tv NATO CSPAN June 4, 2017 1:10pm-1:41pm EDT
through the archaeology. >> our cities tour staff recently traveled to eugene, oregon to learn about its rich history. learn more about eugene and other stops at www.c-span.org/citiestour. you are watching american history tv all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. 70 years ago at harvard university, secretary of state george marshall outlined and economic relief plan to help europe recover from the devastation of world war ii. marshall was eventually worded -- awarded the nobel peace prize for what came to be known as the marshall plan. next on real america, a half hour u.s. army film from 1964 documenting the destruction in europe following world war ii, ongoing clashes between communists and non-communist forces, the creation of the marshall plan, in the formation of nato.
could've emerged. west of the elbe, runs the river rhine. the river of the gods and romans, christians and pagans, freedom and slaves, a river with a history of strife. it runs for the heartland of europe, the continent so long toward that only dreamers like charlemagne could dream of it as a peaceful place. but in spite of the bloodshed, most of it so recent, one europe is at last becoming a fact. born out of the very dragons teeth of war. harvest from the seat of europe's own destruction. 1945, and the end of another european war. who has won, when in fact all have lost?
they wore in which more civilians died in fighting in, not in hundreds, but millions. they always were spared the aftermath. much is gone forever. and what is in its place? and the aftermath , near existence. an undamaged roof made a palace. a loaf of bread, a banquet. whatever.ine of with what a europe to grow up in. a black market or even pride was for sale to the highest bidder. iraqi and of self-respect and human values hearkened back to the jungle. but it order that the wheels could turn again, some had to put their faith in others.
they had to trust and sit around the same tables defined the means of putting europe and the whole world to right. it was evident the europe of 1939 was gone forever. the annexation of the baltic states, the huge advances of the red army place enormous areas of eastern europe under soviet domination. marshal stalin was probably the midi yield over a table that which he had seized in battle. nevertheless he agreed on free elections. amid the ruin of countries such as poland, they were held. were, --lfer they though how free they were, was a matter of opinion. with communists already in key posts, it was no surprise things what their way. if anything else was needed to make the victory certain, there was always the presence of the secret police and a number of
soldiers of occupying red army. in peoples exhausted by war or -- were hardly likely to resist such coercion with determination for all their energies were engaged in putting one brick back upon another. in western europe where destruction have been lighter, morale was much higher. here, regimentation had been accepted only because without it winning the war would not of been possible. now is the end of the war, the essential freedoms of democracy burst out with new vigor. there was determination to see to it such a disaster would never happen again. and for the more detective there , was the realization to become -- a begun with insecurity, europe must be united. but how could these europeans be united when they are also different? he was the blood of many races,
nationalities with their own traditions and ways of life not , to mention different lines. they might smile each other, but his neighbors they have nothing in common. sometimes they frontier was a natural barrier, who more often than not it was merely an invisible line across fields of trees. an invisible line and an attitude of mind. yet even in the time of preemptive petition there were , those who realized already what must be done. >> it is not the movement of parties, but a movement of people. it must be all for all. europe can only be united by the heartfelt wish and vehement expression of the great majority of all the people, of all the parties, in all the freedom loving countries, no matter
where they dwell or how they vote. >> it was all very well for winston churchill to make speeches in 1947. he had self-respect. he had enough to eat. he had a place in which to live. to plans the theater such things. in time unity was down on the list of priorities. it was supposed to stem from united nations. their lack of progress with such that when delegates from east and west set down the other, hope was so thin. how could there be a record one east block every move in its -- accord when the east block every move in this direction? in the economic chaos of the postwar period, communism saw
its greatest triumph. wherever there was dissatisfaction, they could fan the flames a revolt. world revolution, the ends justified any means. in countries like czechoslovakia, infiltration overcame the obstacles. at first communist leaders pay -- paid lip service to democratic principles, treating the veterans with respect he deserves his head of state. but then, they whipped up left-wing populist feelings and to approve taking drastic measures to obtain not just the parts due to them by the votes but to take total control of the democratic czech state. soon the president was forced to , retire and died brokenhearted in virtual exile.
in czech parliament, the new leaders made her debut with enthusiastic demonstrations of support. then in an exhibition of irony, they stood in silence to pay homage to an absolute member, the great liberal democrat, jan maastricht. he now lay in state after a fall to his death from a window, by accident, suicide, for murder, no one knew. for the communists it could not have come at a utter moment and if infiltration failed, there was always the threat of strength. while the wartime allies had demobilized, they had retained their armies. here was a powerful factory. in an attempt to gain control
phosphorus, the russians offered to renew a treaty with turkey only if they could have bases. turksding firm, the called the bluff, but their neighbors in greece were not so likely. in greece, the communist staged open revolt. a desperate struggle in which the government only kept control after bitter fighting. an already war -- war impoverished people were given to the limits of hunger, suffering and despair. the method of settlement might be with guns, but will good were guns without bread? europe's problems stemmed not just from the recent war, but mainly from the neglect and indifference of centuries.
what good were guns against malaria, which sapped the strength of whole peoples? what good were guns against tuberculosis, rickets, squalor and felt? feed the needy children what of , their hungry fathers, mothers, grandparents? now is the time to lift the stone and reveal the horrors that lay beneath. far from europe's shores, these -- there were those who cherished with a hold and these were people never to let human suffering exist without protest. they gave for my wealth, the greatest in the world, but this is no way to track from their christian intent. in washington, george marshall made known the principles of the
plan that was later to bear his name. >> the whole situation is critical in the extreme. there is no doubt whatever in my mind if we decide to do this thing, we can do it successfully. there is no doubt in my mind the whole world hangs in the balance as to what it is to be with what we are endeavoring to put forward here. thank you for it >> later, president truman drove to the capital to put the marshall plan before congress. >> i am here today to report to you on the critical nature of the situation in europe. and to recommend action for your consideration. i believe that it must be the policy of the united states. >> in europe, the response was immediate. in paris, world statesman met to
discuss how and where american aid can be applied. the marshall plan took the national regard of politics, only human need. but for the communists, human need was there stock and trade. such a plan -- to track their own means of economic revolution by chaos. talks were followed by the delegates from communist holding in czechoslovakia. but a few dissenters could not called halt to the greatest humanitarian step in history. and so the cargo began to move across the atlantic. food, grain, and raw materials. it was not just a matter of feeding the hungry. from chicago, illinois, to france, a giant stele production.
truly -- anointed with french mills on their feet, but to make them among the most vital. truly the power of the new world had come to redress the balance of the old. in paris, the organization for european economic cooperation was established. a council of 16 nations whose task it was to ensure the marshall plan a was used for the best possible advantage, to rebuild a shattered economy, and reestablish inter-european trade on the basis of strength. by their agreement, holland could import three quarters of the cotton needed for textile looms. by their recommendation britain , could receive the carbon for the all-important automobile industry. thus, france bring into her ports to maintain vineyards at their best. then there were tractors and other equipment for turkey to bring agriculture into alignment
with more fortunate labors. then steel for the shipyards of , italy. over and above revitalizing europe's economy the marshall , plan with its funds and technical assistance, vast areas of italy, whole islands like sardinia and cyprus became battlegrounds in the fight against the malaria mosquito. fedora health teams went out to , battle. for thousands, such undertaking often meant the difference between life and death. a new hope for europe was red in the eyes of children. -- read in the eyes of children. but it was mere sentimentality. revolution first. the marshall plan is but a scheme to gain control of europe. so down with the marshall plan.
down with the marshall plan. strikes, unrest, and even sabotage. alarm down with the marshall plan. byt tracking statesmen of western , europe came to develop common defense. only a handful of nations signed the brussels treaty, but in terms of european unity, it was a historic step. and the continent owes much to the foresight of the the treaty five. brought tried and tested warriors to france to make the first tentative plans for meeting force with force. there was little military strength in which to do it. the next hotspot, the city of berlin, occupied by a french, british, americans, and russians.
ever since the failure to establish free elections throughout the whole city, berlin's situation between east and west had grown steadily more uncomfortable. now the soviets felt strong enough to take action. their efforts to starve the western population were frustrated as all the world knows by the same berlin airlift. in a few short years of peace, the soviet era of domination had spread over europe. how could the brussels power alone hold further advance? for poor old europe, talk of war yet again. what hopes now for the marshall plan? so, it wasn't surprising that the europeans read their paper with cynicism and despair. then, they read how 12 nations in washington side what came to be known as the north atlantic
treaty. and if they had doubts about the new organization, nato, the need for it was proved at once by the communist reaction. this was driving a rift between east and west. this was an affront to all peaceloving peoples. they paraded with peace and peace was their slogan. was this the peace for which so many had died? in front of stalingrad and in the streets of paris? was this the aftermath they had envisioned? and so the peoples of western pondered the new step and decided it was the only way. they backed-- so
atlantic pact. they saw there were worse things in war, and to avert war was to be prepared for it. so europe took the move toward defensive rearmament very calmy. in spite of all the threats when nato's commander dwight d. eisenhower took his post, planned demonstrations came. in a temporary headquarters in paris, the military staff of the alliance began the task of building the continents defense systems. although they did not realize it, they were taking the first steps toward a western unity that was to extend far beyond the military. soldiers of many nations working together in peacetime for a common cause. >> the growth of administrative weaponsstrength was
and armaments fitted this for the city safeguard that these. those weapons for good, soldiers, sailors and airmen across the atlantic in canada. united states, can this time to prevent war. month-to-month the buildup continued. the buildup for war to prevent war. old europe -- those from overseas there was plenty to see. that farmers from the midwest to see where all the farm exports that were open were cracked up to be. but for all visitors whatever
their mission one thing was obvious. the changing face of europe. aidnations receiving dollars have their counterpart funds to good work. hydroelectrics, plants. factories there was ever-growing roar and bustle, the marshall plan was reconstruction. nato was the shield. now they were working for peace. working for themselves and working for tomorrow. the council of europe was meeting and at their conference there were many european
nations. discussing the future of their countries. the council had not accepted their powers and could only advise the government on their power. it was at least a common meeting place where europe could be me that scene. a start that was a long way to go. the arteries of the continent might be throbbing with , there were still age-old barriers. seemed atomic bombs would shift towards rubberstamps, towards the roman cathedrals. yet the solution was is you that anyone had mentioned. unity the needs of trade
would push down the walls. once the coal mines of the czars with the crucible of war. haveut them war would resorted to other mean-spirited all were brought together under one unity, that european community of coal and steel. in the city of luxembourg they went quietly to work. economiche idea was a one. six western european nations decided to cooperate to prevent overlapping efforts. to establish in this field one their reasons were economic.
was ahis one act there handful of european unity. the business of making swords had been turned into making plowshares. in the meantime at nato headquarters it equally important move, forming a true european army had failed. by agreement of all the nato nations the republic of germany was invited. except that was vital to the alliance. face this out of the old no man's land. was 1965, old world had seen much. hungry, although
i'll the changing face. now in the heartland of europe nato provided a routine spectacle. this is not always free contempt , actually they are more interested in housing and the wife is not quite so clear now as it once was. why can they still be seen men and women wearing uniforms far across the ocean. why nato today. the river is too busy to consider strife for a statement.
it is a long haul from switzerland the customers are waiting. today the nato exercises are not for the purpose of country the other side but merely had to be effective. germans, americans, ernest, canadian, they all work together safeguard all western europe. now there is more than just ruins to defend. today on the new international trance there are those with , while theorts express is in full --.
with reverence to your order we are pleased to be able to say that they will reach you on time evenly your order was for half as much. here in brussels there is something else for out of that first idea there has emerged a more ambitious goal. here in brussels the headquarters is now called the common market. --ernational corporation cooperation for everything that men consume. there are the
beginnings that they are there for sure. are only there because of the watch of nato. the men and equipment keeping 24 hour guard by land, sea and air. across from the heartland only a few miles east and toil ceaselessly to and more miles of wire to the already enormous web of the iron curtain. working men are trying to pass the time. they scuttle away like mice because they are afraid. where there is no wire there is the wall. the wall dividing peoples and families without wall -- rhyme or reason. today becauseato just beyond that may be tempted to do something desperate.
us no time for walls, we have a train to catch. theney cannot join us europe is moving ahead so fast there is a real danger of being left behind. as much as we wish them with us we over here are going. and at had together. -- at full speed ahead. ♪ >> c-span where history unfolds daily. in 1979 c-span was created as a
public service by america's cable television companies. it is brought to you today by your catalog -- cable or satellite provider. >> recently, american history tv was that the american historical association's annual meeting in denver, colorado. we spoke with professors, authors, and graduate students about their research. this interview is about 20 minutes. >> here to talk about civil war medicine and disabled veterans, sarah handley-cousins, phd candidate at the state university in buffalo. joining us also is ashley-bowen -- ashley bowen-murphy, who just got her phd at brown university. our focus has been the panel you did at the aha on the pbs show "mercy street." let me start with you, ashley. how would you describe that showed to people who have not seen it and how realistic is it?