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tv   American Artifacts  CSPAN  December 3, 2016 9:55am-10:31am EST

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position so many people around the area for years new him as judge hayden. he is essentially what you would for taylor -- what you would for to -- referred to as a connecticut yankee in arizona who is now a man with a big freight business, a big sales or mercantile business. he very much as a frontier businessman in arizona. crossing forown the salt river. wasriver people knew erratic but they also knew it was a river that had a lot of potential for irrigation. when he came up here, i think he certainly saw the crossing. he would establish what was known as hayden's ferry shortly after. the one thing to keep in mind is the ferry business will only be part of the year. it will be seasonal. because of the fact it will be
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during high water times for the river. much of the rest of the year, you will have these freight wagons crossing and not waiting for a ferry boat but simply going across. there are freight trains and freight wagons crossing here, two and three wagons hitched to 18 or 20 mules or horses crossing at one time. if you have to wait for your whole team to cross with a ferry boat, people often try to find alternative ways. hayden recognize that was ideal because it was a suitable crossing location. he also saw there were other possibilities. freight wagons always need work and they can use things like services for wagons to fix parts of wagons and carry extra freight across as they were heading up to places like the
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town of prescott or there were going to fort mcdowell north of here are any number of mining camps or ranches that were north of the river. he recognized the possibility of that without a doubt. -- peoplehings were were starting to think about agriculture in the area, he began to think about things like somebody will be needed to process the wheat that people will grow in the area. as far asy conceived, we know, he conceived of the mill in 1870 when he got the rights to the land where the mill would be built. addition, you have the blacksmith shop, carpenters .ork, wagon making facilities at the same time, he is
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promoting the growth of the area in terms of pushing for the railroad. the railroad won't get to yuma until the late 1870's and does not get to until 1880.maricopa it does not get up in here until 1887 but hayden was pushing for that the whole time. even before that or during the midst of that, he is also pushing for the creation for tempe to get a college which we known as a normal school which will become asu. the year before the railroad arrives, the teachers colleges built, the first normal school building is built. active in a lot of facets of the community. he promoted a sense of community because he worked with everybody.
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the mexican frontiersman, the mexican pioneers who came appear, many of them worked with him and for him. the mexican workers did a whole lot of things with mr. hayden in addition to having their own farms and things like that. he also worked with the native american communities around here. them brought their wheat up her for him to process as well as flower. he worked with the mormon community a number of which would settle here in tempe. he was really a community builder in a wider sense. he was always thinking about what he could do to help the community get bigger. i think that is why his figure has become bigger historically. who knew he could not do this by himself, it took the whole community to work together to do this. this weekend, we are
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featuring the history of tempe, arizona with our cox communication cable partners. learn more about our cities tour cities tour.n.org/ you are watching american history tv all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. c-span, where history unfolds daily. in 1979, c-span was created as a public service by america's cable television companies. is brought to you today by your cable or satellite providers. each week, american artifacts takes you to museums and historic places to learn about american history. beach, in virginia virginia, the military aviation museum is home to one of the largest private collections of world war i and world war ii aircraft most of which are airworthy. we toured the hangar with the chief pilot.
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we took a flight in a trainer plane. this is the second of a two-part program. i am mike spaulding, the chief pilot for the military aviation museum in virginia beach, virginia. i am in charge of all the airplanes and training for the museum and the pilots. they we will talk about boeing steer man. it has different numbers depending on the service it was in whether it was in the navy or the air force. it could be a pt 13 or 17 if it was in the army air corps back then. kaydet.by the name of the navy called them the yellow mainly because it can be a handful of airplane for the first airplane you learn to fly. it sets you up for your progression down the road into
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more complicated airplanes. airplane basically taught all the military aviators, army air corps and navy, how to fly. many guys never even saw an airplane coming from the farms and anywhere you can think of and the first airplane they saw was the boeing steer man. the reason they use this airplane is basic. it's mostly made out of wood and held together by steel flying wires and covered in a fabric back then which was cotton. is more modern stuff they used today to make them last longer. they made tens of thousands of them and there is always several hundred left today is because they were not meant to last. they are made of wood and fabric andset out in the elements
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if they did not get destroyed in training, they rotted away. they were just scrapped. this was the first airplane that they all flew. we will take a flight in it today and show you some things about it. when we fly, you will know what you are looking at. it's a very basic airplane. it has just the basic instruments to fly. it has an airspeed indicator, and altimeter, you don't need an attitude indicator because you look out the window. you learn how to get the airplane off the ground and fly around and do turns and come back in and land. you do that continually successfully. in the program that most of the army air corps and the navy had, not everybody was able to get the hang of it. you washed out.
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in the beginning, a washout means instead of flying airplanes, you will secure a gun or something in the infantry or cut potatoes. you don't get to fly anyway. many of them made up at there was a certain level and percentage that did not. many might get to so low and then they cannot get beyond that. case, they all learned to fly in it and the ones that did progress and then they went from a basic trainer and you went on to an advanced trainer where you have more controls in the airplane and its more fighter like. from there, everybody goes wherever they go either to a bomber or a fighter. it did not matter, you went through that progression of a sick trainer and the advanced trainer. the basic trainer and the
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advanced trainer. the student sits in the back and it's harder to see. these old type tail wheel airplanes, you cannot see out of the front. you have to do s turns when you are taxiing and you look side to side to make sure you are not running into anything. the instructor sits in the front . type ofretty crude intercom back then. it was a tube. it was a little bit more modern than the can and the string because the tube did not have to be tight. you could talk through a mask and they could hear you and that so they communicated. sometimes it was just hand signals. there is a mirror up top where they could communicate by looking at each other and use hand signals. out and then you learn how to fly the airplane
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with turns and maneuvers and do them in a coordinated fashion. you may have turned -- have heard the term needle ball. if want to keep centered and you do that, it take or knitted turn but otherwise the plaintiffs getting around. turn.is a coordinated you come back in an start learning how to take off and land. the landing is the last thing you get and that's the last part of the progression. it's the hardest part to do it continuously. when you do that, the instructor out andu when he gets you do your first flight by yourself. that's quite a mark in your aviation. that, they will do many hours of just solo flights
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and then solo cross-country flights, learning how to navigate across country and go from one airport to another. and back safely. this progression takes about one year. they have a couple of hundred and advancedary trainers by the time they are ready to move onto the airplane they will fly when they get out. they are open cockpit airplanes. that was the normal thing back then. they had training bases all over the country. they were in the north and south so if you are lucky, you got to train down in florida and mississippi. if not come you trained in minnesota and you were a bigger coat. they were flying with goggles and they train year-round. thereressed for it and if was a war on, you had to do what you had to do. that was the most comfortable
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you would be. everybody was exposed to the elements. whenan be as bad as cold you are in southern florida with the humidity and 95 degrees. you also have a flight suit on. it was not easy. it could be pretty grueling on you physically. not to mention mentally. we have the best training pilots in the world. we had a very regimented pilot training program that was in line with some of our allies. many of the axis aircraft and countries did not have the type of training program we had and they rushed them into it which helped us, the quality of the pilots and our abilities. sometimes they did not have the best machines but get out fly
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the better enemy machine because of their abilities. trainer holds 100 46 gallons of fuel so it could stay up there close to four hours with no problem. that's just for cross-country. it's mostly designed just for the local area and short cross-country hops. if you have to take it across country in minnesota in january with an open cockpit, you want your trip to be short. these kids had never seen an airplane so they did not know what to expect. it is not windy in the airplane but you stick your hand out and you can feel what makes the wings work. that's part of the aerodynamics of them learning. you can feel the elements outside where in a closed even then a fighter or
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, you lose thatr other sense of your speed and that you are moving. at-6,s a north american meaning advanced trainer. we started out with the primary trainer which is what you learn to fly in. after you learn to fly, you went to the advanced trainer. the navy called it an s&j. thing as the at-6. what's different is you can see it hasn't canopy on it and closes up like a fighter or a bomber. you are now and closed and it has a controllable prop in a much bigger engine and retractable landing gear.
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there are advanced features of the primary trainers don't have. it goes a lot faster and you are learning to put the gear up and down. you are learning to manipulate the engine differently depending on your flight characteristics. is about assion long as the other because you are learning more about the aerodynamics and the speed, not just the basic flying. learned everything and apply it here and expand it. the air force and the navy had them. the navy had some with tail hooks on them. if you ended up going on a carrier, you do some carrier training. chairman's -- in instruments and their. use them to do strafing runs and machine gun work and bombing
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maneuvers. the advanced part of the training could go in many different or action so it was used for a lot of things after you learn how to fly. then how to fly something faster and more advanced that you would be getting into after you left here. was primarily used for training but later in the war, ,hey did use some for combat not very many. they armed some and use them at have a specific purpose in short range, low altitude bombing and strafing for a specific need. in general, it was used for training. now sits in the back and the student sits in the front. it would be just like you were sitting in a fighter by yourself
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and flying the fighter type airplane. you learned everything you would do in a fighter in this. , it would becs more fighter like so you can learn how to do combat and be comfortable during whatever you needed to do with the airplane to get a kill or keep from being killed. with every hour you flew, there were many hours of classroom training, studying books and that's why it took so long. it was not just the flying. there was a lot of classroom and groups and the manuals you have to study yourself and keep from getting washed out. you could get washed out at any point in this program, pretty much until you got to the fighters were they felt they spent enough effort. at any point in training, you could get washed out.
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if you notice, the trainers are brightly colored but all the training bases have their own markings and their ways of identifying where they were from but they were generally brightly colored. --t was so it could find you and that was so they could find you if you are somewhere where you were not supposed to be, it would be easy to spot. many times they did not have radio so they had to go out and look for you if you did not come back. it was easier to find you if you had an incident of your by yourself. after you got out of flight training and now you have your wings and you are going out to a fighter or a bomber or something, one of the early modern fighters we had was the 40. you can --p-40.
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it was an important airplane and we used it, the chinese used it and many are familiar with the flying tiger which is what this paint scheme is for. the paint scheme depends on where they were in the world to match the lay of the land. camouflaged ore have the olive drab green so that enemy aircraft above it would have a high time -- a hard time finding you if they were above you. many times they were light-colored underneath. if they were below you, they could not see you. there is a reason for the colors. much of the markings on the side, some of them are personalized by a specific pilot and it's called nose art. this airplane is in the markings of the flying tigers when it was
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in china. they have moved to a much faster airplane with more horsepower, much bigger engine. it was a good fighter. underpoweredeing to help out the bombers and go high. it could not go high because it did not have a second stage supercharger. it had a single stage so it did well down low with strafing but the bombers flew high and these could not get up there to help them out or get itself out of another fighters weigh. came along, it basically had the same engine, which the merlin engine had a second stage supercharger and it could fly high and fast. strafing is when you go really fast and get right on the ground
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and you start shooting your guns and shooting at whatever needs to be shot at, trains or a convoy of vehicles or buildings. you are basically right at the treetop. andare unloading the guns you pack up and go back and do it again. basically strafing is to dive down and get on the ground and shoot everything you intend to shoot and then go back up. strafing is not always planned. you are supporting your ground crew and the infantry. you may be able to see things they cannot. you clear the way for them by strafing and blowing up tanks or armored vehicles or the other infantry. you may see nothing or you may have the mission and you could
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be out there a couple of hours. usually you run out of ammunition before you run out of fuel. here we have the p-51. it looks like it is going fast just sitting here. it's a very sleek and fast airplane. it almost did not come to be because it had the same engine as the p-40. this is a much heavier airplane so it really wasn't doing the job. it could not really get out of its own way. it was for low-level strafing and bombing but that's not what they wanted. they needed support for the bombers to help the bombers out. let'sk the british to say put the merlin supercharged in the airplane and see what we can
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do and that's what saved the airplane and that's what made it what it was. as in most airplanes, the guns were in the wings, not all of them. the early ones were in the nose and they would time and with the engine so it would go through the propeller and not hit the propeller. it was much easier to put them in the wings and the guns would sit here. and they will come up laid all the ammunition out in an s fashion so it would feed properly and it comes out. this is where all the guns and the ammunitions were, in the wings. trigger, itl the shotguns on both sides of the same time. ifwould give you some yaw you shot one side or the other so they shot together. that way you could stay straight. waslly every fifth round
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luminescent so you could see it. it would heat up and you could see it and see where your bullets are going. otherwise you have no idea where they are going. you will see that in some of the footage when you look at world war ii footage and you see the gun cameras. theyof them had cameras so could monitor the kills and document the kills. all the fighter pilots were trying to become an ace. to be an ace, you had to have five kills. oddly enough, some guys never got there and some who got there on their first day out. not many of those but there were some that had that skill level or luck level to get them all five read it once. five kills would be an ace in kill, you got the flag of
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the adversary to mark your kills. everybody were a parachute or had it available to them. in a fighter you will wear it but you cannot put it on after the fact. or bombers, they may ou may not wear them. youas usually available to and it was not usually split-second thing to jump out. you would have time to put it on or the captain would give the command to bail out unless it was obvious. here, you're pretty much by yourself. you have it on and the parachute is also your seat cushion. you are sitting on it so it's not behind you but there are straps that go around it and are tied to you. canopiesut, all the have emergency release so the canopy would go away.
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there were various ways of getting out. sometimes it's whatever it took. you would normally just get up on your knees and lean over the and you go down below the horizontal stabilizer and out. the slower the better but sometimes you just had to get out if it was on fire. , mostlyarmy airplanes all used in the european theater because it was mostly land over there. you took off from europe somewhere went over to germany. there was basically a river in between the battles. the navy stuff was different. there was a lot of water so they were on boats and things like that. the army stuff was mostly in the european theater or land-based operations. the p-40 being
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the early as of the modern fighters for world war ii, this is the navy version of a very early fighter. bute are grumman built during the war, they were trying to produce so many airplanes that grumman in this case could themselves of the contracted out to general motors or other companies. general motors built a lot of the grumman airplanes in the general motors factories. wildcat.n fm-2 withrived from a biplane fixed gear. it was a carrier-based airplane. they took it and modernized it and took the top wing off. the earlier ones did not have folding wings. shortly after that, they did that and the reason the wings
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ofd and you see that in most the navy fighter airplanes as so they can get on the carrier and make them small. and would make them small they would go down the elevator and part them underneath. this airplane was very basic. everything on it is mechanical. you crank the gear up with a hand crank and there is a chain and it pulls the landing gear up and you put it back down that way. the flaps used air off the engine to put them down. everything else on it is done by hand. everything is just cranks and handles and things like that. i inalmost like world war the transition. the wildcat was very successful. flowing --rted flying against the japanese which thiss nimble
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is as well but the zero was very light. when they were trying to do escape maneuvers, the zero could out climb it and would get them. after the wildcat was the hellcat which had more power and that turned the tables on the japanese and the zero. this is the grumman tbm. tb stands for torpedo bomber and m stands for general motors. , it was builtfm-2 by general motors, much like studebaker built engines for the b-17. many of them got into the war effort. everything was put toward trying to win the war with a lot of production of cars and airplanes for recreation and things like by thehey did not go
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wayside but they were cut back in an effort to win the war. the tbm is another carrier-based airplane. as you can see, it's much bigger and everything on it is hydraulic. doors, the wings is by hydraulic as well as the landing gear. it took a crew of three. you had a bombardier and you had a gunner in the back and the top. of course, the pilot. the operated off carriers and would go out and torpedo bomb japanese ships in the pacific and that sort of thing. the cal flaps are more noticeable on this. they look like gills on the cowling. best to control the temperature of the engine see you can
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control the airflow. if it gets too hot, you open them up and you can control the cylinder head temperature on the engine or close them if it is getting too cold to regulate the end -- the engine temperature. most all of airplanes were assigned to a specific pilot. they rarely interchanged. today, you see military fighters have the name of the pilot on the airplane. it's assigned to them and it usually has the crew chief name on it. they are responsible for it. the bombardier and everybody flew as a crew. this was their airplane. unless somebody was sick or had an issue or shipped home, it had the same crew and the same pilot. that was pretty much standard throughout the military whichever side you are on. bombardier's had their own training.
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they had various airplanes they and they trained them specifically to use bomb sites and drop torpedoes and drop homes -- drop bombs and do whatever they did. they had there on specific training program and they came together when they were assigned to their unit. tbm was involved in quite a few operations in the pacific. was theticular airplane type that george h.w. bush ditched and was flying when he was rescue out of the pacific. that's what helped make this airplane famous as well.
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this was the premier navy fighter. everyone knows the corsair. f4u is the designation but this is a fg1d. g means itghter and was built by goodyear. they were in aircraft making just like general motors and studebaker and others. this one has folding wings also. it has a twin engine which is very big, almost 3000 horsepower. most will recognize this airplane because of the bent wings. no other fighter type really has that. is soason they do that the landing gear does not have to be a strong. it had nothing to do with aerodynamics.
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it's so they can keep the landing gear shorter and it would fold up into the wheels. the reason they needed to do that is because of the propeller which has a long propeller so it comes close to the ground. it would only be about that far off. when you get the tail up, the prop would be close to the ground so it's for propeller clarence. -- clearance. andk you for coming by taking a small tour of the military aviation museum. we have many more airplanes come about 50 flying airplanes. that was just a small sampling so come by and see us. you can watch this and other american artifacts programs by visiting our website at www.c-span.org/history. >>

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