tv President Reagans Visit to West Berlin CSPAN June 11, 2017 7:22am-9:01am EDT
oneictions and values, no in europe is more interested in reducing this conflict is we germans, berliners. on the basis of continued defense readiness, we are offering to the other side dialogue and constructive particularlythis for those under control, after the reduction of acute tension it is long time to reduce our minutes session armaments as well -- the armaments as well. i am confident that you the leader of the united states, will succeed together with the soviet union, this year to
the armshe great -- in control field, which will build confidence and open the way for openness in other fields. we want to provide for the worldwide elimination of chemical weapons. we want a reduction of conventional weapons and forces between the atlantic and europe. for that, the countries of the alliance mustd -- ladies and gentlemen, and all this the guarantee of security of the itsed states of -- ladies and d soldiers to remain
something that cannot become without either by germany or by berlin. that is why mr. president, the day is a good opportunity to adjust the words of thanks and soldiersion, to the and officers of the united states forces here in berlin who are present today. [applause] highlylor kohl: we appreciate your personal sacrifices to stand up for our common freedom. the difficulties that you have to go through, especially in berlin, and we are us youhat together with are celebrating the anniversary of this great city. we thank you from the bottom of our hearts for being here. [applause]
chancellor kohl: statesmen, , throughout the long joint history of our countries, that has played a great role in your country and in ours, i thell to your memory -- chief of staff of general washington, whose honor -- in whose honor we revealed a statue just weeks ago. [applause] hoancellor kohl: i recall -- w like no other person helped the berliners to overcome the blockade. i recall george marshall, who 14 years ago initiated the plan named after him and laid the
foundation for the reconstruction of our country from the ashes of the time before. happy in this hour to recall the names and titles of the soldiers and officers whose names i described in the airlift monument. [applause] chancellor kohl: mr. president, we are all for peace in europe and the world, peace can flourish only were the rule of law and the role of human rights are guaranteed. for us, and i know for you mr. includes, this always also the right of self-determination for all germans. [applause] chancellor kohl: together we
stand by berlin. we stand by its peaceful and great future. which the freedom bell rings out in confidence in the words made this lincoln, world undergone have a rebirth of freedom. -- may this world under god have a rebirth of freedom. [applause] [cheers] thank you.n: [applause] pres. reagan: thank you very
much. chancellor kohl, governing mayor diepgen, ladies and gentlemen, 24 years ago, president john f. kennedy visited berlin, speaking to the people of this city and the world at the city hall. well, since then two other presidents have come, each in his turn, to berlin. and today i, myself, make my second visit to your city. [applause] pres. reagan: we come to berlin, we american presidents, because it's our duty to speak in this place, of freedom. but i must confess, we're drawn here by other things as well -- by the feeling of history in this city, more than 500 years older than our own nation by the , beauty of the grunewald and
the tiergarten, most of all, by your courage and determination. [applause] pres. reagan: perhaps the composer paul lincke understood something about american presidents. you see, like so many presidents before me, i come here today because wherever i go, whatever i do, ich hab noch einen koffer in berlin. [i still have a suitcase in berlin.] [applause] our gathering today is being broadcast throughout western europe and north america. i understand that it is being seen and heard as well in the east. to those listening throughout eastern europe, a special word, although i cannot be with you, i address my remarks to you just
as surely as to those standing here before me. for i join you, as i join your fellow countrymen in the west, in this firm, this unalterable belief -- es gibt nur ein berlin. [there is only one berlin.] [applause] behind me stands a wall that encircles the free sectors of this city, part of a vast system of barriers that divides the entire continent of europe. from the baltic, south, those barriers cut across germany in a gash of barbed wire, concrete, dog runs, and guard towers. farther south, there may be no visible, no obvious wall. but there remain armed guards and checkpoints all the same --
still a restriction on the right to travel, still an instrument to impose upon ordinary men and women the will of a totalitarian state. yet it is here in berlin where the wall emerges most clearly -- here, cutting across your city, where the news photo and the television screen have imprinted this brutal division of a continent upon the mind of the world. standing before the brandenburg gate, every man is a german, separated from his fellow men. [applause] every man is a berliner, forced to look upon a scar. president von weizsacker has said, "the german question is open as long as the brandenburg gate is closed." today i say, as
long as the gate is closed, as long as this scar of a wall is permitted to stand, it is not the german question alone that remains open, but the question of freedom for all mankind. [applause] yet i do not come here to lament. for i find in berlin a message of hope, even in the shadow of this wall, a message of triumph. in this season of spring in 1945, the people of berlin emerged from their air-raid shelters to find devastation.
thousands of miles away, the people of the united states reached out to help. and in 1947 secretary of state -- as you've been told -- george marshall announced the creation of what would become known as the marshall plan. speaking precisely 40 years ago this month, he said, "our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos." [applause] pres. reagan: in the reichstag a few moments ago, i saw a display commemorating this 40th anniversary of the marshall plan. i was struck by the sign on a burnt-out, gutted structure that was being rebuilt. i understand that berliners of my own generation can remember seeing signs like it dotted throughout the western sectors of the city.
the sign read simply, "the marshall plan is helping here to strengthen the free world." a strong, free world in the west, that dream became real. japan rose from ruin to become an economic giant. italy, france, belgium -- virtually every nation in western europe saw political and economic rebirth, the european community was founded. in west germany and here in berlin, there took place an economic miracle, the wirtschaftswunder. adenauer, erhard, reuter, and other leaders understood the practical importance of liberty -- that just as truth can flourish only when the journalist is given freedom of speech, so prosperity can come about only when the farmer and businessman enjoy economic freedom.
the german leaders reduced tariffs, expanded free trade, lowered taxes. from 1950 to 1960 alone, the standard of living in west germany and berlin doubled. where four decades ago there was rubble, today in west berlin there is the greatest industrial output of any city in germany -- busy office blocks, fine homes and apartments, proud avenues, and the spreading lawns of parkland. where a city's culture seemed to have been destroyed, today there are two great universities, orchestras and an opera, countless theaters, and museums. where there was want, today there's abundance -- food, clothing, automobiles -- the wonderful goods of the ku'damm. from devastation, from utter
ruin, you berliners have, in freedom, rebuilt a city that once again ranks as one of the greatest on earth. the soviets may have had other plans. but my friends, there were a few things the soviets didn't count on --berliner herz, berliner humor, ja, und berliner schnauze. [berliner heart, berliner humor, yes, and a berliner schnauze.] [laughter] [applause] in the 1950s, khrushchev predicted, "we will bury you." but in the west today, we see a free world that has achieved a
level of prosperity and well-being unprecedented in all human history. in the communist world, we see failure, technological backwardness, declining standards of health, even want of the most basic kind -- too little food. even today, the soviet union still cannot feed itself. after these four decades, then, there stands before the entire world one great and inescapable conclusion -- freedom leads to prosperity. freedom replaces the ancient hatreds among the nations with comity and peace. freedom is the victor. [applause] [cheers] and now the:
soviets themselves may, in a limited way, be coming to understand the importance of freedom. we hear much from moscow about a new policy of reform and openness. some political prisoners have been released. certain foreign news broadcasts are no longer being jammed. some economic enterprises have been permitted to operate with greater freedom from state control. are these the beginnings of profound changes in the soviet state? or are they token gestures, intended to raise false hopes in the west, or to strengthen the soviet system without changing it? we welcome change and openness, for we believe that freedom and security go together, that the advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause of world peace. [applause] pres. reagan: there is one sign
the soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace. general secretary gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the soviet union and eastern europe, if you seek liberalization -- come here to this gate! mr. gorbachev, open this gate! [applause] [cheers] pres. reagan: mr. gorbachev, tear down this wall!
[applause] [loud cheers] pres. reagan: i understand the fear of war and the pain of division that afflict this continent -- and i pledge to you my country's efforts to help overcome these burdens. to be sure, we in the west must resist soviet expansion. so we must maintain defenses of unassailable strength. yet we seek peace, so we must strive to reduce arms on both sides. beginning 10 years ago, the soviets challenged the western alliance with a grave new threat, hundreds of new and more deadly ss-20 nuclear missiles, capable of striking every capital in europe. the western alliance responded by committing itself to a counter-deployment unless the
soviets agreed to negotiate a better solution, namely, the elimination of such weapons on both sides. for many months, the soviets refused to bargain in earnestness. as the alliance, in turn, prepared to go forward with its counter-deployment, there were difficult days -- days of protests like those during my 1982 visit to this city -- and the soviets later walked away from the table. but through it all, the alliance held firm. and i invite those who protested then -- i invite those who protest today -- mark this fact because we , remained strong, the soviets came back to the table. [applause] pres. reagan: and because we
remained strong, today we have within reach the possibility, not merely of limiting the growth of arms, but of eliminating, for the first time, an entire class of nuclear weapons from the face of the earth. as i speak, nato ministers are meeting in iceland to review the progress of our proposals for eliminating these weapons. at the talks in geneva, we have also proposed deep cuts in strategic offensive weapons. and the western allies have likewise made far-reaching proposals to reduce the danger of conventional war and to place a total ban on chemical weapons. while we pursue these arms reductions, i pledge to you that we will maintain the capacity to deter soviet aggression at any
level at which it might occur. [applause] and in cooperation with many of our allies, the united states is pursuing the strategic defense initiative -- research to base deterrence not on the threat of offensive retaliation, but on defenses that truly defend, on systems, in short, that will not target populations, but shield them. by these means we seek to increase the safety of europe and all the world. but we must remember a crucial fact east and west do not , mistrust each other because we are armed we are armed because , we mistrust each other. [applause] and ouragan:
differences are not about weapons but about liberty. when president kennedy spoke at the city hall those 24 years ago, freedom was encircled, berlin was under siege. and today, despite all the pressures upon this city, berlin stands secure in its liberty. and freedom itself is transforming the globe. in the philippines, in south and central america, democracy has been given a rebirth. throughout the pacific, free markets are working miracle after miracle of economic growth. in the industrialized nations, a technological revolution is taking place, a revolution marked by rapid, dramatic advances in computers and telecommunications. in europe, only one nation and those it controls refuse to join the community of freedom.
yet in this age of redoubled economic growth, of information and innovation, the soviet union faces a choice -- it must make fundamental changes, or it will become obsolete. today thus represents a moment of hope. we in the west stand ready to cooperate with the east to promote true openness, to break down barriers that separate down barriers that separate people, to create a safe, freer world. and surely there is no better place than berlin, the meeting place of east and west, to make a start. [applause] free people of berlin -- today, as in the past, the united states stands for the
strict observance and full implementation of all parts of the four power agreement of 1971. let us use this occasion, the 750th anniversary of this city, to usher in a new era, to seek a still fuller, richer life for the berlin of the future. together, let us maintain and develop the ties between the federal republic and the western sectors of berlin, which is permitted by the 1971 agreement. and i invite mr. gorbachev, let us work to bring the eastern and western parts of the city closer together, so that all the inhabitants of all berlin can enjoy the benefits that come with life in one of the great cities of the world. [applause] [cheers] to open berlin
still further to all europe, east and west, let us expand the vital air access to this city, finding ways of making commercial air service to berlin more convenient, more comfortable, and more economical. we look to the day when west berlin can become one of the chief aviation hubs in all central europe. with our french and british partners, the united states is prepared to help bring international meetings to berlin. it would be only fitting for berlin to serve as the site of united nations meetings, or world conferences on human rights and arms control or other issues that call for international cooperation. [applause] there is no better
way to establish hope for the future than to enlighten young minds, and we would be honored to sponsor summer youth exchanges, cultural events, and other programs for young berliners from the east. our french and british friends, i'm certain, will do the same. and it's my hope that an authority can be found in east berlin to sponsor visits from young people of the western sectors. [applause] pres. reagan: one final proposal, one close to my heart -- sport represents a source of enjoyment and ennoblement, and you may have noted that the republic of korea, south korea, has offered to permit certain events of the 1988 olympics to take place in the north. international sports competitions of all kinds could
take place in both parts of this city. and what better way to demonstrate to the world the openness of this city than to offer in some future year to hold the olympic games here in berlin, east and west? [applause] [cheers] in these four decades, as i have said, you berliners have built a great city. you've done so in spite of threats -- the soviet attempts to impose the east-mark, the blockade. today the city thrives in spite of the challenges implicit in the very presence of this wall. what keeps you here? certainly there's a great deal to be said for your fortitude, for your defiant courage. but i believe there's something deeper, something that involves
berlin's whole look and feel and way of life -- not mere sentiment. no one could live long in berlin without being completely disabused of illusions. something instead, that has seen the difficulties of life in berlin but chose to accept them, that continues to build this good and proud city in contrast to a surrounding totalitarian presence that refuses to release human energies or aspirations. something that speaks with a powerful voice of affirmation, that says yes to this city, yes to the future, yes to freedom. in a word, i would submit that what keeps you in berlin is love -- [applause] love both profound
and abiding. perhaps this gets to the root of the matter, to the most fundamental distinction of all between east and west. the totalitarian world produces backwardness because it does such violence to the spirit, thwarting the human impulse to create, to enjoy, to worship. the totalitarian world finds even symbols of love and of worship an affront. years ago, before the east germans began rebuilding their churches, they erected a secular structure the television tower , at alexander platz. virtually ever since, the authorities have been working to correct what they view as the tower's one major flaw, treating the glass sphere at the top with paints and chemicals of every kind. yet even today when the sun strikes that sphere -- that sphere that towers over all
berlin -- the light makes the sign of the cross. [applause] [cheers] there in berlin, like the city itself, symbols of love, symbols of worship, cannot be suppressed. as i looked out a moment ago from the reichstag, that embodiment of german unity, i noticed words crudely spray-painted upon the wall, perhaps by a young berliner, "this wall will fall, beliefs become reality. code yes, across europe, this wall
will fall. for it cannot withstand faith, it cannot withstand truth. the wall cannot withstand freedom. and i would like, before i close, to say one word. i have read, and i have been questioned since i've been here about certain demonstrations against my coming. and i would like to say just one thing, and to those who demonstrate so. i wonder if they have ever asked themselves that if they should have the kind of government they apparently seek, no one would ever be able to do what they're doing again. [applause] [loud cheers] pres. reagan: thank you and god
bless you all. [applause] you. reagan: thank [applause] reporter: the president has concluded his speech and is being joined by chancellor kohl. he will be departing soon for aa, where he has planned birthday party in celebration of the 750th anniversary of the city and we will return you to our studio. [applause] >> thank you very much. as you mentioned, the president is joined now for a photo opportunity with the mayor and chancellor kohl and others. the president was interrupted in his address 26 times by
applause, most notably when he asked general secretary covert job of the soviet union, "if you seek peace, open this gate." echav,ldrich off -- gorb turned on this wall." -- tear down this wall." president reagan indicated he would like to expand their access into the city, that he thought that west berlin would be a good place for the united nations meetings and he called for the olympics to come to east and west berlin. the president and mrs. reagan are now leaving brandenburg gate and they will now go back to the airport where the president will host a per the party for berlin. before they attend the party, they will be looking at displays outside and greet three men that
flew aircraft during the airlift of 1948-1949, and various other displays. they will be introduced to members of the berlin wall patrol, among other things. we will continue our coverage this afternoon as the president continues to visit berlin. ♪ >> this is a special report, live coverage of president reagan's trip to berlin. here is brian hart. >> good afternoon, we are continuing with our coverage of president reagan's visit to berlin. about 45 mexico he addressed thousands of people at the brandenburg gate and now he is at the airport to host america's birthday party for berlin. standing by at the airport is rebecca easily. -- easley. rebecca? rebecca: everybody is waiting for the president to come into the area.
these people have been here since 12:30 p.m. this afternoon, listening to different forms of entertainment. the orchestra providing most of that. volunteers several from the berlin military community providing entertainment. ♪ [horns] again, standing -- here is the president. >> plays and cinnamon -- ladies and gentlmen, the president of the united states and mrs. reagan. rebecca: the president and his wife. ♪ rebecca: the president --
[indiscernible] [applause] [cheers] mr. president, mrs. reagan, chancellor kohl, it is a special honor for me to welcome you to this american birthday party for berlin. as you can see mr. president, from the enthusiastic reaction of the berliners and americans here, our guests share my feeling that it is good to have you and mrs. reagan back in berlin. [applause] >> mr. president, the guests
here have followed your visit throughout the day on a large tv screen in this hall. like those of us president and the brandenburg gate -- present at the been a brigade, we've been stirred by your message of freedom and hope. our celebration of the 750th birthday today bears witness to the high hopes we all hold for the future of this great city. the distinguished berliners on this stage with us are why we can believe in berlin, for they represent the heroic deeds of the past, the remarkable achievements of the presence, and the bright promise of the future. mr. president, i know that you are looking forward to presenting the birthday wishes to the city. the president of the united states of america. [applause] [cheers]
party for the city of berlin. i am especially pleased to be here today because it is not often i get to go to a birthday party for something older than i am. [laughter] [applause] pres. reagan: for a second speech here, i keep thinking of a story of ancient rome where on a saturday afternoon the hungry lions were turned loose on a group of people on the floor of the colosseum and they came charging and one individual stepped out and said something quietly and the lions all laid down. the crowd was horrified that they were going to be denied the show and caesar sent for the man who had spoken to the lions and he said, what did you say? and he said, i just told them
that after they ate there would be speeches. [laughter] pres. reagan: then -- [applause] pres. reagan: let me begin by conveying us the warmest greetings of the american people to all of you here today could only a small fraction of the community can be here, but our good wishes go to all the residents of this marvelous city, wherever they may live. and i am happy to see some many young people here this afternoon. there are two groups of local teenagers i would like to greet in a special way. the graduating classes of the berlin american high school. [applause] and, and of the city's john f. kennedy school. [applause]
congratulations on a job well done. this is a celebration for all of berlin. those of you in the east watching on television but unable to attend in person, you are here with us in spirit. the traditional banners of berlin's 20 districts east and west around the hallway remind me of the kinship that exists among all people of this city. it's existence and character, berlin remains the most compelling argument for an open world. we are reminded of the many traditions of openness and democracy that have marked the history of this city. [loud bang] pres. reagan: missed me. [laughter] [applause] has areagan: america
special relationship with berlin beyond economic ties. like america, berlin is a place of great energy. we see our own hopes and ideals mirro beyond economic ties. red in the energy of berliners. by the nearlyized 14,000 american soldiers, airmen and families that live and work in close cooperation with berliners, to ensure the defense of our common goals. [applause] pres. reagan: let me make one point clear, our troops will remain here as long as they are wanted and needed by berliners to demonstrate to the other side that force cannot succeed. [applause]
pres. reagan: several dozen other americans from all walks of life make an important contribution to the business and cultural life of this city. we have joined the centuries old tradition of berlin and in a real sense we've become berliners. fewou moments ago -- a moments ago i shook hands with three men that testified at the way that you berliners play a proud role in each other's lives. three former u.s. air force pilots, veterans of one of the most remarkable operations in modern history, the berlin airlift. on its flight, the kernel tossing small candy filled parachutes to the children of berlin as the plane approached the runway. yes, he was one of the famous bombers, bomber pilots, who every berliner of that
generation remembers with warmth and affection. another veteran, captain jack bennett, has many friends here today. he lives in berlin. [applause] as for kernel she land or, when the soviets blocked berlin, he had been back in civilian life for only eight months. he and his wife had an infant and another child on the way. those precious eight months where the first that he had been family devote to his since the long years of the war. yet, when called to the airlift, he never hesitated. looking back on those days of constant hardship, the family since the long years of the danger, he says simply this, "we had a job to do and we did it." in as few words, the understatement of a hero. [applause]
pres. reagan: i am especially whosed that he and his son, saw him only briefly before he returned to service to fight the blockade, and who is now my military, my own military aid are both with us today. [applause] pres. reagan: i have met other heroes as well, german heroes of berlin. years agoho 40 collected and cleaned breaks from the rubble -- bricks from the rubble to rebuild their way of life. scholars from the universities in the east, who joined in founding what has become one of the world's major institutions of higher learning, the free university of berlin. a group of employees of the
first hour that helped us get the voices of freedom on the city's airwaves in those early years and ever since. in theyears, radio american sector has been a voice of freedom and an essential part of our continuing commitment to berlin. and now we are taking another important step in german-american relations, by moving forward to make television a reality. [applause] pres. reagan: i cannot help but wonder if they will rerun "bedtime for bondzo." [laughter] [applause] pres. reagan: a berlin border guard who decided to live in freedom rather than building a wall that removes the basic rights of freedom, then to i
have met berliners whose actions speak in confidence of the city's future. a professor that has helped make berlin one of the worlds leading centers of research in medicine. and the winners of the 1987 computer contest sponsored by the berlin-usa initiative. in each phase, i have seen pride in this city and it's a couple mplishments.acco there has been something moving and humbling about meeting these heroes of berlin. i feel your pride in what you have done for your city, your zest for life, your confidence and hope from having overcome so and the strength of your commitment to overcome those that remain. you have demonstrated to the world the value of human liberty, perhaps the courage in your example is the greatest and the strength of your commitment to overcome gift you can give to us every day of our lives. today, when most americans think
of berlin they recall our postwar relationship with the city. and as we celebrate this is 750th birthday, it is worth remembering that america's ties with berlin go back many years. american 20 communities better than a berlin. three of our founding fathers, thomas jefferson, benjamin franklin and john adams negotiated a treaty of friendship and commerce with frederick the great in 1785, establishing a basis for this special relationship that we enjoy today. americans were affected in other ways by this city when some of the best and brightest people active in berlin came to the united states, albert einstein, george gross, on a short bark -- the list of former residents of
today, remembering the heroic deeds of these, all of them here on this platform, and all berliners in the long-standing relationship between our two countries. let's not forget the painful lessons of the not so recent past, and draw on those experiences. together, we can build a better future for this city, for europe and the world. as we look toward the 21st century, the ideals the world associate with the free part of berlin are gaining recognition. history did not come to an end in 1945. and it will not do so now. future,s a city of the it stands as a beacon for freedom and shines brightly for all berliners to see. in the name of the american people, i want to congratulate all 3 million berliners on the occasion of your anniversary.
and i am proud to issue a presidential proclamation today, honoring berlin. perhaps more than the people of any other city, you, the free people of berlin, have demonstrated to the world the value of human liberty. so it is that we have so much to celebrate today, so it is on behalf of my nation i thank you. having witnessed your courage and determination for all these inrs, i am confident extending the heartfelt best wishes of all americans for your city's future and for those of you here today, who with our armed forces are here, i tell you that nothing in the job i have has made me more proud than you, the men and women wearing our military uniforms. [applause] [loud cheers]
thank you very much. [applause] i now have thet, honor of asking you to present your official proclamation on the 750th anniversary of berlin mayor governing mayor, diepgen. [applause] >> thank you very much. thank you very much. ♪ happy birthday to you happy birthday to you berlinirthday you ♪ irthday to
[applause] ♪ and of course a birthday celebration, and american birthday celebration, would not be complete without balloons, birthday cake, and a round of happy birthday to you. ♪ is aboutwhat you see 20,000 red, white and blue balloons coming down from the ceiling, as well as 2000 candy filled parachutes reminiscent of the candy bombers during the berlin airlift. ♪
no doubt about that, it certainly looks like a big birthday party. president reagan and his wife will soon exit the hall. .ere come the parachutes they each have a bag of candy in them. president and mrs. reagan will soon be exiting. they will go out and get back on air force one. i would say it has been a big day. ♪ rebecca: mayor diepgen checking out the frosting there. everybody else trying to catch the candy parachutes.
evidently, the mayor approves of the frosting. ♪ rebecca: and the balloons and parachutes continue to come from the ceiling, just as fast as they can. as we said earlier, about 2500 guests are here. president at the party for the 750th anniversary of the city. the president and his wife saying their final hello's and congratulations to berliners,
and americans. ♪ headca: and they will now out the back of the hall, back onto air force one. i can see the flight line from where i am sitting and the brigade band, the american citizens waiting for the departure ceremony. give itor me, i will back to you in the studio. brian: thank you very much. i think your comment was probably the best, indeed it has been a big day. we conclude our coverage of the hesident's visit of berlin, and his wife preparing to depart berlin. while in the city, he reviewed the troops at the central airport. he proceeded to have a meeting with the -- president. he called upon the soviet general secretary to tear down
the berlin wall in a major address delivered in front of the brandenburg gate. and now as you have seen, the president and his wife saying happy birthday to berlin. teacher of his largest applause from the -- he drew his largest applause from a sense of humor he had in his speech. on behalf of myself and the entire staff, good afternoon and we now return you to your regularly scheduled programming, "the today show." ♪
>> we take you to gettysburg, pennsylvania for a second day of live coverage of the gettysburg college civil war institute's annual conference. we will be here throughout the day for talks from historians and teachers. we talk about relations between union soldiers and confederate women during sherman's march to the sigma plus a look at jesse james and his actions fighting for the confederacy during the civil hope first this morning, a panel of historians surround the leadership of general george
gordon meade. >> he is also the author of in a claim book. hartwig.ft, scott he is a longtime supporter and also a retired historian from gettysburg national park. has written a book on the battle of antigua. to the left of scott is jennifer murray. she is a professor of history at the university of virginia and and of you met canal --