tv American Women in Politics Has Suffrage Mattered CSPAN October 29, 2017 12:45pm-2:21pm EDT
, other gift to the house, the scottish rose. >> an interview with william seo at the white house. only on c-span 3. my elizabeth griffith examines the legacy of the 19th amendment, giving women the right to vote and ponders the question "did some rich matter?" with women currently only -- "did suffrage matter?" ways women currently only have 20% in congress. the smithsonian hosted this 90-minute event. >> our speaker tonight is elizabeth griffith. you might have read her biography of elizabeth cady
stanton. she is a historian of women's history. we are delighted to have her here tonight. elizabeth griffith, thank you for being here. [applause] >> hello, everybody. we are making a few adjustments here. the light relates to c-span filming, so we are stuck with the light, which is affecting some of the colors. i hope you have already noticed that the background was suffrage for all. [laughter] hello, welcome, and thank you for being here. thank you to the smithsonian for the invitation and the opportunity to talk about what i'm learning as i write a new book. this book is about women in the 20th century between the two betweenon washington,
the march 1913 suffrage march, organized by alice paul the day before woodrow wilson was a nigra, and the march/january here, around the country and around the world the day after president trump's inauguration. spanhundred-your encompasses economic, legal rights for women, large cultural shift, sexual expectations, as and.as sexism, misogyny, historians should begin by defining the terms. let's begin with women. ween are a diverse cohort differ by age, race, class, education, geography, religion, sexual orientation, maternal status.
americaory of women in is vastly diverse. -- it is aiver colorful complex tapestry. tonight is women's suffrage, include in the lead up to talk about the schisms that -- proced passage of the 19th amendment, racial divisions and other schisms. we will focus primarily on the 1920's and then come after a dash through each of the decades, including passing the civil rights act. as theny people think of second women's movement is the ongoing women's movement. abandon political activity. they were just less successful. that timeline trumps another
noted by historical methodology. zation is how we distort our history. which is events on the pink and blue timeline. the traditional markers are presidents, politics, war, and economics. most of us learned. american history in chapters here in colonization, settlements, the revolution, the federal period, manifest destiny, abolition, and develop, civil war. but does exploration, starting in 1607 with the british landing at jamestown or in 1523 when the spanish hit the coast of florida , and what about those friends who are canoeing up and down the river's the center of the in the -- the rivers of center of the country?
it is important to note that the impact of the same event on minute women could be different. american. s suffered enormous devastation and destruction during the second world war. but it was also a period of great opportunity for white and women, all those riveting roses who worked in the war industries earning equal pay. the increasing number of women in the american workforce starts at pearl harbor and has never declined. that is enormously important when you think about the changes in women's lives. women having a paycheck changes their status in the family and changes their fair -- their status as active citizens. , in theown timeline handout, you may consider different dividers on the pink timeline. women's lives, before and after access to higher education, before and after passage of the 19th amendment, before it after of sewingion
machines, refrigerators or [indiscernible] or the availability of oral contraception. african-americans clearly divide the american timeline before and after emancipation or the civil rights acts or dr. king or president obama and perhaps never before and after president trump. 1920 is a marker on both the pink and blue timelines. a new postwar decade, a new political administration, and in your electorate after the 19th amendment passed, in franchising american women. still today, invest textbooks, the event rarely rates more than -- i'm sorry, those are the riveting roses. this is how we think about the women's suffrage movement. it is that grainy subtext. compare that chapter with the one devoted to jacksonian democracy in the 1830's, which
did grant all white men, whether or not they own party, the vote. chapter.a or to the section addressing the 15th amendment, equally significant, in that it gave the the two black men, at that time 5% of the population. in comparison, the 19th amendment enfranchised half the population. so it deserves a little more attention, which i'm delighted that the smiths -- the smithsonian is giving it to the desk in the lead up to 2020. in 1920, both advocates and opponents thought suffrage was a big deal. it could either liberate women in clean of government or wreak havoc on the family and destroy the home. did any 24 million women to the ,olls change voting patterns political parties, legislation, lives,n results, women's or the american democracy? that's our topic. [laughter]
the language of the susan b anthony amendment was straightforward. the right of citizens of the united states shall not be denied or abridged by the united states or any other state on account of sex. but the process was circuitous. to them in the united states constitution, you need to have a two thirds vote in both chambers -- in both the house and the senate. then you need ratification by three quarters of the states. and finally a signature by the secretary of state. ont step was completed 1920, a humid thursday, shortly after breakfast at the home of the secretary of state bainbridge colby. neither [indiscernible] president of the national american women's suffrage or alice paul, leader of the national women's party, was invited. as the new york times reported the next day, on the front page, the differences between the militant suffragist and the
mainstream suffrages as to who should attend and be present at the signing could not be ironed out. so the secretary of state decided to issue the proclamation privately to avoid a clash. [laughter] everyone in washington knew that the two women detested each other. supposedly, they had not spoken since april 1917 at a luncheon to welcome her to washington as the first woman elected a republican from montana. in was also the only woman who voted for suffrage. kat for herl blamed arrest and her strategic success. that afternoon, president and the second mrs. wilson invited mrs. cap to celebrate the success of a campaign he had opposed for most of his two
terms. across pennsylvania avenue and hers strategically positioned lafayette square headquarters, miss paul, surrounded by a crowd, hose -- toasted the purple and gold suffrage flag. she added a star for each of the 36 ratified states. camera.re captured on the reason the president isn't in the pictures because he was still recovering from the stroke and had not been photographed in public. after subsequent victory parade down fifth avenue in new york city, mrs. ct a number -- mrs. enumerated election wins and losses it had taken to succeed. basically, 72 years of ceaseless efforts set back in strife. she was counting back from the july 1848 seneca falls women's rights convention enough state new york organized by elizabeth cady stanton and the lamotte which called for women to vote.
this -- historians have identified three generations of suffrage leadership, the acknowledged founders, stanton, her co-editor susan vienna -- susan b anthony, and her rival, lucy stone, who stanton attempted to exclude from the history of women's suffrage. in the 1880's, anthony had recruited a second-generation. and howard shaw and [indiscernible] were college educated and conservative. the third-generation, alice paul and her friend c burns, had imported out your taxes -- outdoor tactics. these tactics they learned when they were pursuing graduate .tudies in europe by 1913, stanton and anthony there was the generational mother-daughter conflict between cat and paul.
most recently, african-american historians, like rossiter, have offered a different timeline. they argue that the women's movement began in 1830's in the abolition movement, a biracial call for universal suffrage as well as emancipation. sarah and angelina grimley, the daughters of south carolina's slaveholder, described the horrors of bondage and abdicated equal rights for blacks and whites and men and women. in general, white men were shocked by the golf as bought -- the gaul as by the fact that these women should address next six or -- mixed gender audiences. they were asked to stop speaking. withair a ended emancipation and the post-civil war amendments, freeing and in franchising formally enslaved and. most of it -- most apple --
enslaved men. stanton did not think of it as the negroes hour. do you think that the negro race , composed of black men she argued. furious that the 14th amendment defined citizens as mail, stanton directed her ire toward black, immigrant, and poor white men objecting to vote for sambo, patrick and all the ignorant foreigners. even in that area, her language was outrageous and offensive. before the 15th amendment was in 1870,in -- sorry, the suffrage movement had already split.
on one side was the national american suffrage association. on the other side, the american women's suffrage association headed by lucy stone. if you northern black women each, but the majority focused on the physical and economic survival of blacks in the south, especially after the withdrawal of federal troops in 1877. competing suffragists pursued several strategies to challenge the definition of citizenship as mail. more than 100 women attempted to vote. in 1872, anthony was arrested for trying to vote in rochester and taken to trial. lucy stone tried to vote in new jersey, where the register told her she could only register if she used her husband's name and she refused. virginia minor and her husband sued the st. louis registrar.
in 1875 on appeal to the string -- the supreme court when the court confirmed that the constitution did not grant women the right to pursued localttes options. the wyoming territory granted women the right to vote in 1869 partly as a marketing tool to get more women to work to my roaming -- moved to wyoming. [laughter] -- by 1890 the two groups mercer international american women's suffrage association. into the national american women suffrage association. -- other college-educated women were volunteering across the north following the lead of jane adams in chicago. they worked with immigrants and the poor to teach english,
provide child care and improve factory conditions. the largest group of women's reformers was the women's christian temperance union because women who had no legal right to custody of their children or to their wages were vulnerable to trunk and abusive husbands. founder frances willard clashed with anti-lynching crusader ida for not welcoming black women into her organization and repeating stereotypes about shiftless black men. opportunities for college education would fit on the pink timeline right after the civil war when both state universities and single-sex schools open their doors. riskge education poster according to harvard medical school professor dr. edward clark. in his 1873 book sex and education clerk warned that women using their brains would
shrink their uteruses. i wish i thought of this when i was a high school principal studying calculus provides birth control. proportionally more african-american families embraced academic opportunities for girls hoping to protect their daughters from sexual harassment in the postwar south. many college-educated women did have fewer children because they married later if at all. of black and white middle-class women embraced social activism. the 1890's in small towns and cities these women organized andegated clubs federations. they expended sewing circles and church of salaries to find common cause and causes such as playground, kindergartens, sewer housing and systems. college graduates formed the initially all white american association of university women.
which funded research to challenge dr. clark's thesis and supported marie curie's experiments. the daughters of the american revolution established an archive of women's history and built the building on 17th street. united daughters of the confederacy erected statues. the national associate of colored women founded by ida in 1896 was the largest organization of black women. the federation of 50 clubs dedicated to racial uplift and ending lynching. wells barnett was a courageous controversial leader, a muckraking journalist who is memphis press have been burned by a white mob before she moved to chicago. her investigations of lynching proof that the victims were not rapists but men who were competing with local white businesses. owning a grocery or a stable.
married to an attorney, she was a sought-after speaker who insisted that her host committees provide child care for her four children. women activists especially settlement workers who were identifying and investigating industrial problems recognized a new rationale for women suffrage . in addition to the calendar -- the egalitarian argument that women were equal citizens would equal rights progressive women one of the vote to change policies and politics. from the 1890's on women allied themselves with suffrage out of self-interest. but not so was wary of being linked to any cause that could divide its ranks and attract opponents. in order to appeal to white male voters and legislators they play down progressive immigrant working-class and black demands. it avoided the race question and flirted with educated suffrage.
suffrage still attracted plenty of enemies. brewers and immigrant men worry votersn the dutch women demanding prohibition. manufacturers about unions and labor reforms. the catholic about women abandoning their domestic role. white southerners didn't want any blacks to vote. result it was reluctant to enroll black members in southern states like margaret murray washington, dean of women at tuskegee institute in alabama. alice paul was annoyed that the newly formed howard university sorority delta sigma theta wanted to join her 1913 march so she reluctantly added a colored section at the rear. she worried that white southerners coming to a southern city would boycott her parade. alice stone blackwell, the daughter of lucy stone and henry blackwell insisted that ida
wells barnett moved to the back of the parade line rather than march with the illinois equal suffrage association of which she was a founding member. she ignored the directive. -- assured southern senators that white women would easily outnumber all black voters. nonetheless in the final push for suffrage archives of women divided by race, class, region, political party and experience briefly became allies to secure voting rights. mary church terrel, president of -- association of club colored women marched and picketed. she and wells barnett were the only black women founders of the naacp. the naacp was organized in
february 1909. the centennial of lincoln's birth. because springfield had an outbreak of chicks. turow was the granddaughter of two white men. the daughter of the wealthiest black man in the south. blackfe of the first municipal judge in washington, d.c. appointed by president mckinley. she had earned undergraduate and graduate degrees from oberlin, in europe, spoke five languages and usually work girls. not every woman endorsed the suffrage campaign. the wives of the democrat and james wadsworth led the national association opposed women's suffrage. whose anderson
house on massachusetts avenue was another of these wealthy women who felt they had plenty of power without having to go to a polling place. vote for the right to many reasons. because of a broadly based and inclusive diversity alliance. because of votes for in august 1920. one cast by democrat banks turner after the governor pleaded party loyalty that the democrats didn't want to be blamed for the defeat of suffrage. one cast by 24-year-old republican harry burn who switched his vote because his mother asked him to. it took two votes because had it been a tie the measure would have been defeated. of work women did in the war on farms and factories on the frontlines these activities attitudes about women's
roles even among president wilson. the war prompted wilson's change of heart. hisas embarrassed that allies and enemies in europe had all granted women suffrage ahead of the united states. of paul street theatre the 1913 parade, the 1917 tickets which led to the arrests of 218 women street theatre the 1913 parade, from 26 states. 97 went to jail including paul. treatment and forced feeding of suffragists turned them from inheritance into heroines in the public mind. they won because of strategic brilliance and winning plan. she had an organizer in every legislative district in the country telling every vote, lobbying legislators, defeating opponents and securing a $3 million war chest to underwrite the fight. because mostly,
millions of american women were already voting. after suffrage lost in the senate in october 1918 democrats lost their majority in both houses. as women one suffrage state by state beginning with wyoming in the 1890's the women's vote became a factor in both local elections and in the electoral college. had full suffrage in 15 states and limited presidential suffrage in six states. those 21 states represented 223 votes close to the 200 66 needed to elect a president. in early 1919 separate from the ratification campaign six other would grant suffrage to women which took them over the majority of electoral votes in those states.
these handouts from the center for the american women and politics at rutgers are very helpful reference points and you can go online and find even more information about women voting historically and today. for parties competed women's loyalty. republicans took credit for passage of suffrage because they 2930 six states. democrats countered sort of weekly that the amendment had passed under a democratic administration, ignoring years of wilson's opposition. they incorporated 12 women's planks into the party platform in 19 20. both parties recruited convention delegates. women were 9% of democratic delegates and 2% of republicans. the daughter of a congressman had led the ohio suffrage association. in 1920 she was the first woman to become vice chair of the
national party. to sustain the allegiance of northern black women to the party of lincoln the rnc recruited haley quinn brown who had been president of the association of colored women. she served as director of colored women where she developed lack republican clubs across the country. she spoke at the 1924 convention , supported hoover in 28. he hosted a segregated inaugural ball. alice dunbar nelson, a poet married to another poet became director of colored women at the democratic national committee in 1920. numer umeral blair -- -- as national committee members from each state.
as clara observed in 1927 men were eliminating women who had learned how to fight. asthe election of 1920 was a republican landslide with only anecdotal evidence journalist assumed that women had voted for harding because he was handsome. the republican candidate had appealed directly to women voters from his front porch in ohio. although there is no photo of him with the women possibly because there had been scandals when women and he didn't want to be photographed with any women. in october 1920 he hosted a social justice day, specifying that he was inviting only respectable women. he invited representatives of the league of women voters, the women's trade junior league. the gopfurther than in his remarks.
he promised equal pay for equal work, expansion of the children's bureau, the end of child labor, prevention of in his remarks. he promised equal paylynching, t health protection. the appointment of women to state and federal posts and the treatment of a cabinet department of social welfare. secretary colby's august 1920 -- proclamation made 24 women eligible to vote. women cast only one third of the vote in november and seem to vote like men. suffragists were chagrined. in reality not all women could vote. states notnt covered territories. hawaii quickly passed its own suffrage law. puerto rico stall until -- stalled until 1929 when it enfranchised literate women. one wonders, literate in spanish or english.
and all adult women in 1935. native americans who lived on reservations were not considered citizens of the united states until passage of the snyder act in 1924 granting indian the nation'so original inhabitants. new mexico arizona utah maine limitedesota still ballot access until the supreme court acted in 1948. black women in the south like black men were subjected to poll taxes and unfairly administered literacy tests which bypassed illiterate whites that demanded that lacks interpret the state constitution. some states added grandmother clauses to prevent the descendents of slaves from voting. violence also suppress the vote. in response to uppity negroes attempting to vote. equally effective were economic
repercussions by employees and landlords. the 24th amendment outlawed poll taxes. rights act ended did literacy tests. asian immigrants were not eligible for citizenship. when america was allied with china during the second world war chinese asian immigrants got the vote after 1943. after patients -- asians 1946 and the japanese after 1952. asian children born in the united states were considered citizens and could vote. district residents were denied the vote in presidential elections until passage of the 23rd of in in 1964. has thatict really limited presidential suffrage since we don't have actual voting representation in congress. voting rights depended on who you were and where you live.
we know from the news that may still be true. there was no systematic collection of voting data by gender at the national level until 1964. there were registration records but few states reported vote -- recorded votes cast by sex. researchers went door to door in several precincts. three quarters of eligible women were not registered. among all women 1/3 claimed disinterest, inc. drew -- ignorance or timidity. 11% believed immigrants should not vote. many women confessed that their husbands disapproved. reported a member of the minnesota league of women voters, women except for one or two party spirits were too timid to participate in the election where men votes made it plain
they were not wanted. as historian william chafe concluded for women to vote required a break and conventional roles. excuse me. the 1920's would overturn many old rules and roles. despite the passage of on january 1920's speakeasy's, jazz characterized to the new decade. the roaring 20's conjured up flappers and multi-forwards -- -- l t fords the charleston, hemingway, fitzgerald, lindbergh, jack dempsey and babe ruth. rayon,ade produced pirates, safety razors, wristwatches and talking movies. where there was electricity --
for the first time more americans lived in cities than on farms. great migration was bringing southern blacks to northern cities where they escaped jim and facedot the clan white resentment and competition for better jobs and higher wages. it was decade when the congress passed quotas on asian and swarthy european immigrants. the scopes monkey trial in 1925. the execution of anarchist sacco and vanzetti in 1927. and the thousand member women's clan march in washington in 1928. it would end with the great crash. given competing agenda and racial issues, the fragile suffrage sisterhood fractured after its success.
long before the 19th amendment was ratified suffrage allies were planning ahead and falling back into self-interested silence. the mobilization from the great in or mislead disruptive to the country. in mobilization after suffrage resulted in fragmentation and competition. in march 1919, months before the congress had actually passed the anthony amendment, not some called a jubilee convention in st. louis to celebrate 50 years since wyoming had given women the vote. to keep her troops engaged where women were already voting cap launched a new nonpartisan organization. most appropriate and patriotic memorial that could be suggested, league of women voters. to finish the fight and to aid the reconstruction of the nation. for resolution passed but not unanimously which was a single of more dissent to come.
called ary 1920 cap actory victory convention against premature great ratification was not secure. they had 31 of 36 states needed in hand. she urged members to become active partisans ready to work with parties, draft legislation and run for office. jane adams offered a counter proposal for women to engage in community organizing and reform. for aromise called nonpartisan league of women voters to educate women for a moreship and promotes just society. the group endorsed 69 action the news that new mexico had ratified bringing the total to 32 brought the delegates to their feet cheering marching and singing. they sang the battle hymn of the republic. will be a hot time in the old town tonight. just imagine these women in that in.
before it disbanded in 1920, membership was 2 million women. national league membership in the entire decade was 100,000 intelligent and clean women. meaning white, native women. leaks of color women opened in california, illinois and missouri. an integratedon league and other states admitted individual black women. most members of the national suffrage coalition returned to the causes they had wanted the ballot to advance. that this is the cover of the league of women voters magazine after suffrage was secure. jane adams pursued peace as well work. francis kelly who was head of the national consumers league wanted to eliminate sweatshops and child labor. had inspired her acolyte frances perkins to pursue social work when can we have spoken at
mount holyoke during perkins senior year. after perkins witnessed teenage girls jumped to their desks during the triangle shirtwaist factory fire and march 1911 she committed her life to industrial reform. note the generational connection among women. it happens again and again in this history of women. general federation of women's clubs were 3 million members focused on children. the women's trade union league organized women's workers while the ywca protected their moral and religious welfare. the national council of jewish women opposed quotas on immigrants and college admissions. the national association of colored women worked to outlaw lynching, and segregation in the federal government which wilson and forced the 14th amendment and improve the lives of less privileged black women.
eight major national organizations founded the white only women's joint congressional committee. of florenceections kelly another founder of the naacp. held thes home journal wj cc as a clearinghouse for progressive legislation. the most powerful and highly organized lobby in washington. that conclusion was premature. 1921alliterative agenda in include these items. prohibition enforcement, public school improvement, protection of infants, physical education for girls, place and the protection of women in industry. president taft created -- i skipped this. the national association of colored women seal has the listing as we climb. the idea that the responsibility of privileged women was to make sure they were bringing all black women along with them.
this is julia lathrop who was appointed by president taft in 191220 created the children's bureau and one of her passions was researching child -- mother and child mortality. in 1920 at a 111 deaths per 1000 live births the united states ranked last among 20 industrial nations. in congress in 1918 jeanette rankin had introduced a baby girl to combat this problem. it failed. senator morris sheppard a democrat of texas and representative chorus town or a republican from iowa draft of the promotion of the welfare hygiene of maternity and infancy act. it provided federal matching funds for educational programs and visiting nurses especially in rural areas. sheppard towner failed twice before president harding as promised endorsed it in april
1921. opponents claim that the bill was federal overreach if not socialism. the anti-suffrage women patriots and the american medical association condemned it prompting pediatricians to secede from the ama. they formed the american academy of pediatricians and endorsed the bill. it seems to be established doctrine of the children's bureau. that the only people capable of caring for babies and mothers of babies are ladies who have not had babies. opponent wanted to rename it the bill to organize a -- cate fear of women voters make the difference as the ama journal concluded.
women have just been given the vote. no one knew how they would use it. nearly every congressman had a distinct sense of faintness at thought of having all the women in his district against him. mill opposition he was used to but the women's vote awful thought. to note that this bill passed with large margins. it passed in three months. thats a bipartisan bill got through committees in both houses in three months. we have not seen that in recent years. women's voting bloc did not materialize in 1924 funding for the sheppard towner act was cut in 1927 and it was repealed in 1929. during that time infant mortality fell to 67 per thousand live births with greater impact on nonwhite rural women. wouldof the bill in 19 35. in 1921 women reformers thought
they were on a roll to they didn't recognize that each successive victory would be harder. it allowed american women married to non-americans to keep their citizenship, changing centuries of common-law practice called the lord master laws in which the wife's domicile and citizenship were determined by her husband. domicile and citizenship. reformers also succeeded in establishing the first separate federal women's prison, safeguarding appropriations for children and women's bureaus and for girls to public schools. they did not succeed in funding a cabinet department for education. seduced by these successes, social justice advocates introduced a constitutional amendment to regulate the labor of persons under 18 years of
age. every presidential candidate in 1924 endorsed the child labor amendment. it was opposed by manufacturers. by the parents of kids who were working in the factory and needed every penny. because it abrogated traditions and by the catholic church was against any reform relating to women or children. the ever annoyed senator reid concluded the bill would not receive a single vote in this body whether or not so many individuals looking over their shoulders toward the ballot boxes in november. when women voters did not appear at those ballot boxes as an effective force in the 1924 election mail lawmakers no longer feared their influence. 1924 was the peak of women's participation for several decades. failure to ratify the child labor amendment marked an abrupt
reversal of political momentum for women. from being perceived as having considerable influence to have -- to becoming an embattled minority. divisions among women reformers over the proposed equal rights amendment further weakened their political clout. 1921 before sheppard towner had been introduced 36-year-old alice paul invited 50 women's organizations to present their legislative agenda to the women's party. fore included programs factory workers, immigrants, children and black women. according to crystal eastman who attended the meeting, all doubtful subjects like birth control and the rights of negro women were hushed up, ruled out of order or postponed. although lynching was discussed. paul refused mary church terrell's request to support women rights for black women in the south profanation to
denounce paul is a racist. ignoring every issue other than her own, paul declared in december 1921 that the women's a single plank platform, ratification of a needful rights amendment. social activists believe such an amendment would undercut all their hard-won protections for working women like rest period, bathroom breaks, safety codes. outraged andy was unrestrained. she damped the proposed amendment as readers will -- miserable, stupid and deadly. she questioned how the amendment would affect laws regarding child support, desertion, pensions, penalties for rape, illegitimacy, premature -- she askedare -- frankfurter to persuade paul to drop the idea. she did not succeed. the deceptively doe eyed paul was undaunted. she dismissed every objection and alienated just about everybody.
in july 1923 on the 75th anniversary of the first women's rights convention she returned to seneca falls to introduce the lucretia mott amendment. men and women shall have equal rights throughout the united states and every place subject to its jurisdiction. the wording was revised in 1943 to its present language that you all would know. senator charles curtis future vice president under hubert hoover -- erbert it was reintroduced in every session from then on. there were no reports in either chamber until 1946 as the measure benefited as this. there republican party endorsed it in 1940 over and eleanor roosevelt objections. the democrats reluctantly followed in 1944. the amendment created a huge schism in the women's movement that would last 50 years.
until the congress passed the rights amendment in march 1972. paul isolated herself from social justice activists. she allied himself with republicans, supporting uber in 1928 and 1932. she alienated franklin and eleanor roosevelt, alarmed the labor movement, exclude african-american women she lost numbers, resources, and effectiveness. general membership in the women's party fell to 60000 and 1920 to 1400 and 1965. the idea -- there were 200 active members in the 1960's. she preferred to govern with an elite group. 1960, most members of the national women's party were old senators.
she called the then party president. shouldn't that want to align the party with the coalition. clearly, women did not have equal rights in 1920, nor did they at the beginning of the 1960's. the approach, timing, and rhetoric were dismissive and many thought wrong. african american women had little interest in most of the legislative initiatives. aroundsouth, beginning 1910, for three decades, southern wax migrated north and west in enormous numbers -- this change the social dynamic. there were more job options and
higher wages with better schools. there were black newspapers and black political machines. chicago and los angeles elected their first black legislature. job options and higher wages with better schools. a republican fromewspapers illinois and a former house painter turned real estate developer became the first black member of congress from outside the reconstruction. other outcomes of black migration was the harlem renaissance. this was coed i his wife. this -- this was co-led by his wife. the groundbreaking investigation in the 1890's, the naacp podcast statistics in response, there were 200 anti-lynching bills introduced, all defeated by southerners in the senate. a republican from race riots in st. louis in 1917
prompted the congressman, a republican, to introduce an anti-lynching bill. it passed the house, but was withdrawn by southern senators when they threatened a filibuster. theeffort was quiet until 1930's when a new bill was drafted. the building colluded prosecuting sheriff's who did not protect the prisoners from mobs. -- losehe would lose of seven support, roosevelt refused to endorse it. the belt lost again in the senate. the effort was abandoned for 30 years. fortunately, the number of lynchings dropped a medically to under 20 in the 1930's. at the same time, black women were urging white women to deny the myth of black rape. race riots in st. louisduring ', african-american forged
coalitions with white women. they worked together to create segregated day nurseries, health clinics, and better schools. in 1935, the national council of the othern superseded party. his work middle-class, educated, married women. 2/3 work as teachers. unlike white women, as it was written, black women were doublecrossed by race and sex. decade,nd of the first with some women voting, many were feeling deflated. child labor amendment was losing and the clan was rampant with 4 million voters. there was no evidence of a women's voting block. white women weren't dismissed.
but women were disenfranchised. they were all discouraged. before we talk about women in public office, i want you to charlestonnd do the or the hokey pokey. let's see if this works. you can stand up and stretch while we are waiting for the musical accompaniment. ok, here we go. ♪ this is josephine baker, who left st. louis after the race here.and moved
the powerpoint. this will take a moment of challenge. help. wait, we have it. ok, here we go. , and justderstand have a sense of how stunningly different the 20's were. even though women didn't use their vote, they were certainly changing roles and many other ways. the highest number of phd's were earned in the 1920's. women were playing sports. women were everywhere. but it wouldn't last. so, let's stick on baker for a moment. now we are entering the end of the 1920's.
it was believed that responsible women had run for office. women were running for office but faced formidable barriers. parties did not nominate women for seats that could be won by a man, that is nec that could be one was not going to have a woman nominee. nominee -- that is any -- any seat that could be one was not going to have a woman nominee. only one was able to be won. and she was to save the seat. she was the most prominent woman in georgia. she was a white supremacist and supported lynching.
jeanette rankin has run for the senate in 1918. this redheaded rancher's daughter campaigned by driving across the state of montana, but she lost because of her vote against american entry into the great war. she remained active and returned to congress in 1940, when hers was the only vote against the declaration of war following pearl harbor. she lived long enough to protest the vietnam war. when asked how she would live her life differently, she replied, i would have been nastier. [laughter] only needed a t-shirt. in the first decade, 11 women served in the house of representatives. most came to politics through their family ties. five were widows. one was interesting -- the widows were all accomplished women. jeanettebut mccormack was both e daughter of a senator who was a
political boss. of an illinoisow senator. she was not running to replace them, he had died in the 1920's. she won the republican primary and loss in a democratic landslide. there were two daughters. particularly interesting is ruth bryan, whose father had run for president five times and was wilson's first secretary of state. he went to jail. had no the women who family connections at all. the nextertson was women in the house of representatives after rankin and after national suffrage. she voted against the shepard act and she supported lynching. perhaps it is good she left the congress, declaring it to unclean. women are worth
noting. recognition. recognition. mrs. rogers, in addition to serving the longest term up to that time of any woman and congress was responsible for getting women into a gallery service roles in the military and the second world war. she is frequently photographed in uniform. rogers held the record for the longest house tenure for a woman, 35 years. --you count the koski mccluskey, she is a total of 40 years. a rep. guinta: from maine held third-place for 32 years. aese were definitely -- representative from maine held
third-place for 32 years. in wyoming in 1925, and election was one. easedcrat in texas was into office after her husband's impeachment. she served a second term in the 1930's. in 26 state7 seats legislatures. decade later, they had won 46 seats and 39 legislatures. women were elected statewide. had women mayors. seattle was the largest. then, as now, women are entirely represented in the lowest categories of office. the least powerful. most women serve on school boards. nowhere near 50% in any category of women serving in office. alan won two terms.
she ran an election for the ohio supreme court. she was a only democrat to win statewide in 1928. terms. in 1930 four, fdr appointed her to the court of appeals, making her the second federal judge. 1934, fdr appointed her to the court of appeals, making her the second federal judge. 1938, women held 38 presidential appointments. somewhere traditional, and some were more interesting. the tax appeal board, irs, civil in 1921, preston harding appointed mabel will the brand-- will the --wildebrand. without power at the ballot box, women seeking influence were stuck.
after 1924, the percentage of women voting decreased for several decades. change it did not come for 50 years. according to the center for american women and politics, in every presidential election since 1980, the proportion of eligible women who voted has exceeded the portion of eligible men who voted. the number of female voters has exceeded the number of male voters in every presidential election since 1964. in the age 18 to 24 vote lease. women 65 to 74 boat the most. vote the most. every election since 1996, women have been 15% more likely to support democrats than republicans. 2016, mrs. clinton 154% of all women's votes to trump's 42%. 54% of all women's votes
to trump's 42%. women are diverse and divided. the stock market crash and the depression devastated everyone. women were especially vulnerable. federal and state laws passed in the 1930's restricted the employment of married women. opportunities vanished. the fair labor standards act passed in 1938 and secured an eight hour day, a 25's and minimum wage, and for some workers, and removed oppressive child labor in some industries. it applied to only 20% of the workforce and 14% of jobs held by women, in the garment and textiles. it excluded most of the jobs held by blacks and by women. best sixlture, to service, retail laundress,
hotels, restaurants, food processing, including teaching. the new crisis created a new social justice coalition led by eleanor roosevelt. it greater than national power of networks. women were organized and lobbied for mrs. perkins's appointment. the first women cabinet secretary only accepted the position after fdr agreed to support social security, minimum wage, etc.. -- ere lobbied to include during the new deal,
more and more black men and women joined the democratic party. at a national youth camp when she met the visiting first lady in 1974. murray was a firebrand. she was always writing letters to the president complaining that he was allowing southern dissemination. mrs. roosevelt answered these letters and began a friendship that would last 30 more years. lawyer, a poet, any piscopo priest, and work for women's rights. a priest, and worked for women's right. education and access
to greater job opportunities had probably a bigger impact on women's lives than suffrage. during the war raise the issue of equal pay and rally postwar interests in the equal rights amendment. ignoring the progress being made by black women, historians label the. between 1945 and 1960 the periods -- labeled the between 1945 and 1960 the doldrums. black women domestic service 42%ped from 60% in 1940 to in 1950. their daughters were attending college at a higher rate than white women or black men. women earned 62% of the degrees from historically black colleges.
the women's movement was supposed to be dead, or on life support. the scholars have recently acknowledged gains made by women working behind the scenes in labor unions and other causes. the women's party resurrected the equal rights amendment in 1946, where it passed the house but lost in the senate. 1953, it was of arawn in the face democrat of arizona. hayden was the former sheriff whenad served in congress arizona became a state in 1912. it said nothing will be construed to change women's traditional roles. dramatically and importantly, black women had become the backbone of the civil rights movement. joined inay was
desegregating washington west runs in -- restaurants in 1949. on thest female attorney naacp defense fund wrote the firstal complaint in the brown versus the board of education case. she was the first woman to argue in front of the supreme court on fromf of air force veteran mississippi. one of these courageous women was the mother of a black boy murdered in mississippi who insisted on an open casket. another was an end of unit acp leader -- naacp leader who refused to move to the back of the bus. the movement mom's in 1964 risked everything to house black and white students trying to register voters. these women remain nameless.
to many others are too little known. ella baker was a new yorker who moved to atlanta to provide support staff to the southern leadership conference in the student nonviolent leadership committee. she appeared demised behind the scenes leadership. sheng people do not need -- epitomized behind the scenes leadership. monday theyheard on were broadcasting the ceremony honoring 60 years since the air force came and forced entry into the high school. student inwas a nashville p or cheat organized lunch counter boycotts and joined the freedom riots in
1961, after the first buses were bound and burned in alabama, and ever but he thought they should abandon the effort to get to new orleans. she recruited classmates to go with her. this new generation of black women demanded to be an interval part of thegral civil rights movement. ella baker said the movement of the 1950's and 1960's was carried largely by women. i'm going to pause in the early 1960's. reproductive rights. the birth-control movement had bed advancing during the same. in 1920.ffrage there was less fanfare to avoid itscontroversy over
founder, margaret sanger. 1910 was arrested and fled the country and avoided trial. arrested fors disturbing birth-control pamphlets and was the first in jail in 1916 before the women's party members. sanger founded planned parenthood in 1942. sanger was viewed as an embarrassment by the younger generation until the introduction of the pill in 1961. ine again.ecame a hero 1920, 1960 works on both the pink and blue lines.
kennedytion of john followed by his assassination, dr. king's march on washington and the bombing of the birmingham church in 1963 all fall on the blue timer. and passage of the equal pay act are markers on the timeline. the lines come together in 1964 when the fight for the civil derailedt was almost by the addition of the word sex to title vii in a list of protected classes to be protected from discrimination. the insertion was offered by a democrat from virginia elected to the house in 1930. the chair of the committee, he tried to derail the civil rights act, asserting that southern people have never accepted people with equal intelligence. civil rights proponents were sure that sex had been added to
--gut thet the bill bill. alex paul after the civil war resented the blacks and denied white women. she had been ruling southerners since the 1950's. when smithfebruary, introduced his wording change, the house laugh at the word sex, which inflamed a michigan democrat. she chastised her male colleagues and took up the battle. a higherpassed with percentage of republican than democratic votes. it passed in both chambers and title vii became the basis for many current supreme court decisions and had advanced
rights or women. title vii is enormously supported. the court has been reluctant to use the language of the 14th amendment. passage of equal rights would go on in 1972. later chapters of my book not yet written. well described how president kennedy's status of women condition, which was stacked with anti-dra opponents inadvertently led to the creation of now and the resurrection of the amendment. they will be knowing it how the think that -- accessible birth control would launch a sexual revolution. push states to fix their in 1973.laws, they will demonstrate how the connection between abortion and the equal rights amendment would
be one reason that the amendment failed to be ratified. e.r.a. did not meet its extended gratification deadline were83, but by then women voting in ever larger numbers and a woman was appointed to the supreme court. in conclusion, thank you for your patience. a share six observations about women in politics since 1999. suffrage was a remarkable achievement. women whopowerless did not initially have the votes, who had no independent income, armed only with moral authority, arguing for civil .ustice managed to amend the constitution and half the population. that moral authority and a call for simple justice would be reiterated in the civil rights campaign. , women who votes have power.
the more women vote and go to the polls, the more power they have. in the 1992 election, the year of the women, to medically increased the number of women in the house and senate. even fear of how women might vote gives them leverage. if enough women were to coalesce for the same candidate or cause, they would have more power. corollary to this is emily's list, women contributing money to candidates and two parties. change andso affect willpower. coalitions have been fragile and fraught. there have been few successful examples of coalition. after thege campaign picketers were released from jail, maybe 2.5 years of
sticking to each other, during some periods of the civil rights , among mothers marching against the vietnam war, maybe mothers against drunk driving are an example of coalition, not the mothers of the movement. those mothers who children have been shot by the police. more often, partisan and racial schisms still erupt. they were risks among the white women. they can buy the attempts to support -- organize for the civil rights amendment. the middle-class educated white women in jacket dresses whose status women commission. the women who read congo -- cosmo. delivers were attempted to burn their bras while protesting the miss america contest in 19 to eat. they didn't get a fire -- they didn't get a fire permit. white women who had worked in
freedom summer in the civil rights movement like mary king and casey hayden. they came college women who learned how to perform abortions on campuses and wrote inside bathroom stalls "need help, call jane. women nonmembers teachers, social workers, nurses, doctors lawyers, professors. the coalition was enormous. it was agreed on the goal, but they did not play well together. the league of women voters and labor union testified against equal rights amendment in 1971. once it passed, they wanted leadership roles in the coalition. this at annoyed the members were been taxing them since 1999 to build a ratification warchest. to associateant with lesbian or associate advocates.
it fell apart when now withdrew, preferring boycotts over required to lobby the legislatures. they'll abduct wanted to exclude all in. self-interest and partisanship undermined each coalition attempt, making the e.r.a. vulnerable to platform. an autocrat of the anti-, who could speak with a single voice of the house right system that felt disrespected, the social conservatives were alarmed at the base of social change and the evangelicals who believe that god intended to establish a patriarchy. all of this was before the roe decision. there were risks between white and black women, the civil rights movement and in the women movement. have learned ad lot from these women who had been juggling jobs and families in community activism if they were not caught in a web of segregation and racism. laurie stein am trying to model an alternative, always appearing
with black colleagues. kennedy or eleanor holmes norton . thankfully, we have made some gains in this area. there clearly needs to be more biracial learning and listening. the issues women wanted suffrage to advance are still with us. we are still talking about women and children's health, employment, equal pay, immigration, poverty, reproductive rights, florence applaud theould progress that women have made, and they would be aghast that we have not made more. we now know that every issue really is a women's issue, and every women's issue has melt supporters, because women are in every household in america. five, we need a definition of citizenship that applies equally to men and women.
in a sense, unequal rights reality. citizens, and vote, pay taxes, serving the military, run profits, and have equal access to the american dream. in colonial america, women owned voted,y, pay taxes, and until the constitution was ratified and 12 of the 13 states removed women voters. new jersey was lazy and let women vote until 1807. many women in colonial america organized boycotts against british loaded cannon and thought in disguise. women have fought in every american war. when abigail adams encouraged her husband to remember the ladies, the rest of the text suggests that she wanted protections for women against naturally tyrannical and abusive husbands. she was talking about wife abuse. her charming husband dismissed her petition as a joke.
as your extraordinary code of laws, i cannot help but laugh. children and apprentices are disobedient, the schools in colleges are going to review and -- are growing turbulence. firstetter was the inclination that another tribe more numerous and powerful than all the rest are grown discontented. this is rather too sought the a compliment, you are so saucy. depend upon it, we know better than to repeal our masculine system. some people are still reluctant to repeal the smack you -- masculine systems. according to recent polling, which was done before the presidential primaries, many americans said they would never vote for a woman president. one quarter of the population expressed anger at the idea. it's hard to measure this.
poll because everybody knew mrs. clinton was running,. there was a point of time in of0s that about 75 to 80% the population said they would welcome a woman president. but it will always come down to which woman. item six. political women are perceived as a threat. how often are women leaders called shrill, or told to be quiet? from puritan dissenters and hutchinson's, who was banished from massachusetts to the frontier, where she was killed by indians, where the hutchinson river parkway is. to the salem witches. , the grimke sisters, stanton anthony, margaret singer, rosa parks, jane fonda, contemporary journalists and members of the senate like elizabeth warren and campbell harris. women are modest to talk less. secretary clinton's postelection memoir suggested that she should
stfu. i have to ask my son what it meant -- i have to ask my son what it meant. i was shocked by the language, but not surprised by the sentiment. women's suffrage is vital because it allows women citizens to express their opinions, vote their conscience, support their causes, and gauge in democracies and be a part of the outcome. if women register vote, turnout, volunteer, suffrage will have made a difference. research shows that women on both sides of the aisle can find common ground. they have frequently and funding research for women's health insurance, to ending the government shutdown a few years ago, to establishing a commission to commemorate the centennial of women's suffrage in 2020. as senators tammy baldwin and lisa mccroskey did. more women need to wear separate
white, both as a fashion choice and a political statement. the end. thank you. [applause] i tried to find pictures of all the women who were white on -- wore white on election day and were white in the chamber for joint sessions, but they were good enough pictures. the floor is open to questions. any topic related to women, we certainly covered the of decades so it could be any topic. there is a new coalition of younger women. has sponsorship in the congress. there is no republican signed on
to support it, and it has no chance in hell. one of their strategies is to think that because we came three states short of the 38 needed, that they would reopen and try to get those you states to pass and it would become an amendment. that is legally unfeasible because there was a deadline, and they would have to start over again. there's religions of ratification in the state legislatures that are controlled by republicans. it doesn't have a prayer until at least after the 2020 senses, when it is done again and we see if democrats have a chance. it has become a very partisan issue, it was not quite so partisan in the 1970's. the other fault i find with this effort is that they are claiming the equal rights women will guarantee equal pay. that is not correct. anybody else?
>> you showed a slide of senator board eight, who was the first one in elected? >> at a car when -- patty care when, the first democrat elected to congress. husband, butw her she had to win a primary election. then she one another election in 19 44nd she lost in because wartime travel restrictions kept her in washington, she couldn't get him to arkansas -- she couldn't get into arkansas. was not as-dra, and vehement on some of the topics that we found other early women to be. she was quite admirable. she is the one from which we get the name for your hat in the
ring, that she did it. [indiscernible] >> the national american women's suffrage association into the league of women voters at that 1919 convention in st. louis. she was worried that women in all of these states that have already won suffrage who were already voting would fall away from their membership and she wanted to keep them engaged. the league is founded in 1919 in st. louis. the 1920ntly chooses anniversary, because that's when not actually closed its doors and it became its successor. i thought whyn --
aren't these women running for office? they should be running for senate. all of these women who have been in suffrage to run in a campaign. somewhere tired, some were old, she clearly wanted it to be a more partisan -- she wanted women to be more actively engaged in politics. the league has played a vital role in the education of women, several one right college and were getting ready to have babies. the baby-boom following the first world war. there are many women, some of them who got as far as partners, who is a it was from the legal voters. that was of their lifeline -- that was their life like education and responsibility. thank you. [applause]
>> interested in american history tv? visit our website c-span.org/history. schedule,ew our tv for the upcoming programs, and watched college lectures, museum tours, archival films, and more. american history tv, at c-span.org/history. "q&a," week on >> they were shoving and jostling. the target was charles murray. i was a little bit behind him. it looks like he was going to fall to the ground. at the time he was a 74-year-old man, so i did what neds and human being would do when you
see a 74 euro man on the verge of falling to the ground. i grabbed him. was -- iaid of -- it was fearful of being separated from them and being left behind. i took his arm and that's when it turned on me. somebody pulled minor, somebody body slammed me from the other direction. >> middlebury college protesters as professor alison singer discusses a violent protest on the cap is less march halloween gave lecture by charles murray. watch professor allison seder tonight at a eastern. >> this weekend on american history tv, bar college foreign affairs and humanities professor walter russell mead discusses nationalism and u.s. foreign policy, focusing on what he calls jacksonian populist nationalist. how populist president roosevelt, truman, and reagan gained political support. here's a preview. probablyrshall plan
the most brilliant american foreign-policy stroke since the louisiana purchase, comes about not by convincing the american people of the glories of foreign aid, of hamiltonian and will sony and wisdom, but by scaring the hell out of people about the very real threat of a communist take over. today, we have a lot of intellectuals and foreign-policy activist who would let the marshall plan go before they would indulge in those kinds of scare tactics. the truth is if you want to do something big in american politics and foreign-policy, you cannot do it without jacksonian. jacksonians will only act for
jacksonian reasons. if your idea is out there straight them not to be themonian -- how persuade not to be jacksonian, and i will turn them into hamiltonian's, truman had tried that, by the time he realized it was never going to work, stalin would have been in power. if you are serious about american foreign-policy, you have to be serious about understanding jacksonians and working with jacksonians, and that means working within a framework that they understand, recognize, and can support. entire program at 7:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. eastern time sunday. american history tv, only on c-span3. with more than 50,000 produced between 1942 and 1945, the m4
sherman tank was the most commonly used american tank in world war ii. up next, i rock and afghanistan think veteran nick lewis moran talks about the design and history of the m4 sherman tank. the tank was the best u.s. tank during world war ii because of its versatility, low production cost, and reliability. nicholas miranda is the director war intary director of america, the stakes game as 100 million players worldwide. york military affairs symposium hosted this 90 minute event. [applause] nicholas moran graduated from university college dublin and enlisted in the irish defense reserve forces in 1997.