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tv   Korea Revisited  CSPAN  July 30, 2017 4:00pm-4:31pm EDT

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the entire program at midnight eastern. this is american history tv, only on c-span3. each week, american history tv's america" brings you archival films that provide context. is successfully test launched an intercontinental ballistic missile, leaving the u.s. and the eu to consider tougher sanctions. south korea has offered talks with the north to ease tensions. up next, "korea revisited," detailing the vastly improved living and working conditions in south korea since the 1953 armistice that ended the korean war. the film shows the war's aftermath, when 80% of the wastal of soul -- seoul
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destroyed. they rebuilt the country. this is just under 30 minutes. ♪ ♪ announcer: this is south korea today, the capital city seoul, , in some ways as modern, as with it, as anything in the western world. ♪ ♪ plays]usic ♪ >> even its nightclubs are just as swinging, crowded, carefree , and overpriced as their counterparts in new york, chicago or los angeles, a long way from the war. ♪
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>> well, 30 miles from the war, anyway. ♪ these are the men who make it safe to live and dance in seoul, new york, chicago, or los angeles. they are u.s. and korean patrol alongting a the dmz, 30 miles north of seoul. ♪ almost every week some of them are killed by north korean ambushes, border raids, hidden landmines, by any of 100 ways the communists test the line and violate the 1953 armistice. in spite of everything, the republic of korea struggles to come of age. this is the story of what has happened to her since the armistice. ♪
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♪ korea's ancient name means "land of morning calm." june 25, 1950, the morning clam is shattered. thousands of communist troops pour across the 38th parallel into south korea. [gunshots]
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before this powerful onslaught, the small, ill-equipped army of south korea is driven back. ♪ the united nations, denying the invasion, calls for help. within five days, president truman has ordered fighting men to the field. [gunshots] [explosions] within three weeks, half the country has been overrun.
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as the troops from 15 other human nations health, the tide of battle slowly turns -- 15 help, the nations tide of battle slowly turns. [gunshots and explosions] to turn the tide back, red chinese soldiers come to the aid of the north koreans, and a pattern is established, with one first advancing and then the other. [gunshots and explosions]
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for three long years, the war rages up and down the countryside. twice, seoul falls to the communist invaders. twice it is captured. [gunshots and explosions] by the time the armistice is finally signed on july 27, 1953, 30 thousandlude americans, 5000 from the other assisting you when armies, -- armies, and more than 400,000 south koreans, both
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military and civilian. of the south korean survivors, countless thousands are starving, homeless refugees. seoul, the republic's largest city, lies in ruins. block after block of rubble testifies to the grim fact that more than 80% of it has been destroyed. hunger, poverty, and despair seem neighbors along these ravaged streets. but that was 1953. korea today seems like a very distant relative to that once war-ravaged land. it is from the people that a nation derives its character.
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and no more is the revival more evident than in its people. from a straggling band of demoralized refugees, the people have grown into a cohesive, energetic nation. ♪ a returning u.s. army sergeant who was here during the fighting observed the first thing you notice is the children. they are not starving anymore, running around with their little bellies swollen. the children, you notice right away. ♪
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poverty still exists, to some degree. even the threat of famine caused by monsoon or drought. but the hopelessness of a war-ruined country is behind them. the people have a chance, and they know it. it shows in their pride, in their energy, in their seemingly endless capacity for work. that korea hasd a shortage of everything but people, and it is not far from the truth. this becomes especially transparent where transportation is concerned. every possible method of moving people and products is in effect in korea.
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and a few that are impossible, except that nobody has bothered to tell the koreans. the arches of triumph in the korean economy must surely belong to the feet, because they bear most of the load. on the back, on the head, or on ames," aspresent "a-fr they are nicknamed by the americans. tons of freight move every day by foot. they have a unique korean invention and those who carry it were indispensable during the korean war, when they carried ammunition and supplies. alongside, electrified street cars and buses.
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russian trucks abandoned in a communist retreat to the north, still hauling freight. office seemshe reluctant to send replacement ones, and if the man who invented the bicycle could see to what use it has been put in korea, he might conclude with justification that his place in assured, alongside the man who invented the wheel. here, the bicycle is not only a means of transportation but also an important vehicle for business. its use allows for personal earnings to go to more required necessities. even the bicycles would survive the impossible and have to contend with the ever present korean taxicab.
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drivers may not build up the speed of their american counterparts, but they duplicate the bearing in most of the great cities. the drivers seem to inable to put their vehicles places no vehicle was meant to go. well, almost. the newest transportation miracle, though, is the international airport tollroad, the first tollroad in the nation. it is only one example of road construction schedule by the government. the new road will make it easier and faster to get from seoul to
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the international airport, the home of the fledgling korean air lines. the modest fleet of aircraft has many different airliners. ♪ the new road does little, however, to touch the life of the average korean in the field. the thatched-roof, mud-brick house he lives in is much the same as that of his father and his father before him. his slightly more affluent cousin may have one with a tile roof. for most koreans, it is still shoes outside, which leaves the floor clean enough to sit on.
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and in the winter, the floor is another korean, invention going back 1500 years, but this is not surprising in a land where the very old blends with the very new. perhaps the most striking change to come over the face of korea has been the influence of western architecture. in many places, the graceful, traditional curve of the oriental roofline has given way to the clean, efficient, straight-line look of the west, which permits more rapid and more economical construction. major rebuilding began almost immediately after the armistice, when $15 million worth of excess u.s. armed forces equipment was put to work reconstructing
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war-shattered buildings. and replanting the land in the first 10 years alone, the armed forces invested $23 million in more than 5000 projects. even though this is less than one dollar per korean, it has in the korean reconstruction program, and the koreans are, indeed, grateful. too, hasl development, received massive american aid. since most korean industry was located in the communist north, the division of the country was an especially hard below to south korea. development of new industrial capabilities has been made possible by american financial and technical assistance.
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♪ like anyone else, the koreans enjoy tv, refrigerators, and, of course, new cars. korea's first oil refinery, funded by american private capital, processes 55,000 barrels a day. the fertilizer plant produces 330,000 tons of chemical fertilizer a year. development of this vital industry can mean the difference between famine or food enough to feed the nation. the problem of food production
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is the main concern at the government's experimental farm, south of seoul. here, agriculture research of all sorts is carried out. and extension workers are trained in the latest farming techniques, which, it is hoped, will make the country self-sufficient in food production by the early 1970's. entering the worldwide competition to attract tourists, the government has constructed the impressive complex of 26 buildings, including five hotels and 12 villas, that make up the walker hill resort. named for general walker of korean war fame, it is just 12 miles from seoul, overlooking a river. it spreads over 150 acres and
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provides a complete variety of entertainment and sports facilities. since walker hill is not subject to the curfew which puts the rest of the country to the bed -- to bed at midnight, it is a good place for night people. the bright golden moon restaurant features kimchi, a spicy korean dish, and gourmet delights to be consumed to the gentle strains of oriental string music. ♪ still another popular spot features western cuisine and a
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whole line of korean rockettes. unfortunately, the standards of sanitation that apply at walker still and at the luxury hotels do not extend throughout korean society. unfortunate, at least, for the american whose system is accustomed to more antiseptic conditions. it is suggested that on the local economy, the tourist exercise a certain amount of caution, stick to well cooked foods, avoid unpeeled fresh fruits and vegetables, tapwater, and drinks served with ice. drink only bottled beer, hot tea, or coffee. an american can travel the length and breadth of the republic of korea and be fed, providing he master the art of using chopsticks.
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♪ there are many other sections of the country especially tourists, such as an island about 60 miles to the west of the mainland. it is part of the most picturesque of korea. in many of the remote communities, old customs and colorful holiday rituals are to be seen. without the security provided by a strong army, however, korea would not be safe for anyone. tourists or native alike. with the assistance of united states military advisers, the republic of korea army has been built into one of the most efficient, highly trained forces in the world, with 600,000 men. it is also the third-largest in the non-communist world. although armed with the latest equipment available, the ancient
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and traditional korean battle schools are not forgotten. these soldiers are practicing taekwondo. it is the korean version of karate and is just as deadly. it has been used in battle before and many believe it creates self-assured and tough troops. perhaps the most impressive sign of a nation coming of age was reached on september 25, 1965, when, for the first time in history of the nation, they involuntarily sent soldiers abroad to fight in a foreign war, the war in vietnam. the tiger and white horse divisions have by bravely and earned the respect of free men everywhere. [gunshots and explosions] about 10,000 soldiers serve in a special capacity with the u.s. army. they are korean augmentation to u.s. army soldiers.
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they work, live, and train alongside u.s. soldiers. ♪ their history dates back to the dark, early days of the korean war, when to strengthen the countryman troops, forces were channeled into the u.s. units. -- strengthen the undermanned troops, forces were channeled into the u.s. units. perhaps one reason they fought communism with distinction abroad is because many of them have had bitter personal experience with communist aggression at home. aggression like this along their own dmz. this truck was not blown up in vietnam.
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it was ambushed on april 1968 by north korean communists in a flagrant, daylight raid across the korean dmz. the free soldiers of the second u.s. infantry division and the korean group were killed in this truce violation, had been on their way to lunch. some time later on in august, as the men of the 76th battalion aligned up for supper, their suddenly hit by heavy machine gun fire from communist raiders. two u.s. soldiers, one korean, killed. 26 other people wounded, including two korean laundry women. this is where a barracks
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building stood, located at a camp. it was demolished by a planted timebomb. two soldiers were killed in their sleep. these are only a few variations on the communist theme. 30 miles north of seoul, the joint military armistice commission meets to discuss violations. the north korean side in ly flaunts- invariab the line, blandly ignoring all charges, and pulling up a smokescreen of fabrication and countercharges. in the first nine months of 1967 alone, there were seven times as many communist violations as in entire year of 1966. all have been ignored or denied.
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not only does it provide a spectacle of communist fantasy, but in the united nations honor guard, and impressive reminder that the free world is indeed a reality and very much committed to staying that way. united nations' soldiers remain constantly on the alert to meet the continuing border incidents subversion, and infiltration of , enemy agents along the dmz. scattered along the line, a system of guard posts are manned around the clock. a barrier fence is being constructed along the entire 150 mile length of the dmz, from coast-to-coast. watchtowers spotted every few hundred feet provide additional vantage points for observation.
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the lush, green foliage along the dmz is one of the most beautiful features in this no man's land. it is also one of the most deadly. its natural screen provides a perfect cover for north korean hit and run operations. to frustrate the pattern of ambush and attack, a narrow strip of land will be cleared south of the line. the agent who tries to make across this high visibility zone may find the odds have been sharply reversed. the fences and watchtowers and guard posts alone mean nothing if the troops who manned them, and the one who get out and do the patrolling, who prevent the dmz and more from being overrun.
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someone once defined combat patrol as hours of boredom interrupted by moments of sheer terror. in a sense, dmz duty is a bit like that. the communists conduct a daily war of nerves, subversion, of the kind of treachery that can turn routine patrol into a death march. although many communist agents are introduced across the dmz, the korean government feels that even more come ashore by boat, along the 5000 mile coastline. some of these potential guerrillas hide out in the mountainous southern part of the
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country. for that reason, combat-ready soldiers of the korean army's infantry division continued to patrol in suspect areas, to flush out these communist infiltrators. ♪ whatever stability korea has, indeed, the world has, is guaranteed by these men of the united nations command, who make it perfectly clear where the line has been drawn and who literally put their lives on that line every day. ♪ and what is it the troops are guarding? well, among other things, the right to develop and maintain a
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democratic government which is stable without being oppressive. under their president, reform and development have been considerable, and korea stands today as a proud example of self-determination to maintain freedom, as a nation which truly has a choice between tyranny and liberty. ♪ [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] announcer: you are watching american history tv, 48 hours a programming on american history every weekend on c-span3. forow us on twitter information on our
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announcer 1: this year marks the 325th anniversary of the salem witch trials. up next on american history tv, historians discuss how salem, massachusetts became known by tourists as "witch city." they argue whether commercialism and popular culture have been -- salem's tragic history. -- have dimmed salem's tragic history. this discussion was part of an all-day symposium held at salem university in massachusetts. chad baker: all right, good afternoon. let's get started. i'm chad baker. i'd like to welcome you back to the afternoon sessions of salem's trials. i will say about that time, that was the title for my book. so i was pleased actually when the gang thought it would be a good title for this day, because it seems to me they were around those trials of 1692, i think as we all know, those of us who live and work and hang out around salem, that there are other trials that are related to

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