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tv   The Civil War  CSPAN  November 26, 2016 6:00pm-7:01pm EST

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or team with the best overall entry. prizes will beh awarded and shared between 150 students and 53 teachers. is january deadline 20, 2017, inauguration day. more information, go to our website here it -- website. >> author john archer uses quotes from soldier accounts to describe the rattles at culp's hill in 1863, some of the longest sustained fighting during the battle of gettysburg took place. mr. archer outlines how the geography played a role. the mosby heritage area association hosted this hour-long talk. >> please welcome john archer as he tells us about "none but demons can delight in war, 1863."hill, july 3,
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[applause] good morning, all. thank you for having me. you have heard about the big guns from wayne and jim. when i would like to speak about s first plan for victory at gettysburg, at least one part of it. and the fighting on july 3 in the morning there went on for seven straight hours, some of the longest sustained fighting at gettysburg and amost in the whole war, but relatively unvisited area of the field. focus was largely on july 2, decisive leadership on the union right, small unit , namely george s. greene
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and how that leadership made a dramatic difference in the outcome there. works, ilove when it would like to speak about july 3 dawn on, how leadership in the struggle played out for culp's hill. derailedof the potomac lee was not served by subordinates. , judgment made by both sides, some fog of war and man lead to costly maneuvers, yet the courage and determination when you look at these fellows speaks maryam's --
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volumes of the type of men who fought at gettysburg. on july 3, the battle will last for seven straight hours. today, this morning, i would like to use some images from how then and some quotes, they would put it. i feel the battle is best heard from their perspectives. not my theory. tomorrow, we will be taking a walk and seeing it through your eyes, because what you'll find is the battle of culp's hill -- wrong way. , everytle of culp's hill nuance of ground man-made or natural will affect the outcome of this battle. tacticians don't like to bring things in particular, fighting at night, and fighting in the woods.
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they will have to do both on july 2. on july 3, the seeds of what happened on july 2 will sprout on july 3. the we have here is one of earlier maps of the battlefield, consolidated version of it. , you are can see here about two miles southeast of gettysburg, the baltimore needs only supply line at gettysburg. road andhard surfaced wound its way down to maryland where most of needs supplies were. much will be made about it. if there was an opportunity for lee, that lifeline. we will see that he is very close to it at gettysburg. , they were lines
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used by 12 core to fortify the woods on culp's hill. , and thethe upper hill .ower hill that wall divides henry culpgler's property from ci property to the north. , east side of gettysburg, that will be a major determinant in what happens on july 2 and july 3. that georgearrier meade was hoping his line would
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be protected from the southerners. which are looking at is the mill race. they had a two speed up the water to the mill. here 12 the water feet deep. lee can't get across, so his battle line as it developed will spread from the farm over here, but the major part of the assaults were made against the upper part, the middle part, and the lower part, three brigades. on july 2,ighting well just to summarize, reader's , meade will strip
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his line further. this is where the rebels are breaking through the lines. xii corps protest. s. it is determined there will be one brigade there to hold the line. as it happened, just at sunset on july 2, 47 hundred of johnson's division will come across that creek. by most accounts, the fighting was over by 10:00. this map here is a little .haotic which are looking at is a map done by kathy george, a former
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historian of gettysburg. it is about as accurate as we will get as to what culp's hill looked like at the time. you see rock creek running north and south. side, then thet stem had to be abandoned on july that paidce of off well where the works, that are gone today. they are still there. they are more or less where they were at the time of the battle, hadprobably george greene them put a traverse in, a secondary line of defenses on january second, and that saved the north's bacon at gettysburg. once the southerners of attack , the one 37th will form that line, stuart's brigade is taken at the lower part of culp's hill. the only part of the union
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fishhook of capture, they have a foothold here. george stewart's troops take over the hill and use the reverse side, very handy. as a defensive line to establish a skirmish off along the spangler wall to the southwest there, so they're using this lower hill as a bastion. to the southwest side of the hill, spangler's meadow here. spangler's lane leads to spangler's farm. we will speak about that shortly. what else on there? 2, i the battle on july said there were three per grades that attack. jones virginians came across rock creek appear. you go there today, only a
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couple of paths, a rock face down culp's hill.eade's the middle part of the attack was made by a louisiana brigade. they will hold the gains, but they are pin. there is a shelf of rocks that you can see to this day. they are pinned there. the night of july 2 was one never to be forgotten. our lines were so close together , we spoke in whispers. stuart's brigade holds the line, the lower summit is now in confederate hands.
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much will be made of the access that lee had to meade's supply line. he is not here to take short-term strategic gains. he is here to beat the army of the potomac. had the southerners captured meade's supply line come a which they were close to doing on july 2 and july third, no way to know. i'm sure jim and wayne will back me up on this, what if stonewall jackson was there? what if they captured this? what you find when you study , time keepske this everything from happening at once. history is like that. everything is tied together. but there is no way to know. happened at the southerners had achieved their breakthrough.
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the window of opportunity on the night of july 2 was brief. here, let's get to this fella. come on. sorry. william goldsborough, major with battalion,aryland part of stuart's brigade that took that lower hill. i'm sorry. you think i was in a technician. look at that face. severalough was one of that thought they did have an opportunity. insaid there were no troops my median front that night, so i was convinced. the captain reported back to me that he it seen wagons, a full moon that night, union wagons in
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motion. we were not only on their flank, but the rear of the enemies right. tos information i departed general edward johnson. there are a couple of different accounts that very. goldsborough wrote an account in ,900 that said edward johnson his division commander is no stonewall jackson. no kidding. he allowed the opportunity to pass. if there was any opportunity that night, by 11:00, it was brief. the reports according to general stuart gave us assurance that we had gained an abnormal position. position -- an admirable position. now it is the return of the xii
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corps to gettysburg. next up, speaking about command on culp's hill, a little piece of this that you will see. there is nothing you can put your finger on, on culp's hill, henry slocum is the xii corps commander. twice during the battle, meade puts him in wing command. the most important one at culp's hill is earlier on july 2, he was put in charge of not only xii corps, but the union fifth and six corps. slocum believes he is still in wing command. he appointed his senior division .ommander, alpheus s. williams he is in charge of the xii corps
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. you will get two different sets of orders frequently at gettysburg, more chaos in the command structure. it will work out, but it will be problematic and number of times. during the course of the , therawal of the xii corps division commander, these two brigades will walk off the battlefield. they got lost in the darkness. , two brigades of it, and up going down the baltimore pike. 's messengers find them and have them return to the field. battle,the roar of the you would think you would have some concern about going back there. he has little
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understanding of the situation, and perhaps less of judgment. find comes back, i don't where he is. he is certainly not showing good leadership. the return of the two brigades kane.candy and we will talk more about general geary later. you see the spangler wall, meadow, farm, baltimore pike. candy and kane's brigades cam back in. back first.de came led by -- another command problem. they moved in with little caution. again, where is the leadership? it seems incredible they did not know the rebels were nearby, right on top of the hill.
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--ording to, walker, they walker, they received a volley from the hill just overhead. after a series of probes in the onelight, including stacking his men for ranks deep underneath confederate guns and that low ground, lost some lives there. with back to the traverse. he will be in that position. draws back tothe the traverse. it was a night of roundabout maneuvering, fields, offensive. s.
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morning, six regiments, three regiments in support of the 'sontline, kane and greene line, they take up a position along spangler lane, facing the spangler meadow and the lower hill. hill, south side of the the other division returning to culp's hill, they are under another general, a little more experienced, new to division command, but a little more experience. ruger will approach the hill with more caution. they will bump into the end of the confederate line by spangler spring. they will withdraw back to mcalister's hill, and mcdougals theade will come in across
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ground just to the west side of spangler spring after an incident of friendly fire. they advanced a few regiments down to the line before they were hit. these units withdrew and they were fired on by their own men. this is why they don't fight at night. by midnight, general williams has returned. he was at the council of war. meade was wondering why he was there. slocum had him there because as far as slocum was concerned, williams was in charge of the corps. williams receives information from his unit commanders here, and he reports it to slocum. i reported the condition of affairs, and slocum's order was tried the confederates out of daylight, an order i thought was more easily made the next acute. -- made then executed.
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by the morning of july 3, now we get to it. as i said, the confederate line now stretches from jones brigade, which had fallen back to what is now confederate avenue on the east side of the hill. nichols men were behind us rock shelves. stuart's brigade held the trenches on the reverse side of the earth works. ee's plans for july 3, at least on paper, were essentially the same as july 2. the general plan was unchanged. long street was ordered to attack the next morning. position,t was out of we won't delve into that too much. he was starting his own flank maneuver. ewell hadn july 3,
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doubled the size of the brigade. for richardy , the union line had also doubled in size. lee's execution of his plan could not be farther than what was intended. by morning, long streak is reportin starting his flanking . ewell reinforced culp's hill with smith's brigade and own the o'neill brigade. little consideration seems to be made against making a direct assault against the baltimore
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pike. the attack will continue as a frontal assault against culp's hill and coordination with all assaults in the other parts of the field. window.go out the general daniels as he arrived to reinforce the line, he is not optimistic. the hill in front of our position was in my opinion so strong that it could not have been. by any force. he will be sent to do that anyway. -- could not be carried by any force. he will be sent to do that anyway. johnson's preparations were matched by the federal's. acording to stuart's aide, prolific writer about this, if we did not realize what we had gained, the access to meade's supply line, the federals were aware of what they lost. 3, slocuman for july
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is deployed down south of the field on baker farm, his extreme right flank, down past rock creek. williams covered the 300 yard more artillery on the baltimore pike pass spangler farm the between mcallister farm down here and stevens knoll there. there are 25 cannons overlooking the rebel breakthrough. i madeng to williams, arrangements for heavy artillery fire that morning. a divisionllowed by 's on the left. open, fire creating havoc in the lines.
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williams launches a series of faints. the first one will be made across the meadow where spangler spring is today. the meadow off to your left reaches the baltimore pike. it is wide open. as you look at this picture from left to right, against the confederate line on the lower part of culp's hill, spangler's hill. it will be done by the reinforcements that came in. henry lockwood's grade. he has -- brigade. he is a veteran of seminal wars, naval academy, no civil war experience, but he ranked , and aboutd ruger
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everyone else except for williams. it was a very transparent subterfuge. he will keep lockwood as a detached brigade of xii corps. lockwood will send one of his again, no experience whatsoever, coming left to right across this meadow. they seize part of the stonewall, but then are ordered back. they lost 80 cashel tees because they were in the way of another assault, another mistake made. a more serious one will be done by another brigade. , there's going to be a problem between two leaders, slocum himself
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oversteps williams and orders ruger, division commander at spangler's matter, to press johnson's left. according to ruger, slocum said the enemy was showing signs of eating shaky or falling back. i reported that i thought the enemy still held that line, which they did, and i thought that any attack would probably not succeed. the attack would be conditional on the result obtained. if ruger's orders were brigadeated correctly, commander here either misunderstood them are modified them. , a lieutenantre said the general direction would advance your line is immediately. that is the skirmish line.
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distant, about 100 dth, so he made a judgment call on this. the enemy's advantages were such that they would be cut down. why he did not send the skirmish line out and sent to regiments instead, we have to wonder why. the two regiments will be the second massachusetts, you can see them there at their monument, one of the first gettysburg, at 1879, right at the edge of the meadow, the path they took off mcallister's hill across the meadow. the other part of the attack and fall the 27th indiana. we will see the indiana state monument in that meadow. as they came out, second massachusetts without a moments
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hesitation, a cheer, armin spreading out and rushed to the edge of the brush. i doubt if any survivors can recall the crossing of that meadow. i cannot. i know the movement was made rapidly and the fire we moved through was murderous. reachednd massachusetts the edge of the rocks on the south side of culp's hill and stop there. they had some cover. the 27th indiana angled across the meadow to the east. you can see them there. here is the stone wall. on the south side of spangler's hill. here is the meadow, spangler springs. the 27th indiana, wide-open meadow, and unlike the second massachusetts, they decided to stop at a stream that runs
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across the middle of the meadow and deliver fire. that gave the southerners who occupied this wall, these folders, and the farm across the creek, a chance to let them have it. they staggered the unit. it was one of those well-aim, well-timed follies that break up a battle line in spite of itself. to those who had the whole line in view, it appears that a crevasse opened and swallow the whole regiment. a senior officer ordered the regiment to fall back within minutes. out of 330 men, they lost 112, including all 10 mins of the color guard. men of the color guard. after the 27th indiana fell back, they were still there a the rock, and the southerners can concentrate the fight on their line.
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southerners with onresistance started firing the trees use all their any earlier with no supports and no further orders, the second massachusetts would withdraw back across the meadow. they lost a third of their men including the kernel. 134 out of 315. including four color bearers. way, theby the timeframe -- anyone's guess. could bece by the men anywhere from dawn until 10:00 a.m. the fighting was about as chaotic as you could imagine. this is best guess of according to the sequence of things on the hill. next up, it appears to be a
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probe by the 147th pennsylvania. they took their position around there. overlooking the meadow. there is the stone i mentioned. the breastworks in the lower part of the hill occupied by the brigade. moore, theo captain 147th pennsylvania. firingers were to keep through the trees, over the field, into the woods beyond. it was soon discovered that the woods in question were full of rebels and they responded in a lively manner. this is a picture of the lane from postwar. probably one of the reunions. the boulder is still there a long the link. if we have the opportunity, we will go up there today. the fencing you see their was torn apart and used for breastworks initially. but i have asked the question a
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number of times of the park if they were going to restore the fences. not on culp's hill yet. elaine was nicely restored 10 lane was is now -- the nicely restored about 10 years ago and it is now a little overgrown. that was the one 47th. -- 147th. id -- soon after daylight, the rebels came along our french. , a very competent line alongcided his the lane was too exposed. it was on a small ledge so he moved his men down.
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he wanted the regiment to advance to below the breastworks and the confederates advanced and directed their fire on the breastworks of above. he saved lives. amazing job. , general to john geary geary, that is the ravine right there where they put the monument. you can see the fence line along the lane. they moved down to this wooded line and the rebels did not know they were there. today, if you go there, that is called party field in front of their. in front of the 147th monument. they brought in a stone hauled in from one of the coal fields up in upstate pennsylvania. about 1900. advanceg to gary, this was made across the meadow. was a lot more
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dramatic. at 5:00 a.m., the volunteers were ordered to charge and take the stonewall occupied by the enemy. this they did in handsome style. they caused heavy loss to the enemy. they abandoned the stonewall. the 147th took the whole field and the wall beyond. the problem is that no one in that group described making that charge. should we accept gary's report at face value? you cannot take it away from the ma'am. withis a picture of him his staff. he is sitting down. he is almost as tall as some of the men standing behind her. he was 6'5" and 250 pounds. he reminds me of what john adams said about george washington -- he was always the tallest man in the room and was always in charge of something. gary is in charge of his
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division here. he orders the one at a 47th two advance across the field. the 147th to advance across the field. he was wounded 10 times in his career. one of the first units in the mexican war. governor of the kansas territory. he had to resign and leave the state in the middle of the night because he was about to be murdered by the anti-free state- ers. in gettysburg and in target of this division. sayiams had something to about scary. died, heafter gary wrote to ezra carmen, new jersey
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officer on the south side of the hill. and he said -- and i quote -- gary always claimed all of the fighting. you should not place the least unlesse on his reports confirmed by others. his reports are full of unintentional error -- written solely for his own adult take -- appellation. you find a number of times that ofitics do get in the way their careers and apparently gary was not beyond expanding upon the truth. lombard of the 147th. he had nothing to gain when he writes is. he was chairman of the snyder county post. he wrote about this. we found our new position in the ravine to be a good one but scarcely had we fixed ourselves when the general sent an orderly
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ordering the advance across the open meadow. who discovered the woods had a large group of rebels decided to disobey the officer. this took us about 20 feet further north and on the same line by don. shortly afterwards, the general sent another officer to move the regiment across the field and deploy in the woods. he did not change his mind and called attention by the right flank. marja. halt. lie down. this brought us to the same position we occupied before our first maneuver. in a short time, general gary came down to see us in person. nel --sing the colo he said why are you not obeying
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instructions? he saluted the general and replied -- general, my men can go where no others well but if glass -- if you use your glass and look across, you will see why we are not obeying your orders. said -- remainn where you are an instantly made tracks back up the hill behind us. it is still early. has not even cleared the treetops and the next part of is about toplan -- be preempted. according to general williams, the disk you would -- the enemy without waiting for our assault assaulted geary's division with great fury. gary's troops threw themselves
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at the front. the only opportunity that johnson has along this line -- we have jones men fallen back. bouldersen in the below the breastworks. and stewart's men occupying the captured line of breastworks. -- it holding this hill does not give stewart or johnson or laid any advantages. no benefits at all. how do you get ammunition across rock creek. they eventually slung it in blankets across the creek. he is going to be ordered to make an assault. he is owing to make an assault
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from this untenable position. at the same time, 25 federal guns open on him. the first maryland -- we will see their monument tomorrow, it was enveloped in a blaze. solid the shot when crashing through the trees above us. the whole hill was covered by smoke and the smell of powder. johnson is going to launch his attack nonetheless. the confederate reports are confused. they are vague. we can only guess at the hell these men are going through. men,ding to one of nichols behind the rocks and trees below the breastworks -- when we opened on the yankees they replied with the most horrific response. the firing so fierce that our lines were soon enveloped in smoke.
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we could only see their position by the flashing of their muskets shooting. either johnson's plans had not solidified or he is waiting for the us all. they do not know what is going on five miles away. they assume he is following orders. that is a big assumption. brigadeand another would stand in reserve for three hours. finally at 8:00, johnson orders their advance. they relieve walkers virginians. to know who goes where at what time. o'neill's alabama brigade is being sent to reinforce nichols men. nichols men in the breastworks begin to dread any attempts to help them. according to the same fellow, to relievewere sent
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the line. as we look behind us and saw our comrades coming to relieve us, being killed and wounded for no purpose we regretted being relieved. a.m., the southern front -- line had been reinforced by lockwood's brigade. the three large regiments. 1300 men. and the six core brigade. another 1800 men. line, not surprisingly, is going to have a substantial reserves. according to one member of the one at a 49th new york -- 149th new york -- the men of another
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regiment amid deafening cheers leapt over us into the vacant positions. the men ate a lively retreat back to the hollow behind the hell -- behind the hill. the regiment went into the trenches two or three times. the flag of new york showed over 80 holes from the return fire coming up the hill. you see the color bearer splicing the staff with splints and depending on whose version you believe, and in upstate new york, in kennedy glut -- cananda being put back on top of the breastworks. the long story short -- the result was an unending stream of her -- fresh and armed soldiers. do we believe gary's account? you can do the math.
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just his division he claimed fired 277,000 rounds that morning. that is 75 rounds a man. no supplies. johnson spend returned the johnson's mene -- returned the relentless fire. lower extremities were covered by the breastworks. the killed were put back out of the way at first. afterwards, attention was only given to the winded. the dead were tossed from underfoot and in most instances remained where they fell and were sat upon with men loading their muskets. this is war. across rock creek, there was grim news. a half hour after johnson launched his attack against newss hill, he received that they were not moving.
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perhaps that information will drive johnson's decision for another attack. at 10:00, stewart's brigade on the lower hill supported by daniels will charge the area between spangler's lane and the traverse. here is a close up. further ahead. isre is the stonewall, here the upper part and lower part of the hill. here is the union line. there is the reserves behind a. here is the confederate attack coming in. stewart's men were initially in the trenches. moved up. someone sees this line in here as vulnerable. oddly enough, the confederate line that was facing to the filedest is going to be off and behind the captured breastworks of across the wall and file into this tree line facing northwest.
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stewart knew the consequences. it is an order. it is murder but it is an order. theyding to randolph, strongly disapproved of this us all. but while stewart remonstrated he gallantly obeyed the orders. the north carolina would be left in the assault, across the upper part of the field. the other part of the first maryland battalion and the third north carolina are going to be coming across the other side of the wall. just below the monument. the vulnerability of this advance is going to be very apparent quickly. the movement had been made quietly.
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it was a terrible and trying time for all. the order cache fix pay in nuts was given. bayonets was given. on therew themselves ground when exposed to fire. despite the pleadings and cursing's of our officers, they refused to go over. never shall i forget the expressions of contempt upon the faces of our officers. itthe left end of the line, is going to be go to the ground and withdrawal. thirdrst maryland and the network -- north carolina will be making the assault and the union fire for lines deep behind the traverse is concentrated on there. a most terrific fire was opened up on us. from three directions.
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in front. on rising ground heavily wooded. the enemy was also behind breastworks. turning my head to the right, i saw a site fearful to behold. it appeared that my entire company was being swept away. comingas a line of fire from their left flank. in the traverse was the 109th pennsylvania. we had marylanders firing north and south at each other. according to robert decker, of the 29th pennsylvania, who was to the right of gary's line, when the head of the enemy's column appeared in sight, we did not meet orders to commence firing. the enemy advanced steadily.
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this is a pale image but you can see the attack coming down the slope. theewall running down middle and here is the traverse and spangler's line. these paintings are fairly historically accurate. a little bit of artistic license but they do lineup pretty well and you can see it -- the attack coming down the slope. our officers noticed by the falling leaves that the men were firing too high. was given to shoot at the knees. and the rebels confidence failed them. the advance was staggered. end soon came. we were beaten back with terrible loss. and much confusion. we were formed into breastworks from where we had emerged there again to be exposed.
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the advancing support of this line. the men came across the front part of the swale. one hell,down withdrew and did it again and lost men aged time but finally fell back. on their right, walker's stonewall brigade making their assault against the upper part of the hill. walker, heo general met with equally bad success. the fire was so district did -- it was a useless sacrifice to keep them under such fire. brigadier general came made a footnote to this attack. lovers -- according to the general, a dog charged with the first maryland. on three legs.
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as if he was seeking his dead master. he was perfectly riddled with bullets. meanwhile, on the eastern slope the advance was taking losses. on the front part of the union line, reserves had come forward. the enemy formed the light about all at the foot of the hill. and came forward. line ofehind a solid breastworks. reserving our fire until the first rebel line was well up the slope. in easy range. when the order fire was given and executed. this was kept up as long as the rebel line remained unbroken. not surprisingly, pieces of white cloth began to appear
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among the boulders below the breastworks. handkerchiefs -- surrender. you are pinned to the ground in the sunlight and you have nowhere to go. reserves cannot help you. the southerners started to surrender. not surprising. a white flag was raised and it was soon discovered by william the order was given to cease-fire and allow the prisoners to come in. 78 confederates were welcomed in to a place of safety. , ishing from behind benjamin lay. johnson'swas chief of staff. he is watching the surrenders, an extraordinary example of leadership and bravery. he will rally these men, stop the surrenders and rides forward to the edge of the woods where the men are trying to break through. others surrendering.
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drove his force into this nightmare. many yankees witnessed this. seen on horseback was among the timber in our front. urging forward a line of men. probably 100 muskets reserved their fire watching the steering allemen when all of -- when at once, he was outlined in a small clearing and a score of muskets rang out. the writer went down in a twinkling of an eye. the assault were over. to securelys entrenched in two great numbers. no further assault was made. that waseen done possible to do. after holding a lower summit for 14 hours, the confederate brigades were withdrawn across rock creek. you can have to imagine johnson
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when thet about 1:00 rumble of artillery opens up .rom the far side of the line and pickett's charge. we know what happened there. other than intermittent skirmishing, it had ended. at sunset on july 3, the men to stay awake but it was impossible on account of their excessive fatigue. the strain of their nurse. he orders that his men are going to be pulled back from culp's hill and form west of gettysburg. only 24 hours at the scene of culp's hill. johnson's division crossed rock creek and withdrew silently to the west. july 4, in the rain, according were a sorrywe
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looking group of fellows. our faces were as black as coal. our clothing was covered with blood. in the dirt in the trenches with saturated with human blood. this is a photo of the elliott map. the elliott map as some of you may know was a burial map done years after the war. of burial pits. it is probably not specifically accurate that it gives you an idea of the carnage in front of and behind the breastworks on culp's hill. what i have here is a pic is -- is a picture. this is white oak. until a few weeks ago it stood relatively intact. the crack is the effect of the gunfire 40 years later -- all of the bark was shot off the trees. according to the yankees -- the
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trees were stripped of their leaves and bark. hadbetween ground level up to 10 feet in the air where any branches were left or bark could be seen. it was the slaughter on the hillside that was appalling. even for the veterans. it made the men sick in mind and body. the havoc on the union lines was terrible but amongst the enemy it was more so. bravery and blunders. on culp's hill took a heavy toll. losses, a burial pit probably -- sadly enough where a park dump was faced just off of
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confederate avenue east of the hill. union losses, 9800 engaged. corps lost 1200 men. 60 four rebels, engaged in johnson's division -- they lost about 2000 men, killed, wounded, and disappeared. stuart's brigade suffered the majority. losing a third. those that came up to enforce the assault had 600 casualties that when. -- anbing all of this officer returned from being a pallbearer to bury rebel dead in front of our brigade. we dug a trench in which we piled 200 and we carried off 2000 arms.
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25 years later at a reunion, the same fellow come of scene is still fresh in his mind. as long as reason holds her sway, until all is forgotten, i will remember that day and it's ghastly dead. we took them from perfect lines of battle where they had fallen. we dragged them from behind rocks. we found them everywhere in our front from within a few feet of our breastworks to the foot of the hill. home, an officer summed it up well -- i cannot describe what i saw. it was too hard. truly i thought as i passed over can field, none but demons delight in war. thank you for listening. [applause] take some glad to questions if there is time. if not, if we are out of time,
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we will do a -- we will be doing that walk tomorrow and you can see culp's hill for yourself tomorrow. thank you everybody. [applause] morning of december 7, 1941, japanese planes attacked the u.s. fleet at pearl harbor. almost 2400 americans were killed. theican history tv marks 75th anniversary of the surprise attack on saturday, december 10 beginning at 8:00 a.m. eastern. films, show archival first-person accounts from veterans and civilians in the 75th anniversary ceremonies at pearl harbor and at the world war ii memorial in washington. and we will take your calls. that is saturday, december 10, beginning at 8:00 a.m. eastern here on american tv only on c-span3. transition of
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government on c-span as donald trump becomes the 45th president of the united's dates and republicans maintain control of the u.s. house and senate. we will take you to keep events as they happen without interruption. watch live on c-span. c-span.org ord at listen on our free c-span radio app. up next on american history tv, a conversation with candice shy hooper about her book "lincoln's general's wives: four women who influenced the civil war for better and for worse" the women profiled are jessie fremont, nelly mcclellan, ellen sherman, and julia grant. president lincoln's cottage in washington, d.c. hosted this hour-long event. theoining us tonight is board member candice shy hooper and susan to discuss the new

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