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tv   World War II Leadership  CSPAN  August 19, 2017 8:00pm-9:47pm EDT

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history"n "lectures in visiting professor at hillsville college looks at how civilian and military leaders conduct themselves through wartime. today's class focuses on franklin roosevelt and how american and british leaders learned to work together to defeat nazi germany. this program is about one hour and 45 minutes. ok, um, weanson: will continue with this notion commanders starting with caesar alexander. going into the civil. now we are at world war ii. alliedwe start with the commanders, masters i should roosevelt.
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last year we went over the four in total. we just talked about stalin, hit -- hit-or-miss and roosevelt. -- hit-or-miss and roosevelt -- tler and roosevelt. we talked about the critical change in 1942, july and december because of the radical withround in the submarine allies get the upper hand. and the german disaster of stalingrad. let's look at this map for a second. ii -- it's hard to know when it actually starts. in europe it starts on september 3 in germany after they have invaded poland and russia two weeks later. the chinese have been invaded by the japanese since 1937,
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manchuria since 1931. the ethiopians have been invaded. there is a lot of wars going on. russia has gone into finland. all of these wars today are going to coalesced through this conflict of world war ii. that is us looking back at that. at the time, nobody said we are in world war ii when germany went into poland. war, aas a finnish polish war, a norwegian war, a manchurian war, and they all 1941-1942. we in the united states say world war ii. the british's say the second world war. that is in context with the first world war. it was called the great war, which we do not use anymore because it is no longer the great war, it is the second greatest war. being a term for a loss of casualties. we are going to look at this.
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haveis area, and we don't the pacific up, but 15 to 70 killed to the end of 1945. i would say 50 to 70. we still do not know the exact amount. that will be the greatest man-made disaster in the history of civilization. maybe with the exception of what diddid during the -- mao during the cultural revolution in the 1960's. it will be a disaster that no one imagined when the war broke out. it affects everybody in europe. 100 million people are going to take part in this war. myhing has ever been seen get before. it will affect everybody in the united states. we are not going to enter until, almost halfway through. i am thinking of my own family rural
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california, and was minding its own business farming. my mother and her three sisters were growing up on a farm and suddenly the war breaks out. later, she and all of her sisters have gone to because theversity economy has radically changed, women are in the workforce, men are at war. my father has flown on a b-29 40 times over tokyo. because the economy has radically changed, womenthe person i am named aftes killed on okinawa and shattered my uncle's family. my first cousin was killed in normandy. that whole family is turned upside down on this event. when they were in the 1930's, they thought it was so far away. go from $30 a ton to 250. my grandfather told me, i never made a dime farming except during world war ii. it will get the united states out of the depression. i don't mean with stimulus or borrowing. irony that the world will be
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destroyed, so to speak. in 1946 united states will have this enormous industrial base and be the only eyes -- the only capitalize power and pay off the debt. where are we? hitler's starts here, invading poland. fastthink for a minute how events follow. he going to invade poland, then but there be a war, will be a phony war along the border. france will not do anything. all britain will do is put a third of a quarter of a million of troops to help france. they will do nothing. nobody at this time feels that poland is going to lead to a war. that there might be some way to educate things.
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especially because it represents the pores and conservatives. that derogatory term, but there are members in that think they could still do business with hitler's. praising the british empire than franklin roosevelt or joseph stalin. he admires the british. he invades here, nothing happens. he has already carved off large parts of czechoslovakia here. russia has been joined to germany. austria does not really exist. look how enormous that area is. germany had the second-largest economy to begin with, traditionally, in the world after the united states. now people think he will be
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happy with that. no. just sixof 1940, months later, he has gone into denmark. as should not say gone into, he it in three days. he has gone into norway. he does not have to do anything in sweden. my ancestors are happily selling him iron ore at a discount and providing free transportation. finland has settled -- it will be fighting with the soviet union. it was kicked out of the league of nations, but it will be neutral now. i should say the soviet union's pro-german. i don't mean neutral, right before hitler's went into poland. he had the nonaggression pact. that is the icing on the cake. as early as 1937 they had trade agreements. taylor is being supplied now in ,ritical areas like oil, wheat
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coal, iron or from the soviet union. of specificeries movements from bulgaria, hungary , all of this area of eastern europe is supplying as well, ore. we all know about mr. mussolini since -- mussolini. there haslate 20's been a expansionary government. cap gone all the way around to libya -- they have gone all the way around to somalia, libya. he invades france in 40 days what the fathers were not able to do. belgium, holland and loosen berg. at this point, algeria, morocco, the french colonies sold to
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allied withr vichy, germany. four years earlier, portugal was staying. long ally germany in world war i. neutral but supply germany as it can. let's look at the map. where is the bright newspaper in in?news for britan without warning, italy has invaded greece. it will not be easy. in, not has sent troops only to save the italians in libya, who were fighting not too well against the british, but to occupy greece. he does that in a matter of weeks. -- first paratroop groep drop on greece.
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--re is a british presidents presence in cairo and alexander. the british have had some success keeping iraq and lebanon autonomous. everything else is under the control of hitler's. almost like a nightmarish version of the european union six or seven times over. everything hitler's had ever dreamed of, he has obtained in two years. he is starting to ethnically discriminate, expunge and ultimately kill jews. integrate theto economy, not effectively, but still in a manner that will serve germany. you have ireland that is at best neutral. britain.you have great in april of 1941 there is nobody
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else there. the united states is still isolationist. we've not been attacked by anybody yet. a neutral and is aiding hitler's in the war is all over with. there is no reason for it to continue because there is nobody to fight them. the only check on german power has been a failed air campaign of 1940 up until spring of 1941 against per in -- against britain. -- all arts are not good turn not good. they have a direct route to england. and the u-boat campaign is starting to reach a real effective level of cutting off supplies from britain. what has to be done to end the war, a couple of things. you have to take alexandria and cut off the suez canal.
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after the italians are pushing andand the their backups are here, all they have to do is cut that off. that ends a third of all the oil from the middle east to britain. a little bitdo more on the simmering campaigns of the imports cannot come from canada and the united states. toy have to get britain war, not defeated, but leave the war with its empire intact. why hitler's is giving strange speeches that he has no problem, no acrimony with the british and is ready to cut a deal with them. he has allowed one quarter british and another thousand french to escape at dunkirk. all of that sets the stage for the biggest blunder of the entire war, which is probably
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the biggest blunder in military operations. the june 22, 3 million man invasion of the soviet union. at that point, everything is off the table. why does he goat into russia? -- go into russia? most likely, a two-part reason. one, it is in accordance with what he said. mein kampf, the mine -- the jewish, presence has to be eradicated. german settlers will turn this that will be six lane roads from germany all the way down to the crimea. a utopian fantasy on his part. second, he was not able to get in to reconcile to an armistice. has conquered russia and done to russia what he has done to eastern europe, just a sheer weight of the
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opposition means there will be people in the british government that will see the light. he has some encouragement. there are members of the royal dealershat had peace out to the germans. they had an anti-somatic present -- presence in britain and he thinks he can work with those people. that is the general situation we are at. before we go on to the two meters of this class, it is called masters and commanders, does anyone have a question about the status of world war ii? this will all change. the united states will get into the war. it will have the most affect aid program to russia. russian industry will be and whether will turn on the british. japan will enter the war. right now, the war is over and
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won. any questions? yes. >> how independent are the commonwealth nations of britain's decision-making? professor hanson: on our map, we do not have the commonwealth nations, which is australia, new zealand, canada. couple ofo remember a factors. they do not have a good taste in their mouth after world war i. commonwealth forces in australia, and canada were put on command for british officers and were bled white. there is a lot of resentment against the empire. that means that -- especially harbor, new zealand and australia, who had two divisions and three divisions fighting the european war, now to the british, this is another war. we want all of our troops out of libya and we want them back to protect australia.
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french canada is a problem. nominally now, is on the side of germany. what are people in french canada going to do? by the going to die for killing people in north africa that happened to be french speakers? war, -- india is the real question as to whether it will survive as part of the british empire. pacificbe a contribution. the great exception to that rule is canada. canada has that there are -- has the third largest navy. they bite very well, they participate, they do not complain, they do not command an command. there are very compliant. they are bitter to this day because they are not given recognition that they deserve. canada is essential to the british war effort.
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does a good question. any other questions? ok. just a couple of remarks on stalin and hitler's. alike and they are both totalitarians. hit-or-miss about 50 when the is about 50.er stalin is about 41. stalin admires hitler's because of liquidation to his enemy. they both tend to admire people like mussolini. they both have a very cynical view of one another. they both think that there will ultimately be a war between them and one or the other will started. for now, the cedar is advantages and having peace. what do we mean by that? russia has fought and an inconclusive war with japan in 1939, it does
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not want troops on its western -- it does not want all of which troops here facing germany, then having to fight japan. after the japanese war, the nonaggression pact seems like a gift from heaven. just as hitler's willing to -- on his access partner in japan, russia will take advantage of it. it could move some troops over from japan. japan it is not going to be outdone. japan will have a nonaggression , 1941 with russia. that will allow russia to take its troops back again. it could not have come as a worse time for hitler's. it is indicative that these acts andussolini, hitler, stalin do not trust anyone of the other.
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they are not at all integrated. that is the case of being when in the united states. germany's way of thinking is well.hing have turned out german people did not sign up for this. signed up because they bought the propaganda that they had never lost world war i. they had surrendered 70 miles belgium and parts of france. they were stabbed in the back so hitler'snd jews and that nazi fascist party told them. they were treated very poorly at versailles. it humiliated the germans affecting their ability to come back or to make war. delighted people are about poland, whom they thought grew at their expense after
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world war i. with denmark because it is easy. they have a problem with norway. these are similar nordic arian people. they are scared stiff of a war in france because of what happen in world war i. for years, 70 miles. going in, they think another four years, 2 million dead in world war i. absorbsys, when he france, they are delighted and they think that because of the war being won or lost, it is over now. there is no problem with russia because russia is a partner with germany, so to speak. if there was going to be a partner, russia fell in two years, if they do have to fight under that paradigm, 40 days. next i'm russia will fall in 12 days by that 3-1 time ratio.
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they have italy as an ally. they are tickled the that everything has worked out perfectly. here are angry that the british keep insisting. there has been a very effective propaganda campaign by goebbels, that we are socialists, workers and we are not capitalists. it is not quite like communism, effective and suggests the british are holding out because they have always been greedy and like deb and empire. -- and liked to have an empire. russia is delighted. stalin resents the russian democracies but us -- the western participation. germany to turn their attention to france and holland and belgium and britain.
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these blues was the capitalist bodies would carry each other. the only thing they were mad what?was the war only lasted 40 days and do enough damage or kill enough people. as far as stalin is concerned, this is wonderful. stalin hates britain and america much more than he hates germany. from 1939, september 3 until 8, actually, 10th, britain is all alone. it does not the get can win the war. it's all strategy is to hold out until two things happen. inevitably these two people will turn on us. churchill is convinced. why doesn't he make peace? is ane churchill
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idealist. he believes that for all the jews and all the people in europe who believe in constitutional government, for all the people being murdered every day, that britain food is the only beacon of hope. aboute are going to talk the allies. in this class on masters and commanders, we will see why it in and the united ain and therit united states work so well together. given, you would all think that it would be a natural relationship. ,merica was a colony of britain we are both english-speaking countries and we fought together in world war i. how they were able to coordinate their efforts, and how they
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survived as friends is beyond me to this day. given the obstacles they had to work on. part of this relationship is 2, 3, or four factors that will make it very difficult for them to communicate well. the first is the memory of world war i. we and america in 1941 have a very different idea of the first world war. remember the british are right next to us. if you are in britain in you could take a mode -- a boat in and go back and talk with lord -- lloyd george in the afternoon. britian will lose a million and a half casualties. it will get nowhere from 1914 to may june of 1918. it will not really move.
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it is the death camps of the first world war. they have a very, very bitter memory. france will lose almost 2 million. germany itself will lose about two and a half million. in the british mind, when this war starts out, there is one thing you do not want to do. a million or 2 million people fighting the german army. there has never been anything like it. army, is the most competenteffect infantry force in the world. anytime the french army or the british army tries to fight it alone it will lose. when churchill who was first , and who himself was at the in 1916, 1970. he thought, when we fight this war, we will not go one million men here.
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remember when he declared war, chamberlain's government onlared war in germany september 3, 1939. they did put men into belgium and northern france, the british did. they did not do anything until the actual invasion of france on may 10. then they were chopped at done -- dropped at dunkirk. 100 thousands of them were wounded, captured or missing. a bolt of them survive. the last thing we want to do is get everyone in world war i two, we want another sin and dump us. -- lur as in and dump us. inen the war breaks out brita has a lot more soldiers than we do.
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these are just larger factors we will get you will we get to the issues. the second is the geography and strength. there will be a very different over 1941-1945. britain has mobilized and been to war. in knows that a fight germans. it is fought them and 1940's. it has been bombing them. the americans don't know anything. they think they can send bombers over in daylight. this wonderful b-17 flying fortresses that can shoot down 109's in broad daylight. they think the americans tanked is wonderful. excited,ry exuberant, we want to go in there and when when -- win but the british have a bigger munition industry. world war i we had no tanks, the
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british supply them. the war starts out with churchill going to america as a senior advisor. we are the junior partner. thing starts to gear up, there is a real question in the united states of whether we will .ight this war you could've fought world war ii , or do you want to be the primary arsenal of democracy. we decided we will go full hot. you will cure up and put 14 million men under arm. we will be the biggest producer of ships, planes and artillery platform. as the starts to become evident in 1943-1944, united states will be the senior partner. in this relationship between churchill and roosevelt, roosevelt will absorb churchill's criticism.
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it againe will hear and again. we're the guys, we are the commanders now. we are going to make the decision, not just you. later we will make a decision. along with world war ii, that gives for a different views of how it works. -- and by theg is way, britain is more exposed. decision that seems reckless, there will not be immediate consequences to us in new york or san francisco. if we make a decision about bombing are going across the channel and that proves to be stupid, or disastrous, there can be immediate consequences. if we say, we don't think there , and
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if there is, we don't want to waste resources bombing them. they will not send a b-2 into san francisco. they will into london. what tos always tell us do, they did not know anything about world war i, they're not ready to fight this war and the consequences are mostly borne by us. there is another issue to this relationship and that is, america is coming out of the largest social political transformation in history. after the great depression of 1929, a failure of the hoover administration to correct that economic downturn. hoover is not some reactionary capitalist. he has tried stimulus. he has tried deficit spending. he has tried everything that did not work. roosevelt comes in with an idea prussian -- that
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by wealth. industrybsorb private and create jobs and palm money. he will have deficit spending. he will get america back to work. -- america'srt unemployment rate is still 19%. this country is very unsure of itself, but it has made a decision because of the charismatic approaches of franklin and roosevelt. than sincerity, the wonderful rose -- that will stick with roosevelt. he is a man of the left. churchill is a 19th century relic. has foughtan lou various times in the sudan for empires. in india for empire in south empire, he has been to cuba, hee hee is written about empire. he is a direct descendent of the duke of marlborough.
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he was a military officer, he is first lord of the addressee twice. there is no person on either leader, not stalin or mussolini. there is no person more will first, more experience, more knowledgeable than winston churchill. americans think he is a right wing reactionary apologist for the british empire. george bushas if was a lot more far right than he is and tony blair was a lot more far less than he was. there was supposed to work together in iraq. bush was a conservative and blair was a liberal. it would be as if we find ourselves in a war with obama, very hard left any european nationalists party person. it would be very hard for those two people to work.
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how is that going to translate out? it will mean that every time churchill suggests something to roosevelt, people like harry hopkins will always be suspicious. he is just trying to promote a hyper capitalist imperialist point of view. every time some he suggest something to churchill he will say these are naive americans who believe socialism will solve all of our problems. -- world war i, the own politics will affect this relationship. also, this idea of russia. remember, when they start bombing britain after the fall of fit -- after the fall of france, you look up and there are dive bombers. -- the whole bit will kill 40,000 people. both paper is starting to see
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1940, these guys are laughing about it and they have direct links although into eastern and western germany. the materials of the germans are common from russia. planin's that they will destroy each other. to have ah are going distressful view of russia because russia wanted them to be destroyed. participantn active in bombing them. the more imperialist churchill thinks he is, the more anti-bush -- anti-boko which. uvich.c they know about six inches thousand military officers in russia. they know about the great famine
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in the late 20's under stalin. they know 20 million people. christian -- real question whether you want to give a lot of aid to russia. it is nominally useful, but ultimately, there is not a lot of difference between hitler and stalin. you can see what this will do in this relationship. this is the world war ii version of wet iran kill iraq off and vice versa in the americans point of view. america on the other hand, there are a lot of people. we don't want to get near that topic or class on war about mccarthyism. a number of naive americans involved in this transformation of american society who look on the soviet union as an unhappy, or unfortunate accent. not necessarily evil, not killing more people than hitler
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did, but socialism gone too far. but it could come back, it had the right idea. if you look at the history of ii, the chapter on world war ii is called "a people's war." that will affect this relationship. before we go on to how these differences in culture and history affect the actual mechanics of the war policy, does anybody have questions at this point? none? ok. ,he war breaks out in europe churchill and roosevelt, you want to know how to beat hitler japaneselini and the coprosperity spirit. what we actually did is not the way it had to happen. we could have tried to invade
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amsterdam. we could've tried to invade norway. we could've landed troops in portugal. suezuld've gone from the and had an american plead and gone into greece. are we could've had the pacific fleet or something go into the persian gulf and come in here and try to help russia. with the annexation of iran, but there are a lot of different strategies. have 14 million men mobilized or these in our the american body. we were very effective in world war i, but we do not do what we did in world war ii. these will be decisions that are made at the highest levels of the american government and the british government. the first page issue is europe first. theseaid, all of differences are fundamental and existential and will play out
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here. why should europe the first for the united states? .e were not attacked by germany we were attacked by the japanese on december 7. the japanese are close to the pacific coast. they are in the waters of hawaii. they have attacked american held soil. they are trying to take over the philippines. they will attacked wake island. they have taken over the marianas. they are encroaching on american fears of influence. america will never be attacked a germany. japanese will -- and one case. they will send balloons with bombs. in america's way of thinking, japan is a problem. it is somewhat of a racial element. the japanese look different than we do. isre is not of dust there not a lot of japanese in the united states except on the west coast. there are a lot of germans and a .ot of people here
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there are a lot of people in the 1930's, amidst the depression, germany was just trying to find an ideology. it is not nazi's them, it is not that bad -- nazism. other people create autobahns, dams, give people apartment healthcare, this is what he was about. versailles.ty about the league of nations was never a good idea. -- people dot of not know -- it has only been about five months fighting in russia. people do not know the full horrors of germany. there are a lot of people who aid, let'ss give step up the a for russia. hitler russia to fight and get rid of both of them. let's help the british give aid
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to the arctic sea. let's really help brain -- britain and crushed japan. ourave a very soft spot in hearts with china, which is an occupied in 1931. that's free the chinese. once we solve that problem we can turn our attention to hitler. he may be finished off by the bolsheviks. british , but let's not fight a two front war. there is a great myth about world war ii that hitler lost because he fought a two front war. fromber, when this war 1939 to 1941, it was a brilliantly diabolical war. agreement is designed to have a one front war. and it works. people say, why did it start at
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the second war in 1941? he started the second one because there was no war. bombed and being had no ability to land troops, so hitler had a one front war. we think we are so smart, we ended up with a two front war. people are saying, let's not do this. there are elements within the american government and military who are trying to say -- especially chief of naval let's not get sucked into the british war, we have our own war. europe's first thategy, roosevelt teased hitler has the greater strength, the greater resources, perhaps even the greater evil and he has with first. fall if we have a strategy first.
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hitler is like a snake. the more animals he swallows, he needs times to jack -- time to digest it. you do not really have a lot of time. this issue is going to be very tain will because bri be pushing for a first front war because it is almost ready to be obliterated. it has interest in the pacific. as much as it wants to hold india, singapore and all of those jewels of the empire, it is willing to put them second in comparison with the british homeland. issue all of 1942. so what degree do we put resources? how will it be solved? it will be solved on a very brilliant way that may have been inadvertent. the americans are going to learn things, given the vast 3000 miles of the united states. given the fact that most of the
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industry in the united states is bilateral. in a sense that the great lakes region on the east coast naturally can turn its attention to europe. while the pacific great centers of commerce in seattle, oakland, san francisco, los angeles, san diego can turn the -- turn to the pacific. thatay of looking at is there are two united states. each one is fighting its own war. if you grew up in california, not certain, but it is likely you would fight in the pacific third more likely. factory, you will be making products that will be used for the pacific. that is one way we solve that dilemma. the country is so big and fast and industrial centers on the coast, and the population-based , we can diverge western resources.
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the second is the nature of the the at her it for a minute. the japanese empire spread all over the pacific. if george washington wants to make 8 million people, and make an 8 million man army, 3, 400 you use themw will in the pacific? you have to transport them all around. that effort to create this massive army will be designed to function on the european continent, not on a little island like you would team a, or even death like you would you -- iwojima. there will be armies in the be the first marine division, the second marine and the pacific fleet. the pacific fleets battleships will finally get up to about 50.
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it will get 78 carriers heavy and medium. it will mostly be in the pacific. there will be a few battleships, but there is no german navy. there will be artillery support and ill -- in italy. you will need to stores to guard the convoys that are providing key supplies to britain, but the navy will have to be in the wide open theater in the pacific. the second-largest baby in the world after the united states -- navy in the world after the united states will be the japanese. say it is european first, but we will have the west coast reassured, all of the politicians out there, they will know that larger resources will go to what is next to them. more importantly, we will put the navy and the marines and the pacific.
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we will the heavy bombing campaigns in europe. brilliant way. the british are delighted because they have interest in the pacific. and they have the existential question of protecting the homeland. , afterrd grade issue is the war -- and i want to put a dash here. we talked about this last time, that is the empire. thinking,rican way of one of the great evils in the american liberal conscience of the 1930's, 1940's, early 1940's is the british empire. especially because we did not want to be part of it. we look at the united states and say, see what can happen when you are free of britain. appreciate british institutions, culture, lineage, it makes america unique. everybody from john locke to
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edmund burke. but there is a resentment of the british empire. there is a lot of continental immigrants, especially german speaking families that do not like the british empire. how that works, as men of the left, the roosevelt administration is very suspicious. of these issues we talked about, world war i, left, right, especially russia. --re will be another break great debate. i am skipping ahead a little bit. i want to get to the second front. what do you do with the british empire? how do you fight when we know that everything from the dutch east indies, to burma, to india are all there to protect british oil, british natural resources, especially the crown jewel in india?
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are you really going to tell an american he died in burma trying to preserve india for the british, or he died in indochina to fight for the french empire? no. what happens is, in a very brilliant move -- you remember the letter that andrew robert quotes, the americans will say, we will go as americans. we like to find the enemies, mobilize, destroy and get home. we will target our efforts on the japanese mainland. we will not go to burma. we will help you, but we are not going to operate in that part of the pacific. we are going to try to island hop. historic ties our to the philippines, we will restore the philippines. we will outsource that part of the pacific to you and you're in. all interests, and we will build carrierst -- aircraft
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and destroyed the japanese mainland. the british were delighted because, if americans want to cut off the head of the octopus with tentacles in burma, the threat of india will fall to us. that issue is an issue about the british empire. as it works out in the pacific, there is an easy solution. whether we should have in europe or japan. in europe it is a problem. i am kind of conflating this postwar here, stalin here. now we get to the second front. all of these issues are involved. that is, ok, we have some kind of agreement that we will fight the americanst will fight a full-blown, fully mobilized two front war. nominally at least it will concentrate on europe, but there
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will be large elements of navy that will deal with japan. that we have a way or protocol with stealing japan that will not infringe on the british empire, yet not think -- not give the appearance that americans are fighting colonials. we are fighting against the people who attacked us on pearl harbor. we still have this other problem. the british do not want a second front. that seems to be the theme of the entire andrew roberts masters and commanders. also the warlords. they do not want a second front. laterked about it because in 1940, dunkirk, that is one issue. they will have at least until 1942 and 1943, they would have to put the bulk of the troops -- but there is another issue here this is what i want to get up.
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wants.ll can say all he i will help the devil if you defeat hitler. british resentment stalin did to them in 1939 in 1949. stalin is very rude to the state ambassador. suddenly he is attacked on june 22 and says, now i want to be your friend. as we said what we discussed earlier, the motive of the stalin mind is, whatever i've done to other people, i am convinced they will do to me. just as i had signed a nonaggression pact with hitler, trying to port him to destroy england, i know they will do the same thing to destroy me. stalin is going to call for a second front. immediately. the americans, have a very different view, world war i. one year, 117,000 dead, same
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thing will happen with world war ii. there are americans who believe, john person got one million men tothe continent from 1917 1918. one million americans went over lost zero ine transit. they provided the big push. they won the war. , they said to themselves, it happened again. within one year we will have this in norma's army, we will over there and they will be in the same battlefield were in world war i. the only difference this time is, we will not have an armistice, we will occupy and humiliate in germany. saying -- theye were saying to an private communication, all you guys are doing is going to get us killed by these horrific german divisions all you will be doing
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is helping stalin. us so wanted to destroy just hold on a minute and lets get some experience. 1941 in december, all the way until 1944 in june, there is this kabuki dance marshall and churchill. the american spring in the british and say we are ready to land in france. the british sets, we are too. they say, give us a day. they say, it yes. and they say, how 42, if you insist good -- insist. they come in 42 and say, ok, we want to go in 43. yes, that is a great idea. what is behind the american idea? save russia, it will kill two out of three germans, if they
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lose the war we will suffer the kind of losses they do. it is the moral thing to do. we did in world war i. ulysses s grant taught us the strategy of the american military is clausewitz in. you find the enemy, and target him and destroy him. that means land right here and go right in and destroy german commerce and the war is over. , 10 toibious capability 15 american combat divisions will be slaughtered. we could not do it with 300,000 at dunkirk. you will have one million men, you do not have air superiority. germane not crippled industry yet. the bombing campaign is very problematic. the german army is -- even though it is 1942, the watermark of the russian campaign is not
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failing at moscow. we have been very successful down here and they are remembered out to stalingrad. saying let'sre think about this. second thing. the new dealers are not that suspicious of socialism. i think some of you brought up , roosevelt said "my attitude with stalin as i give him everything and don't ask for anything in return." that is not the british idea. they understand that the home office had spies. the soviet union's method eyes with conducting war. -- method eyes -- methodized with conducting war. as i said, they are here.
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they work perfectly well, that ,s because they are able because of the personalities of roosevelt and churchill is a brilliant strategist. they are able to have the solutions, as we just talked about, europe first. the solution they get is, rather 50-50oing and getting the chance of winning and losing, let's soften germany up. how will we soften them up? we will do it in six to seven ways. first of all, we have to destroy the u-boat fleet. why? because the british tell us we are sending very critical supplies to stalin, north of norway, down to the arctic circle dark angel. there are losing 25% of them as they get off the coast of norway. ,et's get american destroyers
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american long-range bombers, british destroyers and make sure we do not lose any more on the convoy system. the highest level will be up in 1942. the british said, we will not be able to start by the operation. going to be able to have enough resources. let's do that first so america steeds in a massive building. this is a great strife with the king. he does not want to commit to specific naval resources. he loses that battle. belatedly, but finally. the second thing that the british convinced us, hey, you guys built the world's best bomber and have had it since 1937. you call it the flying fortress, let's use air power. on day one of this war we were in and we have a big
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lancaster bomber in the works. we will bomb germany. double be a second front. by the way they will lose 40 brits on brits -- 45,000 and 25,000 americans. notenk you should make a of it in this relationship, because you can see what a second land front would've been 1943 and 1942 had the british allowed us to do a george marshall. you can see that through the air campaign. we go over there confident, swaggering, say we have a b-17, -- a the 24 -- b-24. formation, it is absolutely a fortress and the british say, do not tell us that.
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we have been losing 10-15% of our cruise as they bomb. as they germans do, leave in when, they pick you up on radar and they have 20-30 bases here and they pass you off from 109 squadron to 109. new f1 90 is better. they will shoot you down like you do not believe. we are doing this at night. we are doing get in singular formation. we do not announce what we are going. if you think you will stack up 100-200 bombers in broad daylight, then you will be about 20,000 feet and drop individual prescriptionis a for suicide. and it is. we don't know anything that we've are doing in 1942 and 1943. it is a testament to people like the eighth air force. they do not give up.
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people like american ingenuity and know-how, and learning from people look at the situation and say, this is winnable if we start acting smart. we develop a fighter, if we develop drop tanks, so they have a long operational capability. especially as we take back france, we have home soil, so there is not enemy fighter bases all along our route, especially as we give up the idea that we igh, but finally it starts to pay real dividends in late 1944. you can see that american
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attitude, what it would have done with a second front. it would have been a disaster. the other thing churchill this submarine campaign, and we have the bombing campaign, and let's sphere oferman influence. is only problem with this germany is engaged with 3 million men in russia. it is actually pretty good for germany to get out of these places. when the war ends, they will have over two divisions up in norway doing nothing. as you can see there are german planners telling hitler's, we are being attacked by this, we don't want to be spread. let's have interior lines of communication like we did in world war i. the irony is the british do convince us. you guys want to have european
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first, you want to go into germany -- you can't do this yet, you can't meet these s.s. divisions had on. -- head on. november 1942. attgomery will turn the tide el alamein. you can learn your craft against second-tier german divisions that haven't been on the russian front. we can do this and we can expel the germans out of north africa. safe,e do that, malta is oil supplies are safe. we do that very well. by late spring 1943, that is over. then they say we can go into sicily. i don't know quite what sicily does for you if you take an island. you might as well take crete. i don't know what sicily gives you really.
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helps knock italy out of the war. that is wonderful and we will do that by 1944, but you still are going through a mountainous 500 mile-long peninsula. it seems to me if you want to go here, this is a very bad way to do it. as you know the british are telling us, at least you are not invading france in a wide open area against the germans. more importantly is this issue we talked about, russia. at stalingrad between november 1942 and 1943, by content of january, -- and of january, 600,000 germans missing, surrendered, or lost during that campaign. there is not going to be a chance again that hitler is going to win the war quickly. it will be a war of attrition .
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aid942, all of this direct from the arctic circle through and the soviet industry command economy, russia is japan's has its hands full. russia is in a very good position. it is starting to not only be in a good position, but worry people like the british. when they see the red army, churchill and others think about what they did when they land.ed up po when they turned germany on their side, they will -- there will not be anything. there's nothing stopping the red army. go upill says, we will
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through the soft underbelly. let's go through here. i don't know what that would do, along the black sea. churchill's idea is that the americans in 1944 are here in poland and say stop, you got the germans out, let's take care of them. we are on both sides of you know, we will let these russians come in, so we will quit. emissary will not fall to communism. -- and this area will not fall to communism. americans see this as diabolical and another way of british imperialists trying to finagle a post for advantage for themselves. the second front is going to be a fierce issue. this will still not be solved between churchill and roosevelt. it will be served under the guise that the american army is
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feeling itself out, it is learning, it is getting reacquainted. it doesn't have really good tanks. the sherman tank is not as good as the best german tanks, but it is good to function i suppose in europe. it is going to have a one million man force, and by 1944, people like the first armored division who have fought in morocco, in sicily, in italy, they will be good veteran people. have air superiority. they will have taken a toll on the air campaign. -- just like it was the right decision to have your first -- europe first, and they solved the problem of american opinion. so too would the second front. they did take the pressure off stalin. stalin would have lost that war
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had there not been american and british pressure from bombing. challengemarked will platforms to protect their cities and bombers. each one of those was the most super weapons the german army had. german labor, german transportation will be soon really -- will be severely hard-pressed by bombing. that takes a load off the soviet union. germans have 40 divisions in north africa and in italy and sicily that are not committed to western -- to the eastern front. it does work. by the time we get there, think of the results. the tide supposedly turns when the german army is stopped 26 miles outside of moscow in late december. june 6 1944.ade
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the distance from normandy here to berlin if you look on the map like this, it is about 100 miles, and from here to the soviet union it is about 1100 miles. americans are going to go with the british and the canadians from here all the way into the center of germany and nine and the russian army is going to take four years. it is much harder to land an army and supply it on a coast when you are 3000 miles in the than when you have your industrial base fighting at home. brilliant,ement is what overlord planning did. monthsonths they -- 9 they ended that war.
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some of the best commanders out of that war -- there has never been quite an army group commander like george patton. the first armored division for example was absolutely superb. solves the problem of the so-called second front. -- andult of all this is now we will take some questions alliance hitler's new would break up --hitler knew would break up. he admired britain more than he did us. she knew he had tricked the japanese into one nonaggression pact with the germans and they him with another internet mussolini attacked greece without telling anybody. distrust and lack of cooperation characterize his alliance and he projected a into hours and he
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was wrong. we got along with the british. we kept the mass murdering stalin as a third part of the alliance. the result of it was absolutely amazing toe nd that war. does anybody have any questions at this point? i know we covered a lot of material and i want to stop for a second. go ahead. >> was solving the u-boat problem or defending the u-boat dominance critical to the of operation bolero? mr. hanson: that is an amorphous term just for making the british isles, scotland all the way down forales, as a depot material. you have to get it over there. by june to august 1942 you are losing with convoys 35% to 40%
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of the material blown apart by u-boat. there did not seem to be a way around it because there were large expenses off the map and in the atlantic that they are power, either from the east coast of america or from ireland could not reach. a u-boat is very vulnerable 90% of the time, that is when it is above water. it has electric batteries underneath the water. for more than eight hours. they have a small gun, that is when you want to attack them. they have a low silhouette. they are lethal, whether they are on the water or on the surface, they can shoot torpedoes. when you don't have air cover in areas, what is the solution to it? you crack the german naval codes
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that tells us where these wolf packs are going to congregate. you get long-range b-17s with extra catalina flying boats for reconnaissance. you could specially designed aircraft that have no blank spots, and you start to master the convoy system. the convoy system says you put a lot of destroyers around the convoy. the german u-boat commander has to make a decision. is he going to discharge his torpedoes at a very minor warship and let all of the key transport vehicles go and get going to forget about the destroyers and wait until he can get a shot in between? he knows whatever he does he will be subject to increasing response from depth charges, and it will be more sophisticated than they were in 1941. the
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u-boat threat is ended. with the conquest of western france and americans in belgium and amsterdam, that base of u-boat shelters. threat diminishes. very important to remember what hitler tells his commanders, just hang on because we have a super u-boat that has a snorkel that sucks air from the surface and sucks it down into the pressure chambers of a diesel engine and it can operate 24 hours 24/7, almost like a nuclear some overtime. -- sub all the time. that will reverse this. this is the argument he uses with the v2 aircraft. just hang on, and technology will change the pulse of the battlefield.
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you look at the communications with marshall and brook, and supply, suply, supply. we americans did not make the best tank. we did not make the best artillery. we made pretty good fighters and bombers, but we certainly made the best transportation in heavy trucks, jeeps. bestde the best food, everything in terms of supplying the men in the field with the sheer food, water, fuel. nobody was like us. that would have been impossible had we not solved the u-boat problem. we started in late 1941 with the coast, people out dancing at midnight with all of the hotels and the resorts lit up. with 50 u-boats off the shore
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waiting for us to load off of a transport ship with its two stacks. it gets down to the florida coast. the u-boat commander sees the big hotels, then the allies, and right in front of it is a big fat ship and they sent it off the coast. that is one reason why hitler declared war on the united states. if you kept saying we can't detect these american convoys, if you declare war on the u.s. and let us go, we will kill england by starving it. it was a good motivation that is inexplicable of why hitler declared war on us. someone else had a question. >> do you think the germans would have been able to take out the soviet union had they taken out moscow? napoleon invaded in 1812 and left the city. mr. hanson: in december of 1941 army group centers -- of all the
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three army groups, remember the army group north has not taken leningrad. army group self has been in some most successful. in august they made a big encircling movement in taking she has -- in taking kiev. had they taken moscow, would that have made a difference? you made a good point that napoleon took it and nothing happened. i am not sure that it would have. the soviets could have evacuated it, which they were ready to do. they could have evacuated in a week. they had already transported heavy industry. the german high command believed that the symbolic value was such that it would cause a loss of will among russian resistance. i don't think it would've. i think it would have helped -- won
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the war is if you take a chart and look at plane production, small arms production, transport production, and you put america, britain, russia, italy, germany japan, it will go from 4 to 1 by 10 to 1 in 1943. we the allies were producing so many goods and services it was hard to see how the germans were going to catch up. there is another thing that is and that isnt, hitler is a brilliant political strategist. he understands to a t the weakness in the 1938 style democracy. he knows they won't do anything. they will talked a lot about peace and human rights and freedom and democracy, but when it comes to stopping him, whether it is the rhineland or
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austria or czechoslovakia, they won't do a thing. and they are not able to fight the german army, at least for a while. but where he is absolutely wrong is that he translates at domestic and foreign brilliant into foreign relations that is innate -- because he is not educated, she is an autodidact, but he translates that into a strategic sense, and he doesn't have any. we know that by the stupid idea of invading the soviet union. has we set of three classes ago, if you look at german supplies from the soviet union, cannot one month of occupation of four years did levels of russian imports ever exceed what stalin sold, often with credits to the wehrmacht. the third reich got much more from russia by its war effort by
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being part of a packed with it then it did occupying it, given the disruption that happened. what really makes the question is given who fiddler was, when hetler says no more surrender, don't retreat at stalingrad. -- when he relieves some very good generals. they are not going to win with him. after stalin shoots his commanders, he finally gets to a guy like zukov and says, i will settle with them after the war, but they will be famous during the war. they are brilliant strategists and i will let them run the war. roosevelt does the same thing, but hitler thousand. --hitler doesn't. i don't think the capture of moscow would have made a
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difference. they assume it would have been of such symbolic value that they would quit, and i don't see them quitting. the united states was going to be in the war within a matter of months anyway given japan. what would have changed the war? easily how see very the germans and italians and japanese could have won the war very easily before the mass productive capacity of russia and britain kicked in. how without have happened? i think you all know it. that would have meant on june 22, 1941, hitler did not go into had 75,000 he only german troops and abo. he had taken a million and a half and put them here. she had all of this occupied.
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he had the greek ports, air cover at crete, sicily and italy. they had taken the enormous force. by the time el alamein was over, rommel had 26 tanks. here. had they swept into egypt and taken the suez canal, that would have done more to cripple britain than the convoy battle. then they could have slept into ending -- and then they are under iraq and they meet up with the japanese coming up from india. at that point was the soviet union -- with the soviet union neutral, i don't know how england would have continued. thenenormous force probably could have invaded. that was the first big mistake
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of hitler, and it was a fatal mistake. cut, and we have talked about this, was declared war on the united states. given our propensity to fight japan, it was a 50-50 question whether we would have declared war on germany. then we would have given supplies, but we wouldn't have been doing things in north sicily as we did. take those two decisions away and they dwarf the occupation of moscow. you can see where that would have ended. a 1945, germany had jet, me 262. they had a guided -- it is not even a scud missile. it had finally the v2, which was an intercontinental ballistic missile. they had designs that made
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something like a v3. we were at the stages of developing a bomb. 1948, war had lasted into it would have been cataclysmic. other questions? yes, we have a lot of them. 's it seems like hitler generals did have a lot of strategic sense. advocate for any kind of operation with japan? mr. hanson: the german high command? the question was, did the german high command agitate for greater integration? i think that in that particular case the answer was, they didn't have the time to think about it. he tried to get the japanese to stop thinking about the pacific campaign and fight russia as they had in 1939. what saved moscow, getting back
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to your question, was the trans-siberian of at least 40 cracked divisions from the japanese front. you can get divisions over there by invading russia through manchuria. the japanese are saying no, we fought them, we lost a thousand or 9000 people. they are diminishing returns. we don't want a front for. rly fighting russia when you signed a nonaggression pact. we don't have any special loyalty to you. there were efforts to send a german u-boat, see if they could around the cape of good hope and coordinate it. when hitler. ondecember 8, -- woke up december 8, he had no idea japan
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was going to attack pearl harbor. he was not in a two front war. number of britain and america were in two front wars. he was convinced, they have a two front war and the japanese have a great navy, i don't have to worry about a navy now. everything is great, let's declare war. december 7, there are about 30 miles outside of moscow. it was all optimism. you absolutely right, had tojo and mussolini and hitler's had the relationship of churchill and roosevelt and stalin, that would have been frightening. strengths, the japanese navy, the german military on land. even italy had a very sophisticated navy and air force
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had it been given a sphere of operations. italy, germans said please don't go into greece, don't go into the balkans. don't go into any of that. your sphere of influence is, you concentrate on libya and tying the british down and maybe take malta. the japanese, you attack russia from one side, we attack if we are going to do that. none of that existed. part of it is because when you have an ideology that says that the japanese art asian supermen and that thais are subhuman and in germany are than nordics and scandinavians, and a lot lot etc.r than slavs and jews,
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then everyone has this exalted view of themselves. an exit howard to have relations -- it makes it hard to have relations with other people. that autocracy by nature seems to be a very suspicious system. we had a question. >> was japan focused too much on the asian empire to invade europe? was japan focused too much on empire in the mainland in order to invade the u.s. while we were in germany, or were they just not strong enough to invade the u.s.? as early as 1931, they had gone into manchuria. by 1937 they were on their way to take shanghai. there were on their way to kill several hundred thousand civilians at nanking. they got most of the industrialized populated sector china, but they got themselves
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an insurgency of the first quarter with mao. they were tied down in korea. block, for the pacific lobby in the japanese military went to the emperor us they look, they told were going to annex china and we would have this great land border. they have been fighting here for 10 years, and we just see japanese bodies, there is nowhere you can go. they fought russia and did didn't work. this is what we wanted to do. they told us we had to make peace with the united states, and we had a diplomatic effort, and we like. -- we lied. we didn't go to war with the united states. what we want you to do is force the army to stand down and occupy and make peace with russia.
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that will allow us to have our chance. a pacific war, and we will take on america on a one front war because china will be static. we will do two things very quickly. we will get all of the rubber and oil from the bankrupt dutch and british empires that we want. we will solely threaten india, but it will have a mass insurrection. there were nationalist movements. they read all about gandhi. they will hit the united states so hard that these gangsters in chicago in the middle of a depression will not know what hit them that they will sue for peace within six months. then we have this enormous naval pacific empire. maybe from that after our army. and that prevailed. looking back with the benefit of hindsight, if you were a neutral
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strategist, you would have said there is more opportunity for japanese by option trading on korea, indochina, and manchuria. there was much better. -- that was much better. that was what the problem was. the japanese army and navy interests clashed. the navy made the argument that they had first choice, and they blew it. and it was their turn. as irony of the thing is soon as we got into the war, the army front heated up and we started to supply china, and china was reenergized. manchuria was much more difficult. we were supplying the nationalists through the so-called burma road.
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the british are involved in defending india and we started to be so successful that the land front heated up again. a couple things to remember. somebody else had a question? before we stopped for a break, remember how this is all going to work out in the postwar era. we will get to the next class, the war from 1943 to 2045. -- 1045. remember what the position of the united states is going to be in. it is very ironic and unenviable. what churchill and roosevelt are starting to envision is, so they are going to win. as george can said, we went for forto be -- we went to war totalitarianism to be destroyed in eastern europe. just change the name from
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-- i want to preview the problem that roosevelt and truman are with anthony eden successors. churchill will be gone for a while. the war is going to end. we have empowered the soviet union. the soviet union took a vacation on the pacific war until the last two weeks. they are going to go supply mao, and they will be ambiguous about that. china is going to turn communist. 1946,ill be very quick, 1947. they are devastated. they are facing communist in places, overthrow like japan, the philippines,
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north korea, italy, germany, all of western europe. here is what the united states is asked to do. has no much appreciation for less sympathy. we have this full mobilization. with britain the empire is exhausted. there is no support in britain for the empire. there will be nationalist social health care, this social program that will throw churchill out. at its basis is, let's not spend money on the empire, but spend money on home and read. we will inherit the empire's responsibilities, but we have the worst pr in the world, because we know have to save italy and we have to save the french,least american, and british zones of occupation and rebuild them. we will have to save japan, and we will have to go into korea.
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likef we go into a place korea, the japanese have been occupying it. we will have to tell the korean defeated the japanese, but we are going to have to make sure that the communists don't come in. the communists are saying see? they are rebuilding them into fascist and fighting us, who opposed the fascists. they say, you don't want germany completely destroyed. if you want to know why all of eastern europe is going communist and the korean war is going to break out and it looks hopeless for the united states, think of the burden of that public relations management. the two worst countries in the world have an japan and germany. we defeated them and almost immediately we are going to occupy them, create democracies, rebuild their democracies and
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tell the world, that was then. it was the fall of the japanese or the german people. they are good people, and now they are our allies. we're going to arm them so they whom? communist allies, the chinese and russians. -- theyod old guys, mao are bad now. then we have to tell millions of millions of eastern europeans and all these other people, we have to say to them -- i know there was a little bit of excess, the japanese liked to cut your hands off or there are german wehrmacht officers who shot people, but they didn't really mean that, they are not that people. thishey are saying to us, was the japanese and german people.
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they are saying that from indonesia to korea, bulgaria all the way to finland. and the russians are saying, yeah, see? the americans and british imperialists fought this war not for freedom or democracy, but a people's war. that is a terrible thing to have to do. the cold war is to rebuild the enemy and convince the world they are no longer the enemy and fight the front and tell the world they were never really our friends. it doesn't get worked up until 1980, to be quite candid. any final questions before break? >> do you think the allies made a mistake by supplying russia so much -- mr. hanson: did we make a mistake by supplying stalin? that is going to be fought all through the 1950's.
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someone will stand up in the senate and say, as we speak and korea, american boys are being trucks.n gmc they even had radios they were communicating, they are on those radios that say made in u.s.. a. i know there are some tolkien people at hillsdale, i think there was a line in the last of the trilogy where they say, wow, man against sauron? finally again both says -- g andalf says, we just try to do the best that we can. in our station we just try to win. in 1941 it was clear that
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hitler was going to win. allas going to kill them and he was going to create a civilization,eous and we were going to do anything we could to stop it. at that point we said to ourselves, these are russians, not communists. stalin said michael everyone to call on everyone to support the fatherland. americans were not all naive. there were people in the state department and the military that said okay, we're going to do that. that -- they are not like george cap who says equip those wehrmacht officers to go into moscow.
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-- the0 a.m. making his point i am making his you do what you can at the time is you always take the bad choice rather than the worst choice. the bad choice is arming stalin knowing that russian people are people and jews are at stake and the world is facing an existential evil, and worry about what happens after that with the next generation, and that is what we did. as i look back at it, it was the right decision. i wish we were not so naive in glorifying stalin. harry truman was a great american and understood that almost immediately in a way that roosevelt had not. in fact truman understood stalin than eisenhower. analysis, even though we conducted an
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anti-submarine campaign, a strategic bombing campaign, a campaign in north africa, sicily, italy, western europe, over the pacific, family supplied the russians with billions of dollars, they said to have every three land of every-- two ourt three land soldiers in the german reich were killed by the soviet union. they were the ones that broke the back of the wehrmacht. we broke the back of the german air force, the navy. we freed a lot of people. we took the pressure off. but the actual physical thing of getting in and shooting the german soldier was russian. remember one other thing -- this very theorizing. 1943, and in 1944,
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you want to defeat the german army, that means that you or me -- you, not me. you young kids are going to be given a rifle and you are going to be given a uniform and you are going to be put on the opposite side of the german soldier. he has been fighting for four years and he is imbued with a military tradition in general from his grandparents and a nazi ideology in particular, and he is going to be equipped with the best machine guns, the best infantry rifles, the best far, except for the t34, superior aircraft, the best generals, the best mid-level officers. when you are sitting in that fossil, whether it is the battle a german
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division, whatever they are, they come at you. there are going to be 100 tiger 7500 ton tanks. you can call them nazis, you can call them any name you want. they are sophisticated killers like the world has never seen. how do you stop them? it means x number of you are going to have to run out of your foxhole and try to stop that tiger because in theory there is nothing that can stop it. you take that tank through the hillsdale campus, you can do all you want, you can't stop it. you cannot stop it. it requires someone to walk right up to it at a point blank range and shoot an antitank it, and that person is going to die. tosomeone in a t34 sherman shoot it. that person is going to die. the german is going to be a
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better shot, better trained. that is going to be hard. how does one could growing up in america, or a soviet peasant deal with it? when he invades russia, you think about this as an outsider. if you knew anything about military strategy, you would say to yourself, okay, take the third reich with 9.5 million people in arms and the most sophisticated productive capacity in the world. things like 88 millimeter artillery platforms and tiger tanks, and to take that so it can't hurt anybody else, that will take 10 million dead. there is no way around it. it is like invading japan. everyone says we should have bomb. how do you go into japan when there are 7 million people that thought at the caliber at okinawa?
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50,000 total casualties american. do the arithmetic. whatever we think about the union, 20 million of them were willing to go up against the german armored division. and we will break come back at the half hour. thank you. >> join us every saturday evening at 8:00 p.m. and midnight eastern as we join students in college classrooms to hear lectures on topics ranging from the american revolution to 9/11. lectures in history are also available as podcasts. visit our website orpan.org/history/podcasts download them from itunes. , real clear on q&a politics washington bureau chief recounts events in u.s. history
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that happened on specific dates throughout the year in his book "on this date." >> it is a cruiser. it comes out of san francisco and it has this secret mission. what is the secret mission? there is this thing loaded onto it, it is very heavy. it is uranium. they are the components of the atom bomb that will be dropped in japan in world war ii, obviously top-secret. so top-secret that the navy doesn't do the normal things they do, and after this chip delivers its cargo, it heads to rendezvous with what may be the battle for japan. it doesn't get an escort. there is no destroyer escort. not enough people are aware it is missing. it is sent into summary infested waters. it is sunk with a summary. 900 guys go into the water. no one is looking for them. they drown, they die of heat
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hydration, sharks eat them. is a horrible story. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span's q&a. >> this weekend american history tv is featuring highlights from c-span cities tour with the support of our cable partners. here is a look at one of the many cities we visited this year. tall, it is feet 2/3 of a mile from one end to the other. it is 883 feet six, so it is thicker than it is tall. wen we look up at the dam, get an idea of just how massive is, it weighs 15 million tons. today we are standing at shashta dan, the sd

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