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tv   James Monroes Life and Legacy  CSPAN  June 17, 2017 12:10pm-1:00pm EDT

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this is a 45 minute event that was hosted in leesburg, virginia. it was part of a symposium of a bicentennial commemoration and reflection of james monroe's migration. >> our first speaker is scott harris, the director of the james monroe museum and memorial library. he has been as such since 2011. the museum is operated by the university of mary washington in fredericksburg. it is the largest repository in the country for artifacts and documents related to the fifth president of the united states. previously scott was the director of the new market battlefield state historical park owned by vmi. previous to that he was historic director of historical
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resurfaces in manassas. he holds a masters degree from the college of william and mary. mr. harris? [applause] scott: i'm not going to drop the microphone, but i will lower it gently to the ground. thank you very much and good morning. >> good morning. scott: good morning. >> good morning. scott: you will turn in your hymnals to number 61. oh, sorry that is tomorrow. i couldn't resist. i was talking about that earlier. it is a pleasure to be here. if i may take the chance in a house of worship to spread the gospel of james monroe, that is
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what my colleagues said we would be doing today. anytime we have the opportunity to help raise awareness of the hardest working president and -- in show business, it is a real pleasure to do that. one of the iconic images of the revolutionary war is in 1851 painting washington crossing the delaware. it is the night of december 25, 1776. the continental army is being transported across the delaware river. in the foreground, anonymous men and possibly one woman of varying nationalities and raises row one overloaded boat across the river. two of the boats occupied -- occupants are not anonymous, george washington and lieutenant james monroe holding the stars & stripes.
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the painting is glorious and wrong in all must every detail. [laughter] scott: the river resembles the rhine more than the delaware. the boat is too small end of an inaccurate design. there's too much light for a night crossing. washington did not cross standing up. the stars and stripes had not yet been adopted by the continental congress. james monroe was not holding the flag, not in the boat, not even present with the army. he was already across the river and he was busy. washington's plan for a surprise attack was a risky attempt to reverse the fortunes of the patriot cause during the summer of 1776. british forces had driven the continental army from new york across to new jersey and into pennsylvania. outright desertion had deigned the american ranks, and many who remained were desponding. washington. success in the attack would boost the armies around and stiffen the result of the people.
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three regiments of 1400 men were stationed at trenton. washington planned to bring 2400 continental soldiers across the river overnight. he wanted to march to trenton and attacked before dawn. other elements of the army were also part of the plan, but they did not make it into the operation. the bad weather that occurred, meaning that everything depended on the army of washington. the passcode for the evening of -- was victory or debt. washington wanted to send a small group of troops over the delaware first to secure the land. james monroe was with this contingent.
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in his autobiography which he wrote in the third person late in life and did not complete before his death. he describes the mission. the command of the vanguard consisting of 50 men was given to captain william washington of the third virginia resident. lieutenant monroe offered his services to act under him which was accepted. on december 25, 1776 they passed the delaware in the evening. they hastened to a point 1.5 miles from it in which the road at which they descended intersected that which led from trenton to princeton. the purpose and orders of cutting off all communication between them in the country to trenton. mr. monroe can be guilty of a run-on sentence every now and then. he noted that the snow was falling.
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while manning their post, he was accosted by a local resident who thought that the continental's work british troops. describing the incident later, monroe recalled that the man was determined in his manner and very profane. learning that the soldiers were americans, he brought food from his house and said tomorrow, i know something is to be done and i'm going with you. i'm a doctor and i may help some poor fellow. the doctor was prescient. the armies river crossing took longer than planned, meaning the attack would occur well after setup. washington divided his force. the division commanded by a major general to attack from the north. the other attack from the south. at 8:00 a.m. the assault began. here we returned to the autobiographical account.
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captain washington then moves forward and attacked the enemy. shotgun the commanding officer. an alarm took place in town. the drums were be to arms. two cannons were placed in the main street. captain washington rushed forward, attacked, and put the troops around the cannons and took possession of them. he received a severe wound and was taken from the field. then it fell to lieutenant monroe who attacked in like manner. he was shot down by a musket ball which passed through his breast and shoulder. he was also carried from the field. monroe was brought to the same room were william washington late. his wounds were addressed by the surgeon general and the doctor from earlier. the doctor's prediction of helping some poor fellow came true as he prepared a damaged artery in monroe's shoulder. but neither man realized is that he had saved the life of a
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future president. the painting shows monroe in the background initially on the field before being taken to the dressing station. the best commentary on his performance at trenton and his revolutionary war service comes from the continental army's commander. writing to an acquaintance in 1779, washington noted monroe's zeal he discovered by entering the service at an early period. the character he supported and the manner in which she distinguished himself at trenton where he received a wound. the general concluded that james monroe had maintained the reputation of a brave, active, and sensitive officer. the american revolution was a transformative experience for james monroe, one that he described in a letter written late in his life.
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at the commencement of our revolution i took part in it, and its principles had guided me since. nothing can be so deeply fixed than the judgment of heart of anyone been the principles of our free system of government. james monroe was born april 28, 1758 in westmoreland county. while not possessing the large landholdings are wealth of some of their neighbors, the monroe's lived comfortably and were able to send their eldest son to one of the best local schools. among his schoolmates was future u.s. supreme court justice john marshall who would be his lifelong friend and occasional political adversary. monroe entered the college of william and mary in june of 1774. many of his classmates, he was caught up in revolutionary fervor. he was part of a group or -- of students to seize arms from the
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governor's palace. in february of next year, he was commissioned a lieutenant in the third virginia infantry. the third virginia under the command of george weeden of fredericksburg joined the continental army of long island. on september 16, the regiment took part in the victory at harlem heights. promoted to captain and the nature after recovering from his trenton woman, monroe became an eight to the american general william alexander who claimed the british title, lord stirling. the british had something to say about that. on the gory third, 1778, monroe signed a furlough for a pennsylvania soldier.
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the earliest known example of his signature on an official document. we also know who the soldier is. a gentleman who is able to leave the army for several named john wall. monroe served with the young man who would figure in his later life. one is the marquee who is greater rank did not prevent the two soldiers only a year apart in age from becoming lifelong friends. also his childhood friend and future chief justice john marshall. and ehrenberg and alexander hamilton, destined to fight the most famous duel in american history. i think there was a musical or some other play -- something, i can't remember the people. during the autumn of 1777, monroe fonts in the battle of brandywine and germantown. leading a scouting party in june 7078, monroe sent messages to george washington.
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monmouth was the last time james monroe would be under fire in the revolutionary war. he became a lieutenant colonel but was unsuccessful in being able to recruit enough soldiers for a regimen of his own to command. seeing very little prospects for being able to further his military career, monroe left the army and begin to study with jefferson in williamsburg than in richmond when the virginia capital moved to that city. 13 years older than his prot├ęge, jefferson became an rose political mentor. describing monroe to another of his disciples, james madison, jefferson turned his soul outwards and there's not a suspect on it. on figure very 16, 1786, james
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monroe married a woman from new york. their union produced to daughters. and one son who died in infancy. the monroe family was close-knit and stay together even as james embarked on a busy political career in the united states. between 1778 and 1811, monroe compiled a larger and longer public service resume than anyone who is been elected president of the united states. he practiced law in fredericksburg, served as a state and federal legislator, was a delicate to the virginia ratifying convention of the u.s. constitution, and was elected to four terms as governor of virginia. he was u.s. ambassador to france twice. also to great britain and to spain. he tell negotiate the louisiana purchase coming into attempt to help with the resolution of the
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treaty which was only supposed to have been for the acquisition of the port of new orleans and then presented with the opportunity to buy all of louisiana. fortunately for the country's development, there was a quick decision on that part that later would prove very important. he also, with his wife, attended the coronation of napoleon bonaparte. unfortunately he was doing some diplomacy trying to negotiate with the british over issues over the navigation of the seas and not dating with this -- and negotiating with the spanish about florida. this had taken them out of favor with the french. monroe said they were put in the cheap seats, not with the rest of the diplomats. he was complaining about where they were. they were well-dressed.
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they had on television -- elegant court outfits. they are in our collection to give some indication of the sartorial style of his diplomatic career. in january of 1811, monroe began his fourth term as governor of virginia. he resigned in april to become secretary of state in the administration of james madison. the united states was locked in a struggle with great britain over trade policies and investment. hostilities began when congress declared war on june 18, 1812. over the next two years american victories at sea were offset by repeated defeats on land. as the british naval and military force enter the chesapeake region, monroe and others called for better defenses from the u.s. capitol but little was done.
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british troops came ashore in maryland and began marching to bladensburg. when monroe's suggestion of a system of couriers to report the enemy's movement was best regarded by -- this regarded by the secretary of war, monroe went into the field himself. use this telescope to count the number of ships and men in the british force and repeated it to president madison. on the bottle of bladensburg, the british routed un-american force of regulars. monroe move some american units on the field in a manner that did little to improve an already chaotic command structure. while the cartoon implies that madison fled from the british panic. in fact he and most of the cabinet stayed on the field until the end. they narrowly avoided capture.
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the british moved on to washington dc where they burn many public buildings, including the white house. in the aftermath of this disaster, armstrong resigned as secretary of war. monroe assume the office while remaining secretary of state. all of the british departed fort washington. the possibility of another attack on the capital was spurred. the war ended in february 1815 with the u.s. ratification of the treaty of ghent. monroe was elected president in 1816. a culmination of his public service career that had taken them to so many different offices and experiences, here and abroad. he was why elizabeth undertook the restoration in re furnishing of the white house. a process that would occur throughout his two terms in office. it cannot be overstated how significant the role of the monroe's was in the finding
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white house style. they were starting with a blank canvas. they had to most of their own furniture initially. in later efforts at redecorating and trying to recapture some of the style that was lost over the centuries, right up until jacqueline kennedy's work, the monroe example of what many of those efforts try to recapture. mrs. monroe's experience as the first lady was characterized by european-style salons that were not always well-received by washington society. she also endured a range of physical ailments that prevented her from serving as white house hostess. as president, monroe urged congress to appropriate sufficient funds from expanded army and navy. he did not get everything that he wished for, work it begin on new installations, including one in 1919 that was called fort monroe in his honor.
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during two regional tours of the country in 1817 and 1819, monroe inspected the nation's defenses and he also, perhaps inadvertently, brought something of the modern presidency to many parts of the country. we are very familiar with the spectacle of a presidential motorcade and all the things that they can imply. that was a novelty in 1817. generated on immensely positive reaction, one that even monroe was not suspecting what happened. that to her proved so popular that it produced the catchphrase for his administration. monroe that with the perennial problem of relations with the native american peoples who work rackley in the path of settlers moving west.
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a large delegation of plains indian chiefs visited washington. there are wonderful images, but many of them were destroyed in a fire in the 19th century. copies of them survive. but copies of them survive. monroe presented the delegations with peace metals, professing peace and friendship. as monroe sought to harmonize relations with the indians, he faced an even greater immediate , immediate -- and even greater, immediate challenge brought on by western expansion, bitter debate over the extension of slavery in the territories west of the mississippi. when missouri sought admission to the union as a slave state in 1819, it precipitated a political crisis by threatening to upset the balance of congress between slave and free states.
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the series of agreements hammered out collectively known as the missouri compromise settled the issue for the time being. monroe signed off on the compromise with release, and expressed optimism that it would be resolved. jefferson called the missouri compromise a fire bell in the night. it did not bode well for the union's future. much as he believes separation was the solution to problems between the indians and whites. munro some merit to send free blacks back to africa. although is not -- although as not active within the movement, munro was present for the founding meeting of the american colonization society in washington d.c. on december 21, 1816. four years later, the ship elizabeth took the first group
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of african-americans to the colony that would be named liberia. the capital of which, monrovia, is named for you know who. 1812 the end of the war of in the final defeat of napoleon largely resolved the free trade and complex with britain, acquisition of florida has still not occurred when the road into the white house. in 1817, he sent general andrew jackson into east florida to suppress seminole indians and fugitive slaves that were conducting raids into u.s. territory. jackson then largest upon his original mission by attacking spanish forces in the region and executing to british national suspected of working against his now -- his army. now whether jackson exceeded his orders or simply doing what he was told to do in congress. secretary of state, john quincy adams, was able to overcome spanish protests and negotiate
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the purchase of florida in 1821. but this became a source of some controversy and contention between jackson and monroe. during the same period, the monroe administration recognize d the independence of latin american republics that if offer for their independence from spain and portugal. the united states was one of the first nations to recognize the newly independent republics of chile, peru, mexico, and argentina. worried about stability in latin america and weary about russian imperialists' claims in north america, munro made a policy statement that would be among the most enduring legacies of his presidency. his annual message to congress on december 2, 1823, contained the usual rundown of government expenditures, operation of lighthouses, how the postal service was doing,
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run-of-the-mill things, but then the message also declared that are notican continents to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any european power. this was followed a few sentences later with in the wars of the european powers in matters relating to themselves, we have never taken part, nor does it comport with our policy to do so. it is only when our rights are invaded that we present injuries are made preparations for our defense. this foreign-policy position articulated in the president's message is known as the monroe doctrine. i said, the monroe doctrine. john quincy adams is often assumed or identified as the author of the monroe doctrine. as not which should come
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surprise that i respectfully disagree. adams did have a crucial suggestion to make regarding the final form of this message. but munro's own experience -- monroe's own experience on the world stage informed his thinking. the final message, the final responsibility were monroe's. the immediate impact of the monroe doctrine was low-key. the imports were clearly understood by leaders in europe. and appreciated by those in latin america. although u.s. military powers at this time without of insufficient to counter a coalition of european aggressors, such a development was unlikely. the declaration also invoked the philosophy of george washington. who had warned the united states against engaging in any diplomatic commitments that contract the country into european war. advice and we followed until 1917.
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the monroe doctrine was a cornerstone of american foreign-policy for much of the 19th and 20th centuries. teddy roosevelt introduced a corollary to the doctrine that sanctioned u.s. military intervention and conflicts with european and latin american countries. his cousin, franklin, also saw changes. the monroe doctrine's came into play during the run-up to the development of the cuban missile crisis in 1962. that lower right image is one of my all-time favorites. if you cannot quite see it, it is a ship bearing the flag of the monroe doctrine sailing a communist, while with a k on the shoulder is swimming to cuba underneath it. this appeared before the
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discovery of the missiles in cuba, just a few weeks before. so, it was remarkably for shattering but was about -- it was remarkably for shattering -- it was remarkably foreshadowing what was about to happen. in the 21st century, the monroe doctrine has some rough handling. it has interesting interpretations. president george w. bush in a post-9/11 world articulated what was called the bush doctrine. a justification for wide-ranging u.s. military intervention around the world, often without regard necessarily to the opinion of parts of the world. in 20 13 come on secretary of state, told the organization of american states, "the era of the monroe doctrine was over." and there was a surprised reaction and scattering of applause. he said, yes, that is a good thing. his statement was meant to knowledge the independence of -- his statement was meant to acknowledge the independence of latin american countries. many conservatives have taken issue with the speech.
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whatever the future holds for the monroe doctrine in this century and going forward, it is nonetheless remarkable that a presidential policy statement made in 1823 can still be a matter of debate nearly three -- nearly two centuries later. although he refused most invitations to hold public office after the presidency, james monroe did agree to chair monroe did agree to share the virginia constitutional convention in 1829. he was joined there by other lifelong friends james madison, who was addressing the body here, and former chief justice , john marshall who is seated , immediately behind madison. but mungo was ill for much of the time, and had to resign before the convention adjourned in 1830. elizabeth monroe died in 1830. her grieving spouse went to his daughter's home in new york city. physically unable to return to virginia, monroe died on 1831. five years to the day
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after the death of thomas jefferson and john adams. after an elaborate funeral, in which there was an estimated 70,000 attendees, monroe was buried in new york city's marble cemetery. the commonwealth of virginia had his remains exhumed in 1858 in reinterred in hollywood cemetery. the remains of mariah and elizabeth were brought from hotel to join him. their daughter eliza is buried in paris. the ornate gothic revival, the birdcage as it is called, over the monroe tomb in hollywood cemetery, is a familiar landmark if you have ever been there. this is in 1865. a photograph, soon after richmond's fall. for the first time since its creation, the tomb has been restored. as we go into an extensive process of refurbishment in which almost 30% of the original iron has been replaced.
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and i am hopeful that it will be ready in time for monroe's birthday observance later on coming up this april. because it desperately needed the work to say this treasure. over the years, james monroe has been memorialized in many ways from commemorative coins, postage stamps, a crackerjack prize on the upper right, sandals of education and a military might. top in thear the number of places named for u.s. president. and as we observe, the only american for whom a capital is named. monroe's great granddaughter, and her son saved in building at 908 charles street in fredericksburg, virginia from demolition. the threat came from the adjacent service station. [laughter] that always gets a laugh.
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i never know why. having saved the building, they established a museum depicting monroe's law office and library that he had during his years in fredericksburg. the museum's first director served for 51 years. and he augmented the family's collection of heirlooms with the collection -- with the collecting effort to collect monro-related artifacts, books, and art. the james monroe memorial foundation was created to administer the site. they transferred ownership of the museum to the commonwealth of virginia in the university of 1964. virginia with the initial administrative authority until 1972, when uva's women's division mary washington college , became independent. in 2004, the college became the university of mary washington. in the law office depiction was converted into a gallery format in 2006 because it was
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discovered that the buildings that emerge over time, all post monroe's ownership of the property. we are not the first monroe site to come up with a few different approaches about what to do with our property. but we have had some interesting developments. has givene though, it us opportunity by going to this gallery-based approach to showcase a collection of artifacts, which is the largest in the country related to rfid president. bicentennial of monro's presidency offers a wealth of opportunities to highlight the apex of his public service career. the museum staged a joint press conference on president's day with monro character interpreter j harrison and our new president of the diversity. he will be inaugurated in april
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of this year, and we were on the verge of observing the inauguration of mr. monroe, but we were also struck by the remarkable similarity in the writings of these men, 200 years apart about education, leadership, and civic responsibility. so the press conference turned out to be a really engaging program that we were very happy to be a part of. on march 4, we commemorated monro's inauguration, and that the 200 years after the historical event. we inspired one young man to wear his campaign button. on the same day at highland, a succession of speakers read excerpts from monroe's inaugural address and attribute to a leader who dedicated his life to serving our democratic republic. another bicentennial initiative that involves students in the museum studies program at the university of mary washington is in which i am extremely proud. one they have designed a
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traveling exhibit that will visit some of the places that monroe went to during his northern tour. this is a joint project between -- the jameseum monroe museum in the papers of james monroe. particularly rewarding and meaningful to me as an alumnus of mary washington to know that we are helping students hone their skills in the areas and studies of preservation and working on this, and letting them share this exhibit with a wider audience. we are in the process of booking sites of where this will go. and we will be working on another one for the 181974 -- has we come up on its anniversary. many other exciting opportunities lie ahead in the next eight years as we commemorate the bicentennial of james monroe's presidency. thank you for your attention. i don't know if we are doing questions now. we will do questions at this
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point before the break, which i hope i have not run up to much. thank you. [applause] scott: go ahead. >> there is a lot of talk of the monroe doctrine was written at oak hill. can you speak to that? scott: i think that given the fact that president monroe tried to be at oak hill as much as he could during his presidency, that is only possible. dan might have more intimate knowledge of whether that was something that happened exclusively or at least in part. see how i pivoted right to you, dan, on that question. -- on that question? thank you. >> i would say he started
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working on it at oak hill. but he was really in washington when he was meeting with his cabinet in late november and early december. as with many speechwriters, he was probably doing it the night before. [laughter] certainly, he was down this way at some point. so, probably, yes. scott: that is an answer everybody can be happy with. [laughter] yes, sir. >> where would monroe rank in the hierarchy of the important s?erican president scott: it is interesting. james monroe has typically over the years that there have been rankings of presidents in near have been in the top of the
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second tier. anywhere from 11-15 is where one row has fallen. i think he has actually migrated up somewhat, and i think there presidentsofof present tay recently revealed. i want to say he is at six. [indiscernible] scott: part of that is a result of improved scholarship. to some degree trying to read across the debates that were going on on these issues. and the fact that monroe was a quiet leader, not always looking for the limelight. face it, when you are in a room with henry clay, he tends to take the air out of the room. sir?
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>> how long was monroe concerned with the french revolution? scott: i think that monroe saw his believe in adherence to the revolutionary principles of france as a logical extension of what the american revolutionary experiment to him. many in the republic feuded as a binary organism. that one was an organic product of the other. as the excesses of the revolution became bloody and violent, he did recoil from that. lost the senseer of appreciation for the french devotion to liberty and to republican principles. and his hope was that there could be a reconciliation of those, a harmony of those with american interests. the washington administration, alexander hamilton, as the leader/developer
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of the federalist party, saw a different future. one more aligned with great britain. the only test that not only set the tone for our first row political party evolution, it set the tone for a lot of conflicts that monroe had with a number of his contemporaries. but i do think he's a very devoted to those principles, and his affection for france was genuine and personal as well as philosophical. yes, ma'am. >> i'm a native of virginia, so i'm surprised to hear at one point, monroe was governor for four terms. and currently, it is only one term. did this change during the constitutional convention? scott: the evolution of the governorship of virginia has had several periods. when we look at it from the 1776, are 1strom constitution being separate from
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great britain, governors could be elected for one-year terms for which they were eligible for two subsequent reelections. a governor could serve -- and some people call it a term of three years that they were reelected. we chose to look at it as three elected terms because there was a possibility that he would not be in years two and three. so he had those three initial elected then have been to a fourth, which could have set up a fifth and a six heavy state, but -- has set up a fifth and a sixth had he stayed, but he went and joined the madison administration. patrick henry just beat him out. patrick henry ended up having five terms. it monroe hung in there a little longer, he might've gotten the top. i showed an image of that, the governor's mansion in richmond. which monroe never got to stay in. he signed the legislation that had it built, but he did not stay in the governor's position long enough to enjoy the house that he authorized. sir? >> what about the difference
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between monroe and lafayette? scott: it was a friendship born of shared service during the revolution. and it also coincided with ,onroe's awakening to the wider political and social world of the philosophies of french thinkers and writers with such an impact on revolutionary thought. that,fayette helped share that in effect that they were soldiers,s, young confronting this great adventure in their lives are at it really cemented the bond between them. now, lafayette had wonderful elysian chips with many of his contemporaries as well. but the affectionate correspondence between them continued. monroe's presence in france coincided with the time left eye -- coincided with the time he was at excel, and yet there was , still interaction. monroe and mrs. monroe were particularly instrumental in a publicized visit to madame lafayette's imprisonment.
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they went to the mix and not to executor, but to let her go eventually. and then when monroe was president, logic it is famous visit here in 1824. monroe received them at the white house. although trying to keep it low-key, he made it known that he would have a place to stay in a hotmail whenever he wanted to come by. so, it really was a lifelong friendship that went right up to monroe's death. did he speak french? scott: he did speak french. i understand a little bit of italian. he was competent in parsing some other languages as well. spanish as well to some degree. so, but yes, french. i'm sorry. >> and of course, latin and greek. scott: yes.
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, but but i think the use of french was something useful and his -- useful in his diplomatic career and something that the , family employed for their own edification as well. i saw one more -- >> i was going to ask about the idea of him being considered a than ag father rather revolutionary general. having been in the revolutionary war veteran is a president and wounded at one of the famous battles did he use that? , scott: even as president, he fondly liked to be called colonel monroe. that had something to do with it. his style of dress when he was on his north and tour was not a military uniform. it was a dark coat, a big hat that was of the revolutionary style, which we have in our collection actually.
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and there is a wonderful story i am going to share just because you have given me the opening. the hat is very napoleonic. hat.big, wide-brim we actually made a reproduction of it for our interpreter to wear. and we were contacted recently by the connecticut historical society about borrowing the hat because the american school for the death -- deaf in connecticut was founded during monroe's tour in 1817. he visited there. they did not have a sign in american sign language for "president." so the story that was relayed to us was the signing was created that day, and this is still today the asl sign for president. the story is it is because of the hat he was wearing. i wish we could claim we made that up, we did not. this was brought to us. but i think it is a wonderful visual image he wore the hat for has helped influence something that has endured here for 200
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years. and even if it is not true, it is a great story. [laughter] [indiscernible] [laughter] scott: thank you for that unsolicited endorsement. we do have brochures and our schedule out in the hallway. we encourage you to take as if you have not already. and i thank you. [applause] scott: thank you. >> this weekend on american history tv on c-span3, today at 8:00 a.m. eastern on railamerica -- >> general secretary gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek
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prosperity for the soviet union and eastern europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate. mr. gorbachev, open this gate. [applause] mr. libertas, tear down -- mr. gorbachev, tear down this wall. >> president ronald reagan's 1997 to two berlin. and at 8:00 p.m. on lectures in history, a college professor on how the baby-boom, suburbanization, and the emergence of teenage culture changed post-world war ii society. >> to get a separate youth culture, again advertisers are looking at this, young people begin to adopt their own styles of dress, music they listen to is different, there is a segregation, separation of youth culture from ancient culture. >> and sunday at 8:00 p.m. eastern on the presidency come
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on the 45th anniversary of the watergate break-in, a person offers an inside review on that and the watergate scandal. >> the white house phone rings and i instantly assume it is the dreaded call from the. the conversation is brief. me president wants john and to meet him at camp david at one -- 1:30 today. when the white house phone rings again, i find to stay composed. that was ron the press secretary. he is at camp david, too. the president now feels very strongly that john and i should volunteer to resign. >> for our complete tv schedule, go to c-span.org. sunday on q&a -- >> barack is very deeply
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committed to presenting his story, and i think that is different from history. >> part one of our interview talking about the making of barack obama in which covers president obama is life. >> i think that barack's political aspirations and sense of destiny lead him to push sheila yeager aside. during that side, there was a well-known, political figure in chicago. hugely respected man, senator dick newhouse, anyone -- who in black chicago said could not go higher because he was married to a white woman. it is in the political, tradition of black chicago in the early 1990's that for black men to aspire to represent black chicago, it is necessary to have
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a black spouse. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span's q&a. all we can, american history tv is joining our peace cable partners to showcase the history of hyde park new york. cities, more about the visit online, and we continue to look at the history of hyde park. the library was created in 1941. it was the first presidential library created and operated by the national archives and records administration. library was established by franklin roosevelt. he was looking for a way to of hise the papers administration, and also his personal papers. and so, he created a library on the grounds of his estate here in hyde park, new york.

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