in the world. safety has always been important in pittsburgh. the coal mines and factories and mills could be dangerous places. people came from all over the world to work here. but many people died. whether it was from lung ailments, black lung from working in the coal mines, or just the dangers of a steel mill. a company named mine safety appliances company developed breathing apparatus and special lighting apparatus that would not ignite volatile fumes in mines and would help men breathe underground. msa is still here today. steel was king in pittsburgh,
and labor unions grew up to protect the men who were working in those mills and mines. in 1892, an anarchist named alexander berkman attacked henry clay frick, one of the coke and coal magnets. he was a partner of andrew carnegie. one day he burst into frick's office with this dagger and stabbed frick repeatedly and shot him twice. frick was not killed, but he was badly wounded. they apprehended berkman. frick was about to be taken to the hospital when he said i have to finish some work. he signed the papers, the blood splattered papers on his desk and then he said ok, i'm ready. they hauled him off, patched him up. he always had a stiff neck for the rest of his life.
he loved to play golf but he had a stiff golf swing. he was a tough guy. pittsburgh was the place where aluminum was first reduced. it was an electrolytic process developed by charles martin hall in the 1880's. right here in pittsburgh the first globules of aluminum or reduced. these are considered the crown jewels of alcoa aluminum, the aluminum company of america that started right here in pittsburgh. these are the very first globules of aluminum ever produced. in the early days people did not know to do with aluminum. they tried making all kinds of things out of it, from violins, horse shoes, to kettle. they soon discovered for aircraft it was exactly the right thing. the wright brothers came to pittsburgh in 1903 and had alcoa aluminum engine
blocks, and that made air flight possible. andrew carnegie was born in scotland, but he made history here in western pennsylvania. he was a giant of industry, but you can see he was only about 5'2". he is the guy who had a big vision. he vertically integrated his factories. that is he controlled the mines, he controlled the transportation, the coke works that were used to make steel. the controlled those steel mills and the delivery systems, the railroads that took the steel to market. he was an amazing guy and he turned into america's greatest philanthropist. his goal was to make a lot of money and then give it all back before he died. he made so much money he could not give it all back. in 1939, there was another world's fair. this one in new york.
and the westinghouse company wanted to do something special. so they invented the first robot. his name was electro. 7'1" tall, he could walk, talk, recognize colors. he could even smoke cigarettes. yeah, smoke cigarettes. he smoked in billows. the engineers who worked on electro were so disgusted by the tar and nicotine they found built up in his artificial lungs that they all quit smoking. now the people of america said electro will be lonely. he is the only one of his kind. we have to build him a woman robot. so they designed a woman robot, but it was frightening. i can't even describe the designs they came up with. imagine madonna wearing a target bra on steroids. they said we can't build this thing.
so they built him a dog. sparko, the wonder dog. sparko would only respond to electro's commands. they were the hit of the 1939 world's fair. pittsburgh has always been a place of innovation, but that is not limited to industrial or scientific innovations. jazz. this is one of the birthplaces of american jazz. here you can meet billy extine or mary lou williams. these were innovators. in the hill district in pittsburgh where the african-american community came together with other immigrant communities there was a hotbed of creativity and fun, excitement and music. during world war ii, pittsburgh becomes the arsenal of democracy. a lot of you probably have seen that image, that "we can do it" image. did you know rosie the riveter
was invented here in pittsburgh? it was a westinghouse artist named jay howard miller who in february of 1943 came up with that poster. he had gotten a contract to do 41 posters for the war effort for westinghouse war workers. he came up with this woman. you can see her collar says westinghouse electric on it. the very week this poster came out a popular song hit the radio. it went like this. ♪ all the day long whether rain or shine she is working on the assembly line she is making history working for victory rosie and the riveter ♪ the people of america heard that song and saw that image and said that is rosie the riveter. howard miller had not named her but the people of america associated the song with that image. the jeep was invented in western pennsylvania. who knew?
it was 1940 that the war department sent out an request for proposals to 135 carmakers in america. well, it said we need this miracle vehicle. something that will replace the horse. it has to go anyplace a horse can go. climb a 30e able to degree grade, pull a gun, and i cannot weigh more than a big horse. we need to to design and build this miracle car in 49 days. the big car makers said we can design that who can do it and 49 days? it's impossible. ford and gm and the big guys did not submit. but a little carmaker in western pennsylvania, butler, pennsylvania, said no one is buying our midget automobiles. they were building small cars on the british austin patent. those engineers stayed up all
night at a diner and literally on the back of a napkin sketched the design for a jeep. we can do it, they said. and in 49 days they delivered the banton reconnaissance car as it was called. after pearl harbor the war department really wanted as -- those little miracle cars. they said to the bantam car company, can you make 300,000? bantam had ever made more than 500 cars in a year's time in the history of the company. they did not have the horsepower. so the war department pulled the contract, gave it to willis overland which made 334,000 in world war ii. the government wanted more so they can ford a contract for another 300,000. after the war there was a battle for the jeep brand and willis overland won out. after world war ii pittsburgh was a mess. it had been going 24/7.
there was smog that covered the valleys. the people of pittsburgh got together and said we have to clean this place up. the allegheny conference for community development was invented. with an eye toward first cleaning up the skies, then the waters, redeveloping downtown pittsburgh, renewal projects were all the rage in the 1950's and 1960's. the pennsylvania turnpike was the first road with bank curves, rumble strips, it was concrete, and you could drive fast. there were stops along the way. you had to pay to use it but people did not mind because they could get you across the state in six hours. it used to take six weeks when george washington was here with conestoga wagons trying to get over the allegheny mountains. now they were tunnels hunched
-- punched through the barriers, the mountain barriers. every mother in america had one of dr. spock's baby books. it told them everything about feeding and about disciplining. dr. spock said he should never spank your children. then a whole generation of unspanked kids grew up. there were other doctors here in pittsburgh who were making history. in 1955, jonas salk invented the polio vaccine. he first determined the three strains of polio that were out there that were infecting millions of people around the world every year. and most of those people were children. they were crippled by the disease and they died. salk determine a way to make a vaccine using a killed virus. everyone was afraid of the vaccine. they did not want to be infected so he had to convince america
that his vaccine was safe. he gave himself an injection. then he gave the vaccine to his own children. this calmed down some of the fears. he went to arsenal middle school in pittsburgh and thousands of kids started getting the vaccine. they were the guinea pigs for the first polio vaccine. soon it was proven to be safe. and kids around the world received the first polio vaccine. it was a miracle and he changed the world. well, we could go on forever here in pittsburgh talking about art, science, innovation. the technologies that are -- have changed the world. i just hope you will come and visit us here at the heinz history center and learn the whole story of innovation. it's a good story. we're a place with a tradition of innovation.
[captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] >> american history tv is that point state park in pittsburgh. is located at the overhead -- the head of the ohio river and one of the centerpieces is this water fountain. up next we will take you to the antiwar whole museum and learn about the artist that was born right here in pittsburgh. >> andy warhol is one of the most prolific artists of the 20th century. i think that goes back to how he was able to tap into certain ideas of what it means to be human. this sort of base understanding of american identity that remains to be part of our country -- culture. he cap into technology and interesting way. he was always surrounding
himself with the younger generation and ideas. he did not go stale in the later part of his career. inuntil 1985, 1986, he died 1987, he was painting the enormous canvases. a lot of work had not been shown during his lifetime. into anot as if he fell specific way of working. he really expanded his practice, opened up to larger ideas and technology. i think that's why he remains so contemporary. warhol was born in pittsburgh in 1928. he was the youngest of three siblings, three boys. mother, they were immigrants. he grew up fairly religious. they were buys and teen catholics -- is in teen catholics. -- there was a lot of creative energy in his house. julia was no for her creativity. we have a lot of her drawings.
she had a spunky spirit about her. warhol did a film about her in the 1960's. he captured her humor. a lot of people would reference later on julia's quick wit. he had an illness at an early age. he spent a lot of time at home with his mother. that is why they had a special bond and that's where his creative energy started to form. we are on the seventh floor of the andy warhol museum. pictures of his family, works from his era carnegie tech, now carnegie mellon. he was there from 1944 to 1949. we are going to look at one of his paintings he did for his senior year. "nt this canvas called osepicker 1." the reason why it is so fascinating is because it is pretty provocative of a subject
matter. this portrait of a young boy picking his nose. he submitted it to one of us important shows of the year. a huge salon style exhibition. it was denied by the jury. warhol did not give up. that summer he showed it again with a different title of "why pick on me" for the student show. it has a little bit of biographical reference. i am fascinated by some of warhol's early fixations on his own body or the bodies of others. he is known for talking about how he did not like his nose, his family called them the red nosed warhola. he was known as spot because of discoloration and his skin in his teens growing up. it was sort of the person behind the work. warhol obviously had a certain charisma about him.
throughout his entire life. i think that also manifested here at pittsburgh. i think he was probably considered to be a bit peculiar. not like the average student. his drawings show that in the college. they are a bit surreal. it shows a body in darker ways. he did what he wanted to do. he was a reverent from the beginning and provocative from the very beginning. in 1949, he went to new york with a fellow classmate. they took the bus together. they lived in a tiny apartment together and they both really tried to market themselves as commercial illustrators to get their foot into the door they get a lot of commercial designs. this was an important period. just when he gets to new york he is formulating his identity and trying to break his way into the art world.
it's also a moment where he focuses on his own image. he starts wearing wigs by 1956. he eventually gets into the silver wig in the 1960's. he also does the elective plastic surgery and gets his nose altered. as his career transforms he is thinking of his own image and body. me is ao next to photograph and shows warhol going in with a black marker to chisel out his profile. there it is again. this extension on beauty and transformation. in the 1950's he started making and honing this technique of using dye and doing it blotted line technique. he can make multiples of everything. it was almost a form of printing. he would trace an image. he would use a piece of paper, ink it up and remove it.
he could make multiple versions of drawings that made all the fashion editors he was working with very happy. warhol got his name in women's fashion, glamour magazines, harper's bazaar. he did a lot of shoe illustrations and fashion and makeup, and also a leather goods company. he got his name started in commercial design and illustration. we are steering in warhol's gallery. one of the strongest shows the real strength of warhol at this moment. dishes endearing moment for him, still figuring out what his signature style is going to be. one of the strongest works in the gallery is the brand of acquisition from 1962 of the do-it-yourself sailboat. it was a painting and a small series that were based off the paint by numbers box sets that every average american could buy.
this one is from a year earlier, 1961. it is part of this small collection of early paintings. i particularly love this painting. it was taken from the national enquirer. if the dating ad. it's a tiny ad he blew up and transferred to canvas the record checking process. -- through a projecting process. it is still playing with the idea of mark making in an abstract way. when you see the whole piece together as one it reads like an american flag. you have this ideal of this male and female, i want you sort of gender norm happening. and he has removed all the text in the original ad and gone with a stripe ideal with a crayon. a gay artist in the 1950's and doing a painting
called "make him want you." it's fascinating and provocative. it's not all on the surface. we are standing in the screenprinting gallery, which highlights the beginning practice. you are looking at the statue of liberty painting from 1962, 20 earliest batches of these screenprinted canvases. we are also that to a really beautiful selection of jacqueline kennedy paintings warhol made in 1964. he made these just after the assassination of jfk. way show in a really simple this blur between death and smiling. there are moments of jackie when she is with jfk. and just before the assassination. then there are images from the funeral. it really shows this idea of celebrity in the public eye and death and mourning in the public
eye. this is a part of warhol's fixation on beauty in the media and death in the media. in 1962, he did the american monroe canvasses -- marilyn monroe canvasses done just after her suicide. and then jacqueline kennedy when she's going to the public loss. her face was everywhere. warhol said the same thing about marilyn monroe. her face was all over the media and on the front page of all cans of newspapers. the same thing about jacqueline kennedy, the loss was public. was feeling that moment in time and they still have an eerie since of mourning. we are in the gallery on the sixth floor of the museum. we are looking at an array of boxes and campbell soup's warhol made in 1964.
these are really iconic works for warhol. it is one of the first adventures he took, -- ventures he took the sculpture. they play with this idea of the ready-made idea that any object is already a sculpture in itself. this idea of the gallery giving it value. warhol's leases are more provocative. they are not true brillo boxes. they are handmade. he had them crafted by a carpenter. they were plywood boxes. then he went in and handed stenciled and screenprinted over the top of them. the campbell's one is really lovely. you can see it almost in process. on one side is not completely finished. all of this is handgun. when -- hand done. he did it in a way with the brillo that they were almost asked to the ceiling, almost as
if you are in a stock room at a warehouse. he played with the way viewers could navigate. the idea of blocking a visitor from going certain ways around them. really thinking of the idea of fascinating ideas of sculpture. around the time he is making the boxes, he moved into a larger studio space. he wasoduction way working in high volume with the boxes ended up working in a factory style. the idea and up translating to the name of his studio, the factory. eventually it was called the silver factory because it was covered in silver paint and silver aluminum foil. we are in a gallery that highlights warhol's first foray into filmmaking and his screen test from 1964. i am standing with two screen tests.
mame was a studio assistant with warhol. he was the one that famously silver.the factory in and where it got this iconic silver name from. he covered his own apartment in silver foil and spray paint. warhol said it was fascinating and asked him to do the same thing in his studio. the screen tests are extremely fascinating. again, a claimant medium. warhol used a 16mm film. he used one real of film for each screen test until it run out. the subject would sit in front of the camera for approximately four minutes. they were supposed to sit still and silent, but that rarely worked. it is uncomfortable to face a camera for that long. so there are all kinds of things people do to break out and that four minutes. it's also a way for him to create an underground world,
playing with the idea of hollywood films and the screen tests of celebrities and warhol making his own version of that. we are in the gallery of commissioned portraits that warhol started making in the 1970's. this is a portrait of debbie harry he did in 1980. she turns out to be this iconic image of a young, youthful woman. strong, fierce rocker woman. warhol was working with her and doing portraits and taking photographs of and captured her in this really incredibly energetic, iconic moment in her career. he has frozen that in time with these portraits of glamour. people would commission him to do their portraits for them. he also did certain celebrities, like nick jager -- mic jagger. and debbie harry. warhol would make multiples. the ones we have left in the
museum are the portraits that the sitter did not want. he would start with a polaroid. he would take these beautiful polaroids and turn them into the silk screens and then in the large paintings. we are standing in a really amazing gallery in the museum that shows andy warhol's paintings from 1974. they are enormous. they show scale in warhol's work and this late resurgence of painting in his practice. mops and take large then screenprinted over top. warhol gets back into where he worked with his hands in this period. here he is doing the ultimate portrait of death, of a skull. he used a polaroid at the
beginning for the image. he took a polaroid of a human skull and turned it into a large screen and it beautiful canvas. in 1968, warhol is shot multiple times by someone trying to be around the factory and the in more of warhol's films. she felt very projected when he decided not to work on one of her films and decided to attempt to take his life. he was shot multiple times, nearly died, survived. it really changed his work in his life in the way he worked physically in his studio. he went from an open door policy to a closed-door policy. building more of a warhol enterprises kind of business minded practice. large paintings like this show his ability to sort of gravitate towards fairy iconic imagery. humanea of death is very and he captures it here analyst
a portrait way. the scale is what is really great. you are dwarfed under the skull. there is a hint of dark cynicism, humor, almost as if it is smiling. warhol died in 1987 very unexpected lead from complications following a routine gallbladder surgery. the funeral happened here in pittsburgh. he is buried in pittsburgh. you can visit andy warhol's. grazed if you want you can see a live feed of the great in our lobby on a webcam that is 24 hours. it has the famous quote warhol on his tombstone -- wanted on his tombstone. no name, no date. we are in the archives study center. the archives is the heart of the museum. we have all of warhol's personal collections, including record of art objects, posters, photographs, clothing,
scrapbooks, source material, everything you can imagine that this man collected. we also have the time capsule collection, which is a set of 610 cardboard boxes you can see covering the walls around you. one of the earliest items that warhol collected were movie star images that he was sent away for that wou -- would send away for. fromone was sent to him shirley temple. we have a whole photo album filled with celebrity photographs. you can see the combinations the between this celebration of the celebrity and the constant collecting. which as a young boy in pittsburgh, who was also very ill a lot of the time, this was a perfect outlet for him to
reach out to people that were glamorous and beautiful while he was stuck at home. one of the strengths of the archives is the deep amount of source material we have for all of warhol's projects. in front of you you have the marilynaryl -- source material. you can see the crop lines he added himself. he took his materials from different types of materials. , and you can see the page for he has cut out jackie's face for part of the series. and the famous funeral scene of jaquckie in morning. keeping up with his obsession with celebrity and autograph, this is the autograph book from the factory itself. when people would come by and visit warhol, he would have them
sign this. we have phyllis diller on the left, aretha kit on the right. you can go through. some people left lengthy little notes. some people to their own artwork. my favorite is the peter beard signature,quite unlike any othee book. photographer. a he was a good friend of andy warhol's. model, he is the an artist in his own right. even with photography, he would do drawings on his photographs. handprint, it his is also signed by the person he was dating at the time. things abouteat having candid shots at warhol,
he lets his guard down. these are great photos with his friends. mcjob her, and that is joan quinn in the background. you can tell he is loving every minute of this. you asked for one of my favorite items. it is rob lowe. it was probably relating to brooke shields with a snake wrapped around her. will note that says andy, thank you for all of the fun. thanks again. call me in l.a.. differentme of the things he did in his lifetime. he would get very big into photography. we have these big shot cameras. i have a sample film real here.
in film that valerie appears . we have a collection of his earlier work. earlier screens he made, he experimented in smaller screens before he went larger. this was an early one where he would hand stamp it. outfit typical of what he would wear in the 1980's. about thesting thing leather jacket, he wore this at the hospital in 1987. to the cape receipt that he took to the hospital. code,ed up lending this which starred david bowie as andy warhol. david wore this.
when he returned it to us, he had put a winning lottery ticket in the pocket. a displaycreate --wing the breath and with -- if then with we have at least 60 of them catalogued. and we have more that have not been processed yet. they are all handmade. we had them stored nicely in boxes. these were unceremoniously stuffed into envelopes. he started wearing wakes about the time he first moved to new york. he was very self-conscious about male pattern baldness. insight intogreat how self-conscious andy warhol actually was. have ana lot of people
image of him that was cool and aloof. that came with a lot of work. he would talk about putting himself together in the morning. he would put on his legs and his makeup. he would take all kinds of vitamins. in his life, he had to literally tie himself together with these corsets that he wore after he was shot. his internal organs got ripped up by the trajectory of the bullet. it was more that he was focused on his acne. life, he became really interested in holistic health. is a selection of andy warhol time capsules on display. in 1974, andy warhol was switching studios. one of his assistants had the idea to plant in andy warhol's mind that the content you fill up in the boxes is a complete
snapshot of your life at the time. he kept a box all the way up until his death. capsules. time we have one in the trunk. of items selection from various time capsules to give you an idea of what is in them. much like andy warhol's's, the time capsules themselves makes high things and low things together. a letter from the museum of modern art, originally sent in october of 1956, informing antiwar hall, thanks for the shoe drawing but they would not need it. the museum of modern art. also from all of the times from 1980's,0's to the mid-
anywhere, anytime. it could have been something that andy warhol picked up at the flea market or antique dealer, that he could have just thrown in a time capsule. eggs,trange easter handblown eggs that were died and given to antiwar hall as a gift. a lot of the items, we do not know why they were in the boxes or where they came from. comic looks, tons of mail, bills, receipts. a lot of overdue notices. they have not been fully catalogued but we have a basic inventory of what is in each box. it depends. we have one time capsule, 522, that these drawings came out of. interesting clothing.
we have time capsules that are literally junk mail the entire way through. andy warhol's early illustrations are very important. kind of depends. each is completely different. a lot of the personal objects we have came from his home that at the time of his death, most of the rooms were so packed that they were not usable. what we inherited is the result of a 10 day sale. we only have a fraction of what was actually collected. what is really nice about working with andy warhol's is really as it stripped-down view of the man. he was very famous for curating his aura and his persona.
he put out information and when you are working with the time capsule, and honest representation of what -- of andy warhol. i think he comes across as quite funny. most of us do not think of. a soft-spoken andy warhol as funny. it shows he was a really sensitive person. all of these letters back home. he was very close with family, his mother, very religious, and these things are not things i think come to mind. it shows a quiet and sensitive side to the man. >> pittsburgh has over 700 sets.
they were built to help get around the city. up next, you can hear about this area during the french and indian war. >> today, this triangle ground versus what is now the park. in the 18th century, it would be a home of the largest military associations in america. it represents what pittsburgh and fort pitt would -- looked like in the mid-1750's. it is a good place to start to understand the history of why the triangle of land inside today was so important in the 18th century and well into the 19th century, for a lot of reasons. the biggest is just its location along the two rivers.
they come together to form the ohio. the reason this is so important is during the early 18th century and mid-18th century, it takes you all the way back up toward french canada. travel up smaller streams and make it up to lake erie and the great lakes. towardkes you back up british north america, the heart of it, along with potomac and chesapeake bay. those two rivers are important enough but once you get on the ohio, you can continue and basically end up in new orleans. by controlling the little triangle of land, you can control the whole region, in -- in essence, militarily. you can move a large amount of material on the rivers. ohio here in pittsburgh, really
the gateway to the west prior to say lois being the gateway, basically pittsburgh and fort pitt. there were a series built here. the first of these was built by the english in 1754. it was little more than a andehouse for the stockade it was located right at the point itself. it is named after the man who built the colony in virginia. arrived with the force of about 500 men, told the 40 englishmen who were here and some of their allies that they needed to go. so they did. the french then took control in 1754 and they began work on fort
duquesne. it was located in this next little session. -- section. it was a small wooden port -- fort. it was not incredibly strong. it was fairly large enough to hold the men stationed here. control andere in it also was the same symbol to .he indians in the region the english had not given up hopes to control the point. to an armyy made it of men, the french decided it was better to leave them to fight. so the french essentially burned and destroyed the fort. fort pitt was a large fort.
would have fit into one of the bastions of fort pit. flooding in the 17th if the's damaged them very severely. the smaller block was built to secure the area. the last of these is still in the park. 1754. we have the barracks they would have lived in. one thing about the soldiers who served here, it was a diverse group of men. originally a group intended to be raised here in the colony. the royal american regiment. they were also recruiting in europe for that.
a lot of ethnic germans and did appear. troopsere scottish stationed here meant for all over great britain. really right from the start, this was a diverse, ethnic community. that is not counting the numerous native nations active here for good american indians lived in the vicinity. exhibits is a reconstructed cabin. aspect fort pitts laid a role in, regulated in the region. in thely important region. and -- in any given year, usually about hundred thousand or more were processed, very
everyone, so having the military outpost traders werere the not being unscrupulous with the they -- with customers, which could cause a lot of diplomatic problems. in this area, the museum, we the motivations and tactics and weapons in the three different powers and we were struggling for control of western pennsylvania during the french and indian war. ,he french and their allies still struggling for control. really the larger region of the ohio company. the french began to really press their claim and they build a series of forts in western pennsylvania.
also built fort prince george, has a point where they struggle specifically for control. the american indians, some found themselves allied with the french and some with the british. ultimately, they were the ones that suffered the most. though there was not an open declared war, it is kind of ongoing tension all -- always here. some in the individual nations had allied themselves either with the french or the british. there was always a possibility of traders being ambushed and robbed. always murders of indians. there was a lot of potential for a larger conflict. surfacey went to the when the french and indian war really kick off in full force.
we have often referred to it as the french and indian war. a conflict that was really, some as the firstbed it world war. the englishe clear were going to be victorious in the conflict. the french and the british had signed a peace treaty in 1763, the american indians were left out of that equation. in 1763, the indians and the ohio country and the great lakes banded together in a conflict that is often called oneok's war or pontiac's rebellion. they had struck almost every frontier in the region simultaneously almost and managed to destroy a large part of the british holdings in the front here.
laid siege to in the summer of 1763, really only fort pitt and fort detroit survived the onslaught. in 1764, henry bouquet led an to wrap up the loose ends of the indian war and the hundreds of white captives nowng the conflicts, assimilated into american culture and the image were demanding the return of those captives. returningf them were to fort pitt families arrived trying to reap -- reclaim. in some cases, they were children, and in some cases, adult. they no longer even knew what their actual identities were. charters were just they -- vague enough that fort
pitt is located in. if we think back about the history of the region, although pennsylvania was often involved in the diplomatic side of things and administered the civil actions out here, that in 1753 when george washington came to tell the french to get out, he came as a representative of , that the point was also built at the request of governor of virginia. virginia was involved in the military aspects of the area. both colonies had it in their of their it was part own. in 1773, the royal governor for virginia kind of appears to have begun to hatch a plan to act on that. his representatives
seized this in pittsburgh and eventually pittsburgh became virginia as opposed to pennsylvania and remained in virginia throughout the american revolution. more --lose of lord to this is all taking place in the fall of 1774, in the spring 1770 five and the rumblings of the american revolution. fort pitt again gets revitalized .p occupied
it is a flag that was created early in the 1770's and it is kind of important for several reasons -- reasons. these radel strip -- rattlesnakes were used by -- this is the only surviving rattlesnake flat -- flag. that makes it rare in of itself. it is kind of interesting symbolism where you have the coiled snake and of course the rattlesnake is unique and north america, it looks up toward the clearly it is very
warning the mother country to respect the rights of the to suffer the consequences until july 4, essentially, of 1776, much of the efforts were actually reconciliation with another country, which is why we have a flag of that era, which actually still has a british flag. only a handful survived from the era. this one is extremely fragile. painted with oils. it is very light-sensitive. we have to watch how much light is on it. a motion detector. periodically. at the close of the american revolution, congress had not made a provision for a standing army. disbandedan army was
by the mid-1780's. hadcally the entire army been located in two places, at west point, new york, and here at fort pit. again, a very expensive proposition to maintain, would had already started to decay. and so fort pitt kind of cease to be a real active military post and more of a military depot. in 1791, a lot of this was kind of torn down and the materials reused. ditches began to be filled. by the early 1800's, fort hit became more of a memory and less of a reality. we have seen the interpretation tofort pitt as being key
being able to understand why this first business to today and to understand the key influence on american history and the settling of the west. >> the duquesne incline was built in 1877, 1 of four inclines in pittsburgh to transfer people to the top of what was once called cold fill but is today known as mount washington. deck upobservation next, we will tour and exhibit freedomfrom slavery to ."
cori: right now, we are in the "freedom to slavery" exhibition our visitors to be immersed in the environment. you can see one of the captives, a young man roughly around 17 years of age. on platform he is sitting has statistics from different sections of west africa. the platform is cut out in the shape of west african atlantic. the masteryover to
-- estimated numbers to the 19th century. this has a number of different artifacts. a firearm roughly from the 18th , it was typical of the type of firearms that slave ship crew members would carry during their voyages across the atlantic. what is today looked upon as decorative objects, use as time, thenring this below, the type that will be theyby children mostly, have security for the enslavers. so they can locate people who
are enslaved. is the slave economy. our objective is to talk about slavery in america, not solely slaveryt of labor, but in terms of the economic impact of world society. exhibit, we refer to cut and as king cotton because of theimportance it held in domestic economy as well as the overall economy of america. cotton has a connection to pittsburgh. steel mills, you had cotton mills. one was located in allegheny city, which is the north side of pittsburgh, and the owners were our bottle and avery. we will talk about it a little later.
but pittsburgh imported 5000 tons of cotton, from mississippi and other southern states or year. that is a tremendous amount of theon there were some of western pennsylvania owners who sided with the confederacy, primarily because they had an producedinterest and their wealth and so forth. the question about who do you take with you and who do you leave behind, what kind -- what time of year do you go and do youme of day, who trust and who do you not trust, all of these questions came to play in the story of william steel and his family.
he was very well-known known, philadelphia, anti-slavery activist who interviewed runaway slaves when they came to philadelphia and the anti-slavery -- one day, came into his office, a runaway from mississippi. he said he was looking for his family and he knew his family one time was a slave to marilyn. they escaped, the two sisters and his mother, and he and she would left behind. he came to philadelphia looking for his family, seeing if anyone knew about the family who would in southernresiding new jersey. as william began to interview the man, he began to find commonalities and his own family history and the gentleman's family history.
degree that they began to a charity thats already passed away by the time these men had met, four children, escaped slavery in time sheand the first escaped, she was captured. had all of her children with her, two boys and two girls. time, she left the boys behind and took the girls. sold down the river to a mississippi plantation, and one of those two boys was able to later escape and make his way to philadelphia, where he met brother william and realized they were actually brothers. this was decades later. a powerful family story which not only the
decision process but also talks about what took place months after. although they were enslaved, they still had loved ones and still had family. in pittsburgh history, the , not only arailroad writer, a researcher, published a newspaper, studied medical known as a very determined leader in pittsburgh. during a speech he was giving shortly after the passage of the slave act. it was at the city market, on the north side of pittsburgh.
challenging the president of the united states, that even if the president came to his home looking for fugitive or runaway slaves, mr. delaney would lay didat his feet and if he not, may his body be denied a grave. that tells you about the determination, that they were diligent about their work. we talked earlier about charles avery as the owner, where he was also prominent abolitionist leader in pittsburgh. textile millsed not only in pittsburgh but new england. during the 1840's and 1850's, he was quite possibly the wealthiest person in pittsburgh. he was the founder of what was then called allegheny institute
in 1849. 1856, thedeath in institute was changed to be called that college. of the earliest colleges in the united states for african-americans. did not have any children. he left money for his wife and the bulk of his estate for african-american religious and educational instruction. this is a map of downtown pittsburgh. you can see the point. 1854.s a map circa these structures actually john's barbershop and martin delaney's home and the approximate locations they were
in 1854 in downtown pittsburgh. the homes are identified on this map as safe houses for the underground railroad activity, taking place at all three places. the lanterns you will find throughout the map indicate where other safehouses were located at one time, not only in downtown pittsburgh but the city as well. the gallery is called a moving toward freedom, where we talked about organizations such as anti-slavery societies and other inanizations involved slavery and the american colonization society both took root in pittsburgh as they did northern cities. across the racial line, you had people such as charles avery, the reverend, john black, a presbyterian minister who preached the abolitionist gospel from the pulpit in a presbyterian church, although he
was asked not to. this is a page from the western pennsylvania anti-slavery society. this shows the dues paid in contributions to the society in 1838. you can see charles every contributing $100 in 1838. nearly 110 years after the abolitionist movement, the civil rights movement was in full swing. especially in pittsburgh. this mural is a photograph taken in 1969. this is the beginning of a march from the hill district over to the north side of pittsburgh where the construction for three rivers stadium was underway. these men were leaders of a civil rights movement, reverend jimmy joe robertson, nate smith,
attorney bert brown were three of the people seen in the photo. they will march from what is today freedom corner, which was in the hill district, across the street from saint benedict catholic church. they marched down center avenue, across the bridge to allegheny city where they were confronted by the police officers, similar to what happened in soma, alabama -- selma, alabama. there was a confrontation on the bridge tween the civil rights leaders and the pittsburgh police department. the march was more or less demonstrating against the restrictions on black construction workers to get jobs on major projects, including the construction of the u.s. steel building downtown and three rivers stadium. the civil rights movement also
was the economic rights movement in pittsburgh because it addressed the issues surrounding the economic advancement for african-americans in pittsburgh. i want people when they leave this exhibition to fully have an understanding of the issue of slavery in the united states. the impact slavery have on the development of the united states. and the continuation of freedom rights and freedom issues in this country. carried through the civil rights movement and even today through the black lives matter movement, a primary issue being oppression.
geared older the civil rights movement and even today through the black lives matter movement. the primary issue being oppression that comes right out of slavery. if we understand slavery, we can have a better understanding of how oppression continues to evolve in our society. >> it is game day and we are going to talk to some -- some folks. >> to wave off all of the enemies so when the other team comes, the nation will weigh their town. once you have a terrible town, given to you like you are a little baby, you never watch it. the you cannot wash it away. the one i have had for 40 years have had for 40 years has seen a lot of mud and wet and tears and everything else. here we go, steelers, here we go. here we go steelers, here we go.
look, we will our visit the history center and learn about henry j heinz and the origins of what is known today as the craft times company. heinz company. >> when people think of ketchup they think of heinz, and when you think of heinz, you think of pittsburgh. we are going to take a tour of the heinz exhibit. young hj heinz was only tenures old when he sold his first product. his mother made horseradish at their home just a few miles of the allegheny river in downtown pittsburgh. young heinz at the products in a wheelbarrow and rolled them down to the downtown pittsburgh and sold them on the street. people love the product. he ran home and said, mom, what else can we so? she made and bottled and jarred
other things and the food giant was born. pittsburgh and heinz went hand-in-hand and heinz became the largest food purveyor in the world. heinz's first product was horseradish. in 1869 he started the business for real. he had a partner named noble, but that partnership did not work out so well. so he brought his brother frederick in, in 1869. after a while, heinz figured out he can make it on his own and that hj heinz company became a legend. one story goes that in the early days, heinz was on a railroad car in new york city and the billboard flashed by his car. he saw one that caught his eye, 21 styles of shoes it said. he thought about that for a moment, 21 styles, that is
impressive that they have that many different styles. i wonder how many products i have. on the back of an envelope he cut -- counted them up, 54, 55, 56, 57. 57. he likes the look of it. when he got home he figured out he had many more products than that, but stuck with 57. 57 varieties. he put it on every bottle, hillsides, billboards, heinz 57 was his first branding effort and it was a success. in 1893 he went to the columbian exposition in chicago. it was the world's fair, celebrating the anniversary of columbus's discovery of the new world. he was on the third floor of the exhibit hall. nobody was climbing the 125
steps up to the third floor. he was dying of there with his pyramid's of horseradish and pickles and ketchup. he came up with an idea on the fly. he printed up little luggage tags, this one here, in fact. it looked like it was made of gold, it had brass foil on it. and he hired street urchins, little, out of work boys to throw these luggage tags around on the first floor of the exhibit hall. people would be walking along, arm in arm, they would catch the glint of gold out of the corner of their, it would bend down to pick up that luggage tag and say, look honey, it says bring to the heinz floor for a free prize. they tripped up the stairs by the hundreds, by the hundreds of thousands. they found their way to the heinz booth, they found the pyramid's of horseradish, pickles, and ketchup. it was such a success but all the other exhibitors on the third floor said, we saved -- you saved our lives. they pitched him to buy a silver punch bowl and engraved it for him. the gift was a pickle charm. this is the first one, from
1893. it is just compressed cellulose that says heinz on it. the symbol of the pickle became the heinz logo for years and years. people to this day still collect the little heinz pins, it is still an american icon. heinz really wanted people to see his products. his salesman when all over the world, they cannot always bring the real thing, so he designed hollow, 10 pickles. you can see they have numbers on them, 1300, 1800, 2400. that is how many pickles you would get in each barrel. so the grocer could say, i like the big ones, i will take one barrel of the 1500 pickles size.
he invented a sorting machine, a patented machine that looked like a big drum that rolled and it would sort pickles to different sizes. his sales force when around the world with their 10 pickles -- tin pickles and color pictures of his products. but heinz knew that if people actually taste of the products, it was a sure sale. so we came up with specialty equipment, taking dishes and spoons and forks, dishes. some of them, disposable, made of cardboard. he would set up little samples in grocery stores all over the
country. people would try his product and say, hey, that is what i want. they would ask for it by name. pure food was a big part of the message, of the heinz brand. he testified before congress for the pure food and drug act. he was one of the biggest lobbyists and proponents of this. he knew that his products could pass the test, where others, competitors, could not. so not only was it the right thing to do, but it was good for business, too. in order to provide peer food, heinz needed to start with his workforce. most of the workers were women. women from poor families that did not have running water, indoor plumbing in their housing here in pittsburgh. when they got to work for heinz, he outfitted them completely in uniforms that were cleaned daily. the first thing they did when i got to work was they had a manicure. here is an image of one of the women workers getting her daily manicure. they also had showers. heinz started with his workers, but it went through every aspect
of his operation, from sterilizing bottles and jars, he even made his own bottles and jars to ensure cleanliness and consistency. the stoppers were important, whether they were corks in the early days, or caps in 19 three, to more sophisticated closures that we use today. in 1890 patented his ketchup bottles. that octagonal shape with the narrow neck. we do not think of it today, but it was an innovative design. first up, his competitors were using dark green or black in glass bottles and you could not see the product inside. heinz is that if people could see his product they were more likely to buy it and they could tell it was fresh.
he used to clear glass. he made his own bottles. that ensured of vertical integration of his whole industry. not only did is make -- did he make his own glass bottles, but he developed his own seed stock, he owned the farms, he made sure everything got from the farm to the factory in 24 hours. he wanted it to be fresh from farm to factory. then, he ensure that with the proper temperatures and bacteria and safety inspections that every product was safe. then, he got them into the grocer's stores and consumers hands as quickly as he could. hj heinz and his son and hisson -- his son ran the company for 100 years. at that point they were got an outsider to run the company. hj heinz the third entered politics. he was no longer running the
ketchup is this. he was interested in changing people's lives for the better. he went to congress, became a senator, senator john heinz was an advocate for the downtrodden. he was an advocate for the environment, arts and culture. especially, he was the guy who helped pull pittsburgh up by its bootstraps when the steel industry was going down. heinz hall, heinz field, heinz chapel, these are some of the many legacies of the heinz family. hj heinz, the man for whom this museum is named, has left a huge empire. today, it is co-headquartered in pittsburgh and chicago.
it is still the fifth largest food company in the world. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] >> pittsburgh is known as the city of bridges. up next, -- it has over 446 bridges, which is three more than venice and italy. up next, we'll take you to the archive service center at the university of pittsburgh to learn more about the late congressman john murtha. ♪ >> representing the 12th district of pennsylvania
congressman john murtha presents "capitol commentary." and now here is congressman murtha. congressman murtha: i'm glad you could join us for another in our series of reports from washington. >> we're at the archive service center at the university of pittsburgh. the archive service center really collects materials that really document sort of the post industrial pittsburgh. today we'll talk about really document sort of the post congressman john patrick murtha, better known as jack murtha. john murtha was a congressman that served almost four decades
in washington, representing the people of western pennsylvania. particularly the people sort of in the areas to the east and the south of surrounding pittsburgh. what i'd like to share with you today is a bit about congressman murtha's career as a military man, about his influence with military spending, and also his legacy and the national park service here in western pennsylvania. jack murtha actually was not born here in western pennsylvania, but down in -- along the ohio river down in west virginia in the 1930's. both of his parents were originally from western p.a. so he finds himself coming back here as an early child. you know, the murthas, his family tradition is they were irish catholic family. his great grandfather emigrate today this country. they worked in the coal mines around places like scottsdale and mount pleasant, pennsylvania just to the east of pittsburgh. now, it's very important to know that the coal mining was very important here because we are the home of the steel industry.
and coal and the refinement of coal is part of that sort of trajectory of the steel making process. so it's very important. so jack murtha's ancestors were a big part of that trajectory of the steel industry here in pittsburgh. public service was a huge thing for the murthas and the ray families, and greatly influenced congressman murtha, particularly military service. so he volunteered for the marine corps in 1952. very quickly, he became a drill instructor down in paris island. then he later became an officer's candidate at quantico. by 19 # 5, he actually -- by 1955 he actually is finished with his active service in the marine corps, but continues for many, many years to be a reserve in the marine corps. in fact, he continues to be in the reserves until 1990, where he retires as a colonel. but that is not his only, you know, service. he actually does volunteer for service in 1966. he was in vietnam.
they had tours for one year. when they were deployed. and so the major objective that he did as a military intelligence was sort of mapping out where guerrilla warfare and attacks on the american forces were happening with a new sort of way of analyzing data and he was able to determine where the enemy was located. they were reducing the attacks greatly during his time period. this was a significant thing for the military during his time period there. jack murtha was elected to congress in 1974 in a special election. new congressmen are assigned to committee works and so one of the things that he was assigned to fairly quickly was the house subcommittee on defense appropriations. this was critical, because what is happening is this building on his military experience. i also would like to note, though, that in his election of 1974, he is the first member of the house to have served in vietnam.
tip o'neill becomes sort of a mentor for jack murtha and tip o'neill decides that, you know, jack murtha needs to be on these fact finding trips around the world. wherever there are appropriations for military movements. and so, for instance, one of the very first ones in 1978, he finds himself back in vietnam, back in southeast asia, and he is meeting with various political figures as well as with military figures, and one of the things he does is he records on tape kind of a diary of his actions through the day. one of the things we have here in the collection are this wonderful transcript of his tapes. also with his notations on them. one of the things it says here is the state department was stating that there are two or three thousand russians in vietnam today and they give approximately $500 million per
year in aid. they're also talking about sort of the claims of the vietnamese not being friendly to the russians and especially being more friendly to the chinese. basically a fact finding trip is what's going on here trying to figure out who are the players on the ground in vietnam still? later on he is assigned to go to beirut and egypt on a fact finding mission in the 1980's. this particular trip, one of the things that's produced is this wonderful album of photographs. he visits, you know, the palace and president mubarak of egypt. but, also, one of the things that's very critical in this is a clipping, which basically says, murtha's trip will influence the direction of the appropriation subcommittee talks. one of the things that congressman murtha sort of distinguished himself by the early part of the 21st century was his expertise in military intelligence, military service, and the service on the appropriations committee. so he becomes a very strong
voice for any military action happening by the united states. 9/11 happens. and so we go to war. particularly with, against terrorism and afghanistan. but shortly after that, we find ourselves looking, getting the resolution to go to war in iraq. congressman murtha supports the initial resolution to go to war in iraq like many of his colleagues in congress. but within a few years, he begins to be more critical of that action. and by november of 2005, he introduced -- introduces a resolution to actually pull our troops out of iraq.
>> the united states and coalition troops have done all they can in iraq. it's time for a change in direction. our military is suffering. continued military action in iraq is not in the best interest of the united states of america. >> this is extremely controversial. particularly from his base constituents, which are, you know, very much pro sort of military types of folks. to understand sort of how controversial this was, congressman murtha received a huge amount of mail, probably about six boxes worth of letters, mostly against what he had to say. mostly against his resolution to pull out of iraq. this letter from a former enlisted man from wisconsin says, by definition you are a
traitor. your comments are aiding and abetting the enemy. you, sir, are an embarrassment to our country, the flag, and the freedom. another person writing that's also a retired military man, says, benedict arnold was a decorated soldier as well. one of the last ones that i would like to sort of highlight is coming from a citizen in florida where he says, marines don't cut and run. marines don't quit before the job is done. marine don't leave their dead on the field. you may have once been a marine, but it seems that your soul has been sold to the enemies of our country. you are a disgrace to the corps. this is the kind of terrible sort of feeling that some americans had and needed to express that to congressman murtha. but there were also people that
felt that murtha was doing the right thing. in particular, here is a very good letter from rhode island from a citizen who is saying, i want to thank you for taking a courageous and correct position to bring our troops home from iraq. you have put your country first, ahead of your own interests, but in accord with the wisdom and conscience of your inner being. god bless you. in 2006, congressman murtha was awarded the profiles in courage award from the jfk presidential library. they stated at the time of the award as a combat veteran and retired marine corps colonel with 37 years of service in the u.s. military, murtha's decision to withdraw his support from the iraq war carried particular weight. his decision speaking out against the protracted conflict shifted public sentiment about the war and generated a substantive national debate on the progress, policies, and
objectives of the u.s. presence in iraq. so you can see here in this picture congressman murtha after he's awarded the profile in courage award, embracing caroline kennedy in a very emotional ceremony. congressman murtha was also very good at bringing back dollars to western pennsylvania, supporting people in the work of the was ay tod at bringing back dollars western pennsylvania, supporting people and the work of the federal government here in the region. one of the ways that he did that was he was involved in the appropriations committee for the interior department, which, of course, is the parent of the national park service. >> in many ways, our national parks represent our greatest strengths as a nation. limitlesseemingly potential. represent as also
source of economic diversification. >> in particular, he was very supportive in the 1980's of the creation of industrial national parks and heritage areas. this is important to western pennsylvania, because, as i talked about before with his coaly's connection to the and steel industries, pittsburgh is thetern pennsylvania center of still making, but in the 1980's it is in a huge decline and it almost disappears. in time, he isnt looking at ways in which we can capitalize on the steel heritage. and promote it through tourism and preservation for the betterment of our country. >> this plan, the coordinated effort by the commissioners in
the various counties in the state has changed our direction and added to the other things we have done, and as you said country,throughout the people are interested in this particular project because it is a pilot project for the rest of the country how you can bring counties together. >> there are wonderful , capitals of his show commentary, that he recorded in washington that was sent back to western pennsylvania. in some of his episodes, he interviews several of the leaders in the national park offices, some researchers and the national park service, particularly-- around this industrial heritage area. people in congressman murtha's district saw he was really working for them and bringing
back programs, federal programs that were helping them themselves. during the 1980's and the 90's there was a lot of unemployment, so he got a lot of support from his constituents for bringing these programs and creating some of the centers that were developed here and became home in johnstown in western pennsylvania. many of his fellow congressman as its great support marks and it did not set as well with them and they became big critics. congressman murtha died in 2010. he had an illness and surgery and he died from complications from his surgery. was a great blow to the people of western pennsylvania and the 12th district.
>> all weekend long, american history tv is joining our comcast cable partners to show history ofcase the pittsburgh, pennsylvania. to learn more, visit c-span.org/citiestour. we continue with the history of this bird. inor peduto: we are pittsburgh, pennsylvania. this was a frontier town. was a young major in the virginia militia. wait, this is, great britain wants. it was about who would control the confluence of washington. it is the history of meriwether lewis taking off in a boat to meet up with his buddy clark and
in the process discovering america and the idea it would be a country from sea to sea, and if the idea of them looking over their shoulder and saying, who is going to build this country? it was glass and iron and in the process, we built this country. >> like a lot of cities, we burned to the ground during the 20's and 30's. our city was flooded, and we created disparity between the my grandfathers who worked in the mills and the people who owned them. ofwere able to overcome all that and build the city that was the third largest corporate center in the united states. then in 1979, we died and we had to come back again andriy --ntify ourselves again from
and re-identify ourselves again from economic collapse. died. the 1980's, steele we lost more people than new orleans lost after katrina, and they never came back. the city operating with a debt that was greater than new york city felt when it went bankrupt. like those all -- like all of those other times, the challenges we had, we knew two things we do really well pittsburgh. one is to work hard and the other is to innovate. we ended up with forward thinking people who said back in , let's create a robotics center. let's start working to make it an industry that can help manufacturing to maintain manufacturing. as we were going through that depression, those seeds have have takenand they
us into a brand-new economy, and andomy based on engineering technology and we stand here today and new city again -- we stand here today, a new city again. >> we are standing in elliott beautifulark with a view of pittsburgh right behind me. as we tour the city we will learn more about it city. of next, we visit the archive service center at the university of pittsburgh, where we hear about the city's national political figure, dick thornburgh. >> our prime concern has been, is, and remains remains a concern for the safety of the residents of the area, and of those workers who must carry out the responsibility of decontaminating the unit to facility.
>> the most pressing question is which of the alternatives is the safest? if i'm satisfied that there is an alternative which means that description, that i certainly would support it. i am concerned about the safety of this area. ms. watson: we are in the thornburgh room, looking at some of the thornburgh collection. dick thornburgh is a pittsburgher from the start. you can did law school here and went on to be governor of pennsylvania, u.s. attorney general, and his collection is archived at the university of pittsburgh. the thornburgh collection is large, which is an understatement, considering it is 1052 cartons of documents. he was elected governor in 1979, and was being sworn in on january 16, 1979. he was there with his hand up
being sworn in with his wife beside him. he was visited with matters pertaining to the forthcoming budget when a phone call came at 7:50 a.m. on wednesday, march 28. it was announcing to the new governor that there was an accident at the nearby nuclear plant on three mile island. he realized nuclear accidents had amazing repercussions and uncertainties and difficulties ahead. and then the next morning, early in the day, his notes referred to having heard mention of a fuel core damage. and consulting through the whole day, that did not change. but what to do was an enigma.
thornburgh was well enough read and knew from the very start of an accident at a nuclear plant was something truly serious. immediately, he had to pull together a very small group of people that he could trust to pursue the need that emergency plans for pennsylvania. and he himself had to be sure that the public, once they knew about this accident, was consistently, appropriately, calmly informed. as time went on, trying to understand what happened, the reports were conflicting. every day, practically every hour, there was a change. this one, for example, says there is absolutely no danger of a meltdown. as he underlines, these were conflicting reports. someone else said there is no
radioactive material released. well, there was. and that became known later that day and ongoing. that there was leak, and radiation had been released. it was a matter of how much they were going to do about it. the company itself reversed its opinions and its statements almost hourly. they weren't useful. and his own personnel at that point words nuclear exports. so we really was rather it's the -- at sea until he can find someone to get the real facts. the news that something it happened on nuclear plant got around the world and the country quickly. reporters came from far and wide. i think by the end of the week, even, there were hundreds of them in the state capital, wanting to know what happened.
and the governor himself didn't know at that time. newspaper headlines were just blasting out u.s. aides see a risk of meltdown have been nuclear plants, more radioactive gases released. the nation does not understand why or what can be done about it. early on, the governor really did not know the ramifications of some of these releases of radiation. he did advise people in the immediate areas to stay inside. that was a recommendation. also, on friday, which was just two days later, he asked and advised mothers with young children to go off out of the
area, and the pennsylvania government provided locations for them to stay. and they did, for some three or four days thereafter. he did consider ordering an evacuation, but he was very cognizant that there was hazard, great hazard, and doing that without suitable planning or under any circumstances. he was loath to do that unless it became specifically unavoidably necessary. thornburgh was able to get telephone communications with the president on friday. and when the president asked what can i do for you, he said i need scientists and folks from the nuclear regulatory agency to tell me what really is going on. the president said essentially, done. he sent a military helicopter up with 10 people from the nuclear regulatory agency to figure it out and let everyone know.
carl denton was an engineer with a nuclear regulatory commission. a very smart man, he had only been employed there for six months. but he was the one assigned to go up there to see what was happening. >> about 100,000 gallons of highly contaminated water in the primary system that's being circulated around the cooling core. all the water that was billed inside the containment is still inside the containment. roughly 600,000 gallons of highly contaminated water. we see no imminent chance for any of them water being released, but that water has got to be cleaned up, but the water in the bottom of the containment in the water that is in the primary system. the walls of the containment have to be washed down and that decontamination must go on. ms. watson: the agency in washington didn't understand how
serious it was until harold and the team got there to take a look, and determined it was pretty serious. but ultimately, they were able to ascertain that the so-called bubble was not going to burst. and there was not one to be a meltdown, which is what language was out there for people's fears. as a result of that, assurance from harold denton, the president flew up to harrisburg the next day with mrs. carter and met with harold, the governor, the lieutenant governor, and they actually had a tour of the control room. this is all because they had assurance it was not going to
blow up instantly, of course. they could go and look and talk to the engineers. after the tour of the control room, the president held a press conference, including harold denton and lieutenant governor scranton. it was a poignant, calm statement on his part, commending the population in the area for their careful thinking and caution in the case of the accident, and praising dick thornburgh, the governor. after the president left, and the population or the populace knew there was not going to be an explosion, people who did leave return to their homes. the mothers and children who had been away from their homes for little while returned. and things began to really be calm. and the news reports were no longer accident meltdown, but thornburgh did a great job. he, in crisis, a builder of confidence.
there were many articles like this, where his capacity for handling this really serious event had been so successful and appropriate. once it was determined that there wasn't a leak, not an explosion, not a meltdown, that did not solve the problem, just by understanding that. it took years for engineers to determine how to fix it or it -- how to fix it. it cost $1 billion. after things called in -- calmed in harrisburg, event behooved washington to find out what was going to go on, or had gone on. the united states senate, for example, just in april 19, wrote to governor thornburgh and said we are pleased to invite you to be the leadoff witness in our committee. we would like your presence. and any principal state officials you wish. one of the pages i pulled out here i thought was particularly
telling. the quote from his speech was the toughest decision of all, however, is the one i had to make 24 hours a day throughout the crisis. that was, of course, the decision not to order an evacuation that would have been unprecedented in its nature -- as well as its potential for harm. despite having starting off his career as governor, a two-term governor with a massive emergency, his team and his policies, and is balanced budgets were favorably received by the state of pennsylvania. in his concluding times, he was very broadly affectionately regarded -- justly, i think.
>> american history tv continues its look at pittsburgh. up next, we will take you on a driving tour around the city to see and hear about what makes this western pennsylvania city unique. >> today we will go on a driving tour of pittsburgh. we will take a look, get an overview and learn some history. as we come around the corner you will see the history center, the sports museum on the right and the goalpost from three verse -- rivers stadium. a lot of history when through -- went through those uprights as the steelers became the dominant force in the nfl in the 1970's. >> when was the team established?
>> it goes back to 1933. one of the original franchises of the nfl. the steelers in the first years didn't really have a name. they called them the pirates because that's what the baseball team was called. they were black and gold like the other sports teams. but after a time, around world war ii, they decided we needed our own team. they started calling themselves the steelers. some people say it was because they stole players from other teams like in philadelphia, but pretty soon the people of pittsburgh adopted that name. this was the steel city. we were proud of our industrial heritage. the pittsburgh steelers seemed like the right thing to do. we are passing the pennsylvania station, which has now been converted into housing and
condos. in the 1840's there was a big bowl chill with water large enough to turn canal boats around on because this was the end of the line for the pennsylvania canals. before railroads people got around and moved freight on water, on the rivers and canals. this was the end of the line. you can hear us rattling because we are going over the brick streets. this is named grant street, not for ulysses s. grant, but for james grant, the french and war british general. -- the french and indian war british general. he was captured right here in 1758. there used to be a hill. this was grant's hill. around 1909 they brought in
steam equipment, bulldozers, steam excavators, and they leveled grant's hill and made it a nice, flat street. pittsburgh streets have changed over time from original dirt streets. they then went to cobbles, then belgian blocks. and then probably only 30 or 40 years ago they went to bricks because they were easier to lay and pull up when they had to do infrastructure work. u.s. steel is still around. it's one of the top steelmakers in america, but there is a lot of competition for steel nowadays all around the world. the steel industry is not the dominant industry in pittsburgh today. we are coming up on hh richardson's courthouse and jail. you can see the rusticated stone. this was built after the turn of the century.
it is one of the architectural wonders in pittsburgh. we are coming up to the monongahela river. you are starting to see some of the bridges in pittsburgh. there are more than 450 bridges all over the city. that includes some footbridges and some automobile bridges and railroad bridges. we have bridges of all kinds. it is not easy navigating pittsburgh's streets. they are aligned with rivers and there are lots of hills and gulleys and bridges. even the locals have some trouble getting around downtown, but once you figure it out it is not so bad. we are going over the smithfield street bridge. you can see the city crest, the black and gold. the earl of chatham, william pitt, for whom pittsburgh was named. he was the secretary of state of
the british empire during the french and indian war in the 1750's. that is when pittsburgh was established there are inclined planes on the hills of pittsburgh. we are passing by the monongahela incline. this is the way people got from the high hills down to the mills and plants at the river level. really only two operating inclined planes in pittsburgh today. we will go to the duquesne incline. the incline planes are funiculars or cable cars that allow workers of the upper slopes to get down to their factories and mills at the river level >> how are they used today? >> people still use the inclines, but it's mostly for tourists to get a better view of the three rivers. >> if he had to describe a typical pittsburgher, what would you say? >> old-time pittsburghers call
themselves yinsers. instead of y'all, we say y'ins. yins coming over to heinz field with me after work today. i have to go downtown. pittsburghers have their own way of speaking. we call it pittsburghese. there have been waves of migration to pittsburgh 16,000 years ago they came up here during the ice age. the descendents of the american indian tribes are here and george washington arrived in 1753. then french and english, scots irish, german, eastern europeans arrived. today people are coming from asia and from central and south
america. we are coming up on the city and county building. see the little miniature bridge? that is commemorating pittsburgh's 200th anniversary, 2016 commemorates 200 years of pittsburgh being incorporated as a city. think about this. in 1816 there were no bridges in pittsburgh. to get across the rivers you had to swim or take a ferry, or the summertime when the water got low you could maybe wait across -- wade across. today we have over 450 bridges. i think it's fitting for the 200th birthday we use a bridges -- we've used a bridge our logo. we're going to turn left right at the alcoa building -- see that building? it is totally made of aluminum. it is right across the street from the u.s. steel building, which is completely made of steel. they had kind of a theme going. the pittsburgh plate glass building is made entirely of glass. today pittsburgh is reinventing itself yet again, from being the smoky city of heavy industry, is now eds and meds.
education and medicine. the biggest employer is the university of pittsburgh medical center that employs more than 50,000 people. education, smart technologies, uber is here, google is here, robotics centers. people come all over the globe to be educated at carnegie mellon university or the university of pittsburgh. there are more than 30 universities or colleges in the greater pittsburgh area. there is lots to see in pittsburgh. it would take you a week to see it all. what i say to america is stop on by, give pittsburgh a chance. it is not the city you might think it is. >> this weekend we are featuring the history of pittsburgh, pennsylvania. together with our comcast cable partners. learn more about pittsburgh and other stops in our cities tour
at c-span.org/citiestour. you're watching american history tv on c-span 3. >> tonight, on "afterwords," the book "the man who knew: the life nd times of alan greenspan." >> alan greenspan had an unusual upbringing in the sense that raised in the 1930's, he was the child of a single mother. his father left his mother and figure,stant unreliable, who would sometimes say he was going to come and see his son and not show up. i think that reinforced the tendency allen had to live inside his own head.
>> tonight at 9 p.m. eastern on "afterwords." theo www.c-span.org complete schedule. >> i have always been a great admirer of america, student of american history. particularly the history of his african descended people. >> tonight, the memoir "never look an american in the eye: flying turtles, colonial ghosts, and the making of a nigerian american." >> my father got the idea from watching western cinema, the cops -- the cowboys would get together and we never understood what they were saying, but one point they would stare each other down and start shooting. my uncle formed the impression that is what americans would do,
shoot you, if you looked at them in the eye. >> tonight at 8 p.m. eastern on c-span's q&a. >> we are asking students to participate in this year's studentcam competition by asking what is the most urgent issue for the next president donald trump, and the incoming congress, to address in may 17. students can work alone or in a troop up to three to prevent -- to produce a five to seven-minute documentary. of $5,000 will go to the student or team with the best entry. 100,000 dollars in prizes will be shared among 150 students and teachers. the deadline is january 20, 2017 . that is inauguration day. for more information, go to studentcam.org.