tv The Presidency CSPAN December 19, 2016 12:00am-1:44am EST
issues, this is it. really look into your community and see what is affecting those around you. theyare the ones you love, are the ones you are surrounded with every day. the issues you see happen every day on the street, that is where you can start. be a part of this documentary because you want to be a voice for your community. >> thank you, ashley, for all of your advice and tips for studentcam. go to our website, studentcam.org. >> next, three world war ii veterans talk about their experience as u.s. navy fighter pilots. this is hosted by the american veteran center.
>> tonight speaker is randall, who did his phd at northwestern university, has taught at ,outhern illinois university , andn college, michigan lcc international university in lithuania. andas written three books several dozen scholarly articles on aspects of german propaganda and maintains, if you're a history buff and you want an experience going online, the , andn propaganda archive fascinating world without end. google german propaganda or or east german propaganda
introduced in a desert to the german reichstag. it was the most widely anticipated and widely heard speech of the 21st century. that is a bit of a claim. and the back of your mines as i'm speaking you may see if you can come up with a counter example. there are certainly a number of things one might consider. we are going to look at that speech this evening. before that, we are going to look at the background of relations between adolf hitler and franklin roosevelt. then we will consider the beginning of a rhetorical battle between the two which began with roosevelt's famous quarantine speech in september 1937. we will spend a fair amount of time looking at the critical months of march and april 1939, when the rhetorical war between hitler and roosevelt intensified, and then we will spend a little bit of time looking at what happened afterwards.
some things to keep in mind -- first, both people were far more persuasive heard than red. if you lessons -- and i suspect many of this audience has -- listened to roosevelt's fireside chats and heard that voice coming over, and then read the transcripts, something gets lost. the same is true of hitler. the man spoke at inordinate length. 2.5 hours was not unusual. if you read the transcripts, the text of the speech, you shake your head. in front of an audience, he was a spellbinder. second, fdr had much greater rhetorical challenges that hitler did. hitler had a controlled system. anytime he gave a speech it was
claimed to be a rhetorical masterpiece. nobody ever dared tell hitler he was not doing well. he had a press which did what he wanted. if they didn't, they got in a lot of trouble quickly. roosevelt had a much greater set of problems. he had a democracy. a lot of people did not like him and were not afraid to say so. he had to deal with press. reporters liked roosevelt. he gave great press conferences. boy i wish i had been there. he joked. he knew them by name. they played games, if you will, and he usually gave them a great story. there are editors and owners did not like roosevelt nearly as much. and the republicans it make much of him either. roosevelt had a much tougher set of challenges to face.
third, hitler could reach the united states much more easily than fdr could reach germany. the united states system is relatively open. his speeches were sometimes printed at full length in american newspapers. the germans saw in their press only what the propaganda leadership wanted them to see. they could sometimes listen to shortwave, but that was not the easier way to do it. finally, we're looking at the rhetoric of the period. there was all kinds of activity. lots of things were going on we are not looking at. you can't do everything. with that they said, let's turn to the initial relations between the two. they both took power within a
month of each other in 1933. they both had similar problems. the economy was a catastrophe. both spent the first few years working to strengthen out as much as they could. they didn't entirely ignore each other, but they did not have a lot to say about each other. when the germans talked about roosevelt, they were relatively friendly. for example, the german press was told to treat the reelection in 1936 in a friendly way. the german press was told to say this. there was a press conference, sometimes two in berlin each day, which gave detailed instructions to the press about what to say. there are something like 15,000 of these things. if you weren't there, they were sent by teletype to newspapers all over germany.
they did not have sensors that before publication, they just gave there a clear instructions. journalists knew if they did not do it the right way, their careers were going to be short. they were told to treat roosevelt election and a friendly way. they were told not to discuss the fact that he was a freemason -- although he was. that was part of the international jewish conspiracy
and was not something you could say about the united states, regardless of the fact it was true. editorial cartoons presented roosevelt in a relatively friendly way. we have a 1934 cartoon in which roosevelt is sweeping congress out the door telling them to take a vacation so he can get some work done. our expert back there can see if he can do something about that. in any event, low and behold, roosevelt is presented in a somewhat friendly way. here is another cartoon from 1935. it says roosevelt and communism. you can't only grab the bull by
the horns, you have to twist its neck. the interesting thing about these two cartoons is that roosevelt is not handicapped. right? he is a strong, sturdy, relatively handsome guy. as a footnote, this changed. here is a cartoon from 1940. you have first of all -- was that looks really unpleasant. and it says that roosevelt's new deal has failed so he asked a new -- find new ways to support himself. now he has crutches and is supported where he wanted to build military bases. into the 30's, roosevelt was being treated in a friendly way. the other thing that is interesting about the two gentlemen, is that they had very similar rhetorical problem. both were in charge of nathan's best nations that did not want war. both wanted to prepare those nations to wage war.
both are two different reasons. hitler was trying to prepare his nation for war because he intended to start that war. roosevelt was concerned about those intentions and was trying to prepare the united states to wage war, but had in or is difficulty -- enormous difficulty. 95% of the american public wanted nothing to do with foreign wars. hitler had the same problem. germans did not want a war. when he succeeded in taking over sudetenland, he was very disappointed. german people were much more pleased that war had been averted them that he had won a great foreign policy triumph. neither country wanted war. we have good contemporary evidence of this.
in in 1937, roosevelt wrote his old headmaster and he said i am fighting against a public psychology of long-standing, a psychology which comes very close to saying peace at any price. this was not a public message, and he would not have wanted it to be public, obviously. the point is roosevelt knew he did not have a nation very eager to fight. hitler has very much the same problem, although he was dictator and furor -- fuhrer, he always had to rely on public opinion. we know this because of a fascinating speech he gave in munich to a closed meeting of german journalists. he said for years, i spoke only of peace. now at his -- now it has become necessary to slowly prepare the german folk psychology for the fact that there are things that cannot be achieved by peaceful means. some goals can only be achieved through the use of force. it was necessary to shed light on certain events abroad in such a manner that the and her voice of the german oak naturally cried out for the application of force. hitler was planning building public support of the war he intended to wage. this will be familiar with the timescale. in march 1935, the occupation of the rhineland. he invaded ethiopia, and spanish civil war. roosevelt in 1936 has won
reelection. he is feeling a little more confident, and he knows he has to shift public opinion. roosevelt was something of a turtle. he had a fine sense of public opinion. he knew he could not make fast changes. he stated review of stick his head up a little bit and try something. if it did not work, the head would be back in. every now and then, he missed. in 1937, he misjudged. he began in a constitution day speech which is primarily aimed at his domestic opponents. he touched on international affairs. he talked about governments that were maintained by fear at the expense of liberty and individual rights. he did not mention japan by
name. he did not mention germany by name. the germans knew he was talking about them. the press was instructed to take careful note of this. the nazi party daily newspaper said they snappy intensified by demagogue slogans and hostile statements. since his own methods look rather like a dictatorship, he wants at least to prove to his democratic credentials and polemics against other dictators. this was much more direct an attack that had been made by the german press before. he really stuck his neck out a couple weeks later in chicago. bad time for a foreign-policy speech. this was a dedication of a bridge in chicago. that is the speech in which he made his famous quarantine metaphor. he said when an epidemic of physical disease starts to spread, the community joins in a
quarantine of the patient in order to protect the health of the community against the spread of disease. nobody knew what he meant by that. roosevelt probably did not know exactly what he meant by that. as cordell hull said, the reaction was quick and violent. public opinion across the board was highly unhappy. it was mostly vehemently negative. roosevelt knew he had stuck his neck out too far and put back in. he refused to say anything. you and say no, and. he was only willing to make some very vague and loose comments absolutely free from being attributed to him. he realized he was ahead of public opinion. and the next year and a half, he
does not say much except the journalists knew that he was a bad guy. they went after him with fervor. the press was instructed not to let this one pass. hitler himself commented to one of his aides this is a turning point. the united states was clearly coming out in his mind against germany. at the press conference in berlin that evening, the german press was given its marching orders. they were told they are hypocrites. roosevelt is suggesting that somehow we are wrong. if he were to look at the exports of his armaments industry, he would conclude there is a contradiction between his speech and the millions and armaments proper mitts -- profits. they went on in some detail.
roosevelt realized he was ahead of public opinion. for the next nine months, he did not really say very much. the state of the union address into your 1938 -- january 1938 made a very passing mention. in april, he said he'd heard good things about german youth dance. he asked his ambassador to look into what was going on. the german press was told to say this -- since we do not want to suggest that the german public is incensed by roosevelt, ignore it and don't mention it. we don't want to give any indication that we think there is some good thing about roosevelt. august 1938. roosevelt was willing to stick his neck out a little more again. slowly, public opinion was beginning to move. he gave a speech at queens university in canada. in that speech, he said i give
to you assurance that the people of the united states will not stand by idly if the domination of the canadian union is threatened by any other empire. remember the monroe doctrine was specifically assigned to central and south america. canada was part of the british empire. the germans instantly reacted to this. they did not like this at all. a typical german newspaper headline said dangerous gains. the significance of results page. it is characterized by crude attacks against nondemocratic forms of government that accuse there were dreams -- regimes of unrestrained brutality against helpless people.
across the board in german press, this is the kind of thing germans were reading. it was clear to any german who read the newspaper that roosevelt was not a friend. the next on september 1938, a fateful month. the month of munich. tensions were building. germans were accusing the czechs of threatening the germans in that part of czechoslovakia. they were building up a campaign in germany to suggest that awful things have to be matched by military force. those of us who remember the bay of pigs -- and i know this audience, a lot of us do. we will never the feeling of standing near the edge of the of this.
war might break out at any point. that was how europe was feeling in september 1938. roosevelt at that point stuck his enterprising efforts into it again. he sent the first of five public messages indexed year, trying to secure peace. he said the message in september, just before munich, calling for international conferences. he could kind of be the postmaster getting information from one side to the other. he was on the side of public opinion on this. although the american public did not want to get involved in any military activities, they were willing to talk about it at least. domestically this work quite nicely. the germans were not at all. hitler was hoping for a nice war against czechoslovakia. the last thing he wanted was roosevelt getting in a way. the germans had to decide what to do. the german press was told not to say anything until the fuhrer speaks.
hitler followed with a message. that message was to roosevelt. he says i fully appreciate the lofty attempt best intent on which your remarks are based. however, i canada must refuse all responsibility if further developments, contrary to all my efforts up to the present, should lead to the outbreak of hostilities. to arrive at a fair judgment regarding the sudeten german problem, it is indispensable to consider the incidents, in which, indian us analysis of the origin of this problem and it dangers has its cause. he is a he is doing everything i can, but it is not his fault. roosevelt responded the next day with another message. he said you typed but the past, but this is about the future, let's worry about that. the germans ignored that, because the other leaders in europe were flying to munich to give hitler what he wanted.
since he got everything he wanted, he didn't have an exclusive for throwing his desk and excuse for throwing his military into the picture. the german people saw that a great dramatic triumph had been one. the next few months, roosevelt was relatively quiet. he did comment that he could not imagine if something happened in a civilized country. the good -- the germans kind of ignored it. they went to focus their propaganda on those things. roosevelt and his aides were also getting involved in -- involved. people at the secretary of interior were beginning to make nasty statements. germans were mad at him because
he had banned exports. for instance, he criticized bloomberg and henry ford for accepting metals from germany. again, the germans started to go after him. germans by the end of 1938 decided that roosevelt is not their friend. furthermore, their information is pretty good. they have discovered that in the state of the union address for 1939, he is going to say that. they decide to beat him to the punch. on december 31, 1938, german newspapers print the heavens
attacks on roosevelt and his administration. the jews are behind it all, they are controlling it, so forth. the typical sort of nazi propaganda kind of material. they put a lot of energy into it. and it turns out that they were right. he gave a speech -- state of the unit address said that in reporting the state of the union in the past, he had occasion to advise congress of disturbances abroad. the germans were prepared, and they've responded with indoor -- enormous energy.
the neutrality act got a lot of attention in the domestic press. the press was told to save the jews were behind it. they were told to say he is trying to deal with domestic opposition. he is trying to prepare for a third term. this is an argument that was repeatedly made, it is the new 14 points of wilson. just like woodrow wilson. so rosales trying to drew up -- to draw up a new 14 points to
deceive germany with provinces of peace. and then they have to promises of peace. and what a doing talking about us anyway? we solved unemployment. people are starving in the streets of the u.s.. he has his own problems. all of this went on at some length. a week later, fdr asked congress for $525 million for american armament. the germans responded that this was a nation ablated invasions from mars. hitler made two references to the war on the world's show and how gullible the americans were. the germans said to relatively little in the press after that because hitler was going to speak shortly. there was a firm rule in germany that you could not comment on
foreign policy until he had made that policy clear. on january 30 1938 -- january 30, 1939, hitler gave one of his more significant ages. -- significant speeches. he said if international financial jews succeed once again and plunging the people's into a world war, it will not be a victory of the jews but a destruction of the jewish race in europe. what is interesting is that in january 19 39, nobody thought he meant the holocaust. this did not get much attention as other parts of the speech. later hitler said that europe would solve the problem of jews
the same way germany had -- five propaganda. tens of thousands of posters all over germany. this came out august 1941 after the invasion. this was when the holocaust was gearing up to it meant something different. there was that. hitler also spoke about how germany needed its colonies. they figured if he was worried about colonies, he would not invade his neighbors in the future. these are journalists and statesmen around the world are saying nasty things about germany. something must be done about it. it is necessary for our press to immediately respond. we must know who these men are
who so desperately seek to provoke war. he did not mention roosevelt, but he did mention some of his aides. it set a propaganda directive. february 1939, roosevelt testifies to a closed session of the senate military affairs committee. it is leaked that he says america's borders are on the line. roosevelt vehemently denies he says that. however, he apparently said something relatively close. the germans responded as you would expect.
here he was apparently giving military guarantees to france and england. the response was absolutely enthusiastic. he was called world peace enemy number one. and one of the benefits of controlling press is that you can control what gets printed where. one of the standard features of press was what the press in berlin and london were saying. you can pick it up the street corner. propaganda ministries conference, the press were told that to berlin papers were supposed to give four columns on the front page this. they put it in the papers they new form correspondents would read and get the message across -- foreign correspondents would read and get the message across to the rest of the world. another aspect of the nazi system which was relatively invisible -- the foreign
correspondent. the propaganda with the state ministry in berlin. they also have the party propaganda department raised in munich. goebbels was also the head of that. the only difference was that berlin, the government handled things like press, culture, major issues. the party propaganda office dealt with the speaker system, person-to-person propaganda, organization of meetings all over the country, things like that. they had thousands of speakers. they did major meetings with tens of thousands of people. they also have speakers which went to every corner of germany
speaking to an audience of 10 people in a small village. this is largely in -- largely invisible to foreign correspondents. in early april 1949 -- 1939, the propaganda speakers get detailed instruction on what to say about the united states and about roosevelt. today, a man stands at the head of the nation to be called wilson the second. again, it went on in considerable detail. this is the kind of thing people would read, study and use to give hour-long talks.
sometimes a community of the press. a lot of the kind of thing was going on in visible to foreign correspondents. this is the period of a country that only has access to what the newspapers are saying. in early march 1938, hitler takes over the rest of czechoslovakia. in the end of march coming he gives the ultimatum to lithuania to returning district which had been given over as part of the treaty of versailles. in early april, mussolini decides to invade albania. it seems like a country a week was falling.
at this stage, roosevelt was thinking he had to do more. he first of all gave a speech which was lunch or than the past. it was an annual event. in it he spoke about huns and vandals. the germans had a good idea he was talking about them. they responded in ways i don't need to repeat here. that night, roosevelt said something which caught everybody by surprise, largely on his own initiative, without consulting hardly anybody,. in that message to hitler -- actually it wasn't directed to mussolini, it was directed to the king of italy. the king of italy was the head of state as was hitler. both of them got the message. in that message, he said he realize i'm sure throughout the world, hundreds of millions of human beings are living in constant fear of a new war or even a series of wars.
he then urged international conference. he offered to help. and then he asked the access to promise not to attack a list of 31 named countries. there are some odd inclusions and omissions. he did not include islands. specifically -- did not include iron land -- ireland. he added the message by saying leaders cannot fail to hear the prayers of peoples to avoid war. history will hold them accountable for the happiness and lives of all even unto the least. in any event, this caught everybody by surprise.
nobody knew this was coming. it was greeted in the non-axis world with tremendous enthusiasm. this is a period in which the world felt it was standing on the abyss. newspapers called roosevelt the greatest man of the world. tremendous enthusiasm for what he said. the germans had a problem, because his message seems to give hitler what he already had. it did say give czechoslovakia back. he seemed to grant. and to the german public, this was a wonderful thing. peace might in fact be assured.
they didn't do gallup poll's, but they did in turtle pulls. -- internal. the social democrats had a good system of internal communication. they had informants all over the place. they reported to prague headquarters that germans like this. what you do about that? the germans had to think hard. the press conference said he can print this that -- if this. but respond to it with the greatest possible vehemence. it says another 14 points. roosevelt was trying to reduce the risk of war for which he was responsible. it was his fault, not adolf hitler's. he was trying to divert world opinion from the fact that england and france were trying to encircle germany.
one paper said it is astounding that the head of a major nation would lower themselves to sending such a shabby propaganda pamphlet disguised as a note to another head of state. a shabby propaganda pamphlet. but they know roosevelt had the initiative. hitler had had centerstage. everybody was looking at hitler trying to figure out what to do. suddenly roosevelt had grabbed centerstage and the germans did not like that. they had to figure out a way to get the spotlight of history focused back on them and on health hitler. does on adolf hitler. you had curtains like this. this one says a peculiar plant.
you have roosevelt growing out of a bubbling swap. one phase is spewing out armaments, planks, -- tanks, planes. they had to do more than that. germans liked what they heard. a couple days later, hitler got together with his foreign minister and came up with a brilliant propaganda strategy. hitler announced he would answer roosevelt message in 10 days. there are reasons for that. first, hitler's birthday was coming up. april 20. that was a major holiday in germany. this was big in germany. furthermore, it was his 50th birthday. nothing could be allowed to get in the way of that. what happened was by saying he
was going to answer but it would take about 10 days, suddenly everybody found themselves speculating what hitler was going to say. he had the state back again. an american newspaper got it exactly right. the milwaukee journal wrote the head of the greatest democracy of the world has put up to hitler the question of war and peace. the world is to have 10 days guessing what the answer will be. for wheel orwell, president roosevelt has given adolf hitler the spotlight of history. for a couple days, roosevelt had held centerstage. now, everybody throughout the world was wondering what was hitler going to say. he had a lot of help. in the united states, you had a variety of people giving him advice. hugh johnson was a syndicated correspondent, widely publicized. he actually gave hitler advice.
the german embassy in washington reported they were getting a flood of comments, letters, telegrams from american, mostly well-meaning, with suggestions about what hitler could say. everybody was saying what would happen? and nobody could say anything, because who could predict? and so, on april 28, at noon, the reichstag gathered. it wasn't very significant, but it made a great backdrop. hermann goering introduced hitler.
the world stopped. in germany, streets were empty. loudspeakers were set up all over the place. not only in germany. the speech was broadcast live to 50 countries around the world, including the united states. i can't think of another's bache that was -- another speech that was as anticipated and broadcast live to 50 countries around the planet. everybody was curious. except franklin roosevelt, who knew enough german to follow it, but he slept through it. he read the text eventually. he was not as impressed about adolf hitler apparently has the rest of the world. what happened to the united states and other countries was they did something that does not work well called interpolated translation. let's listen to the american introduction to what americans
heard about 6:00 a.m. eastern time coming over the airwaves. >> by shortwave, direct from germany, we now bring you the address delivered by chancellor adolf hitler before a special session of the reichstag. the chancellor's address will be a reply to the message of peace sent recently to other countries by president roosevelt. while the chancellor is speaking, there will be a running translation in english. at the conclusion of the event, if time permits, a famous for correspondent and news corp. -- news commentator will present an analysis. we take you now to berlin. mr. bytwerk: how did hitler begin? this will be does this will give you an idea of the interpolated translation as well. this will be the translation. you will hear hitler's voice and then the translation.
>> chancellor hitler has just referred to present hitler's that president roosevelt's message, which he describes as a clever piece of work. mr. bytwerk: sorry about that. you hear the voice. what happens is you get a brief summary with all the nuance and all of the sarcasm taken out. for example, the audience chuckles. he gets in the end. what he says at the tail end is
he will present his response. the audience burst out into laughter. the reichstag rejecting the fuhrer? it was ludicrous to them and they laughed. that was lost in the enter -- interpolated translation. they missed the sarcasm. it sounded more reasonable than in fact was. what does hitler do? this is a two-hour 20 minute speech he gets. not unusual for hitler. we have heard the introduction. he spends about 18 minutes making the standard german objection to the treaty of
versailles. then he spends half an hour on austria, bohemia, and arabia. is the darting in our, and nothing new has that he has been talking for an hour and nothing has been said. now something interesting comes along. after an hour, he surprises everybody and says england has been say nasty things about is lately, and they don't seem to trust us very much. out of courtesy to them, i will annul these anglo german naval pacts that we have. you can't expect england to follow them if they do not believe us. he had already broken them. the british did not know that yet.
he abolishes them. then he goes on to talk about the glorious return of the baltic states area. the poland, he says there is little to be said on the topic of german polish relation. except there was. he says we have this nonaggression pact with poland. they have gotten guarantees to england and france. this seems to be in violation of the pact. since i do it as unilaterally, null and void. roosevelt had asked him not to attack 31 countries. he so far canceled three international treaties and has not even gotten to roosevelt yet. now he gets to roosevelt. 90 minutes into the speech. he turns to roosevelt. he spent the next hour or so going after that. we can go to the speech in an
ornate detail, but we will not do that to. first, he went back to that argument of the 14 points, the treated of -- the treaty of versailles that germans objected to. by dividing results messaging to 21 points. roosevelt had not divided his message into points. this suggested that roosevelt was even worse than wilson. wilson only had 14 points. this new wilson has 21 points. 14 of those 21 points that he divides the speech into, he raises the issue of wilson and versailles. over and over again. second, and agent is points, he makes the point that roosevelt is a hypocrite. he says he is encouraging
negotiation and is including international agreements and so forth. what about the league of nations? the united states got going and had nothing to do with it. what about the civil war? was that solved around the negotiating table? what about all the wars? germany has not been involved in any wars since 1918. the united states has been involved in a bunch of them. he went on in a norma's detail into this. -- in enormous detail. one said that no one spoke more eloquently of peace than adolf hitler. he was great at declaring his great and tremendous love of peace. he did that repeatedly in this
section. there was a tremendous amount of sarcasm. again, lost in translation. throughout the speech, the reichstag laughed enthusiastically at a number of points. particularly good digs that roosevelt. then there was the fact of the fundamental mendacity of the speech. hitler was good at propaganda. he realized that blatant lies, unless they are too big to be discovered, did not work very well. half-truths were much more effective. a great deal of what hitler set of the surface sounded possible. it is only when you look beneath -- and most people can't do that because they're are listening to the speech or don't know the
details -- but he included all kinds of fascinating details. he said germany has not been involved in any wars since 1918. literally speaking, that was true. however, how did he get austria? he basically said invite me in or i am coming in any way. how did he get sudetenland? he said give it to me rl's -- or else. you give us the district in lithuania or a member what happened to czechoslovakia. he is using half-truths. the best thing about half-truths that they can be very credible on the surface. the problem with half-truths is that they do not add up. to half-truths do not make a full truth.
the point is, what hitler set on the surface and to a german audience sounded absolutely persuasive. let's look at a more detailed part of one section of the speech. that is a response to roosevelt's request not to attack those 31 countries. this is a clip that most of you will have seen. [speaking german] [laughter] mr. bytwerk: again, the audience response with uproarious laughter he goes through the list. he actually invaded quite a few of those 31.
this seemed at the time ridiculous. let's look to be extended argument referring to roosevelt's message. he says first after he has gone through this message that he would ask whether roosevelt angry was initiated by them or whether there is further consent in this. the responses obtained were negative throughout, in part even marked by outright indignation.
again, this is a great example for how truths -- for half-truths. if you asked if you are afraid of hitler in 1938? of course not. anyway, the point is he does that. then he says however, a number of the states could not afford the response to us, because like syria, they are not currently in possession of their liberty since their territories are occupied by the military forces of the democratic states which have robbed them of all their rights. a possible half-truths. syria was in fact under french occupation. they do not have freedom of action. third, far beyond this, the
states have received many binding assurances that mr. roosevelt requested in his peculiar telegram. this is true. he had made all kinds of wonderful statements. he did not mean them, but he had made them. he goes on to say that he had done this, but should there be a question as to the value of these general and specific statements which he repeatedly made, even if made to president roosevelt, the equally worthless? in other words, if you do not believe everything i have said so far, what is the point of saying anything further? there is a sufficient possibility to what he is saying there. also some of the rest of the world. then we get to this. fifth, he gives some lessons to roosevelt. i must get point out to mr. roosevelt a few additional mistaken notions of history. for instance, he mentions island
and request a statement that germany not attack island. now i have just read a speech by the irish prime minister in which contrary to the opinion of mr. roosevelt, he oddly enough does not accuse germany of a pressing ireland and instead reproaches england. he continues equally, palestine is not occupied by german troops, but english ones who are robbing the palestinians of their freedom in favor of jewish intruders. it was a fairly extended response. a lot of people did not know enough to raise questions. it sounded convincing. as he goes along, he finishes the speech speaking eloquently of peace. he says the vastness of your country allows you to have the time and leisure to attend to the problems of universal nature.
you could conceive of the world is so small a place that you can intervene beneficially and effectively wherever this might be required. in this sense, your concerns and suggestions can be far more sweeping than mine. for my world is a world in which providence has put me, and in which i am responsible. it is a much smaller world. i do believe i am thereby in a better position to serve the and closer to the hearts of all of us -- justice, welfare, progress, and peace for the entire community of mankind. the reichstag broke out in convulsions of clause -- applause. when he is finished, the world breathes a collective sigh of
relief. nobody had known what hitler was going to say. maybe he was going to declare war. maybe he was going to make an ultimatum. a typical response is what americans heard from a -- nbc broadcasting from berlin. you will hear what max jordan told americans. we will get there. again.ry >> they all seem to converge, as