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tv   Korea Revisited  CSPAN  July 29, 2017 10:00pm-10:31pm EDT

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by overwhelmingly superior enemy forces in entrenched positions. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span's q&a. each week, american history tv's railamerica brings archival films that provide context for today's public affair issues. on july 4, north korea successfully test launched an intercontinental ballistic missile, leaving the u.s. and e. u. to consider tougher sanctions. up next, korea revisited, a 1960 nine u.s. army big picture episode detailing the vastly improved living and working conditions in south korea since the 1953 armistice that ended the korean war. the film shows the war's aftermath, when 80% of the capital city of soul was --
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seoul was destroyed. this is just under 30 minutes. ♪ >> this is south korea today, the capital city, seoul, in some ways as modern, as with it, as anything in the western world. ♪ even its nightclubs are just as swinging, crowded, carefree and overpriced as their counterparts in new york, chicago or los angeles, a long way from the war. ♪
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well, 30 miles from the war, anyway. these are the men who make it safe to live and dance in seoul, new york, chicago or los angeles. they are u.s. and korean soldiers starting a patrol 30 miles north of seoul. almost every week some of them are killed by north korean ambushes, border raids, hidden landmines, by any of 100 ways the communist test the line and violate the 1953 armistice. in spite of everything, the republic of korea struggles to come of age. this is a story of what has happened to her since the armistice.
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♪ meansea's ancient name land of mourning -- morning calm. june 20 5, 1950, the morning c lam is that shattered. thousands of communists troop across the 38th parallel into south korea.
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[gunshots] >> before this powerful arms were, the small, ill-equipped army of south korea is driven back. ♪ >> the united nations calls for help. within five days, president truman has ordered fighting men to the field. [gunshots] [explosions] within three weeks, half the
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country has been overrun. troops from other 15 u.n. matt -- nations help. [gunshots and explosions] >> to turn the tide back, red chinese soldiers come to the aid of south koreans and a pattern established, with one sided fencing and then the other. -- side advancing and then the
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other. [gunshots and explosions] years, ware long rages up and down the country side. falls to the communist invaders, twice it is captured. [gunshots and explosions] >> by the time the armistice is 1953,y signed on july 27, the deaths include american troops, and more than 400,000 south koreans, both military and civilian.
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from the south korean survivors, countless thousands are starving, homeless refugees. seoul, the republic's largest city, lies in ruins. block after block of rubble testifies to the grim fact to the grim fact that more than 80% of it has been destroyed. hunger, poverty, and despair along these ravaged streets. that was 1953. korea today seems like a very distant relative to that once
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war-ravaged land. it is from the people the nation derives its character. no more is the revival more evident than in its people. from a straggling band of demoralized refugees, the people have grown into a cohesive, energetic nation. returning -- a returning u.s. army sergeant observed, the first thing you notice is the children. anymore,not starving running around with their little bellies swollen. the children, you notice right away.
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poverty still exists, to some degree. even the threat of famine from monsoon or drought. but the hopelessness of a war-ruined country is behind them. in their pride, their energy, their seemingly endless capacity for work. it has been said korea has a shortage of everything that people. and it is not far from the truth. this becomes especially transparent where transportation is concerned. every possible method of moving people and products is in effect in korea.
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if it is impossible, no one has bothered to tell the koreans. the arches of triumph in the korean economy must belong to the feet, because they bear most of the load. on the back, on the head, or on the ever present a-frame. tons of freight move every day by foot. they have a unique korean invention and those who carry it were indispensable during the korean war, when they carried ammunition and support -- supplies. alongside, electrified street cars and buses.
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russian trucks a banded -- abandoned, still hauling freight. even though the office seems reluctant. invented theo bicycle could see to what use it has been put in korea he might conclude with justification that his place in history is assured alongside the mandel invented the wheel. here, the bicycle is not only a means of transportation, but an important vehicle for business. earnings forsonal more required -- required necessities. even the bicycles would survive the impossible and have to contend with it the korean taxicab.
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they may not have the speed of their american counterparts, but they duplicate the bearing in most of the great cities. here too, it seems no vehicle was meant -- they go places no vehicle was meant to go. well, almost. the newest transportation miracle is the international airport tollroad, the first tollroad in the nation. example of road construction schedule by the government.
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the new road will make it easier and faster to get from seoul to the international airport. aircraft haset of many different airliners. the new road does little to touch the life of the average korean in the field. the thatched roof, mud-brick house he lives in is much the same as that of his father and his father before him. his slightly more affluent cousin may have one with a tile roof.
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for most south koreans, it is still shoes outside, which leaves the floor clean enough to sit on. and it is heated by flues, and invective -- flues. the very old blends with the very new. perhaps the most striking change has been the influence of western architecture. in many places, the graceful, traditional curve of the oriental roofline has given way to the clean, efficient, straight-line look of the west, which has more economical construction. major rebuilding began almost immediately after the armistice, when $50 million worth of access
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u.s. armed forces equipment was put to work reconstructing war-shattered buildings. and replanting the land in the first 10 years alone, the armed forces invested $23 million in more than 5000 projects. even though it is less than one dollar per korean, it has helped. and the koreans are indeed helpful -- grateful. industrial development has received massive american aid. since most korean industry was located in the communist north, the division was a hard blow to south korea. development of new industrial capabilities has been made possible by american financial and technical assistance.
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like anyone else, the koreans refrigerators, and of course new cars. fundedirst oil refinery, by american private capital processes 55,000 barrels a day. the fertilizer plant produces 330,000 tons of chemical fertilizer a year. development of this vital industry can make the difference between famine or food enough to feed the nation.
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the problem of food production is the main concern of the government's experimental heart -- farm, south of seoul. here, agriculture research of all sorts is carried out. extension workers are trained in the latest farming techniques, which they hopeful make the country self-sufficient in food production by the early 1970's. entering the worldwide competition to attract tourists, the government has constructed the impressive complex of 26 buildings, including five hotels and 12 villas, that make up the walker hill resort. it is just 12 miles from seoul, overlooking a river.
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it spreads over 150 acres and provides a variety of entertainment and sports facilities. since walker hill is not subject to the curfew that puts the rest of the country to the bed -- to bed at midnight, it is a good place for night people. the bright golden restaurant features kimchi, a spicy korean dish, and gourmet delights to be consumed to the gentle strains of oriental string music. ♪ still another pot -- popular
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spot features western cuisine and korean rockettes. unfortunately, the standards of sanitation that apply at walker hill and the luxury hotels do not extend throughout korean society. unfortunate for the american whose system is accustomed to more antiseptic conditions. it is suggested that on the local economy, the tourist exercises caution, stick to well unpeeledods, avoid fresh fruits and vegetables, tapwater, and drinks served with ice. drink only bottled beer, hot tea, coffee. unpeeled fresh fruits and vegetables, an american can travel the length and breadth of the republic of korea. providing he master the art of using chopsticks.
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there are many other sections of the country especially attractive to taurus, -- tou rists, such as an island near the mainland. many of the remote communities, old customs and colorful holiday rituals are to be seen. without the security provided by a strong army, however, korea would not be safe for anyone. with the assistance of united states military advisers, the republic of korea army has been built into one of the most efficient, highly trained forces in the world, with 600,000 men. it is the third-largest in the non-communist world.
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although armed with the latest equipment available, the agent and traditional korean battle schools are not forgotten. these soldiers are practicing taekwondo. it has been used in battle before and many believe it creates self-assured and tough troops. signps the most impressive of a nation coming of age was reached in 1965 when, for the first time in history of the nation, involuntarily sent soldiers abroad to fight in a foreign war, the war in vietnam. the tiger and white horse division sat by bravely and earned the respect of free men everywhere. [gunshots and explosions] about 10,000 soldiers serve in a special capacity with the u.s. army.
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they are korean augmentation to u.s. soldiers. they work, live, and train alongside u.s. soldiers. their history dates back to the dark, early days of the korean when the strengthened and undermanned forces were channeled into u.s. units. perhaps one reason they fought communism with distinction abroad is because many of them have had bitter personal experience with communist aggression at home. aggression like this along their own dmz. this truck was not blown up in vietnam.
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april, 1968hed on by north korean communists in a flagrant, daylight raid across the korean dmz. the free soldiers of the u.s. infantry division, and another, were killed in this truce violation, had been on their way to lunch. some time later on in august, as battalion the 76th aligned up for supper, their mess tent was hit by heavy machine gun fire from communist -- raiders.idres two u.s. soldiers, one korean, killed. twother killed, including
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korean laundry women. that is where a barracks building stood. it was demolished by a planted timebomb. two soldiers were killed in their sleep. these are only a few variations on the communist theme. theiles north of seoul, joint military armistice commission meets to discuss violations. the north korean side flaunts the line, blandly ignoring all aarges, and pulling up smokescreen of fabrication and countercharges. in the first nine months of 1967 alone, there were seven times as many communist violations as an entire year of 1966.
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all have been ignored or denied. not only does it provide a spectacle of communist fantasy, but in the united nations honor guard, a reminder the free world is indeed a reality and very much committed to staying that way. united nations of soldiers remain constantly on the alert to meet the continuing incidents, subversion, and infiltration of enemy agents along the dmz. scattered, guard posts are manned around the clock. the barrier fence is being constructed along the entire 150 mile length of the dmz, from coast-to-coast. watchtowers spotted every few hundred feet provide additional
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vantage points for observation. the lush, green foliage along the dmz is one of the most beautiful features in this and no man's land. it is also one of the most deadly. provides a screen perfect cover for north korean hit and run operations. a narrow strip of land will be cleared south of the line. the agent to tries to make across this high visibility zone may find the odds have been sharply reversed. fences and watchtowers and guard posts alone me nothing, if the troops who manned them, and the one who get out and do the patrolling, who prevent the dmz and more from being overrun.
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someone wants to find combat the troll -- defined combat patrol as boredom punctuated by sheer terror. in a sense, dmz duty is like that. conduct a daily war of nerves, subversion, treachery that can turn routine patrol into a death march. communist agents are introduced across the dmz, authoritarian government believe more come ashore by boat, along the 5000 mile coastline. some of these potential guerrillas hide in the mountainous part of the country.
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for that reason, combat-ready soldiers of the korean army's infantry division goes to suspect areas, to flush out these communist infiltrators. whatever stability korea has, indeed the world has, is guaranteed by these men of the united nations command to make it perfectly clear where the line has been drawn, and you literally put their lives on that line every day. ♪ what is it the troops are guarding? among other things come on the right to develop and maintain a
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democratic government which is stable without being oppressive. under the president, reform and development have been considerable, and korea stands today as the proud example of self-determination to maintain freedom, as a nation which truly has a choice between tyranny and liberty. ♪ >> you're watching american history t.v. onhours of programming american history, every weekend on c-span 3. twitter for information on our schedule and to keep up with the latest history news.
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325thear marks the anniversary of the solem salem h trials. on american history t.v., historians discuss how salem, massachusetts became tourists as "witch city." they argue whether commercialism beenopular culture have salem's tragic history. this discussion was part of an all-day symposium held at salem university in massachusetts. >> good afternoon! let's get started. baker.d i'd like to welcome you back to the afternoon sessions of salem's trials. at one point, that was almost the title for my book. so i was pleased actually when the gang thought it would be a for this day, because it seems to me those trials of i think as we all know, those of us who live and work and

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