tv Logging in Oregon CSPAN June 3, 2017 7:00pm-7:16pm EDT
keep up with the latest history news. weekend american history tv is featuring eugene, oregon, home to the university of oregon founded in 1876. the cities tour staff recently visited many sites showcasing its history. our more about eugene all weekend here on american history tv. >> the logging industry in oregon was really important because it was seen as sort of an exhaustible resource. when you first come to oregon, if you're not familiar with our ecology, you are shocked by how many trees we have. we are developing the technology to kind of cope with the mountainous terrain and the large size of the trees and figure out how to turn that resource into something we can harness economically to support the people living in this area.
the lane county historical museum exhibit, lost towns, which is a social history of the logging industry. it took its inspiration from the idea of ghost towns. here in this part of oregon we don't of the classic old west ghost towns. we have counted were abandoned for various reasons. this section discusses what life .s like for the loggers wendling was started getting used in the 1880's and was run by private companies, which is typical for early logging in this part of the country. small companies would take over a site and usually over capitalize by investing in machinery or manpower. in the site the transfer hands. changedame wendling hands about every year between 1880 and 1896. it was purchased by a few men 1896.corporated in
they ran it as an organized logging camp. it really was rough living. they did fieldwork or accommodations. they built a bunkhouse. the bunkhouse got to be a bit of a joke among the men. they did not have the best access to sanitation, so the bunkhouse often had flea infestations. they were about 20 to 30 men living in the bunkhouse, and possibly one of dwindling's most famous residence is a man known only as the stump man. sometime around 1898, he got so fed up with conditions at the bunkhouse he kept getting that he took a stump from a massive tree they were unable to remove. stump pulling his every challenging -- is very
challenging, to put a roof on it ended in this stump for two years. the bunkhouse eventually became so much of a problem that after they built the sawmill, and then routed steam pipes from the mill into the bunkhouse as a way to fumigate it. they sealed up all the windows and doors and just let thie 's theme -- the steam blasted for a day. all that it was not the paint off the wall and they still had lice. realized the owners working conditions and living conditions were pretty harsh. what they decided to do was take on an idea that happened in a lot of other parts of the u.s. and was becoming popular in the early 20th century and organize as a company town. --y actually built quicker bigger accommodations for families, and they built a much
nicer and more up-to-date bunkhouse with meeting facilities. -- bathing facilities. they built the dining hall that could sit 175 people at a sitting. they tried to apply current business practices to the living conditions as a way to sort of improve morale and make sure they had the best loggers working for them. one of the largest part of our collection is our antique technology collection. we have a number of artifacts specifically related to logging that we have on view. one of the most popular artifacts, especially with former loggers themselves are the boots. we start seeing them developing in the 19th century. what they are is a modified heeled for good. spike souls are added to the bottom. what they are made for is to actually allow men to stand on
springboards, and you type of logging technology. boards were driven into trees to raise them so they could cut the undergrowth. they had a nice purchase on the board. they were also used in what is known as river drives, where the logs would be floated in a body of water and then would stand on the box. this allowed them to have a good grip and uneven conditions. this pair dates from the 1940's. they were donated by the former owner. another interesting thing is the no cocks allowed sign. many areas surrounding logging camps would often have trouble with loggers coming in therir boots and ruining the floors. from the 40's to the 60's and 70's you have these posted in logging towns.
for the larger pieces of equipment, what we have done with this display is traced the history of logging technology. a cool that was actually developed on the east coast in the 1850's. it was also used out here. what it is is a spiked tool you would use to move logs on a river drive. as they are floating in the water it would be used to put them in the water, take them out while you're standing on them. river drive super grueling. they could take up to two weeks. the net would be in the water almost all the time with their pv's. the next is an early piece of logging technology, a felling ax. it would be used in most of the press of the united states, but in the west coast of the size of 10 trees, trying to fell
foot in diameter redwood with an ax, you would be added for days. we saw the ax above it, a crosscut saw. that is a saw made to be used by two men standing on either side. unlike what a lot of people think. you are cutting as you push the ll.eacht on the pu would take turns pushing. you are using a much stronger force than you would be using ulling. the next is a very popular circular saw mill blade. this particular blatantly from a smaller mill. it would be used to cut the raw logs in the lumber. this example probably dates from the early 20th century. power logging or using gasoline
powered saws starts coming in after world war i. 1940's we seeand the classic chainsaws being introduced. wheel well known in the area example. this is a two-man chainsaw. you have strong guys at the end with the diesel powered engine. you have another guy on the opposite end who would actually help guide it through the tree. this particular model was outlawed because of the danger if the chain broke. intake of both the men. it was a pretty tricky issa machinery -- piece of machinery to use. another technological change we see when logging started in earnest on the west coast is the invention of what is known as the springboard.
it was really important to logging because as you can see in these photos there is really thick underbrush and our forest. it is difficult actually clear the ground enough to get to the tree. and with firs, redwoods, seaters, what -- furs, redwoods, cedars, you have to go up several feet to get to a spot where it is more energy effective to solve. -- saw. they would take pieces of raw plank. they would put what are known as toes, a small iron piece at the end. he would drive that into victory treaty in the flat surface to work on. this solved the problem of uneven ground or dealing with felling a tree on a hillside, which is common in this county. men they would do is two
would drive the springboard into the tree, pop up on the springboard, fell the tree and usually use an ax to make the cut. you can see what happens when they get in far enough the tree actually falls. you have to jump off the springboard and run out of the way as quickly as you can. which you can see in this photo from 19 no one, they would basically jump and run. an interesting issue that gets brought up now when discussing logging, and it really became part of the conversation and 1980's and 1990's is the concept of clearcutting. the term clear-cut is a new term. it really refers to any method theogging where you fell tree and take out everything in the general area. you don't leave any trees standing. that was the basic method for felling trees until more recent times when they started
investigating more ecologically friendly efforts of logging. it was known to be problematic as early as the 1880's and 1890's. they knew it cost soil erosion, and led to forest fires, and it led to less biodiversity. to less biodiversity. the reason they did it was partly because they did not really have the technology to pick and choose, especially in the early days. when they had more complex 's andlogy, the 1910 1920's, it was more expensive to maintain forest and landing clear-cut land. ownspany would several thousand acres and they would just go from site to site and clear-cut. maintaining the tax bill on the land if they replanted was cost prohibitive. we have a number of photos that show was considered today to be clearcutting, but at the time
was standard logging procedures. windling inshows 1925. a lot of these logs are relatively small for west coast standards. there are still people very much involved in the logging industry. wayne county has a lot of people working now who are interested in sustainable forestry practices and helping to improve our ecology and try to make up for some of the mistakes made in the past. a number of people are working to develop new products using smaller trees and more sustainable practices to make new building materials. there is a lot of interesting things going on with the industry and people trying to work towards figuring out a way to use timber in the most intelligent and ecologically sound way they can. [captioning performed by the
national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> our staff recently traveled to eugene, oregon learn about its rich history. learn more about eugene and other stops on the tour at c-span.org/cities tour. you are watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. this weekend on american history tv on c-span3, tonight at 8:00 p.m. eastern on lectures in history, university of kansas professor adrian lewis on omaha beach and the 1944 d-day landings in normandy, france during world war ii. >> the normandy invasion, he was selected because of his poorly inended, for the defendant 1943. at most, at omaha beach it was called that -- they had a couple of italians. -- battalions. i year later when rommell is put
in charge, a lot of the forces had been moved forward. a at 10:00 on real america, monthly film series on the activities of president lyndon johnson. >> he remarked one of the chief executive's most important jobs was attracting able intelligent public servants to washington. the month of june would see two major appointments, first the secretary of commerce and thurgood marshall as associate justice of the supreme court. at 6:30 eastern, george washington university history professor discusses the cold war competition between the u.s. and china to influence new independent african and asian countries. >> during the 1960's, the rivalry intensified. this is an important point where i think to many american policymakers chinese activities in southeast asia and africa start to become as or more
worrisome than soviet activities. >> at 9:00, eric buckland talks about confederate colonel john as mosby. -- s. mosby. >> a couple of times lee complained that he was fighting into many small groups. this decentralized way he operated the not make sense. he needed to mask his forces and take one big target. that went completely against everything mostly was doing. he could have 3, 4, 5, 6 different combat patrols out on any given night. >> for a complete schedule, go to c-span.org. 70 years ago at harvard university, secretary of state george marshall outlined and economic relief plan to help europe recover from the devastation of world war ii.