tv Mid-20th Century American Oil Interests CSPAN June 24, 2017 8:00pm-9:16pm EDT
he argued that religion played a significant role in the business practices of global companies and individual product testers. -- individual prospectors. this class is one hour and 15 minutes. >> good morning. welcome back from spring break and welcome back to our history of oil in american life. today we are going to look at a theical phase between 1930's and 1950's. a moment in which some important turns take place in the life of american oil. two sectors we have been looking at, major oil and independent oil. this is a period in which the nation itself is kind of awakened to a new role in global politics.
in 1941 it was stated that the u.s. was entering a new era of global leadership. it was the american century dawning in the early 1940's and playing out during world war ii. we will look at at how oil combined with religion helps create competing visions of american in authority on the global stage. if you recall prior to spring break, we had been spending time in the interwar period, looking at oil and some of these scandals that are murdered -- that emerged. we look at the competition of corporate and labor politics at the time, challenges that arise
from surplus in terms of regulation of oil. period,n the interwar u.s. oil is going through fits and starts and difficult circumstances. nevertheless, as we are proceeding today, we will see that despite the fits and starts, the u.s. sees its oil initiatives expanding rapidly. that will accelerate into the 1940's. just soou an outline you are able to follow along. on the back, just some framing questions to consider. these are questions we can use to help guide discussion on wednesday, which we will use to follow-up the lecture today, first being how and why did
matters politics and people of faith become essential to the development of american oil in the mid-20th century? what were the competing visions of the nation's oil and the nation itself that came to define the petroleum sector at this crucial juncture? how did the politics of oils' warring sectors create the role of the u.s. in the world, and to what ends did this competition play out, both short-term -- and by the end of class hopefully you are able to anticipate long-term trends as well. we have come across some of these names before, so they should be familiar. quite a few others should be new to you. charactersa cast of just to help us follow along. i'mou see from the outline, going to proceed in three parts. americant a glimpse of
power brokers circa 1940 and 1941. get a sense of how power brokers in both sectors are starting to envision themselves and their particular sectors in relation to emerging geopolitics on an international scale. in that regard we will start back in the 1930's, which again we glimpsed at briefly, but we will take down a little deeper before we move back into the 1940's. the second section will focus on a few political pivots that play independents,e the wildcatters, as we will call them, and major oil in the 1940's. some of these will play out in washington, questions of regulation being front and center. but also the very likelihood of independent oil as it sees
itself threatened by the possible combination of federal government and major oil interests abroad. i want to spend the rest of the class, the third section, pausing to look at the ground level of two important initiatives. andundertaken by aramco major oil in saudi arabia, and the second transpiring at the same time in alberta, canada, where independents are starting to look for their own domestic frontiers. in that let's start important moment of the early world war ii years. as we discussed in previous classes and throughout, we are interested in oil not simply as
material, not simply as a fuel for lubricant for economic interest, but we are doing our best to look at this in interdisciplinary terms. it is oil as a culture itself. today again, framing and introducing religion into the narrative. we have found from the very beginning, oil has and persisted to have a mythological power in the american imagination. founded and discovered in the civil war period, it was seen from its beginnings as a mystical resource, something that could promise the nation healing after the civil war. it had important notions of progress wrapped up in it, and in terms of modernity itself. not only did just generate these ideas and fantasies -- coal had
a similar hold on the british citizens in the 19th century, and also on americans as well. oil was always seen as particularly sacred. it was -- in part because it was difficult to locate and to grasp and to take control of. it was always seen as uniquely supernatural in its abilities to generate hope and dreams of the future, both for individuals and the nation itself. a quote in a magazine in 1900 expresses this well. "everywhere american oil is to be met with in the orient, and liked temples -- lights temples in the mosques, the holy; in jerusalem, and it is penetrated china and japan, reached the wilds of australia and shed its
radiance over many a dark african waste. american petroleum is the true cosmopolitan, omnipresent in its mission of the lightning the whole universe. -- in lightning the whole universe. intensified by 1940 as it becomes an impetus for american expansion, certainly in terms of its leadership around the globe. this returns us to henry luce. henry luce was a very powerful publisher in the 1940's, in charge of a number of important magazines. life, time magazine. used then february, he pages of life magazine to besiege -- to beseech americans to create the first great
american century again. what many people don't realize is that he delivered this speech a month earlier at the american petroleum institute. there, as you see quoted before thatit celebrated the work oilmen had been doing up to the point to show the frontier initiative, and to continue that on an even greater stage in the years forward. having within you a dynamic spirit of freedom and a genius for corporation and organization, it follows inevitably that you do not stop at the frontier of mountains or at thejungle, nor mandalay frontiers of knowledge or tradition or hope. i salute you.
wrapped up in this narrative of both american exceptionalism, the role that oil will play in that. oil is considered a pillar of american exceptionalism: forward. -- going forward. this will be the key to the rise of the american century. it is important to see how he views religion as well as a twin column of this foundation. for luce, petroleum is a limitless power that has the capacity to transform the world into something godlier and something good. l, it's peculiar burden to them fume international investment with the u.s. at the head. historians connect oil to luce
charge as framing an american century. we can fold religion into this story as well. mirroredpirations those of an entire cohort of corporate, church, and state visionaries that believe that a petroleum fueled christian democracy, that big religion, ecumenical, internationalist in its persuasion, integrated with the state, could guarantee the nation's for influence. -- for influence. their outreach on behalf of of what i will call a civil religion of crude was designed to steer the u.s. out of several crises that emerged in the 20th century. we have become aware of some of these. first of all because of the chaos of the boom in east texas,
u.s. production was woefully inefficient. draining to quickly and pricing was incredibly volatile. these powerbrokers that envisioned oil on the world stage are wary of what is going on in east texas. tea, it keptexas refineries busy. enough for a freeway society where everyone wants an automobile to some drive -- to drive to their suburban homes. more fuel is needed. these powerbrokers will start looking abroad in earnest. in the mid-40's it becomes more urgent.
as oil strategist look ahead, they feel that the depletion of reserves was approaching peak oil. it becomes well articulated in the 1950's when a geologist frames the theory of peak oil, saying that american oil collapsewere going to by 1970, forcing the country into a difficult situation. this kind of apocalyptic fear of american losing its oil sources going to drive exploration abroad. driven by fear but also optimism. sistersalled seven pictured on the top right, which included five major u.s. oil companies, texaco, gulf, standard oil of california,
on,vron, excellent, -- exx and standard new york, mobile. this is a process of global exploration that started in the late 19th century but takes on a asia,gency, whether it is europe, and especially the middle east and saudi arabia. there was a whole cohort of powerbrokers, those that were in publishing, those that were in washington, those that were ceos and leading executives of these companies. of e that were lobbyists major oil, some of the most influential share luce's vision for expanding american influence abroad. encountered harold
iggy's before. can someone tell me who he was? >> she was the secretary of the interior under fdr. like?as he what were his politics? was concerned over the nd wanted toal a have police over the oil industry. prof. dochuk: so interest in regulating. appointed secretary of the interior, but also the oil czar of the roosevelt administration. someone who wants to work to bring the federal government to bear not just on leading oil, but in large part partner with oil companies. not so much a charismatic figure
as henry luce might be, but buys into this vision of big oil and an expanded federal state partnering on an international stage. going to course are partner as well and help frame the initiative of the civil religion of crude. we can look to the rockefeller family, especially john d rockefeller junior. have talked a lot about rockefeller senior, have not much time on junior yet. it is junior that obviously takes over the family business after world war i. on he recognizes quite early that his is not a gift for management. how do you follow in your father's footsteps in this case? is beingne standard
broken up as well into many parts. channels hisunior energies, as well as funds into philanthropy. this will become his most important element. he will support traditional missionaries. he is a developed baptist like his father. he will help fund missionaries in asia, including the luce family in which henry luce grew up on a mission field in china. rockefeller junior is also going to look at funding the federal council of churches, will serve on the council of foreign relations. all of which is to say he has this internationalist vision. religiousl very much in his case, but he is also wanting to expand philanthropy
into a more secular scientific ground. health for instance, improving technology, looking to develop undeveloped countries as he sees them, and modernize them. it is how does religious vision combined with philanthropy will comply their vision of oil going forward. you see some of this illustrated in some of the standard oil magazines. lamp being the magazine for exxon standard new jersey, meant to keep its stockholders and to whates informed as the company is doing. several images emphasizing the humanitarian work being done as well. oil not simply as an economic interest -- certainly it is,
driving this corporation -- but there is a sense of it being promoted by the company in line with the rockefeller's vision of using this wealth and material to extend modern democracy on a global stage. iss vision is needed in -- aided in 1940 when the rockefeller brothers fund is established. with the third generation s standing- the 5 son with their father -- and through this agency we will see rockefeller philanthropy extend into all of these different types of programs. more so than their father into large-scale development projects that will be more secular in their outlook, but never
entirely drained of this religious impulse, this spirit of international service. rockefeller on the top right, certainly the most influential politically of the rockefeller sons. he will be working in south america, making plans of development with the american government's own efforts to promote growth in some of the poorer areas of south america. this is also playing out in a cold war context. nelson rockefeller and american generals worried about communism making its way into regions of south america. their charge is to create potentials for christian american democracy in those regions before communists can get in. there is fear of anti-colonial sympathies, of nationalist
fervor taking over this internationalist vision. there is a political worry that is driving the rockefellers forward. nevertheless i want to emphasize the way they are acting out of a sincerity of purpose passed down to them from their father, and ultimately from their grandfather. well bys articulated , who has quite a typical profile in terms of the powerbrokers we will encounter in the next few minutes. above, he someone who grow up as the son of missionaries. this is a common theme. missionaries are playing an important role in establishing a
second generation of civil servants, who will not necessarily where religion on their sleeve, but see the power of christianity filtered through broader projects of modernization to transform the world. he grew up in beirut. his parents found an american university in beirut, which would be an important institution for admissions -- fo r missions, but training engineers and so forth in the business of oil. for a time he was president of hobart college, and in the 1940's, just as luce is articulating this vision of an american century, is giving these talks. "you and i who believe in christendom are not doomed to weakness. we who follow christ needed to cover ourselves in tolerance,
charity, and wherever we walk we shall find ourselves standing on holy ground." again a very clear indication of inclusivein a broadly internationalist christian democracy. important,also be and will continue to discuss on wednesday -- is going to be influential in generating interest in saudi arabia. on wednesday,k at saudi arabia in the 1930's becomes a field of american interest. in 1932, standard oil of california, which becomes chevron, strikes oil in bahrain, and at the moment feels like there is much more to gain on the arabian peninsula as a whole. in1933 it wins a concession from
saudi arabia, allowing it to explore. tough going for the first 4 years or so until 1938, when it's first major well comes in, indicating there is an expansive pool of oil in saudi arabia. as we enter the 1940's, he will become important as someone that can broker the relationship between saudi arabia and the roosevelt administration. you see evidence of that in 1945 aboard the uss quincy in the suez canal. he helps translate and act as a diplomat between the saudi king and franklin d. roosevelt. again talking about a pressing issue of israel, the potential of an israeli state in the middle east is disconcerting to the king. but also nurturing a
relationship that will allow this partnership in major oil to continue. eddy going forward will continue to act as a special for the u.s. state department -- special envoy for the u.s. state department. this is the vision of luce, eddy , the rockefellers, and major oil. there is a parallel returning. 1930's, just as saudi arabia is captioning -- capturing the imagination of others, back in the 4 poorest counties of east texas, another boom occurs. this one will transform oil in two very important ways. this happens on the farm of
daisy bradford, a revered christian woman. oil is struck in november of 1930's by columbus merriam, a self-styled prophet similar to the oil hunters we saw in our readings earlier about the late 19th century. those who use charismatic means of hunting for oil. they are called poor boys. they are not able to drill to deep. the best they can hope for is oil in shallow soil. they find that in east texas. the oil companies have brushed aside the potential of that. it turns out to be a tremendous field. 10 miles wide containing an estimated 5.5 billion barrels. largest discovered in the world at that point. saudi arabia will turn that
conclusion on its head. 1/3 of all total oil produced in the u.s. and that time. this is a massive field. notks to methods that are necessarily seen as scientific, it proves that even the poorest wildcatters can make it. oil boom on a scale not witnessed before is the migration of wildcatters, small producers and drillers, and a whole host of workers, from roughnecks to the service industry, to barmaids and prostitutes -- they all dissent upon east texas. texas,es like longview, the picture below is a forest of derricks, which is typical in any boom.
instance,texas for one of the most important towns in this region. it triples in size very easily. it also transforms labor. this is the depression. the east texas field will be in operation through the entire heart of the 1930's. really an anomaly compared to what is going on everywhere else. workers are pouring into this region. living standards will change as a result. there are plenty of statistics we can offer. one in 1930, 60 7% of area residents are farmers. arein a decade, 30% only farmers. land values are climbing. people are leasing out their land for drilling or finding
ways to enter the oil industry. this is transforming east texas. it is also transforming independent oil. it takes on new proportions in the 1930's. drawing religion into this, we see the ways in which oil and religion together create this new wildcat spirit of christianity, which we have touched upon elsewhere. we talked a bit about pentecostalism, and the differences between that and other denominations. ethic,nd of pentecostal emphasis on spectacular and the supernatural -- how do you m?plain this oil boo this is magical. embracing the mysteries of all of this. the spectacular
and supernatural, being a god that operates in mysterious ways, takes root in east texas. so does health and wealth, sort of a prosperity gospel. makes sense when you have new, abundant wealth all around you. and when you have danger all around you. both issues that full dwell. also, the importance of wealth, healing. this becomes part of the prosperity gospel. andmphasis on temporality expectation. eschatology, we're not going to dig back into that. the oil boom suggest that what god gives us now we need to enjoy now, drill while the drilling is good because it will run out. ,t creates a crisis worldview very familiar to the small
producer. the danger,ut all the burdens and expectations of this time, an emphasis on family values. this notion that oil, properly managed, and the wealth that comes with this, can benefit the community and families. emergesa theology that in east texas and it will become important to the wildcat safe -- faith. we find the colts of the ofdcatter himself -- cult the wildcatters. also, spectacular church growth. that visual showing all the ways in which churches participate in the oil boom and benefit from it. these are the poorest church turn to theches,
richest in their denominations, virtually overnight. with this, the reinforcement of the democratic nature of wildcat oil, independent oil. about this in relation to her father. the first generation were all wildcatters, and side as the purest capitalist form. find oil and achieve riches on his terms. east texas, we see this for these promise small producers in the region. caution here is important. the range in the extent of the democratic comparative in the oil will always be flawed. wildcatting will very much remain a white man's game. if you are not white or male,
you will find yourself in third tier were, at best, digging pipeline trenches and so forth. east texasoes this boom eradicate jim crow racism. in no way does it equalize the entire labor force of oil. nevertheless, there are enough examples of people, even the most marginalized racially, class, striking oil and finding ways to up with their own status and communities. mythological, but not entirely irrational. there is a logic of social uplift that comes along with this. jake simmons, pictured below, is one of the most famous cases. he is an african-american wildcatter, the first we see in asked -- in east texas.
were black churches and individuals and the neighbors living in this area. in exchange, he promises them the returns. he also offers them an opportunity to go back to oklahoma, where he is based. he sees oklahoma as slightly more inclusive than east texas. several african american will move back with him to oklahoma in the 1930's. this is someone who learned at the tuskegee institute. he was a protege of booker t. washington. hopefully that name rings a bell from your survey history classes. booker t. washington believed african-americans, were they to do well in the marketplace, could uplift their entire class. the faith in entrepreneurialism to improve their own racial standing.
this is what jake simmons sees. and he will become an incredibly rich oilman in his own right in the post-world war ii period. he will help open up nigeria to american oil exploration. evidence again of this democratic promise living itself out. there is also a spirit of rebellion. there is occurred -- a certain theology that grows up in this period, on this soil. there is also a new political initiative taking root at this time. the politics of the independent oil producer. this is going to accelerate in the 1930's. as major oil is coming abroad, east texas users are going to marshal their own politics of dissent against people like carol, the roosevelt administration. most important of this new,
emerging spirit of rebellion is j howard pew. as you see him pictured on the top left, he was once known to joke he not only talks like an affidavit, he looks like one. very intense and devout presbyterian, conservative presbyterian. he is committed to an assortment like -- of conservative religious, economic and political causes. . he takes it very seriously he comes to this honestly. his own father was one of the small oilmen who was driven almost to bankruptcy by john d rockefeller senior in the late 19th century. pew has a chip on her shoulder, as a result. rule.nterprise needs
christianity is the driving force behind this. in the case of oil, it needs to s who defined the spirit of american oil itself. sunoco, an oil company, is the pew family company. they will take on this spirit of rebellion and are going to come to capture the imagination of east texans in the 1930's. how are they going to do this? sunoco, will not fire any employees during the depression. in part, because he was very smart. he did not invest in the stock market. when it crashed, the company had a whole lot of cash. thes able to nurture loyalties of east texas workers, through public relations, something called welfare capitalism, as historians define it. that is by giving, providing
benefits to your workers, you will maintain their loyalty. and really, discourage them from organizing in a labor unions. sunoco will be very efficient in this through supporting local churches and oil associations, really combining the spirit of christianity, capitalism, and patriotism. making it the centerpiece of the east texas wildcat culture. to look at what we see evidence here in sunoco's own company creed. something the pews articulated in this moment.
anything strike you as notable or odd? this is a company creed, something you would expect in a document of this sort today? >> it says under god, so they are putting religion into their theyny, which today, probably would not do. mr. dochuk: first line, under god. family making it clear they stand for nation that believes in god. their corporation is going to carry that spirit about it in its own work. anything else? any other notables? itself, right? the resources of the land.
not just the materials, but a spiritual significance. this thing called oil the company is invested in, the company sees as something unique to america's future, the very sustenance of the american soul. ,vidence of how j. howard pew along with others, will secure this mission for his company. also, if you look at the bottom, celebrating free enterprise. that is the essence of this. wo -- two cultures that emerge. two worldviews, that in the 1940's, are going to clash. on one hand, you have major oil, crude, which sees the virtue of the large, integrated,
multinational party working with governments to open up new foreign fields and in the modernityave faith in and nurturing economic element and democratic values on a global scale. on the other hand, independent, wildcat religion of crude, which sees the virtue of the small, independent producer integrated, if at all, only on a limited scale, working with local people and local associations, supportive states to explore domestic fields, raising up and securing the privileges of the rugged, individualist -- individualism amid this globalization of the 1940's. a little snapshot in terms of the second session -- section of our outline. wars.trol we have seen in previous sessions, growing tensions between these two.
in the 1940's, there are a couple, a handful of important political pivots that really force these worldviews into conflict with important political consequences. the first one we raised, we mentioned right before spring break, and anglo american petroleum. you remember our debate was very heated, very passions. british,t by u.s. and dickey forging an agreement for national petroleum supply, for an international petroleum commission. you will recall at the bottom, we did not discuss them. but we did get to him last time.
.gnatius o'shaughnessy why is the famous? anyone, who is o'shaughnessy? >> the biggest benefactor to notre dame. mr. dochuk: good, you earned your gold today. we owe a lot -- a lot to him. the angloht over american agreement will join j. howard pew in fostering big government and big oil. he is outspoken, using his own religious language to defend the politics of the independent oilman. he says, i do not need a nurse for my company, and does not want the government to play that role. as a result, the proposal dies. you could chalk that up to the wildcatters. 1948 is an interesting moment, not necessarily tied to oil, not
necessarily a product of oil politics, but the founding of israel will become another wedge between independent oilman -- many coming from highly evangelical churches that believe israel is important to prophecy. they will champion israel, in general terms. this will work against major oil initiatives to open up saudi arabia and work with arab states in that region. if unintentionally, will become a wedge and formately, another victory wildcat oil. a third, really important trigger, an important political pivots takes place, something we had just started to wrestle with, that is the thailand controversy, which unfolds in stages between 1946 and 1952.
it is president truman who will claim offshore resources for the federal government. back and forth in the courts between federal and state interest. who controls the resources offshore, right? whether it is in california, texas, louisiana. this becomes a key battleground between the government and the states. 1948, the election, we see the state's right party formed, the dixiecrats. many historians will look to breaking offirst the southern democratic party and its hold on the south. this is interpreted as an effort by southern white democrats to protect white racial privilege
in the south. is trying totruman desegregate the military and promote legislation against jim crow. it was also an issue of oil -- who gets to hold the oil? state rights were in favor of the state retaining control of their oil. 1952, this leading to really an important election in which eisenhower will, with the republican party, support those in texas and california who see offshore oil or minerals in general as belonging to the state. texas, as you will recall from our debate, was adamant they needed to hold on to control of their oil because it was funding what kind of institutions?
right, schools. it is a matter of fuel and family values. if you take away of our oil, we cannot support our schools. this was dear to texans, and eisenhower knows that and will stand for states rights. as a result, well marshall texans into the republican camp. one of the first important moves of the republican party in the south. he will win the election in 1952. briefly, this is not just a political battle playing out, but a cultural one. one we can return to in the next class. who is watching "giant," the movie? one of the most important movies about oil in the 1950's. as we will see, very negative in its view of oil. james dean plays the main character.
basically, he is swept up in oil fever and loses his morals on the way, until he basically collapses. this is a morality tale about how big oil steals the soul of americans. at the very same time, those in are supporting wildcat oil in their own terms by created alternative -- grading alternate images. one of the most popular movies circulated through churches in the early 1950's is one called "oil town usa," produced by a company that is aligned with this individual. anyone know who that is? a famous evangelist, preacher. billy graham, does that name ring a bell? billy graham, as you see here, friend of eisenhower.
he will help bring the influence of the church behind the eisenhower campaign in 1952. billy graham is a friend of texas oil, especially wildcatters. his movie company is going to create this movie called "oiltown usa." it shows how one oilman is able to, by accepting christianity, redeem oil, redeem its money, and use its money to support christian causes. again, a reversal of what we are going to encounter in "giant." the point being, it is not just a political effort, but an thestry formed around ethics of wildcat christianity, that is going to have a real important influence in the years to come.
all right. any questions question -- any questions? let's pause now. as we make our way into the 1950's, i want to give you a snapshot of two important initiatives in the 1950's. we can talk about religion and culture. we can talk about some key political pivots. all, important. the bottom line is, economics. in the 1950's, we see both independent and major oil looking ways to buttress their own corporate survival at this time. i would like to give you a snapshot of two important initiatives. both of which, but especially the first one, a aramco, we will discuss at length on wednesday. these are economic initiatives that demonstrate the
entanglements of religion with oil and the politics and global initiatives that will arise from that combination. the first of these is aramco, this takes us back to william eddy and the arab agenda of the 1950's. as we saw, with accelerated interest, american oil exploration will take place in the early 1930's, 1940's. formalized in 1945. in the years that followed, trump won, -- in the years that followed, chevron, texaco, takes workers to saudi arabia to work for a company that is now called, as of 1944, aramco. american oil company, a joint partnership in an epic venture. rockefeller's mission,
humanitarianism, and development will take place on a global scale. aramco becomes the experiment of that vision. wednesday we will look at a segment which in many ways romanticizes aramco. lean to the glowing side of the debate to give you a sense of the cultural exchanges that take lace. there are some darker facets of the story. the oppression of labor, racial dynamics that take place in aramco, the raise serious questions about this initiative. this is an internationalist venture, but in many ways, and imperialist one. thatll talk about wednesday. for our purposes here, what is impressive, from top to bottom, executive down to the level of
the worker, the ways in which the rockefeller's vision of crude filters down. william eddy has a lot to do with it. after helping navigate this terrain in 1945, the meeting with saudi arabia and president roosevelt, will join the state department. he will help form the cia. he will be one of the important visionaries of the cia. in fact, some of his reporting on the middle east will have traction within the cia. for instance, and one of his early assessments of the middle east, he will warn that religious fundamentalism will grow with continued u.s. support of israel. the question of israel will be front and center. in the 1950's, he will serve as a consultant for aramco. he will bring this arabist
commitment to the cause of arabs in the middle east. but ast a commitment, deep your earning to bring middle east into conversation and union with the west. through, for instance, an appreciation of language, of religious tradition, of islam itself. this is the partnership he wants to form. he will do so through the very operations of aramco itself, encouraging aramco to be the vanguard of this vision. if you look at the diaries and sources that tell the sources of aramco workers, quite impressive how integrated this enterprise was. geologist whoa did not necessarily work for standard oild for and other parts of the world, you read through his diaries and you encounter a man who is
approaching his work as one of discovery for oil itself. but also, one of discovering the world. he wants the world to talk back to him. he does see the world in very theological terms, as well. a geologist richard in the front -- ar here, forced geologist pictured in the front corner here. the way in which you break the ice, get oil, is first coming to terms and to exchange ideas about the world itself. itself.d, in many ways, the geologist becomes the frontline of discovery on many terrains. an engineer executive, thomas barger, a very devout catholic, finds ways to encourage these types of interactions in aramco
betweenes and camps catholics, protestants, and muslims. all of this have to take place on a very informal, unofficial way. -- bye of rules informed saudi arabia that prohibit religious expression of the sort. he finds ways for these exchanges to take place. he will also help many catholic witho workers philanthropies geared toward the middle east. rentz isntion, george in charge of communications. he is a scholar, a child of a missionary. he is committed to making aramco champion the vision passed down to them from william eddy. even workers like grant butler, a jack of all trades, who will
work in saudi arabia in the fields. sites,ly on the drill encounter workers of other faiths. indian interact with -arab employees, which will lead him to read the koran over dinners with italians. when muslim drillers protest they are not getting enough time to pray, he decides to join them by protesting, praying, and reading scriptures. when they pray, he reads scriptures. this would perhaps be a surprise to a lot of historians. there is reason to be skeptical of some of the activities of aramco at this time. nevertheless, on the ground level, there is a remarkable opportunity for a new, cosmopolitanism to develop. evidences of this -- it is
tying of civil religion and crude, development, modernization. the celebration of family values, children themselves become quite significant, if symbolically here, children of aramco workers working with children of arab aramco workers as a point of exchange. bedouin leaders canceling boy scouts on how to read the counseling boy scouts on how to read the terrain. meanwhile, arab workers gather on camps surrounding mosques. gathering iners suburban-like subdivisions. all of this, part and parcel of this vision. politics of this will matter, too.
saudi arabia and the united states will become an important partner by the late 1950's. dwight eisenhower, a friend to wildcatters in 1952. he continues to nurture this relationship with major oil. this will take on real importance in the late 1950's in the aftermath of the suez canal crisis, which will come up in our discussion wednesday. i need to bring saudi arabia into partnership with the united states. and it to frame this not simply as political or economic interest, although those two interests are front and center, but to create a sense of community and belonging between the two nations. how to do that? bite emphasizing shared faith. glue.eism becomes a
often 1950's, historians talk about the effort made by eisenhower and religious leaders to frame americans from the protestant, catholic, jews coming together to create the new american way. this is how we will fight communism, by being united in our faith in one god. what we often forget, islam itself was included, at least by some, in that formula. dwight eisenhower wants to frame this. in this effort, reaches out to the saudi king. the pastor ofnd, washington's presbyterian church, a devout arabist, intellectual, theologian, will become a crucial liaison in the middle east.
thisn an effort to make alliance substantive and lasting. many ways, is capped off by a visit to the saudi king in 1957 to washington, d.c., upon which seven -- several points are agreed upon. the united states promises military support for saudi arabia, continued economic development through the likes of aramco. but also, agreement of this sort, which speaks both to the economic and spiritual side of things. that saudi arabia, by virtue of its spiritual, geographical position is of vital importance in the middle east. it is in the interest of world peace that the kingdom be strengthened for the maintenance of its own stability and safeguarding a progressive development of its institutions. this is the vision that eisenhower wants to articulate
and shore up in the late 1950's. it will be a difficult vision to as the politics of the 1960's begins to unfold, as israel becomes a more serious question within middle eastern politics. it will fracture before it can really take root, this vision. the second landscape takes us far away from saudi arabia, alberta, canada. those of you who need a refresher in geography, alberta is just above montana. next to british columbia. even as major oil is extending its reach and discovering mammoth fields in saudi arabia, independent oilmen are anxious to find domestic reserves. the conundrum is, they cannot afford to operate on a global stage, they cannot compete.
they have to find their domestic reserves. as we saw in films and politics, they want to celebrate their own efforts as virtuous american frontier initiatives -- they are the quintessential american capitalists. it is all well and good to sell that image, but they need an economic ace -- base. important breakthroughs occur in 1947 they give them hope. the first is a discovery offshore of the gulf of mexico. err was the one-time governor and senator of oklahoma, robert kerr. in anpartnered with mcgee oil company. they're going to make the first off score -- offshore discovery, the flotilla of materials pulled
together from old, world war ii vessels. they prove you can find oil offshore. which is why the tidelands issue will become critical. the second is defined in 1947 in the duke, alberta, south of edmonton. it turns out, alberta has weather -- has oil, as well. why is this important? alberta has proximity. it is known for being the texas of canada, similar politics and similar religious culture. so it becomes immediately a haven for the wildcat ethic. independent oilmen can align themselves with alberta in its ventures. on vermeer, i will introduce and a moment, will be important to that. ofest manning is the premier alberta, a fiercely independent politician.
also, a devout, evangelical christian. the chance touke, as thes product alternative to saudi arabia. we do not need to go to saudi arabia, america can become to bowl in partnering with alberta. the more daunting and promising in terms of scale, alberta this, you see pictured here. this is what it looks like. of peetquare miles bogs, soil contained with oil. largest reserves in the world. -- how to costly -- makingis without
it profitable. how to do it with the technology that will not extend more energy than it is extracted? canadian oilsands remain very front and center in our politics. in early 1960's, this vision of a new field tantalizes someone by the name of j. howard pew, who has a file on the athabasca oilsands. he says sunoco will invest in this, to the tune of one quarter billion dollars. the largest private investment in canada up to that point. slowly tog to start envision development of the oilsands. he will have a partner, a like-minded partner, in earnest manning, the premier of alberta. j.is equally devout as
howard pew in his the elegy, politics, wildcat, capitalist views. his is a quote from one of own testimonies -- alberta is the great, oil-producing province of canada. andy time i see an oil well a pump going up and down, i say someday it will be pumped dry. but there is a crew that will never run dry -- he himself is a preacher turned politician, someone that can weave back and forth through the metaphors of oil in scripture. someone who truly sees this venture of oil as related to his province, happening in millennialist terms, it is a new future.
this vision brings them into .artnership with j. howard pew it is not a completely even our balanced relationship. initially, the alberta of anment is quite wary large american oil company taking over its oil. there is going to be a process of negotiation that takes place into the 1960's. pew christens this construction project in 1963. but in the next few months, there is a back-and-forth of negotiating authority between the government and the company, not coincidentally, j. howard pew and ernest manning will meet with billy graham. billy graham helped ease and nurture the relationship between these two men. it is not a coincidence, that as the relationship becomes stronger, the relationship between the government and the company itself becomes stronger.
after four years, 3000 workers laboring around the clock, we see this $235 million investment come online. its initial opening is a revival prayers,ith hymns, songs, and aim wildcatter pledge. the technology -- as we wrap up, this brings us to another important political turning point in the 1960's, which we will get to next week. suffice to say, both independents and majors both have much to look forward to as they move into the 1960's. there was no denying that is
much as alberta would like to be talked about alongside saudi arabia, it does not come close to the juggernaut that saudi arabia is. its major field as of 1958 producing 6 billion barrels a day. aramco is proving itself to be an economic juggernaut. but it is also proving to be incredibly successful and expansive in it aid of modernization and development. that was bestowed on it by its first leaders. we see schools and scholarship being provided by aramco. scholarships for american nursing students in beirut. twools for girls, built-in locations. by 1960, thanks to aramco support, and the saudi government, we see the eradication of malaria.
this is a multifaceted initiative taking place. leadership is also starting to shift. saudis join the board of directors. they take higher stakes of the company. by 1973, the saudi government will have 25%. by 1980, it will have complete control over aramco, and it will be a saudi company. this is the future, one that seems rather bright in 1960. but of course, there is this organization called opec formed in 1960. that is going to transform the politics of saudi arabia, along with iraq, iran, venezuela. that will raise tensions in the 1960's, leading to the 1967 war with israel, and 1973 war, as well. that will fracture once was once a unified vision.
benefiting -- once a unified vision. benefiting, the oilmen. forwards we can look to, 1964 the republican party will really shift. the control will shift to the wildcatters of the southwest. anyone recall who the gop candidate will be in 1964? barry goldwater. who will he defeat in the republican primaries? nelson rockefeller. the politics of oil working its way into the politics of the republican party. oilmenimportance of the on the domestic front. globally andsrupts disrupts american abilities to extract oil from abroad, domestic reserves in alberta and alaska offshore are all going to become much more important,
raising the importance of the independent oilmen. that is what we will see in the economics of this. it will continue to develop. 178 billion barrels estimated at that point. as we mentioned earlier, this is the keystone pipeline, which is still very much a hot button issue for us, designed to take oil from the athabasca fans, down to the gulf coast. this is a long-term vision and war ofill be a culture politics in the 1970's where family values and fuel values are all going to combine to intensify and polarize the american political landscape. end.is bringing us to the we will have time for conversation on wednesday. bring your questions with you on wednesday. please also look at the excerpt
and we will talk a little more about aramco. thank you, have a good day. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> join us every saturday evening at 8:00 p.m. and midnight eastern as we join students in college classrooms to hear lectures on topics ranging from the american revolution to 9/11. lectures and history are also available as podcasts. visit our website, www.c-span.org/ history\podcasts, or download them from itunes. >> the battle of midway took place from june 4 to june 7, 1942. in the pacific theater, and resulted in a decisive naval victory for the u.s. over japan. next, author, timothy orr, talks about experiences of u.s. maybe pilots who attacked
the japanese fleet in the battle. this 40 minute talk from the macarthur memorial in norfolk, virginia, was part of a day-long symposium to mark the battle's 75th anniversary. mr. pentangelo: ok, ladies and gentlemen, we're ready to continue our program here. it is my pleasure to introduce dr. timothy orr. dr. orr holding a ph.d. from penn state university and is currently an associate professor of history at old dominion university. he is an expert on military history. along with his wife laura, , deputy director of education at the hampton roads museum, he recently published a book, "never call me a hero: a legendary american dive-bomber pilot remembers the battle of midway." the book chronicles the actions of the last surviving dive bomber pilot, and the only pilot on either side to hit three ships during the battle. to share his story and the expe