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tv   1950s and 60s Counterculture  CSPAN  July 8, 2017 8:00pm-9:01pm EDT

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this crew of guys, the team that i document, started basically experimenting. this cit was fun, it was like wd kind of stuff. they had this crazy projector they were using to patch different products together and create what would become the iphone. >> watched sunday night at 9:00 eastern on c-span two's book tv. history,es in university of washington william rorabaugh teaches a class on the counterculture in america. he compares the literature, clothing and beats and beatniks of the 1950's and hippies of the 1960's. also the spread of lsd and the prevalence of drugs in hippie culture. this class is about 55 minutes. today weabaugh: ok, so are going to talk about the
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counterculture, which in many ways people have associated with the 1960's as one of the major aspects of the 1960's. say of the decade of the 1960's, radical politics clearly failed and faded away. up social change bumped against limitations. race relations changed and official segregation disappeared and america became more tolerant, but race did not disappear as a fact. many liberals in the 1950's and 1960's hope it would be destroyed. gender relations also changed. women assumed new roles but women and men soon came to realize the differences have not been revealed by somebody declaring men and women are equal. men and women do not see things the same way.
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the greatest changes that took place clearly was cultural changes. a lot of the changes had to do with counterculture. the word counterculture was invented by a sociologist and it means an opposite culture of mainstream. unlike the political and social challenges, the cultural challenges tended to stick. americans really did change intural values and practices the 1970's and 1980's and beyond. the counterculture of the 1960's is beginning. the counterculture of the 1960's begins with politicalthe changed that fails, and then social change which also takes place in terms of race and gender but is not entirely succeed. cultural change is really what is the legacy of the 1960's. defined andt created the word counterculture
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to prescribe a culture that was opposite mainstream culture. not everyone adopted the same ideas, but enough people over in the 1970's, 1980's and 1990's came to adopt new ideas so the whole culture changed as a result. i will talk about the legacy. i want to start by going back to the beats. critics ofostwar american society and culture and then the beats. they were criticizing america and the aftermath of world war ii. they wanted to create a revolution in expectation. the beats, the original beat writers, believed american society was very repressive, especially sexually. hedonism, they
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were trying to make face for their own self-indulgence, especially homosexual self-indulgence. when they became celebrities in the late 1950's, traditional american culture was very unsure of itself. the traditional hedonism, they were trying to make values were under attack and traditionalists were feeling uncomfortable. the original beats had been a very small number of writers. the followers of the beats in the late 1960's after they became very popular and sold millions of copies, the young followers of the beats were clearly a different generation. the beats experienced world war ii, veterans of the war or people who came of age right after, the people who came of age in the late 1950's were clearly a different generation. having thbeing born during or after the war. they became known as beatniks. the beatniks dressed in secondhand clothing, wore a lot of black clothing, expressed a
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repressed the view of life. everything is hopeless. wild in despair. voluntary homelessness was an example and joblessness. jonbs are a terrible idea. many lived in new york city or san francisco in north beach which became the beatnik hang out in the u.s. tourists flocked to those districts in order to see real-life beatniks. they went to gawk at people. people are always looking at people one way or another. ,ome of the more amusing ones local suburbanites that would dress up like beatniks on the weekend and go into greenwich village or north beach and pretend to be a beatnik. you could always tell they were not dressed quite right. they didn't have quite the right hair. they could party in the beatnik you could alwaysbars in the vilh
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beach. sometimes referred to as weekend beatniks because of the way they did this. they of course have real jobs. you can sell a real beatnik man for my weekend beatnik easily because real beatnik men had long hair and beards. they of course have real jobs. 1950's that you did not have a regular job because no employer would hire anyone with a beard or long thehair, and you would be firef you did. how writers and artists could separate themselves as they were self-employed. unless you were self-employed, you really cannot do this. you didn't see many beards. artists could separate themselves as they were self-employed. real beatnik women wore their hair very long as well. beatniks wore sandals made out of old rubber tires from mexico. they were very cheap. about $.29 for a pair of sandals.
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they do not take many showers. they thought it was a capitalist plot -- deodorant. beatniks were so exciting for in new the avant gauard york city that you can actually rent a beatnik. it was kind of the counterculture newspaper in new beatnik you can rent a and for your very upscale party on fifth avenue in your fancy beatnik couldent, co-op, or you have a long-haired, bearded beatnik come to the party and be the center of attention. very strange, i think. it was actually going on in the late 1950's. the beatniks, like the beats, aloud.zz and read poetry
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the beatniks in san francisco more or less invented reading poetry out loud. they read a lot of odd books that were carried in beatnik bookstores, particularly the 8th street bookshop in greenwich village and in san francisco. you could buy radical political books or self printed poetry books or foreign language publications in the stores. many of the books that werebookh street bookshop in greenwich sold in these stores were mostly in paperback which was also a new idea. most books that were published in the u.s. were not published in paperback in the late 1950's. rare.as very unusual and bookstores did not like to sell them because it didn't make as much profit as the hardback. rare. there was a new idea spreading, the paperback book, which is much easier and cheaper.
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so, that is one change going on. time, just to show the beats were not the only source of what was counterculture, there was also the time, avant-garde. strongnt-garde is a challengeeople who mainstream culture, but not for my beatnik point of view -- from a different angle of vision. one of the examples, one of the earliest ones in new york malvinay are julian and beck to open a theater in new york in 1951. challenge mainstreamthe becks were anar chists. the purpose of their theater was to jar the audience and step outside of their mainstream cultural values. at least challenge the cultural norms of the 1950's. they performed only radical new
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plays in small spaces. they were cheap to rent and very few props. no scenery ever. their theater company attempted to engage the audience. their theory in theater was quite radical. the separation between the audience and the performance was to be minimized, or nothing at if at all possible. theater was performed by the actors pushing the audience past the limits that have been set by traditional culture, which was obsessed, especially for public performances. one could see -- there was one other play they managed to film set inside a u.s. marine corps prison. although, i think the hidden play is actually
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the german concentration camps. you can see the video. it is available if you want to watch it. if you can stand to watch it. thene thing to watch it on television and actually see the live performance. it must have been excruciating it five feet away from you. with the audience identifying with the guard it five feet awam you. or the abused prisoners who spend the entire time of the performance of the play being abused by the guards? or would the audience perhaps sympathizing a little bit with each? that very question would challenge the audience. where do you stand? are you standing with authority, the guard? or or the victim of authority, the prisoners? a good question to ask him especially if you are an
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anarchist. what would happen in another play, beck challenge they would question challenges of nudity. what if an actor performed in the new? it would be a shocking idea and also thillegal. what would the police to? would they arrest the actors, the audience as well for being at a nude performance? it would be interesting. if you are a member of the audience, you might be a little bit nervous to be arrested and in the new york times the next day. during the 1950's, the living theatre provoked its audiences which were partly composed of other avant-garde artists, partly composed of beatniks, although they rarely had money for tickets. they usually get tickets given to them by somebody else.
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and partly composed of respectable middle-class people who were bored with american culture and turned off by the sitcoms on tv. another change that went on in theand time is performance art. the redefinition of art. art had traditionally been thought of as perhaps painting photography, or but it was something the artist did and presented to the audience as a finished product. in performance art, there is an action that take place and the action is the art. of the art takes place in front of the audience and involves the audience. you can see that was a relationship as we living theater and performance art. in the 1950's, the avant-garde poet and classical music
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amposer ed rorum wrote four-minute piece in which the performers did not play a single note. this is certainly taking music to the ultimate absurdity. the a four-minute piece in which the performers did not performers ae and they sit there with their instruments and do absolutely nothing for four minutes. it was a very interesting score. the performers had to keep pages. the they never made a sound. the audience at the first performance were not in on the joke, or after the first performance, people might know what is going on. as the musicians were sitting on the stage turning their pages. they never made a sound. pages, the audience was becoming increasingly restless and uncomfortable and wondering what is going on. am i missing something? there were whispers and then wheezes and finally coughs. of course, that is the music. the music is the audience making all of these sounds and
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whispering. that is the music. that is the performance. the performance has been shifted from the stage to the actual audience. that is what he was trying to do. that was his purpose. you will notice that every time the musical piece is performed for a different audience, it will have a different result, right? so, no two performances will ever be exactly the same, and also part of what he was trying to achieve. the performers were only catalysts that were designed to bring the audience together as an audience, as a group in this session this was taking place. he went on to also part of whats trying to achieve. collaborate in other performance art pieces later on with the avant-garde where he actually did compose real music. might paint spontaneous paintings on the stage using
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rorum's background musical rift for motivation. you have the intersection of music and visual art going on by having a musical composer, having composed music that would stimulate or inspire the production of the artwork. would show that the feelings he had were being conveyed by the music. it can be even more interactive. what if the actors arrive nude, or given the fact they don't want to be arrested, semi-nude and rolled on the floor in heaps of embracing bodies. this convey about people? what does this mean, or perhaps saying something about the oneness of this convey about people?
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humanity? or maybe it is people rolling around on the floor. what if the audience is invited to join on the rolling of the floor? what will that do? the audience members have to make a decision at that point. are they a separate audience watching what is going on or are they participants in the process and how much participation do they want to have? do they want to engage or not? this is shifting everything on the audience away from the performers. much of the floor was covered in then covered in paint and then the rolling bodies are covered in paint. what if they are rolling around even more and begin to randomly paint the paper by moving around in this way? the resultant paper might at the end of the performance be cut up into one foot squares and passed out to the members of the audience to take home. you thought you were going to
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performance and you end up with a painting to take home. very weird. so, this is the kind of stuff that is going on particularly in new york in greenwich village. one of the leading performance artists in greenwich village was yoko ono. she was better known later as marrying john lennon of the beatles. avant-gardeged an performance in 1961. as creative as what she was before she married a creative avant-garde musician, john lennon. she had the entire apartment with the floor set at a 30 degree angle. that is really steep. that is about as steep as you again and still able to walk on it. she that invited new york's avant-garde dancer to
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stage a dance on this sloped fl oor. avant-gardethey knew they wereo her loft, but they didn't know about the floor. they only found out when they got there. the dancers never encountered such a floor before and their attempt to reform at this angle revealed interesting things to them about their own bodies. their psychological state. they were afraid of falling and it shows. the dancers would normally have a little fear of falling but they are so practiced in the discipline to overcome that so the audience never sees that. in this situation, the audience who also have to sit on the slope, would be seeing this as well. it also revealed something about the will of the performer. -- if theyly were had a strong enough will, they could do it but if they gave up, they would end up sliding down the floor towards the end of the room.
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as the performance continued, the audience could see and the performance came to realize that they had gradually adjusted their movements according to the sloped floor. the floor was causing people to behave differently. it was a physical fact and it was interfering with the production and interfering with the assumptions of what people could do and couldn't do. human beings in other words had to adapt and that of course was yoko ono'syoko ono's whole poin. that was the whole point of the evening, to get everyone who left to realize that human beings needed to adapt. they needed to change. they needed to change the way they thought about things and change the way they behaved in the world. yoko ono had grown up in tokyo and she had lived in this very traditional and repressed japanese culture which was
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especially unfavorable to bright, talented young women like her. there was very little of a role she could imagine for herself in tokyo. she could marry some banker or something, but that was about it. she certainly cannot be a performing artist of any time. so, she ended up in new york city because she found it much freer than tokyo. she still criticized the culture in the united states for being rigid and repressive as well but she recognized it was not nearly as rigid and repressive as the culture in japan. she wanted everyone to understand that cultural change was hard. she had to undergo the cultural change of being a japanese woman in america and that was a big change for her. she was now trying to pass that information on with her performance art in new york city and open the eyes of the people
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so that they can see they too can make changes in their lives. art isthis avant-garde about changing yourself ultimately. the performers are stimulating the audience to change themselves. when of the interesting examples comes from a dance company in 1963. it was founded in the basement of an avant-garde baptist church, if you can imagine that, was in greenwich village. it was a church that was founded to help sailors that came into the port of new york. was in greenwich village. it became an avant-garde church in the 1950's. udsen dance company practice and perform in the basement of the church and developed what really became modern dance.
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while background music may emphasis onming, the the dance was a celebration of the human body. dancers wore tightfitting clothing to emphasize physicality and dance motions were tightly controlled and athletic. i sometimes think if you see dancing with the stars on television, you are seeing this is where it ended up with commercialization, but that is the kind of dance the dance company was doing in 1963. sometimes the dances seems more like gymnastics. still, there were many romantic and sexually suggestive aspects to the dance companies performances and a celebrated sexuality as a part of the celebration of the body. contradicted of middle-class american values which is sex should never be discussed and certainly not of audiences composed of men and women.
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sex was best left for the privacy of the bedroom, not for the mainstream culture of the 1950's. by the end of the 1960's, the celebration of the body would take on much more open form than having a dance company in the basement of a church building in greenwich village. there would be two major broadway plays that included previously prohibited onstage nudity. utta"irst of these "o, calc entireong run and the cast this robe for an entire scene. local new yorkers kept bringing back out-of-town relatives to shock them. the play could not have been put on in st. louis, boston or other conservative parts of the united states. by the late 1960's, the police did not arrest the cast in new york city. the other play that is more
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famous is "hair." "hair" was"hair" was about a mis long-haired hippie who was drafted and then sent to vietnam and killed. "hair" also had one brief play t on in st. louis, boston or other conservative nude scene that celebrated the body so it too participated in the new celebration of the body. it was part of the whole hippie consciousness. you will notice i did not ifitle it hippie because these are not the entire counterculture. now we are on to hippies. the counterculture's most commonly identified with the word hippie. there is a certain truth in that but the counterculture is broader than that. it includes many people that would not and have not been identified as hippies. gary snyder put the matter about
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it these very physically when he wrote "hippies are living out the philosophy the beats were playing in." what was the relationship between beats entities -- and hippies? first, there was a major age difference. the beats were in their 20's during world war ii. the hippies were born around 1945, 1948. hippies were young enough to be the children of the beats if the beats had any children which are not very likely. the beats were the veterans of the great depression, world war ii, the holocaust. the hippies were the optimistic children of the baby boom generation and the rising postwar consumer boom. that said a lot about the difference between the two groups. one had been raised amid the poverty and despair ofthat saide difference between the two
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groups. the depression and the fear of world war ii and the others were raised in the postwar boom. there was also a matter of numbers. the numbers mattered a lot. the original beats had been a few dozen people. a tiny number. even when the more numerous beatniks joined the movement in the late 1950's, they probably were not more than 5000 people in the entire united states. now by the mid-1960's, the number of counterculture followers had suddenly exploded into hundreds of thousands and indeed by the 1970's, it might be as many as three or 4 million. really large numbers of people. the numbers matter. where the beats felt repressed and rejected by society, and the beatniks have shared that, the hippies were numerous enough that they were confident they can actually go out and create their own society,the numbers m. where the bea their own counterculture. why pay attention to the rest of
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society? just with draw and go up on your own and create euro and society. in most large american cities, there were entire hippie neighborhoods. in seattle, the big neighborhood was fremont. hippie neighborhoods and cheap rent always went together. unlike greenwich village or north beach, many of these dishes got little attention from tourists. that is understandable. can you imagine tourists going to fremont? hippies did not care to play to tourists. the beats and the beatniks have been interested in showing themselves off. rent a beatnik requires someone to rent a beatnik but also required someone to be willing to be rented. hippies instead wanted to develop their own community where different occupations could fit in. whereas the original beats had
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been writers, they review hippies cared much about writing and very few actually wrote anything. there are not a lot of hippie writings. to hippies.guru he is an older generation. the beats had been a literary movement that the hippies were more of a cultural movement that did not include literature. they were a social movement too perhaps. in some way, the hippies depended on the beat writers who they continued to honor. they do not need to create the philosophical or literary underpinnings for their movement the way that the beats had felt a necessity to have a philosophical understanding that was expressed through writing. the hippies did not need to do that. large numbers mattered. the hippies felt a certain confidence that they were right and that came from the fact that
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you look around and see lots of other people that look like themselves. the beats had to justify themselves even to themselves with their writings in part because it left them so psychologically vulnerable wondering about their own true significance. it was hard to believe in something if there was only six other people to believe it. numbers make a difference. the psychological difference between beats and hippies in his important. -- is important. the beats or old close and secondhand clothes that they had gotten for free. hippies wore bright color close common often elaborately decorated. hippie clothing was often expensive. it certainly could be. were always designed to be seen. they liked being noticed and wearing bright color closes one way to be seen.
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handmade drollery, tie-dye bandannas made a statement. tightfitting jeans celebrated the body. hippies were partly about -- noses at older generations. tight jeans were important because older people would not wear tight close. finally, much hippie dress was eunice sexual. this was a fact of the older generation. dress announce the coming of women's liberation, including the liberation from the skirt. this is where that comes in. hippies wores, long hair. perhaps even longer than the hair that the beats had worn. this is true for both hippie women and both hippie men. these preferred to be left alone, hippies announce the present to the whole society. hippies were in fact exhibitionist.
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hippies had different music. this is one of the important differences. interest in jazz declined in the late 1950's. a lot of speculation about why that happened. perhaps there were fewer talented jazz performers and the late 50's. there were just not that much interest. in the 1960's, rock 'n roll ruled and hippies adopted and ejected new music and created their own particular version of rock 'n roll. accept rockver did 'n roll. jack remained a lifelong jazz fan, denounced rock 'n roll and despised hippies and said so publicly. he said i am no hippie, i hate those people. he is very reactionary. more accommodating out in ginsburg found rock 'n roll intriguing, but difficult to understand. ginsburg cannot get into the spirit of rock 'n roll, even though he tried to. he did recognize the new music was important to the hippie.
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he thought that the rise of the new music itself indicated the importance of the hippies. whenever there is a cultural change, there will be a new music. you could go back throughout history and find cultural change and music -- they changed music and changing culture always go together. there is a reason for that. many people speculated, why were they hippies wearing my close and listening to write music? maybe the reason was, lsd. beats and hippies had different drugs. although this was in part due to different circumstances. the beats might have liked lsd, -- they just did not have any. they would use alcohol. the beats had also experimented with many types of bills and pills.ther kinds --
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will and many other types of drugs. the being taken up heroine. that beats had regularly smoked marijuana, especially in new york city. they called it refer pot. hippies also were white users of alcohol and smoking even more pot. thou call continues but not with as much emphasis and marijuana becomes more important. hippies were not likely to use heroine, which was more likely understood to be deadly. they understood the dangers of heroine in the 1960's than in the 1940's. hippies turned to the psychedelic drug, lsd. it had been invented accidentally in 1943 in switzerland by a chemist name albert hoffman who worked for a drug company.
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drop on his wrist, then rode the bicycle home. the world's first ellis the trip , he practically fell off the bicycle. this drug is really potent, we need to research this further. the manufacturer, the world's only manufacturer supplied's free samples of lsd to researchers all over the world to try to figure out if ellis he had any use at all. a purpose for a purpose for it, they can make a lot of money for it. it was for a time in the 50's that they thought ellis he might lsd mightto treat -- be useful to treat mental illness. that was not true. they also thought it would be a truth serum. discovered this did
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not work either. -- 1960's, the number of people in research purpose islsd has a beginning to dwindle. that does not mean it does not have a purpose, it is just not a scientific or medical purpose. it is just fun. many hippies, being a hippie was tout using lsd and seeking find spiritual truth through lsd trips. there was a sociologist to interviewed people in san francisco in 1967 and found that all but one of 70 hippies that smokedrviewed had marijuana within the last 24 hours. that tells you how much marijuana was being smoke. all but two or 3%. i think 97% had at least one lsd trip.
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lsd and hippies go together. you could call it better living through chemistry. lsd came about -- in addition to sandoz, through the influence of four people. i will go through each of them in a little bit. the first of these was all the huxley who is best known of the author -- as the author of "brave new world." huxley immigrated to the united states and became a script writer in hollywood. there was more money to be made writing scripts the novels. he love los angeles because of the bright sunshine. his particular kind of lightness allowed him to see a little light. he could read if he had a magnifying glass and sat out right next to the swimming pool in the bright sun. he loved l.a. for that reason. in the 1950's he experimented
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mescaline, which was derived from peyote and lsd. he wrote the first serious book about lsd. the book is " doors of perception." he advocated lsd. he thought it was so powerful that it would cause all of the internal mental structures of everybody in the world to be radically altered and peace would break out all over the world. believe that human society would be totally reorganized if the world took lsd. he continued to have the gate lsd into the 1950's and into the early 1960's until he died of cancer in 1963. jim morrison,d that he named his rock group
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"the doors" in honor of huxley's book. posed a threat to the political order. he sighed as a radical drug with a lot of dust radical influence. he said people who had power were likely to resist it. throughout huxley's career, he advocated that a medical model be used for research and promoting the use of lsd. if medical eva lee's -- in other words, eminent doctors could be persuaded to give lsd only two elite patients. terry grant, the actor was one. there would be no crackdown by the government. had a minute people a medical setting under the advice, guidance and in a then him
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government would not outlaw ellis the -- lsd or arrest anyone. his idea was that if you could to its elites, a to be recognized to the great changes that could bring about to the human psyche and you could change the world. becamewarned that if lsd too available and was used by too many people, there would be a backlash and the politicians would then it. that is exactly what -- ban it, that is exactly what happened. the second person was alex ginsberg. he never met a druggie did not like, -- a drug he did not like. ginsberg tried many times by the time he took lsd. in at his first lsd government run experiment
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sponsored by the veteran hospital at stanford university in the 1950's. late 1950's. ginsberg was astonished by lsd, compared to the other psychedelic drugs he tried such he found, mescaline, lsd revolutionary. wisely,if it was used it would carve the political, social and cultural system of the united states, and the eventual the night -- the entire world would implode. that's with the beats wanted all along since the 1940's. ginsberg, like huxley worried that a premature -- to this drug would lead to a breakdown. the whole thing would cause a crisis and produce big backlash. in 1960 was allen ginsberg who introduced ellis he to timothy -- lsd to timothy larry.
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already -- he was a harvard psychology research of and he researched other drugs at the time including magic mushrooms. was not nearly as powerful as lsd. ginsberg told him he need to try lsd. leary did not believe him put about thearned leary political dangers of doing this. and leary who had no experience with politics, media or the law paid no attention. ginsberg was prosecutor for the publication of howell and if image trial of the 1950's. ginsberg understood public relations and law, and the way
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you get into trouble easily. leary becomes the third figure in the spread of lsd. to histed giving lsd friends and graduate students and harvard undergraduates. that is when harvard pulled the plug. for963 harvard fired leary turning undergraduates onto it. he then moved to upstate new york to an estate to conduct what he called lsd experiments. millbrook was owned by one of his followers who had inherited -- obviously an heir to a wealthy new york city fortune. experiments were rather cautious, although they were by no means serious. he was still trapped inside his own head in the world of the research scientist. he was a research scientist
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since world war ii. he had all the jargon. where everything was set up and you had to keep lab notes. spoke that jargon, his behavior became increasingly bizarre under the influence of trips.sd he was taking acid every day. lsd seem to breakdown innovations, break up marriages -- it certainly broke up to his -- it certainly broke up his. liked this. he liked all the women that came to millbrook. andwould give them lsd a and they would do whatever he wanted them to. he became a guru and proclaimed, most famously, turn on, tune in and drop out. lsd,ng on meant taking tuning and met tuning into yourself, and dropping outlet
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that school, clear job and become a hippie. the massive publicity that ginsburg warned would be trouble that brought the authorities down hard on leary. cross thed his family border from mexico into the united states, he was arrested for a small amount of marijuana, which they should not have had, and he was sentenced to 30 years in prison. this caused him a lot of trouble. leary is interesting because he had a natural knack for aundbites and hugh a call press conference, making sure the new york times was there every two weeks for about five years. be one linealways that would become the headline of the new york times story. paragraphe the first and it would be inevitably on page one. he was getting constant public city -- publicity. the fourth person in this ken kesey.r lsd was
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he was in oregon not unless an author and a political libertarian with anarchist --ded spirit he was very anarchist tendencies. he thought of himself as a rugged western pioneer. he was in the creative writing program at stanford university. he worked at the nearby va hospital and eventually he too was put into the lsd experiment there. kesey and college was a champion wrestler and almost made the u.s. olympic.team team. he was disciplined and self-willed. as a writer yet a good vocabulary for description. d, hee most users of ls had a capacity of describing what was going on while he was
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stoned. you could at times even write while he was stoned, which noah nelson was able to do. the doctors at the va hospital were very fascinated with him as a test case. book, "one flew " whiche cuckoo's nest, was probably when under the lsd, he bought a house and begin to experiment on his own. kesey almost immediately grasp that if you will have a drug as powerful as lsd you need a music to go with it. he hires a musician, a young folksinger name jerry garcia who invented the music or it garcia tried classical music, did not work. jazz, did not work, full music, did not work. then he came up with rock.
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this is how jerry garcia ends up founding the grateful dead. it was experiments with mixing lsd and music together up at his house. -- huxley and innsbruck, sey understoodke but rejected. he said you need to flood the country so fast with lsd that the authorities could not crack down on it. in 1965 he began to stages test in san francisco. test, who were lured there by the music, the participants were given a chance at the concert. the jefferson airplane showed up, their name stood for re-trip.
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in 1965 and 1960 six the san francisco ban, the grateful dead, janis joplin, the big brother rose to prominence while lsd was no longer distributed for free. rampant in the bay area and 1960 six until the state of california and the u.s. government banned it in october of 1966. butemained available riskier after that. you never knew about the safety of it. all of this would lead to the summer of love in san francisco in 1967. 50 years ago. people, someyoung of them high school students, some of them college students converge from haight-ashbury district of san francisco during that summer. the new hippie hangout district. not the north beach area,
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because the north beach area the rent was too high. they hit singles got mckinsey his song, if you go to san francisco where flowers in your people to stimulated go there. there were three concerts by the leading bands in the golden gate park with a lot of marijuana and lsd to be scored. any young person with long hair walking down the sidewalk would be offered drugs at least once a block. being a hippie turned out to be about three things. rock music, drugs and sex. there was plenty of sex and the haight, or at least a lot of talk about sex. the rate of sexually transmitted diseases went way up in san francisco that year. a year later, most of the hippies were gone from san francisco, but haight was over one with heroin and crime.
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some of the hits these fled to berkeley were they continue to live in the -- 1970's, but others moved out of town to perhaps toces, mendocino county where you could grow your own marijuana. the biggest cash crop in mendocino county. rural communes became the new thing for the counterculture in the 1970's. by the 1970's there were hundreds of thousands of people living in rural communes. hippies left the cities and move to the countries because of rising rent and partly because they wanted to escape there because their neighbors were irritated with them, and so forth. they also try to grow food in these rural communes. meanwhile, the counterculture became commercial wide in the 1970's. co-optation going on, especially in the music
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industry. once you had big money, it was going to bring in people with money. as far as the music industry tried to create their own rock group that would be less drug oriented and easier to manage, but the major groups had more talent and the audience cared about the talent. the recording companies had to -- hugete with huge's sums of money. the grateful dead was the first band to hold out under a record contract on which they decided with a recording engineer would be. they got total approval of the content of the album. it mattered a lot. it changed the way music was done. the san francisco bands are among the first to obtain this artistic fame. their albums were mostly recorded in los angeles, not in new york because recording engineers in los angeles were cool. the ones in new york were old-fashioned. as long as drugs were illegal, there was no way to commercialize the hippie drugs.
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were hostile to large-scale corporations, they just like process food, they were suspicious of supermarkets. vegetarians, many others declared themselves in favor of organic food and they grew organic food and natural foods. jerry casheden and in on the demand for natural ice cream and made a lot of vermont vary farmers happy with the process. the politics of vermont changed conservative republicans to liberal democrats because of ben and jerry. go jewish guys from brooklyn up to vermont and reform the whole state around ice cream. although ben and jerry was a capitalist business, it was small business. it was not a big business or a part of any conglomerate. the company donated to vermont charities. in boulder, colorado, celestials reasons made herbal tea in the mountain behind boulder coming
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one of colorado's largest companies. co-op grocery store spring up in hippie neighborhoods. the produce would come in from hippie owned farms that were outside of town. ultimatelyof these disappeared, some survive, including the pcc in seattle. the health industry can also be traced to the 1960's. business centers, exercise classes, disapproval of tobacco and alcohol, the rise of dance as a form of entertainment was all about a-day worship. an idea that any hippie would recognize. if these will be in a crisis where they reach the age where they need nursing home care. in a hippie view of the world, hippies never get old. that there be a change of cemeteries called woodstock. cemetery in music of woodstock will be played forever in the background.
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whichis one other way in the counterculture also figured. that is the invention of the personal computer. the personal computer was in california six blocks away from where jerry garcia lived when he was doing the grateful dead. it soon attracted the attention of a young teenage hippie by the name of steve jobs. actually emerges out of the counterculture. what is the connection? at the time, the only computers m or anybody had were ib other major corporation. they sold computers for millions of dollars. agencies, government or large corporations could afford to have a computer. of the personal computer was that everyone in the world could have a personal computer.
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each person in the world could be in powered by a tremendous amount of computing power by having that. more's cell phones are power than the giant computers did in the 1960's or it steve jobs really did follow that vision. he was from the bay area and a part of the counterculture of the bay area. for oneto read college semester and dropped out. he lived in india for a month and became a buddhist. brought his buddhist guru back to san jose. you could see it up in san jose. the personal computer is the ultimate legacy of the counterculture. i am going to stop with that. join us every saturday evening at 8:00 p.m. and midnight eastern as we join students in college classrooms to her lectures on topics ranging from the american revolution to 9/11.
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lectures in history are also available as podcasts. visit our website, sees and/history or download itunes. -- c-span.org/history or download itunes. a conference titled the national security state and jfk, historians, authors and presidential candidate ron paul explore the consequences of what they call america's security state since the end of world war ii. here is a preview. >> my argument will strike most people in this room as more commonsensical than original. the kennedys assassination was a decisive moment in the national security state. i only want to take this time to make that point slightly more precise. jfk's the aftermath of assassination that was the pivotal moment, at least as far
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as the national security regime went. angleton was a key figure in that moment. the assassination in dallas was a moment of great danger for the cia. if the agency or any employees were held responsible for the wrongful death of the president, its powers might have been curved. the clandestine service might have been abolished as former president harry truman urged one month after jfk's murder. if the cia's role in the events leading up to dallas was shared with the congress and the american people, the ambitions and the prerogative of the national security state might have in check. that did not happen. thanks in no small part to james angleton. strands and ihree will summarize them before i explain them. the first is angleton's -- this was his search for a kgb sought -- spy in the cia. as he hunted for the mall he monitored the movement for the
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defective of the soviet union named lee all small. -- lee oswarlld. theeton discuss assassination of fidel castro as early as 1961 and advise the pentagon on regime policy in 19 e3. -- 1960 three. the two strands intersected in up. when oswald showed angleton staff was immediately notified. the third span of the story goes out of the third two. how and why angleton knew what he hit about all small -- oswald with consequences we are still grappling with today. >> you can watch the entire program on sunday at 12 -- 12:00 p.m. on c-span3. this is american history tv. of 1790, theing
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first congress meeting in their second session engaged in a debate about slavery and race while considering a number of anti-slavery petitions they had received. up next on american history tv, paul talksfessor about slavery and race and argues that this discussion, which focused on congress's ability to interfere with slavery and on the definition of a citizen set the tone for the race in america for the next seven decades. the historical society hosted this event and it is about an hour. >> today we will start with paul polgar who is a longtime colleague of mine, he started interning with the first federal congress project a long time ago. he is not sensitive about his age. he is too young to be that it

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