tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN November 30, 2016 7:00pm-8:01pm EST
yet. but at least we're taking the first steps. we're working on how to address harassment in our projects and create a healthier community culture. we're developing trainings for our community members on how to identify and handle toxic behavior when they see it. our annual inspire grant making campaign is focused on resourcing ideas to address harassment in the wikimedia projects. we've launched a leadership development program to identify and train and support community members who can be the next generation of leaders across our movement. and we're investing in participation in regional conferences and emerging regions to spread the word about the resources that we have that will help communities grow. so we know we need more voices and we know we want a more inclusive community. so the big question next is where as a movement do we want to go to it? you knew you weren't going to get out of here without me bringing up strategy in some way. i want to make a request for all of us sitting here in this room. over the next six months, we are
hoping to have a conversation about the future of our movement. as i said at the beginning, we have been an incredible initiative, an incredible movement, an incredible community of people for 15 years now. we have achieved a tremendous amount. and one of the things that i think i'm hearing as i go around and talk to people is gosh, we've achieved all of this and got this incredible momentum and these resources and we're perhaps positioned in way today that we have never been positioned before to take advantage of the opportunities that are out there, the hard challenges in front of us, and the imperative to bring more people into our movement to make it the thing we want it to be. and how do we go about doing this? what gets us moving in the same direction together or at least sets out a direction in which we can all bring our unique resources, capacity, and skills
in the contexts and cultures in which we work wom? what is the next mountain we want to climb? it's not that we're done yet. we have so much more to do. this isn't about saying that we're taking on something that's given than the encyclopedia or building out commons or anything along those lines. it's about saying, what are the next set of milestones that we want to achieve together and how are we actually going to think about resourcing and structuring ourselves to do it and to support the individuals in this room and elsewhere who are going to make this change possible? so we're going to have that conversation, i hope, over the next six months. and i want to invite all of you to participate in it. in january of 2017, the wikimedia foundation will be kicking off a movement-wide strategic consultation. and it's not for the wikimedia foundation. it's for the movement. over the course of the next few weeks we'll be reaching out, if we haven't already, to you asking for your participation in how exactly that conversation should happen, what it should look like, how you would want to
participate, and then thinking about what is it that we want at the end of that. because we want to make sure it's about creating a space in which every voice matters and every person can share what their perspective on the future of what our movement can be. i hope that with your participation, inclusivity will be at the top of this conversation. but i know there are many other subjects we're going to want to take on as well. so i'm going to ask you to add a page to your watch list. and i'm going to ask you to read more. there is a page up on meta that talks about what it is that we want to do in terms of the strategy consultation. it also has a talk page. i encourage you to leave your thoughts there. i also encourage you to come to a session tomorrow at 5:00, what is the best way for you to participate in a conversation about our future. what are your hopes for that conversation? what are your fears for that conversation? how can we make sure that that conversation gets us to a place where we all feel as though it is the place that we want to go,
that your voices have been heard, that the important voices who are not already in this conversation have space to join? 5:00 tomorrow. i believe the details are on the schedule. thank you. that's it. i'm going to leave it there on the strategy consultation. the fun is about to begin. we are going to have an incredible two days today and tomorrow, coming together, talking about inclusivity, talking about where we can go as a movement. i'm so excited we're here together in san diego. i'm so excited this is wiki conference north america with all the participation and the diversity that that means. and i cannot wait to get started. thank you so much and have a -- yay! [ applause ]
>> my name is andrew lih. i'm on english wikipedia, a lot of you may know me. i teach about wikipedia, i've written about wikipedia. we have inclusivity as the theme of this conference. it was such a great theme to work with because part of inclusivity is to include people from all walks of life to help enhance, correct, and extend the historical record. that's pretty much what wikipedia does, by allowing anyone to edit any page at any time. so we really wanted to meaningfully engage with this theme, especially with this indigenous people's weekend herein in southern california. eve written a book called is in the wikipedia revolution." i think the true revolution of wikipedia is allowing more than just the winners to write the history books. why is this important? because when we talk about education, what do you think about? you think of k-12, you think of curricula. you think of syllabus.
you think of diplomas. but if you think about this, how much of our learning happens informally outside the classroom, especially for the rest of your life after your formal schooling? this lifelong learning depends on museums, libraries, journalism, and now wikipedia as part of that mix. as irwin said, it has disrupted the ecosystem but with great side effects. in a sense, this type of freely distributed lifelong learning online and through wikipedia was the innovation of the enlightenment, right? journals, encyclopedias, museums were a product of this 1700s movement. scientific and rational thought challenged established authorities of the monarchy and you suddenly had people creating content outside those two poles of authority.
but the problem with this is, as the authority devolved out of the church and of the monarchy, the viewpoint of the enlightenment was still very much a western perspective. so the term today, encyclopedia museum, has been up for debate. it's a very big debate in the museum world. some see it as pejorative, to describe a method for western museums to extract and display artifacts outside their original location. it's against this context that a new wave of museums have opened up, especially in washington, dc, where we do a lot of our editing and our edit-a-thons. the museum of the american indian was one of the hallmarks of this in dc. the newly opened museum of african-american history and culture is another example of this. sherry, myself, and jim hayes stood in line and had an edit-a-thon in line at 5:00 a.m. in the morning. [ applause ]
yes, they thought we were nuts when we were doing that. so we've had several edit-a-t n edit-a-thons to backtrack and edit articles such as poke ahon pocahantas, thanksgiving, the gold rush, and you wouldn't think would have had implications on native americans. they worked with wikipedia editors. they contacted us to look at these seven episodes in native american history that they were going to have an exhibit on. it was wikipedians interacting and being sought by museums. we asked the national museum of the american indian who should we have, they immediately
pointed to two folks. stan rodriguez and michael conley. we're very happy to have them as our speakers this weekend here at the conference. when we mentioned we were working with them to other folks as well, we got even more interest. one of the interesting things is when we were talking to stan and michael, they mentioned they were working with the museum of man at balboa park. and just by great coincidence we had this great balboa park friday edit-a-thon. yesterday we had a great conversation with the ceo of the museum, the museum of man, talking about this new orientation that they're trying to take, the safely type of thing, decolonizing the museum of man as an anthropology museum. and stan and michael are a part of that effort. and they have been working with the museum of man on a new exhibit on astronomy. we had some folks work on that article yesterday, ivan and some other folks. they worked on that article and
looked at the exhibit and improved the article based on what they found at the exhibit. so things are coming full circle in terms of our speakers and what our editors have been doing with the content they've been contribute to go that museum. so innovative museums are trying to break out of this pattern and seeing wikipedia as an ally. i'm happy to introduce stan rodriguez, a navy veteran, a native linguist and an inspired musical can rattler, devout educator and student of native culture. i've heard he has some great treats for us in that area. he was named the 2015 american indian heritage month local hero by the pbs affiliate here in san diego. in his nomination, it said stan has touched the lives of so many of us, tribal and nontribal alike, in his love of teaching to all of us his culture through his language and tool making.
and stanley appears in the documentary, called "pbs presence first people." he filled several advising and teaching roles in the san diego native communities. he is a member of the band of the nation which aims to improve lives through economic development and cultural preservation. he sits on the board of a group whose vision is to strengthen language and cultural reviolate revitalization. he's also a board member of the community college, a school with a special focus on history and culture but also provides computer courses as well. the college is open to native and non-native students and it's my pleasure to introduce stan rodrigues rriguez to talk to u. [ applause ]
before we start this, the last speaker, i just wanted to say, it really touched my heart what you said. when we talk about inclusiveness, i heard other people speak, talking about the san diego public library and wikipedia. for our people, we have a saying, that when an elder passes away, it's like a library burning down. and what a library is, is knowledge. the knowledge of the past, the present, and where are we going in the future. and for all of us to come together, we call it in kumeyaay a -- we come together to share, to share this, our knowledge. this is what we do for our people, for all the people. so that we gain more. you know, how many of you like to eat?
okay. when -- i like potato salad myself. but i can't see me eating potato salad for the rest of my life and that's it. there's got to be more. and that's what all of us bring here together. we bring that knowledge. we bring these things. and inclusive, to me, i won't even say inclusive. i will say to celebrate, to celebrate the diversity and all the knowledge that we have. now, what was your name? katherine. and your name? come to me, samantha. watch this. real quick. i'm in graduate school. i'm in my second year of my doctoral program at ucsd.
and i have a class right now, and my professor, i told him, i'm at a conference. and he doesn't believe me. so i want to ask all of you, how many of you are in the witness protection program? i'm going to take this to my professor. anyway, thank you. so anyway, what we're going to be talking about today is the land, my people, the kumeyaay people. one of the things about our people, the kumeyaay people, first of all, how many of you ever heard of our people? you guys are pretty educated. about half of you. the other half of you never heard about us. well, let me ask you this. how many of you speak any of the kumeyaay language? okay. i want all of you to look at me. you are wrong.
you do speak. how many of you ever heard of the name tijuana? what is tijuana mean? just say it, man. it means south of the border. that's one interpretation. what else? what's that? aunt jane. south of the border. aunt jane, south of the border. okay. actually it's a corruption of a kumeyaay word, it means by the ocean. the spanish, they changed it around. how many of you ever heard of la jolla? what does la jolla mean? the jewel. that is a corruption of a kumeyaay word, which means the place of the caves. how many of you ever heard of palomar, like palomar mountain, the observatory? what does that mean? you're not even trying anymore. in kumeyaay, it means to win
with arrows. i know the people who speak spanish say, no, it doesn't. it does, it means to win with arrows. how many of you ever heard of takate or had a takate? it's another corruption of a kumeyaay word, which means a man who chops wood. how about otai, any of you ever been to otai, the border? it means weed. not this kind of weed but the other kind of weed that grows. so ladies and gentlemen, through wikipedia, you've learned how to speak some kumeyaay. are you good? okay. [ applause ] again, we want to welcome you here to this land, the land of our people, the land of the kumeyaay. and i just wanted to say, our tribe is on both sides of the border. on this side of the border, there is 12 kumeyaay reservations. on the other side of the border, there is really six
reservations. any of you ever been to baja? a few of you have been to baja. the rest of you, are you from out of town? watch this, man. go check it out while you're here. go run down there to that other country which is really my country, which is really kumeyaay territory. it's a beautiful place. a lot of history. the reason i'm bringing all this up is because our keepeople, th kumeyaay people, we have had to endure three waves of encroachment. the spanish wave, which happened on september 28th, 1542, with cabrio rodriguez, not related to me. he came in here and started it. 200 years later, the invasion happened. a lot of people read that the indians of california, we had missions and we loved it. we didn't. and we were peaceful.
no, we weren't. and we just disappeared. no, we're still here. and we've been conquered. no, we haven't. so we'll be talking about that today. we're going to be talking a little bit about that. then the mexican era, we'll be talking about that. and then this present era and the things that away had to endure. and we're still continuing to -- how would you say, we continue to survive. we continue to live. so -- oh, i've got to operate this. all right. as we say in kumeyaay, a long time ago, before contact, our people, we say we've been here since the beginning of time. however, archeologists, anthropologists, say something different. i know those guys. they come to visit us too. they say we've been here, you
know, 7,500 years, and prior to that, you know, if you go into the desert, you'll see many different things, mounds, pi pictographs, things like that. people say close to the migration, people were coming down the coast. before i continue with this, i'm giving you what's called the kmart blue light special version, because this is a lot, and i'm going to shorten it up, because my colleague, who is also one of my teachers, mike conley, he's going to be giving a presentation on monday. and he's going to be giving much more detail on this. so a little bit, the la jolla culture, shellfish, things like that. did you know that the beach that we have here, it went back a lot farther. there's actually villages that are submerged. and the human people, the kumeyaay people, we speak a
human dialect. how many of you are into languages? wow, that's beautiful, man. our people are human dialect of the hokan language family. we're a very old group. we've been here for a long, long, long time. and kumeyaay, i would venture to say, we are the most southwest of all the southwestern tribes. later on, the groups came in, serranos. this is kumeyaay territory. you see it goes on both sides of the border. before contact, our people were governed by a family. now everybody here comes from a family, right? how many of you ever worked with
native american people? okay. one of the first things -- welcome to our territory. we'll ask you, hey, who is your family and where are you from? we want to find out where you're from and who your family is. why do you think we want to know who your family is? well, i'll tell you why. because we want to find out if you're related to us. the people i come from are dark cloud, and the owl clans. guess what, if you're owl clan, you're my relatively. that means okay. if you're not, okay, that's a different thing too. that's a how you find out if you're going to subjugate somebody. -- date somebody.
as far as land goes, it's a complicated system. the way it works is, in our area, our family controls that area. who is not a veg tear yan here? you're not. okay. let's say you shoot a deer, it comes into our territory, even though it's ours, you shot that deer, go ahead, you can pass, because you need to get that. in you come over to pick acorns, unless you have a permit, no. it's a complicated system. that's how we work. we are a people of the oceans, the mountains, the deserts. we have all those topographical eras that we deal with. old town, how many of you have been out to old town? that's one of the -- that was where a kumeyaay village used to
be at. so the people in those areas, they would dry shellfish, people would come in from the mountains and the desert in the springtime to gather. they would trade sea shells for things out in the desert, things like that. planting. some people would say, the kumeyaay people were digger indians. we had no agricultural expertise at all. we just gathered. how many of you are into agriculture here? you agriculture people, you agriculture people, our people were into agriculture. because of the soil conditions here, it was not conducive to growing corn. but the kumeyaay in the desert grew corn. our people planted acorns for oak trees. and trade and commerce, any of you ever been on i-8? that's a kumeyaay trail. i-5, another kumeyaay trail.
and quarries out in different things that we would gather, like red ochre, the paint used for trade, out by the salton sea, obsidian butte, one of the other places in southern california where obsidian was. now, we're looking at the major languages. do you all see that? i'm used to walking. one of the things about california was the diversity in languages and culture here. california had more language diversity than any other place in the world, aside from papua, new guinea. you could go like ten, 20 miles to the east, you'll run into a group that speaks a completely different language. two miles north, different language. so what do you think happened?
our people learned to speak more than one language. how many of you here speak more than one language? doesn't that give you a warm and fuzzy? to be able to communicate, because communication is important. that's what we do. how many of you noticed, you may speak something in one language, it's not easy to convey at times the way the thinking in another language. that's what makes diversity so beautiful. because of the different ways we look at things. it's just like that diamond. it has all those facets. our cosmology, and like i said, mike is going to go over a lot more of this. he's going to go really deep into this. cosmology, how many of you have been over to the museum of man?
natural history museum. you've seen the thing on the cosmology, kumeyaay cosmology? michael was the one who developed that. he was the one that polled a lot of us about our history. prior to that, a lot of that went door must not. i'm not going to say extinct, but dormant, and mike is helping to combat that. our creation story, we had no written language. our creation story is a story that takes four to six days to be told. i'm not even going to try to tell you about our creation story. it would take way too long. but what it teaches us, it teaches us where the universe came from, where we are today, and where we're going in the future. now, how much time do i have left? let me check.
how much? a half hour more. okay. thank you for letting me know. i'm going to tell you something real quick in our creation story. just a little thing, just one part. and i want to tie this in with mainstream thought. we say, before there was a universe, there was something else. and there was a creator. he had a younger twin. the creator decided to make -- we don't call the creator god. we call the creator creator. we don't know why the creator decided to do what he did, but the creator did it. so the creator decided to make
this universe as we know it. and the creator pushed the younger one through, because the younger one was not as strong. the younger one came through. the younger one was scared, closed his eyes, came into this. and the older one said, are you ready for me to come? the younger one said yes, but keep your eyes open. and the way that it is talked about is that other place was like the dinners between here on dry land and salt water, being underneath the ocean. because we use metaphors. so when the older one came, the older one was blinded. and then they decided they were going to make the universe. so the younger one said, let me do it first. how many of you ever had a younger brother or sister? how many of you heard them say, i want to do it, i want to do it. so the older one said, go ahead. so the young one pulled tobacco
from the heart. for us, our people, tobacco is a sacred plant, a connection to the spirit world. the younger one blew smoke to the north, blew it to the south, blew it to the east, blew it to the west. it expanded and collapsed because the younger one didn't have the power. the older one said, let me show you how to do this. we say this is the difference between an old person and an elder. how many of you have known an old person? the old people are, you better do this. the older one just yells at you. an elder will say, let me show you how to do it. so the older one blew to the north, blew to the south, blew to the east, and blew to the west, above and below. and it started to expand and expand and expand. and it made the universe. some people would say that's an interesting myth. however if you ask astrophysical
cy astrophysicists today, they will tell you the known universe is like an expanding bubble. as we say in kumeyaay, oh. so with that said, they decided to make all -- they needed light. the younger one said, i want to make this. the younger one grabbed white clay, blew into it, up into the sky, it became the moon. you notice the moon at the brightest time is dull. the younger one felt bad. the older one said, again, let me show you how. the older one got yellow clay, rolled it up, blew into it, and it started to glow brightly, it started to just explode with brilliance. and it got hot. the older one put it on the thumb and it started to bun. the older one flicked it up into
the sky and it became the sun. and it burned into the thumb. i want all of you to look at your thumbnails, all of you. do you see that half circle on there? when we say hello in kumeyaay, we say houka. and what houka means is, may that fire come to you or stay with you. the word for soul is called matow, which means a fire within our body. so when the creator made the universe, and made us, in our belief, part of the creator is in each and every one of us. so ladies and gentlemen, when you come together, and you talk about strategy building, you're honoring the creator. that part of the creator is coming to you. when you talk about building something, that's part of the creator coming together.
when you make something at home, when you cook, when you clean, when you sing, all these different things, this is the creator inside each and every one of us. so i just wanted to say, we celebrate our diversity. but we're all still the same two. we're all human beings. we all came from the creator. and i think, i believe, as this knowledge, we come together, and we talk about this, that inclusiveness, bringing in all these different cultures. we grow. i talked about hunting earlier. epal is a word we use for arrow. any of you ever went bow and arrow shooting? an arrow can hurt but it's easy to break. each and every one of us are arrows. but when we come together with all of our knowledge and put it together, you try to break that bundle. it's a powerful thing. all of us coming here together,
we are a powerful vehicle of movement. and we talk about social justice throughout the world, change, equality, equity, all these things come with this, with this knowledge, these libraries that we talk about. and inside each and every one of you is a library too. so we talked a little bit about cosmology. michael will talk much more on that. observato observatories, you know, with our people, we are governed by the seasons. we have many different things that we've learned in our different areas. how many of you are from the northeast? any of you? pretty dry over there? not really?
warm like here in san diego? oh. you have what they call snow, huh? oh, okay. and the thing is, every area is different. in the desert, the things that one needs to know are a lot different than up in the mountains or out by the coast. and this is where, you know, the observations are important. just like where you're at. your houses are different. out by la jolla or other places, it suits a different purpose. this right here, we have a lot of things in the desert. and i won't get too much into that. but it shows that we've been
there for thousands and thousands of years. there used to be a great lake over there. some more, let me move on real quick. early expeditions. you've all heard of cortez. what did he come here for? to liberate the people, right? [ laughter ] so the peninsula was decimated. then cabrio came, we talked about him. and i just wanted to touch a little bit on that. we talk about the missions. how many of you ever heard of missions? california has all these missions, it goes up the state and down into the peninsula, baja. okay. and i've seen pictures of
mission indians taking care of the crops, and they're all sitting together while the padre is instructing them in catholicism. and everybody is happy. that's what they teach in the school system. i've seen that in the books. they even have what is a third grade, where they make the missions, and you're going to talk to them about, hey, this mission was made, we're proud of it. you know, when the missions were made, the spanish government in collusion with the vatican used these missions, along with the papal bulls, they used that for justification to subjugate the people. they wanted to use native people as slave labor and to build an infrastructure as a prelude to spanish colonists coming in. they would have a servant class already trained. that didn't happen. it didn't happen well.
in 1775, what was it, november 5th, november 5th around midnight, the mission here in san diego was attacked by 300 kumeyaay warriors. it was burnt to the ground. the father was killed. on the other side of the border in baja, any of you been to encinata? there is a place named after a mission that was there. and kumeyaay warriors descended from the mountains. there was a war chief named black dog. he came down with a group of warriors. they attacked the mission, burned it to the ground. they were looking for the priest. the priest would get the soldiers and chain the indian people up and whip them and force them to work. so anyway, they were looking for that priest. and they found a spanish
seniorita, and her skirt was shaking. they lifted up the skirt and the priest was hiding under there. they did things. after that, other missions were raided and burned up and down the peninsula. our people, we resisted. we resisted that. because our beliefs, and our love for ourselves and our families, were and are strong, still continue to be strong. we resisted that. and then what happened around 1811, okay, independence from spain. look it up in wikipedia, people. all right. so the mexican government took over. mexico became a republic. guess what, california was part of the mexican republic. well, the mexican government
said that they were going to secularize the missions. in other words, they were going to give the land back to the native people. right? believe me, that's what they said. that's what they said. but then what happened was this. they started giving the land to their friends, spaniards who were born in the americas. that started a whole new set of revolts, up and down mexico, california especially. kumeyaay people, the raiding techniques were getting much more advanced, much more sophisticated. and did you know san diego almost fell three times to kumeyaay raids? almost fell three times. a lot of people don't know that. and then something happened. friction between the united states government and mexico. it spilled over into what? a war.
spilled over into a war. well, guess who came to california? the americans. they came out here and they landed over by mission bay. any of you ever been out there? go check out mission bay. and they were surrounded by the mexicans. mexican soldiers. and the mexicans, then they told kumeyaay people, they said, if you help us defeat the americans, we'll give you all of san diego, all your land back. the americans were hinting, if you help us defeat the mexicans, we'll give you your land back. it was a win-win situation for us. yes. well, general kearney came down, ever hear of general kearney? a big fight happened. the battle of san pasqual.
the only battle of the mexican-american war in california was here in san diego. guess who won? the mexicans won that battle. but i know there's more things that happened before. remember, i told you, the mexicans almost lost san diego three times to kumeyaay warriors? what they did was they went to the prisons down south. and let's say all of you are in prison. are you enjoying your accommodations? have some more beans. or you can stay here in prison or we can exonerate you, you're pardoned, and we're going to give you a gun and you can be part of an army. what would you pick? who said they were going to stay
in prison? i want to go and serve my country. this became what was called the cholo army. it helped to defend california. but then they were defending san diego but they weren't getting paid. so if you're not getting paid, what do you think is going to happen? yeah, so at night they would raid the restaurants, the cantina. they were finally evicted. anyway, all these things started happening. in the end, who won the war? the united states. so then -- i'm sorry, i'm skipping all that, because there is a lot to this. but then something happened up north. the southern fort. yes, gold was discovered in california.
and then the third wave of encroachment, and this was a crucial wave of encroachment, because this was governed by greed. it truly was. and the people who came through, i mean, the things that happened, the atrocities that were committed, especially central and northern california, when we talk about the holocaust, there were 251 tribes in california prior to the gold rush. after a few years of the gold rush, there were only like 51 tribes. most of the tribes were just annihilated. i mean, what people would do is take whole groups of people, men, women, children, babies, and just wipe them out. there was a policy of ex termination that was going on. there was a bounty for the scalps of native people.
down here, down south, there wasn't that much gold. so there was not as much encroachment that was taking place. and another thing that also happened, remember the mexican-american war that we were talking about? well, one of the things that the mexicans did was they armed the kewell people. kumeyaay people. so a lot of kumeyaays had weapons. it's a lot harder to annihilate a group if they're just as well-armed as you are. so -- but there were still things that were being done. they had a process of -- they decided they were going to make reservations. so in -- what was it, 1851 or 1852, january 7th, 1852, the treaty of san isobel was made. it was going to grant us a
reservation, one large reservation. this was one of the 18 treaties that was made with the surviving california tribes. now, remember this gold rush. the things that were happening, people were just flooding into california. a lot of people were coming in from the carolinas, georgia. this was 1852. take a look at that date in american history. what was happening then? what was that? uh-huh. and this was a prelude to the civil war. this was a prelude to the civil war. so what happened was, these people were coming in from georgia, carolina, and places like that, were saying, if you ratify these treaties, we're going to side with the confederacy. well, guess what. do you think the federal government wanted to have another group of people fight
against them? what they did was they lost those treaties. those treaties were never ratified. and this is one of the reasons why california has such small reservations. in san diego, we have more reservations than any other county in the country. we also have one of the smallest, which is six acres. so as all this started happening, vagrancy laws were made. you could not leave the reservation unless you had a permit from somebody you worked for. you could be arrested and kept in indentured service for six months. all these things were happening there too. and also one of the things that was going on, and, you know, when we talk about gold, let's move down a little bit farther south, let's go to peru. what was happening in peru? what happened in 15 -- what is it, 1561 or 15 -- pisaro came to
peru. and the leader of peru, he was captured and ransomed for a huge room filled with gold once, and silver twice. the largest ransom ever paid. and attawampa was executed. this was the inca empire. one of the largest empires in the world. did you know, more gold was taken out of california than was extracted over there? this is how bad it got. so these were some of the things that happened. this was some of the things that contributed to the loss of life.
and the policies our native people here in california. and there's a lot more to it, a lot more to it. our religion, our religion was made illegal. native religion was made illegal. do you know when it was legalized? when do you think our religion was legalized where we could actually practice it? 20th century. august 10th, 1978. the freedom of native american religion act was passed. prior to that, it was illegal for us. we didn't have the same protections in this free country. and it wasn't really ratified until clinton was in power in the 1990s. there was still struggle against that. people don't learn about that. the boarding schools, in an effort to stamp out native culture and language, started off in the 1870s with the famous saying of colonel pratt, kill the indian in order to save the man.
where they would take children away from their homes and they would raise them in boarding schools and cut their hair. a lot of times they would say it was to clean out the lice. actu hair is part of our religion. we only cut it when somebody dies. so all of these things were attempts to eradicate culture. even the termination acts in the 20th century, indian relocation. all the things, there were a lot of things that have happened, but our people still survive. on the other side of the border in mexico, the mexican government didn't harass the native people in baja as much. possibly because mexico's filled with indians. and it's -- you mess with one, you'll have to mess with all of them. however, they did have policies
of forcing them to speak spanish. for the bilingual schools in baja, they'd bring in mexican teachers and they'd hit the students for speaking their language. you tell the parents if they want to do good in school, only teach them spanish. similar to what's going to here. the different organizations that mexican government works with for the native american or the native people in mexico. i would say at best, it's marginal. mexican government, the tribes over there, they don't have the same protections we had over here. we have reservations. over there, the indigenous lands, mexican government can come in. they say if you don't -- if you're not working all the land
to our specifications, we'll just take it and give it to somebody else. so these are some of the things our people have been struggling with also. how many more minutes do i have? five more minutes. okay. i'm going to shut up pretty soon. yes. i want to sing a song real quick. before i say that, our culture has been like a sky, a pop. that's been thrown on the ground and shattered into many different things. how many of you have ever worked with pottery? i talked to an elder one time. that pot saul of our culture, but we put it together and grind it up. we grind those shards up. it makes temper and we put new clay in there, which is today. we build it and make a new pot and fire it.
it has both. and this is who we are. i think it is our responsibility to remember this. i'll just call it the sacredness of every different culture and to honor that because with that comes a way of knowledge and a way of being that cannot be replicated. and i just want to say to all of you, we praise you for your work. and now, before i shut my snoot, i wanted to really welcome you here. i'm going to sing a song. is that okay? all right. now our songs, they tell a story. so i'm going to tell you a quick story.
this is a kmart blue light special version, and this story talks about when the sun and the moon were going to get married. the frog's in love. how many of you have ever been in love? how many of you have ever been to a wedding? okay. well, you can relate then. a long time ago, the sun and the moon were going to get married, and they invited all of the animals up to takari peak to the wedding. there were these two frogs in love. and as soon as everybody went up the trail -- okay. after they were done, they were just relaxing. and then the female said -- she said her stomach is growing. and the guy looked and said, what? it just got bigger. she jumped into a pond. she looked in there and it was
filled with polywogs. and she says, oh, gosh, look what happened when we -- what happens when the sun and moon get married. we've got to warn them. they start hopping up to the top of the mountain. they got there and the sun and the moon were waiting for them. you're late. and the two frogs said, sun, moon, you cannot get married. and they said, why not? and they said because when you get married you're going to -- and then look. and they looked at the pond. all these little frogs were in there singing. and they said, sun, your sacred moon. there's only one of each of you. if you get together, the sky will be filled with suns and moons. and they said, you're right. but we're in love with each other. how are we going to do this? so they agreed that the sun would be up while the moon was asleep and the moon would come up and the sun would go to sleep. and that's why it is what it is today. but every now and then you'll see the sun and the moon up at
[ speaking foreign language ] thank you everybody, for coming here, and i wish you all success in everything you do. [ applause ] c-span's "washington journal," live every day with news and policy issues that impact you. coming up thursday morning, texas democratic congressman gene green will discuss the democratic leadership elections and the future of the affordable care act in the trump administration and the next congress. he'll also talk about his bill to abolish the electoral college. then, pennsylvania republican congressman charlie den talks about the november elections and house republic legislative
agenda. he'll also discuss the trump cabinet and leadership picks. and on world aids day, u.s. global aids coordinator dr. deborah burks looks at policy and funding for hiv and aids and where the mission of ending the epidemic stands today. be sure to watch c-span's "washington journal" live at 7:00 a.m. eastern thursday morning. join the discussion. >> so i decided to spend much more time on the young grant. i spent a week at west point trying to understand how this man could finish 21st out of 39 at west point. and, therefore, sometimes viewed by these biographers as an historical, intellectual lightweight and yet he said of himself, i must apologize. i spent all my time reading novels. >> sunday on q&a, ronald c. white talks about the life and career of the 18th u.s. president in his latest book "american ulysses, a life of
ulysses s. grant." >> he convened a meeting of african-american leaders in the white house. and he said, i look forward to the day when you can ride on a railroad car, eat in a restaurant, when you can do so along with every other person, regardless of their race. that day must come. it took 90 years for that day to come. grant was the last american president to hold those kind of views. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span's q&a. sunday on book tv's in depth. we're hosting a discussion on the december 1941 attack on pearl harbor on the eve of the 75th anniversary. on the program, steve twomey, author of "countdown to pearl harbor." eri hotta. and craig nelson with his book "pearl harbor from infamy to
greatness" followed by an interview with donald stratton, pearl harbor survivor and a co-author of "all the gallant men." we're taking your phone calls, tweets and e-mail questions live from noon to 3:00 p.m. eastern. go to booktv.org for the complete weekend schedule. tonight on c-span3, the head of the washington, d.c., area transit system talks about how they are addressing maintenance and safety problems. then prime minister's questions from the british house of commons. and later, a discussion about u.s. global leadership and military alliances. the head of the washington metro area transit facility spoke at the national press club today. he talked about how the troubled agency is working on a maintenance backlog and addressing safety issues. this is 50 minutes.