tv Women Journalists at the Turn of the 20th Century CSPAN January 15, 2017 12:00pm-1:06pm EST
what is interesting is that i for ptsd our sympathy be as great as it was in great britain and germany after the wars because they are volunteers. something i find interesting to think about. , what doeseering that do to our understanding of what a soldier should experience or what the consequence of that volunteering is. thanking join me in the doctor. [applause] are watching american history tv. all weekend, every beacon, on c-span 3. to join the conversation, like
us on facebook at "c-span history." university professor cht teaches a class about women journalists. she talks about pioneers and the societal pressures for women writers to balance traditional femininity and having a career in journalism. this class is about an hour. professor: good morning. thank you for being here today. abouts lecture is american women journalists of the late 19th century. this is one of my favorite things to talk about, as i'm sure you can imagine. so i'm just going to dive right into it. sobtitle of today's talk is sisters.
that is because these labels represent a new kind of job that emerged for women at the end of the 19th century. and i want to tell you the story of how some bowls and remarkable the opportunities created by the circumstances of their time to carve out a public space for themselves and to make a voice for themselves and for others. not women's voices were welcomed or respected that much. is always the story of individuals responding creatively to the conditions and circumstances in which they live. howso, to really understand this unfolded and how this new type of job, a newspaper in some of the biggest
cities in the country, to understand how this came about, we have to back up and talk about the business of journalism in the 1800s. and specifically, a new business model that emerged in the 1830's called the penny press. this is a new type of newspaper. that began in new york city. ideas why it would have been called the penny press? it was cheaper. absolutely. it was sold for a penny. you know, this was a new idea in journalism. newspapers had been sold by subscription. they cater to the business class and political elites. and they were far more expensive. for aost $10 a year subscription and that was a lot of money back then. and six pennies for just one issue. idea for a cheap
newspaper didn't come from a journalist at all. it came from a medical student who noticed, as he walked to medical school in new york city how many vendors were on the street selling things just for a penny. and what he noticed is that people would buy anything for a penny. they were willing to give up a penny pretty easily. so his idea was, why not sell it for a penny and fill it with oftent that would be interest to that particular day and would be entertaining and would give people a reason to buy it. so he tried, this medical horace, with the help of greeley from the new york tribune and it failed. it didn't work out for him. however, other people took up a challenge and made a go of it. newspapers, the penny papers, they had some characteristics that make them different. to the thing, they cater
masses. because the idea was to sell at a high volume. to sell a high volume of newspaper at a low price, as opposed to selling a few newspapers at a high price. right? so in order to appeal to as many readers as possible, they wrote in a conversational way, they wrote stories about the city in which people were living, they wrote stories about crime. they wrote every day news. right? they cater to the mass over the class, so to speak. what else? they were competitive. as more and more of these newspapers came up, they begin competing with each other for the most up to the minute information. tall tales,
sometimes, scandalous types of things. and the biggest difference was that now, because their purpose eyeballs,ract lots of they could charge more for advertising. right? so this is a shift in the business model of journalism. and it is one that is probably recognizable to you today. the idea is to sell the content cheaply to attract a high circulation and then to charge advertisers for the opportunity to reach those readers. the first of the newspapers was started by benjamin day in 1833. the new york sun. you can see it even says there, the price is one cent. and the motto of the new york sun is that it shines for all. why that? again, because it was aimed at
regular people. this was possible for a lot of different reasons. for one thing, urban populations were growing and the economy was growing. you had a middle class that was growing so more people are able to buy newspapers and also advertisers were more interested in reaching those people. literacy rates for growing. democratic reform and expanding voting privileges. giving average americans a greater interest in the affairs of their community. and the steam power also made it possible to put many more copies of these newspapers. but of course, if you print a letter newspapers, you have to sell a lot of newspapers. so what do you think happened?
how do you sell newspapers? how do you get attention? what do think they did? any thoughts? you get out on the streets and you sell papers. and maybe you sensationalize a bit. right? and that is what the new york sun was. they were known for one of its most successful series of stories was called the great moon hoax. a series of stories in 1835 in which the new york sun reported that life had been discovered on the moon. they reported on a article that scottishen in a journal, allegedly reporting the discovery. allegedly there was plant life and fauna on the moon. creaturesome bat like
that resembled the flying monkeys from the wizard of oz. in 1835, that is what they said. of course, this was a tall tale. of course it was made up. and all the other newspapers called them out for making it up at the new york sun never admitted it. but it only that, circulated the rival for that in london. so this put the new york sun on the map. it was fun. it was entertaining. court andted on police reports and crime. this had been done before. newspaper that was founded around this time was the new york herald. that was 1835. and this was a little bit different. his mission was to provide a
correct picture of the world. give people information about independentnd to be , the elite, religion at that time. he shocked readers with this. know,e out and said, you we don't practice any particular religion. we are not protestants or catholics. he called things what they were. he used frank language. in his the word leg newspaper instead of limb. scandalous. he used words like handle loon. he actually called things what they were. the folks in power, the upper classes, to challenge him.
he was extremely innovative. a lot of what we recognize as journalism today was the result of his innovation. he came up with the idea of personal ads to create more revenue. he established the beat system of reporting. you going to newsrooms and people still tell you what particular beat their covering. meaning that somebody is assigned to cover courts and somebody covers crime. someone covers politics. innovation. he established the first washington press court in washington, d.c.. previous to that, lawmakers, when they had debates, in good time they would provide those to washington papers to publish. but then it was the one who said you know, we should be covering this in real time as it is happening. so he created a press court to do that. he changed the definition of news.
why is this important? why am i starting with the penny press? it is because i want you to keep this in mind. as mark twain said. whatever it is that newspapers is, it isobjective actually to make money. that is the real motivation. mind as weat in switch gears. ok? because the other thing you need to know about this time to understand this rise of a new type of female journalist is that you need to know about gender norms in the 19th century. what did people think about gender and what it meant to be a man or a woman? there are two primary ideas here. that are important. separatee notion of fears for men and women.
the ideology of this was that public andwas important and for men. otherat women had attributes and qualities. they were natural caretakers and they should be kept separate. men were assumed to be naturally more intelligent. more active. more in charge. right? women were soon to be better at raising children and running the household. obviously at this time, women couldn't vote. education opportunities were limited. they lacked property rights in many states. they were treated like property themselves. ideology came from religion. right? it was believed that god intended men to be the leaders
and that god intended women to take care of their family physically, spiritually and intellectually. it was believed that women were the better sex. that they were purer of mind and heart, right? and that they were needed to top the men folk in line and keep their families on a street and spiritual path. thisnother reason that separation was entrenched at this time was because the industrial revolution had changed -- it was changing the pattern of people's homes and work. work, which tong that point, had been in the home , it was taking it out of the home. right? so people were beginning to leave their homes to go to work for wages. as opposed to producing all of
the home goods and working the land and doing that as a family unit. so you start to see this distinction between public and the public realm, that of work and politics and men and the private realm, which was the providence of women. the home. the domestic life of a particular family. so. separation. men and women are kept apart. famouslyo, a historian wrote about the cult of womanhood in the 1800s and what she meant was that to be a lady, a proper lady at this time, for things were required of women. piety. you had to be pious. and religious. p ritchie, they had to be pure
of mind and body. submissiveness. they had to be submissive to the men in their lives. and finally, domestic. they had to be well trained and able to manage the affairs of the household. put on a pedestal. so to speak. in terms of being the better sex. class.g the protected however, the pedestal restricted their areas. it restricted their opportunities and what they were able to do. always, it depended on their livelihood and the men around them to properly care for them and provide for themselves
materially and physically. and we know that it didn't always happen. which is something that will come up later. ok, so, what's a girl to do in this situation? right? to work?ou needed what if you need it money? have lost your mail provider? how would you negotiate that situation? what if you wanted to work or write or be a professional. what if you had things to say. what kinds of strategies could you use? well, there are two women who really illustrate the response to these conditions. and if you look at them, they look very similar. don't they look alike? they look like they could be the same woman. but in fact, they were very different people. and they'd did not like each other. -- of them -- and the other
and i want to talk about their extremelys as significant women in journalists as their day. because again, it set the stage for what is to calm. so sarah josaphat hails. the first female editor of a women's magazine. whichitor of a magazine was one of the most important magazines of its time. hadchieved circulation that not been seen before. extremely important person. in journalism of the 1800s. she was a widow. she was widowed by her husband. and she had five children to feed. she needed to work. right? she started to write. she had limited education.
mainly what she was able to get in her home. but she did write poetry and she wrote a successful novel that enabled her to find other opportunities. she did eventually write mary had a little lamb. there you have it. she was best known as an influential editor. she was the embodiment of a lady for her time. she had impeccable taste. core andn and home to literature. .he was traditionally feminine she was deeply religious. and she used her editorship of this magazine to tell other women how they could best live up to god's plan for them. how they could best care for their family and their children.
advocate forong equal education for women. found the answer college, a women's college. she believed that women should physicians. however, she didn't believe that women should vote. believed in education for women because it would help them to take care of their family. because it would help women carry out there god-given duty. so she was extremely influential for her time. and also, she managed to remain a lady. presidents several to make thanksgiving and national holiday. she finally got lincoln to do it. doing thatartly her
we celebrate thanksgiving as a national holiday. so that is sarah joseph are hails. margaret fuller is a different story. she was a remarkable woman who is educated by her father. who encouraged her and gave her a classical education in greek, and they lived in cambridge, massachusetts. home to harvard. where many of her male friends attended. she was not able to attend. she had to rely on lessons that her male friends were able to bring home to her. was highly intelligent and she was recognized as being highly intelligent. the family had a strong intellectual circle around them. except that her dad went broke and moved her family and she had
to take care of everybody. again, loss of a mail provider. that required her to become a teacher. that was one of the excepted jobs for women. because it was part of caretaking and bringing up children. eventually she got bored and she moved back to boston. she hung out with a transcendentalist. her friends involved the row. editor ofshe was made a literary magazine. i have a hunch they just wanted her to do all the work of editor. but she did it. and she was proud of it. a well-received, critically acclaimed magazine. so she is in this circle of
friends. she is moving and shaking with some of the greatest thinkers of her time. everyone knows she is brilliant. she is capable. but nobody wanted to marry her because she wasn't perceived as being ladylike. right? what sarah wasg doing. she was not fulfilling some kind of traditional image of what it meant to be a lady. and this frustrated her deeply. in 1845 whichok is a feminist book. -- fromthe attention of the new york tribune who was impressed and hired her. to be a literary critic.
she's not in the newsroom. she is writing from home as a correspondent. but he does give her some beentunities that hadn't available to women before and she becomes the first female foreign correspondent. sheends her to europe and responds with letters and correspondence about what is going on in all source of countries. that margaretught fuller was not a good role model. this is what she had to say. she thought she was ignoring the one true book. what is the one true book? the bible. yes. thathat fuller was proof the greater the intellectual force, the more fatal the errors with which women fall who wander from the rock of salvation.
so fuller was influential. she was treated as sort of a freak. she didn't get to be a public intellectual and a brilliant writer and a traditional woman. it just wasn't in the cards for her. and in fact, in europe, she was guy 10 and she met a years younger. giovanni and angelo. but giovanni angelo sounds exciting to me. they became lovers and they had a baby out of wedlock. they got married later. he got involved in the roman
revolution and sailed off for america and their ship wrecked off the coast of fire island and they drowned and the bodies were never found. isn't that sad? so i feel it she was just coming into her own. and it didn't work out for her. forright, this is the model women in journalism. in the 1800s. nellieets the stage for bly, and name i'm sure you all have heard of. right? when people talk about the history of journalism and women in journalism, her name always comes up. she has her own stamp. she is very well-known. and the reason she is still on is because she was extremely significant. ok. so. two pieces of context.
increasing commercialization of the press, publishers who are in it for money and driving up circulation and eyeballs. women were caught in this dilemma on the ever hand. traditional femininity. a profession or writing being able to negotiate that well. how do these things come together? they came together in the form of nellie bly's. she was born as elizabeth cochran in pennsylvania. her father died, are you sensing a pattern? her father died when she was six years old. her father had been married before. he had something like 10 children.
she was a result of the second marriage. , he didn't leave any provisions for the second family so they were broke. so again, when she was a teenager she went off to school to become a teacher. if a woman was smart and wanted to work, that was often what she did. but when she read a newspaper column in a pittsburgh newspaper that called working women a monstrosity, her future changed. she wrote an angry letter to the editor of the newspaper. because she knew from her own experience and that of many other women that it was necessary for women to work a lot of times. right? and so what were they to do? she also knew from her mother's experience, her mother, after the death of her dad, her mother had married an abusive man.
and that situation had not worked out. so she is really aware of some of the scary predicaments that women could get themselves into. and had sympathy for it. so she wrote an angry letter to the editor in response to that column and he was so impressed that he hired her to write for him. and gave her her pen name. she was feisty. she gave voice to people and issues to people who have not gotten a hearing before. the paper can find her to the women's page, which by this time, we pick newspapers had began to publish as a way to draw in women readers. because a new business model, advertising and eyeballs. women are making a lot of the purchasing decisions were the families. so the newspaper started women's pages and are now more interested in this type of content.
so they try to keep her there. about fashion and flowers and the stuff that would have made mary hale happy but she kept going out. she wrote stories about divorce wives. largely because of her mother's experience. she wrote about the conditions for women who worked in factories. the medicalout treatment of the poor. a pittsburghinced and ito center to mexico was there that she really be an avenger. the newspaper tried to put her back on the women's page and she said, you know, i'm bored. i'm going to go to new york. for theleft a note columnist who had called working ,omen a monstrosity that said
i'm off for new york, look out for me. tried her luck for six months to get someone to hire her. knocking on doors. she couldn't even get a meeting. because at this moment, women are not in the newsroom. even the few women who are able to write are not doing it in a newsroom. and if they are, they are in the women's section and their segregated. turkey,room was a interesting place. it was not thought to be an appropriate place for lady. and that is where she wanted to be. she finally gets the managing editor of the new york world to take a meeting with her. the new york world, you might remember, is owned by joseph pulitzer.
is competingpoint with other newspapers in new york city. one of his rivals is william randolph hearst who owns the new york journal. the type of news that had started with the penny press is carrying over into the 1970's 1980's 1990's and would culminate in a time we call yellow journalism. which is the time of sensationalism in some newspapers. right? headlines get bigger and flashier. newspapers use more illustrations. and again, the idea is to drop in more people and readers. keep them coming back so then we can charge more for our advertising.
so nellie ball gets a meeting and she tells him her ideas. we need to read about the dirty conditions in our cities. the poor and how they're treated. i want to cover these stories. and he said ok. you cover story about blackwell's island, the insane asylum that was a very scary place to be and i will give you a job. she takes the challenge and she bees in sanity which, to fair, wasn't entirely difficult to do at the time, right? , for womenfor women to get thrown into an insane asylum. all it would take was for her husband to say yes, she is crazy and they would lock her up.
into thises her way and with the promise which the paper would send a story to break her out, she writes a dramatic series that is called "10 days in a madhouse." the paper talks about the mistreatment of the patients there. food,use and unhealthy poor treatment and dirty conditions. when ituch a big deal was published that it resulted in an official investigation of the asylum and additional money was put in the budget to improve conditions there and reforms were made. about her noteworthy
she makes that herself a central character in the story. drama.tes with with recklessness. writes in first person. it is riveting. and it keeps people coming back. we might consider this investigative reporting. she was gaining access to a closed space and reporting on posing as there and is public problem. another way we might think of it is as stunt journalism. that journalism is a term is often used to denigrate what people like her did.
because she didn't just fake her way into an insane asylum, she also went around the world. beatade it her mission to the fictitious character in jules vern's novel. she makes a deal it that she will do it. and they say sure, go to it. and that becomes the story. right? she's traveling around the world and is reporting back from where she is. readers are wondering if she will make it and do it. the world goes nuts with this. they create a board game. she becomes a national celebrity. this part often gets left out fora woman was writing
because the cosmopolitan magazine which is now just cosmopolitan magazine. the editor, when he got word stunt,e was pulling this a woman was given the task to beat her. and they raced. around the world. and they took trains and she didn't win, which is probably why she has largely been forgotten. is a new type of journalism. writentinued to tantalizing stories. she always sided with the underdog. she wrote sympathetic stories about the poor. about how women and marginalized groups are treated by police. chicago, she covered a strike and she was the only reporter to write from the worker's
perspectives. she wrote stories uninteresting people. a boxer or a suffragist or anarchist. she introduced a new genre for women. all right. would trickle out. and influence women at other newspapers. hearst had hish own stunts reporter. woman worked for hearst at the san francisco examiner where she , similar to what nellie bly had spell ines a fainting the middle-of-the-road to test the amulets response time. devastatingter a hurricane came to texas, she dressed as a man to be allowed to cover the devastation there.
for her newspaper. and she eventually made her way to new york city. and i also have noticed this trend in other newspapers and local newspapers. writingiowa, a woman about world war i in 1918 pulled stunts where she would put herself into the story. reporter puts on a gas mask and writes about it. it was the spectacle. gets see what this girl can herself into this time. it was treated as entertainment. it was a bit scandalous because these women are putting themselves in danger. they are putting themselves out in public. and he got attention and he got eyeballs. so they got it.
a twin type of role that emerges at this time which is often given the derogatory term of sobs sister is well embodied by woman named dorothy. she was the pine of advice columnists. moste time, she became the widely read and richest woman journalist in the country. -- she began her career in new orleans. she was married. but, you guessed it, she was widowed. her husband was mentally unstable and had a lot of problems and he eventually died. meaning that she had to find work and interact case, she was acquainted with her neighbor who owned a paper who hired her to write a story, which turned out
that she was brought on as a columnist. 1894, she begins writing a column on the woman's page. she was also firmly on the side of women and the poor and the disenfranchised. she wrote more about the mystic anders than nellie bly stunned reporters would do. but she always had an appealing common sense and it made her popular. and she did write about important things. she wrote about the movement to prohibit alcohol. that was really important issue for a lot of women who felt victimized by their husbands or
fathers drinking and abuse. she wrote in emotional he. one of her most famous columns was called the selfishness of men and it was about a ship that sank and ofip that the 200 people saved from the shipwreck, only one was a woman. thethe story was that people who save themselves were men alleged to have murdered women and children. so it was a big deal and she wrote about it. tragically and from a feminine perspective. that was what she was hired to do. because publishers had learned that femininity could be marketable. so you take the commercialization of the press
and you take these notions of femininity and you combine them into a form of writing that sells. that gets attention. serving a purpose of a publisher. time thean called this creation of a modern public state. created in which women now had a voice for the first time. women wrote about crimes of passion. and it was here that they got their name. from 1907.story of the century. the 20th century had a lot of crimes. in this case, what had happened was a wealthy unstable society
man had murdered a prominent new york city architect. wife, a beautiful social climber had once been with the architect and then got married to the guy with the gun and had to explain why she wasn't a virgin. and the reason that she gave was that it had been against her unstable gun the toting husband to hunt down the architect and kill him. so you can imagine what this story was like in new york city at this time. trial.ended in a this is scandalous stuff. this is going to be a trial that hinged on testimony about sex it was reallyd
scandalous. at the time, women didn't sit on juries. and many observers thought that this courtroom, especially with this trial, no place for women. mattersld be discussing that were inappropriate. but formidable reporters demanded that they be allowed to cover the trial for their readers and the judge allowed sit at a table, four in a row, watching, observing and writing about the characters involved. the male writers were not pleased. did they feel threatened? perhaps. but the women were put there to provide the woman's perspective. emotionally. laurie and, annie
--, one of the male colleagues wrote about this saying it was a travesty saying the women should not be here and they shouldn't be allowed and he called them the sob sisters and the label stuck. what i want to say about this is that this influenced generations of women to come. so while these women may not have been expected. while they may have been treated as girl reporters and as , theycles and sob sisters found a way to make their voices heard. right? issuesund a way to raise that were not being discussed. they found a way to advocate for
womenlves and for other and marginalized people and, moving forward, a lot of women wore this label proudly. the one i mentioned before from a sob sister. was and she wore that proudly. do ase it enabled her to type of work that she enjoyed and that she found professionally the filling. right? so pioneers inspired women in newspapers and into the 20th century. nellie bly started her career and only 5% of journalists were women. but that would rise to 25% in 1930. so we see a real influx of women into the newsroom at this time. and i think it is important to note that these women were doing
what had not been done before and they were not following a model. they were not even following the model of margaret fuller. working fornder was them. right? they had to fight to get there. but they found a way. and they found a way to create a public space for themselves and to make women's voices heard. i'm curious to know what your questions are. because it was a lot of ground to cover. in a short amount of time. so what questions does this raise for you? are there any barriers in journalism today that women are still having to overcome? >> a really excellent question. what i would tell you is this. number ofoughout the 25%.
in 1934 25% female. today is not that much higher. it is about a third. this timeu look at from 1930 two 2016, you might expect it to be a little higher but it is not. stuck at 36% for quite a long time. so i think that is a really good question. what i will say is that the history of women in journalism shows that individual women created jobs for themselves. by creating something new. a new genre. bly created stunt reporting. it was a new thing and it was successful and he got repeated.
aboutn that i've written in the 1930's called sylvia porter created personal finance journalism. it was a new thing that had not existed. it was different than what other financial journalists were doing. she worked her way around it. what happened when women create new genres is that oftentimes that particular genre then is attached to their gender. so personal-finance become something that women do. or stunt reporting become something that women do. you see what i'm saying? so sometimes, while these individuals create these opportunities and open doors where doors have been close before, sometimes that also creates what we might call ghettos where they are stereotyped and then the expectation stays in those
specific roles rather than being able to branch out. so that is a really good question. were the him and women reporters paid a lot less than male reporters? of course. absolutely. dorothy dix -- some of the therprising women could -- ones who are really smart about it, she trademarked her name and became syndicated and she became pretty wealthy. but they were few and far between. for the most part, they were not full-time, salaried journalists. usually they had to prove themselves by doing freelance work, getting paid per column inch or for the content that they provided. so that was a lot different than getting a salary.
so yes, absolutely. and expectation was that men were the breadwinners. so even if the woman didn't have a mail provider, it was still that she would be a breadwinner. ok, was it just women who had pen names or did all reporters have pen names? pen names were used by both men and women, more often by women. twain, you hadrk wrotemnist, a man who newspaper columns and gave him some pen name to give a persona to the column. women use pen names more often.
themselves because it wasn't necessarily respected publicey were being so with themselves. and also because, depending on what they were writing about, women start using initials to hide their gender. so while nellie bly and dorothy dix chose feminine pen names, because they're reporting was very gendered, if a woman wanted to write about something that so to speak,red, finance or politics, she would often use initials. so that you can see she was a woman.
>> so when you look at the ratio of women to men in the newsroom, why is that and do i see that changing. another really good question. and the reason it is so interesting is that classrooms in journalism and mask vacation or two thirds women. right? newsrooms,u look at the ratio is flipped. so full-time journalists working , women organizations hover around 36%. and the higher you go in the rank, the lower that percentage gets. at 18% ofoday are publishers. why is that? a really good question.
my scholarship and other scholarships have shown that it is an issue of culture. to my earlieres response about individual people finding ways to be successful when there are constraints. finding ways to work around things. use what theyo have. use their resources to make their way. but that is different than the culture of a place changing. women,these early letting one woman or two women or three women into the newsroom, it's a lot different than the newsroom changing. right? to incorporate these women
voices and experiences and perspectives. so i think what you find, when you look at the history, is that a lot of times, even as numbers go up, and this doesn't just apply to women, it applies to racial and ethnic minorities and seer places where we peoplety, just hiring who are different and bringing them into a system that remains the same doesn't do much to encourage real inclusion or diversity in the long term. so my position is that it is an issue of culture. a is one thing to come into newsroom but it is another to change the culture.
what is the history of women in sports journalism. another great question. century,nto the 20th women have to fight really hard to be allowed to cover men's sports. some of these areas of the sports politics, hard news, considered very masculine. women really didn't get to cover sports in any kind of notable number until the 1970's, after affirmative action policies. lotsven then, there were of issues surrounding access to athletes and locker room interviews and harassment at the job. is --ould say that it sports is one of those areas that was the last to become more
accepting of women. and it is a work in progress. do i have a favorite or more journalist?female that ito say, the person wrote about, i wrote a biography of sylvia porter. she probably still is my favorite female journalist to talk about. she started working during the depression. her father had died. she was brilliant. she wanted to cover finance and she created a real empire. she became a brand. she was read by 40 million people.
and with interesting to me about -- is that the world knows does not know who she is now but at the time she was like martha stewart or opera. of interesting people and certainly, some of these women are fascinating. a good question. did these women meet with suffragists to write about suffragists and aware they involved in the suffrage movement? nellie bly did. she interviewed susan b anthony. and they did write profiles of women who were a part of the movement. and even if they were supportive of the movement, i want to say
that these women are different from emilio bloomer who was the editor of a woman suffrage newspaper. so these women, the women working at newspapers, they are not part of the movement. they cover the movement. but there is a separate type of female journalist, whose journalism serves the movement and is part of it. you have separate suffrage newspapers and publications that are politically involved. women were supportive. the not necessarily of the movement. do i think there is going to be
a type of journalism? i wonder if it exists. with social media it would seem -- i canthing similar envision it. this type of reporting now may be called immersion reporting. absolutely. the upheaval we are seeing in waybusiness model and the the newspaper is in the 19th century. that may not be panning out. who knows what we will see after
road to the white house rewind. c-span.org/history. >> c-span continues to follow president elect trump on the road to the white house, sunday at 6:35 p.m. eastern from trump tower new york. a conversation with two key trump conversation staffers. their life is clear. first we sit down with kellyanne conway. >> donald trump has transformed the republican party into the conservative movement that values the workers. spicer on his new role as incoming white house communications director and press secretary.
going back, everyone who held this job has reached out and offer their advice and their counsel. you realize you are in a club of 30 people who have held this position. >> watch sunday. or listen on the free c-span radio app. military historian harry laver talks about george washington from 1776 christmas day crossing of the icy delaware river to surprise and ultimately defeat hessian troops. he describes the situation of the american result that american revolution at the time that led washington to make this dangerous gamble.