tv Nome Cult Trail CSPAN April 9, 2017 10:36pm-10:51pm EDT
bus and streetcar. it really is a mecca not only for national transportation, but for our region. i think daniel burnham and others who built the station over 100 years ago would be very proud of what we have been able to preserve here. >> you can watch this and other "american artifacts" programs by visiting our website. >> this year, c-span is touring cities across the country exploring american history. next, a look at our recent visit to chico, california. prof. dizard: we're standing at a place that holds profound significance for the indigenous
people here in this part of what we now call butte county. these people regard this very place as the particular location where in their cosmology the creator had humans emerge into the world. it is also alumni glenn. as far as the california state university of chico. with the discovery of gold not too far south of here and the inability to keep that discovery secret, the news quickly spread. and the ratio of settlers to native people began to radically shift. prior to the gold rush, there would have been somewhere on the order of maybe under 5000 settlers in all of california. by 1855, that would have skyrocketed to above 50,000 settlers.
and the relations were fraught. not for every group at every moment, but there was a profound sense of racism towards native peoples. the general epithet used was "digger indians." in other words, they were regarded as sub human. because they did not have the kind of technological accoutrements that european american settlers considered standard. it's not because they were not clever enough to figure it out. it is because those things were irrelevant to their daily lives. they were able to on the coast, you know, when the tide went out -- their table was set. here in this part of north central valley, the mass crops of acorns provided very important, calorie rich food source for them.
wild game, deer, small animals, insects were a staple of the regular diet. and, of course, fish. there were abundant salmon runs and steelhead. in some cases, two different runs of the same species up the creeks and rivers. so, there was no need, really, to have complicated technology. the critical issue became access to subsistence resources, because with the huge influx of settlers, miners, and then merchants who were essentially mining the miners, selling them the equipment that they thought they needed, game began to be scarce. rivers were diverted and in some cases completely upended. as food sources began to disappear for native people in
their traditional subsistence regime, they naturally look towards stock. one of the main industries here in this part of california as well as elsewhere, in fact, was the hide trade. the idea was to raise a lot of cattle to sell the skins and meat. well, these cattle were critical resources for the settlers but also viewed as potential food sources by native people. many conflicts arose over the fact that hungry native folks would have may be poached a cow here and there. and slowly, over the course of several months to a year and a half, between 1850 and 1852, these kinds of depredations began to rankle deeper and deeper in the white settler community and began to be punished more and more systematically.
and ultimately, the rationale for outright murder if not genocide of indigenous groups was held to be kind of like this, we're going to teach you a lesson. here in butte county, the attitude was these people can't be trusted. we need to exterminate them for their own good. this is rhetoric that existed at the time. one effort to try and minimize these kinds of assault was to move california indians to reservations, what were called rancheria as. in this area, the idea was to move local people 100 miles west of here on the other side of what is now the mendocino national forest in round valley. approximately 470 people and various other tribelets in the
area were essentially corralled just west of chico. and then marched over the course of two weeks in mid-september of 1863, 100 miles to their new home, a reservation out over the mountains in the coast range. the forced relocation of 1863 is remembered as the nome cult walk. nome cult was the name of the reservation that was essentially created in round valley. this series of forced relocations is kind of a not very well known aspect of american history in general, and california history in particular, because, as one might imagine, it's not a pleasant chapter. it's a very brutal and violent series of events that took place between approximately 1850 and
1875, and resulted in a radically reduced population of indigenous people in california, not zeroed out by any means, but definitely dramatically reduced through sheer, outright genocidal methods. it was about 18 years ago that folks decided to organize a memorial walk. they decided that in september they would retrace the steps their ancestors were forced to take. and so, ever since then, for the last 18 years or so, every september, folks gather in chico and take a week to walk 100 miles. it is a very meaningful, profound ceremony.
it's regarded as a spiritually healing effort to not just commemorate the fact that their ancestors survived this arduous journey and they, the descendents, are here now today, but also to think deeply about why this happened and to try and instill values of sort of mutual respect and tolerance. >> our staff recently traveled to chico, california, to learn about its rich history. learn more about chico and other stops at c-span.org/citiestour. you are watching american history tv on cspan3. website. our classroom it is full of free teaching resources for c-span classroom members. the improved layout gives
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insurance reform cannot be enacted this year. 18, "the new york times" reported the republican floor manager on health care, senator bob packwood, told his republican colleagues, and i quote, "we have killed health care reform. now we have got to make sure our fingerprints are not on it." succeeded in the first objective of killing health care reform. whether they succeed in making sure their fingerprints are not on it remains to be seen. >> did you hear senator packwood health reform and we have to make sure our fingerprints are not on it? do you think that is true that the republicans killed health care? >> yes. it will be up in a minute. >> is that true?
do you think republicans killed health care reform this year? >> no. we listened to the american people. there are not enough republicans to kill anything around here. we do the best we can. we are not protected under the endangered species act. we are looking to expand that to protect the minority. my view is the american people, the majority of the american year., said not this defensive going to be about that. we responded to the american people. that is what this is all about. defensive and neither is bob packwood who will be here in a minute. we think we responded to what they wanted. what they did not want was a big bureaucracy and mandated alliances and mandates on small
employees. i think we were fairly successful including some democrats that joined. there never was a time in any of this debate when any democrat bill had a majority, let alone 60 votes. they never had 50 votes. journal"'s "washington live every day with news and policy issues that impact you. discussion on, a the federal ruling on lgbt workplace discrimination. the author will talk about his any taxpayer advocate will join us to offer her concerns about the complexity of the tax code. be sure to watch "washington journal" live at 7:00 eastern on monday morning. join the discussion. universityrson
professor teaches a class about freedom summer, a 1964 black voter registration project in mississippi. he talks about the efforts of leaders to include white volunteers to bring media attention to mississippi. his class is about one hour and 10 minutes. >> today we are going to the civil rights movement in the early to mid 60's. we have already talked about revival of the civil rights movement in 1960. and how that galvanized it and gets it moving again. and once again, it was college students who get that movement rolling again in 1960 and 1961. to the point where there were tens of thousands of people involved. and we see that rolls over to the