tv Mission San Luis CSPAN December 22, 2017 11:17am-1:59pm EST
large piece of agriculture property that his father gives him. that's why he's known eventually as the signer. annapolis they settled because it was the capital of the colony. why they picked this particular plot of land is for two reasons. one is the water. it was way easier and more economical to move than by any kind of land, so they wanted waterfront property. this was the side where they had the market square. the evolution of this site is very interesting. when the first carroll bought the house there was a simple structure, probably 36 feet in
length. it was the only structure we know of that was here at the time when he bought the first plot of land in 1706. he expands that and eventually moves there and is known as the settler's house. when he dies in 1720, his son charles carroll of annapolis, "papa," builds this house. it's built as a two to three story brick structure, two from the street, three from the waterfront. the waterfront is the more imposing side and it's very guests often arrived via water. charlie was sent away first to florida panhand fl flanders and then to england. their faith and education were intertwined. it was incredibly important to papa to send his heir, his only child, to have a roman catholic
education at the very best institutions, and that was in europe. so charlie was sent at the age of 11 and he does not return. so that's 1748 and he returns in 1765, i believe. charl charlie's education in europe was a classic education, latin and greek and finance and arithmetic and geometry and french and poetry and music. he was edge kaucated to be a gentleman of the first order in the 18th century. when charlie returns from europe, he moves into this house and takes his rightful place as his father's heir and begins to work in the annapolis society and the political society. he marries his cousin, not the first love of his life, but she is a ward of his father and she is living here in the house. and they marry and have a fairly
successful marriage, they have many children. he begins to take up the reins of his father's fortune. when charlie comes home from europe, the colony is starting to move in a certain direction and there is tension and there's a loyalist contingent with the governor and there's the patriotic contingent. it is the arguments that charlie makes in a series of public letters. he is known as first citizen and he is arguing that the governor has no right to, without legislative approval, impose taxes and fees upon the governed. and his antelon is his adversary. and they become the philosophical underpinnings of
the patriot's party here in annapolis. he attracts to him peopwilliam eventually they did vote to have the delegation go to philadelphia and vote for the declaration of independence. after the declaration of independence is signed, carrollton becomes heavily involved in the revolution, but most of his involvement related to finance. that was what he brought to the table, so to speak. because he was a wealthy man, because he understood what it took to finance a revolution, that was where most of his contributions came. after the revolution, he's voted as the first senator of the state of maryland, both for a state senator and the federal senator. he then has to choose. the maryland assembly passes a law that you could not hold office in both the state and federal level. at that point he decides he
wants to stay in the state senate. he continues to be deeply interested in commerce and the developing of the new industrial nation. as i mentioned earlier, his family was an early investor in the ironworks. he also becomes an early investor in railroads and canals and again harvests the benefits of those investments. he truly believed in industrialization and all that it brought to the young nation in the first quarter of the 19th century. the carroll family history is a great encapsulation of american history in the period that we're talking about. they come as immigrants, they come with dreams, they make their fortune, they believe in their faith and they hold true to it. and they believe that education is the key to the future. they're also full of
contradictions, as is our american history. charles carroll, the settler, changed family motto when he came here, and it became "anywhere as long as there be freedom." yet they owned people. they owned over 300 slaves. what they thought was so important to their liberty was something they could not see being granted to a man or woman of a different race. that kind of conflict that's embedded in our history is their history. and how they deal and come to grips with it, or not, is the story of the first 150 years of this country. i think the carrolls are important as an example of our early history. they're important to annapolis and maryland because they talk about how to be successful in a new place while holding onto what's important from where you came from. mission san loouis is a livg
approach the spanish about an interest in christianity. eventually priests do come to minister to them. now whether this is about becoming more secure militarily to protect themselves from the surrounding other native american culture groups or not, but in any event by 1656 there had been an agreement between them and the spanish friars to establish what would become san luis in the western capital of florida. we have the second largest mission established here on this hillside. over three miles from the modern
capital, we have the capital of west florida. this mission was established, one, for mutual protection. two, there was a need in st. augustine for food. st. augustine was reliant on a fair amount of exported food. the soil is very poor there and sandy. the spanish who wound up living in st. augustine were not inclined to be farmers and they needed a reliable source of food. there were croplands around the site as far as you could see. this was the food base, the breadbasket of the early colonial effort. for the spanish, it was important from that standpoint and also that there was a fortified outpost halfway between one end of the royal road that connects pensacola with the port of st. augustine. this was essentially midway. so it also provided that
security link as well in the ultimately failing efforts of the span irk ish to secure thei borderlands. with the establishment of the mission and on this site and this village in 1656, it continued on until it was burned down in july of 1704 in anticipation that it might be attacked by a column of native american allies of the english and a few english militia. in order to prevent the site from falling into the hands of the english and then potentially setting up their own military presence here, the native americans and the spaniards and others burned this mission to the ground. the circular plaza here at mission san luis is really the center of town. all the buildings are organized around this plaza. now there are the three main
ingredients of the life of the village. the council house and the native americans in their continuing heritage and custom, diametrically opposed across the plaza is the catholic religious complex. so here they are sort of facing off each other door to door, and at the same time, to me, their positions reflect some mutual respect that each honored the traditions of the other. visitors to mission san luis will often speak about the council house. it is so impressive. this was the center of life. their governance met to consider complaints from various villagers, one against another. every village is going to have them. the law was pretty much intact,
although the spanish law over time became more often referred to. but the chief and the sub-chiefs would meet along with other elders of the tribe to hear the various issues of the day to make decisions. it was the place of celebration. it was the community center. people would come in. and there were certain celebrations that perhaps followed a seasonal cycle, for instance, that would be celebrated here among the entire village and particularly among the tribe. and it's just awe inspiring to walk into the volume of that space and to look up at the sky. and just speculate what it must have been like in the day when it was part of this community. the church would have religious pictures of saints and scenes
and so on because these are not literate people. they can't read the texts, they don't have access to printed religious books and the bible. so these are meant to educate them. the priests would use them to tell the stories of the gospel through the paintings that you would see on the walls. there was probably a somewhat elaborate alter or alter piece, a screen. we do know that it was somewhat sumptuous because there is a very good inventory of what the priests collected and packed back up in the ox carts and took out of here back to st. augustine. one of the things they left and we're still looking for is the mission bell. we found a piece. we know they buried it. we just have not been able to find it. but somewhere here near the church, we presume, the ancient mission bell is yet to be discovered. mission san luis campus is now
consolidated the state of florida archaeology collections. they are here for visitors to be able to see the archaeological representations, the tangible things that represents this colonial period of florida and on up to modern time. we have a modern archaeology lab where we have a staff of archaeologists who are now analyzing approximately a dozen years of material that has been excavated on this site so that we can make a coherent picture of the past through these tingle items recovered to learn how rich the heritage is here, how it evolved over time. you know, history is largely written by the victors. and american history is largely portrayed through english eyes.
yet, spain and hispanic culture are so much an integral part of what we call the borderlands, the sunshine states run across the united states like a belt. yet, that part of history is a great mystery to people. our population depended on it swinging back. increasingly, there are many, many more people in our population who are of hispanic origin and this is their heritage in the western hemisphere. we are presently here at the carmel mission, otherwise known in the spanish period as san
carl carlos. this is a site that was established in 1772 as part of the colonization of the central coast. its original founding date was 1770 after which the site moved. the initial missionization of what we call upper california began in 1769 with the establishment of san diego mission. that particular site was not the prime objective, however. in fact, it was monterey because it was centrally located. as a result, we get a joint military and religious expedition known as the sacred expedition. the commander was accompanied by the friar who came to monterey bay to establish the first site. he was born and raised in a small community, a place that had been overrun and conquered
by various groups, including the muslims. when you visit the site, it's surrounded by massive military bastians extending all the way back to the roman conquest. one would argue that there was a very conservative trend in as far as catholic religious believes there. one of the key tenants was that the evangelization of gentiles should be one's life devotion. father serra devoted himself to that. spain was being transformed by enlightenment ideologieideologi.
this notion of the enlightenment is central to our constitution here in the united states, is that all men are krcreated equa. but slavery was condoned during that. the indian wars were condoned under that. so things were not quite equal. when we look at the missions, we had the military espousing this enlightenment ideology, whereas the missions were looking for communities that could be built and transformed. the problem was that while the enlightenment ideology seemed noble, the idea was that releasing native people from the missions so they could be exploited by outsiders was one of the defaults of that. father serra sought to keep them out of contact with other european settlers. the francis kcans' objective wa
bringing indigenous communities into the fold, into the church, into the worship of christ. so that was their prime objective. the way they did that was by introducing skill sets familiar with the church, including music, reading, agriculture, the liturgy, et cetera. these sites did not grow up overnight. they were usually the result of decades of work. when father serra was here, there's a tendency to think he lived in this palatial estate. well, i have documentation showing that he lived in a basically thatch structures.
gradually we see the buildout of more substantial structures. this site alone had ultimately seven different chunrches. the first five were insubstantial. ultimately father serra built an adobe church. that church was demolished the build the church behind us. when it comes to abuses, the primary allegation has much to do he worked within a system which condoned corporal punishment, the use of sticks, whips or other devices to punish people who had transtransdeprgr.
people from the communities were selected to mete out corporal punishment and determine resources distributed to the communities of the missions. father serra himself is never documented to have laid hand on any individual. he still ordered it, yes. but it was an acceptable form of punishment applied to indigenous peoples as well as spaniards and other peoples. at the presidio soldiers were shot. if serra's to be don democracon
working within that system, clearly there's condemnations to go around all around. now you had two competing groups. you had those who believer that father serra was not worthy of condemnation. it wasn't until january of this year, 2015, that pope francis announced that serra would be cannonized and that it would happen on september 23rd. well, right about that time, i was interviewed by the los angeles times for a story about father serra and the missions here and my work in the missions. that then launch add series of involvements. so i was involved with the cannonization as one of the scholars who was invited to roam to speak. while there, i spoke with three other scholars, monsignor weber,
who has written for some time about father serra. we gave an overview and the strengths and the merits of the cannonization. the media entered the picture. we dealt with that. about two days later we participated in the second half in which vatican scholars and friars and others were instrument and then we conducted mass with the pope. that was an incredible experience. i was kind of on the ground floor to see a lot of that. at the same time i was aware that as i was there, there were people in california who were less than happy about it. what i've seen is that there has been a significant amount of misrepresentation and even hate speech related to father serra, the catholic church and the hispanic catholic tradition. it's been my objective to address those characterizations. i'm not going to minimize what
happened as a result of european colonial intervention in this region. clearly it was catastrophic on many levels. but there were commencdimension allowed the spanish people to survive. it was in 1846 through 1848 when americans first entered monterey that the first california governor basically ordered the extermination of the california indian. a population documented to have consisted of at least 150,000 native peoples in california at american contact dwindled to less than 30,000. over 120,000 people have been documented to have been killed dhau during that period. that was truly genocide. i believe based on everything i've seen including recent
publications, that essentially nativeconflated the abuses with the shortfall and the misgives of the spanish colonial period and they blamed it all on father serra. i think he has truly gotten a bum rap. obviously history is used in a lot of different ways, both by historians and those who would like to use history to rewrite the past. we see that going on in our country right now. the reality is that i construe the hispanic traditions of california's southwest as part of a legitimate american history. these are founding communities just like the british communities of the east are construed as founding communities. even jamestown was left out of many american history books because it was in the south.
at one point after the civil war, jamestown was written out of the narrative and the pilg m pilgrims took that place. so the narrative changed. it became freedom from religious persecution versus a group of brits coming in and founding a military settlement and that becoming a disaster. that's now been reincluded in our histories by the work of archaeologis archaeologists. they are rewriting the history of these mission sites such that we now recognize them as those very traditions under the auspices of franciscan friars that introduced many of the technologies that we today take for granted, including agricultu agriculture. all of these things came in and are a direct byproduct of the introductions made by father serra and his come patriots.
♪ ♪ welcome to moundville archaeological park. in its hey day moundville was the largest city north of mexico and contains the remains of about 30 flat topped mounds. i'm standing on mound p, which is one of the largest mounds on the site. and this mound would have had the house of one of the clan chiefs on top of it. when people first entered and started to build this city,
there were valleys and ridges that dotted all around the area. initially hills would have been topped and the dirt poured in to level out the central plaza along the mound. and then the mounds were erected. recent research has told us that these mounds were built in a little bit less than 100 years. moundville archaeological park is the second largest mississippi mound center in north america. the largest is in east st. louis. as it was declining, moundville was on its rise. moundville is really a great spot to have a site that's sort of the center of the capital of the culture, because it falls in between two zones. to the south of us we start getting into the coastal plain. as these regions change, there are a lot of different resources
that occur in each of these zones. by sort of straddling the two zones they have access both north and south to these different resources. additionally, moundville is built atop one of the highest bluffs along the black warrior river and a very sharp bend in the river. it could have been built atop this bluff for defensive purposes because you could see people coming in all directions up and down ithe river. moundville was involved in what we call full scale corn agriculture. thousands and thousands of acres of corn are grown down on the first terraces and river bottoms along the river. there are probably between 3,000- 5,000 people that occupied the site while it was being built. but there was probably another 50,000 people that lived up and down the river valley in small
farming hamlets. a portion of the corn they grew would come to the moundville site as taxes on an annual or perhaps more frequent basis. there are about 300 acres in moundville archaeological park and the remains of about 30 flat top mounds that are arranged in a rectangle around a large central plaza. the corners are aligned with the cardinal directions with the exception of mound a which has been sort of turns catty corner. not only were the mounds used to put structures on top of, but they also represent the relative ranking of different clans within this political system. the highest ranking ruler would have occupied the top mound v. mound v would have been almost like a welcoming place as people came up from the river, traveled through the ravines and arrived at the city of moundville.
here they would have paid their tribute payment, usually in the form of corn or other foodstuffs, perhaps in some raw materials that came as far away as the gulf of mexico or the michigan area. the mounds represent the different clans that occupied this site. northern, central most portion, the highest ranking ruler, as you go east and west would have been your second highest ranking rulers. the southern end of the site would have been the lowest ranking clans. we base this on the amount of dirt in the mounds. we also base it on a drawing that was down by frank speck, an an thr
-- it was abandoned from the southern end and flangks along the east and the west. late in the site history there were a counsel house on the back of mound v. we think that structured utiliz moundville. we're standing at mound b and this is the largest mound in alabama. it contains about 112,000 cubic yards of dirt. and this would have been where the structure for the highest ranking ruler of the highest ranking clan would have been. originally, scientists thought that the mounds were completely built by one basket load of dirt a a time. recent research indicates that the base of the mound and possibly the sides of them were initially built with sod blocks which were then filled in with clay. this would give a lot more stability to the structure as they were building it. we know that periodically, after the mound was built, it would be capped over with different colors of clay so that if you sliced into the mound, it would
resemble a layer cake. we're looking at mound b, which is the long low platform mound behind mound b, behind the picnic tables are the remains of an earth lodge, which was partially excavated in 1989. this is a subterranean structure with entrance tunnels built along the east-west access. some very large timbers were placed on four corners. and then sod was placed up over the top of the earth lodge so it was completely covered over with dirt at one point in time. we think this might have served as a council house and one really interesting thing is that when this structure was built as the large posts were being put down, an urban pot was placed at one of the bottoms of the structures. it had acorns in the pot and it
was ceremonially broken before the large timber was put in place. only about 15% of the site has been excavated. mainly when you see roadways or structures built. the remaining portion of the site, one of the primary ways archeologists do research is remote sensing. there's several different ways to do that. ground penetrating radar is one way. magnetometer readings. there's various forms of aerial photographer. there's even something called lidar these days which shows microtopography, which could be changed in the soil. all of these things could be put together to give us a better idea of what is underneath the ground before we start to excavate it. we have come inside the jones archeological museum in moundville. we have made this portion of the exhibit to resemble what the
interior and exterior of a chief's house might have looked like, that sat on top of one of the mounds out here. the different things you see re-created in the scene, the artifacts, are on display behind us. we call them the crown jewels of moundville because they're so incredible, some of these pieces of work. and what we want our visitors to see is how incredible these things look when they were new. the artifacts on display are at least some of them 800 to 1,000 years old. and a little bit corroded, but when they were first made and kept just for ceremonial use, you can see how magnificent they are. there's also some different symbols of power, for instance, the ax that's being held by the chief here, or the stone palate, which has the hand and eye pendant on it, which we believe was used sort of like a porta e able alter,imab eer one of the
remarkable is the duck bowl taken out in the early 1900s. this bowl was made out of a single piece of stone. it was roughly pecked into shape with other stones. and then it was finished with different grades of sand, starting with a coarser grade to grind it down and then finally being polished. another artifact that we find to be very interesting is this limestone pipe of a supernatural cat. and a story talks about the underwater panther who lives below the water and his tail whips around and causes whirlpools. so if you get in the water where an underwater panther is, it will pull you down into the underworld. the limestone comes from the vicksburg, mississippi, area. and the cliffs from where the limestone came from, one section of those cliffs is painted with
a mural that has symbols that are associated with this cat monster or this underwater panther. very interesting to note that underneath in the mississippi river, below where these murals had been painted on the cliffs, there are whirlpools. as we were redesigning the museum, we wanted to come up with a story that explained how these artifacts from different regional areas would have ended up in moundville. and although there was a large trade network, there are also alliances made through different chieftains. we think a major alliance was made with a chiften that was around the memphis area perhaps into arkans arkansas. the theme we have behind us is of a bride that's coming from around the memphis area and she's about to meet and marry the next ruler for the
moundville chieftum. she doesn't speak the language, so it's very likely she brought an entourage of women with her. she would have had servants, perhaps different artists, and one of the links we have found to prove that people came here and lived here for extended periods of time is a type of pottery that is generally made, a type of style of pottery that is generally made up in the arkansas area that is made here at moundville but was made with local clays and minerals. and so perhaps this bride, as she was coming in, brought one of her favorite potters with her who learned how to work with the moundville clay that was still working in that style. at its height, moundville was the largest city north of mexico. but after it was built, the
views for the site changed dramatically. it turned from a city with living people, bustling populations, to more of a city of the dead. where people returned year after year to bury their beloved ones. moundville is kind of a portal to the past. when people started settling here in the 1700s, not much remained of the mississippian culture. the people who lived here were great artists, warriors, rulers. and great tradesmen, too. and the amount of effort it took to build the mounds on this site show how powerful the rulers of this prehistoric community were.
♪ ♪ >> i would like to welcome you to the tabernacle here on temple square in salt lake city. this is the home of the mormon tabernacle choir, some might call it america's choir. the mormons tabernacle choir was organized in 1847 when the first pioneers came into this valley. it was a small group of people
who met in a bowery type building. very rustic. and they asked for a choir to perform. but it was in 1849 that welsh pioneers came to the valley and they sang in four-part harmony. they sang in welsh. that's when president brigham young really decided you need to be the nucleus of a great choir. it really started in 1847-1849. they used to sing in a building over on the square that was just a temporary building, but they called it the tabernacle. and that's how the name came. the mormon tabernacle choir. when that was too small, they started building this particular building, which was in the late 1860s. it was completed at the end of the civil war. and the choir moved into this building at that time, and the
tab tabernacle here has been the home of the choir ever since. as we have visitors come to temple square, we invite them into the tabernacle, one of the things they first notice is the imposing instrument behind me, the organ, built by early pioneer stock, and it becomes the centerpiece for people to begin to look at and think, wow, this is really an amazing experience. you see the choir, and it makes a great picture. >> whenever you see a photograph of a choir, this organ is right there in the center of the photograph. it's been accompanying the choir really since the organ was put in in 1867, because the choir has been around that long and even longer. >> crescendo. >> this is the oldest building on temper square, even older
than the temple itself, and the oldest thing inside of the tabernacle is this organ case, so these gold pipes next to me here have looked down on decades and decades of history and have seen all kinds of things. lots of american presidents have spoken from the pulpit and have seen the choir perform here, so a lot of history in this organ case and in the building. the sound of the tabernacle organist is really unique. this instrument, most of the pipes were built by the company in 1948, and it was considered their magnum opus. the president of that company really considered this one of his finest if not the finest instrument he built, and part of that is because the pipes are so beautifully voiced for the room. part of it is the room itself, this domed ceiling does a remarkable job of projecting even the softest sound from the organ with great clarity to the back of the room.
so the sound envelopes you. it's a warm, like a warm bath when you hear this organ play. as you can imagine, when you're accompanying a choir this large and this well trained and this passionate about what they're doing, it's a hair-raising experience every time. whenever i sit on this bench and hear those voices, it's this huge wall of sound just going over me and then going out into the room. and it's still electrifying. i have been accompanying the choir for i think 23 years now. and i still -- i'm still thrilled as much as i was the first time i heard them. one great story has to do with hellen keller, who was here back in the early 1900s.
and spoke at the pulpit just behind where i'm seated here, and if you can call it speaking, we know her situation. she was deprived of her eye sight and learned to speet in a guttural voice, but she came here and gave a presentation to a packed house. and when she had finished, they asked if there was anything she would like. she said i would like to hear your famous organ play. so the organist came over and played come come ye saints, which is a hymn that is strongly identified with the church. and the president of the church walked her up, right up there to the organ case, and placed her hand on the wood of the case. and a person said that, who was there at the time, said that hellen keller just wept as she felt the throbbing of the great instrument and the sound of those pipes playing the song that the pioneers sang as they came across the plains. there's something unique about this choir that comes across to
audiences. and i think it's a combination of things. it's not just the size of the choir. it's not just how well trained they are and well rehearsed and how professional they are. but i think it's their sincerity about their message. and when they turn to the audience at the end of any performance or the broadcast to sing god be with you until we meet again, i see tears in the eyes of the people out there, and i know the stories of the choir members. i know what they're going through in their families and i know they're really singing from the heart. and that comes across when the audience hears them sing. >> brigham young was the second president of the church of jesus christ of latter day saints and his people considered him a prophet of god.
he was living in upstate new york in a community which was not terribly far from the area where joseph smith was living at the time. when the first missionaries went out carrying the book of mormon and preaching this new religion, one of the first places they went was to mendon. they talked to brigham's brother-in-law and brigham was introduced to it through family relationships. he did not immediately take. he was interested, but it took him two years of study, talking to missionaries, of going to meet joseph smith before he finally committed and was baptized a member of the church of jesus christ of latter day saints. once brigham young joined the church, he was a fully devoted member. that's something you have to understand about brigham young. when he committed to something, he committed wholeheartedly. he took many small roles and responsibilities, and when joseph smith revealed the office
of the quorum of the 12 apostles, he was one of the men who was selected to be an apost apostle. then he took on this important role of being a missionary, of testifying for christ, and in many ways, leading the church. and in their own lives, that quorum of apostles became more and more important in the leadership of the church. when joseph smith died, brigham young was president of the quorum of apostles. now, there were others who were vying for leadership of the church. it was a very difficult time for church members. a very confusing time. and many weren't even sure that we should have another president or prophet of the church because joseph had been it. how can you replace a man like joseph smith? but brigham young is the one who got the majority of the saints, who gathered the majority of the saints together and said we have the authority to lead the church. joseph smith gave us all the
priesthood that is needed to lead this church, and we're going to take these people to the west. brigham young was a very interesting man. he was really a great leader. one of the great leaders of the 19th century in america. there are interesting things about him. for instance, he tended to lead by example. so if they're going on a trek, he's at the forefront. if you have to dig out a mud hole, he's the first one there with a shovel. and that got a great deal of respect and love among people. he was just -- he was very, very capable. he was able to envision a future, envision what they needed to do, and figure out how to get it done. and i think more than anything else, he was also an individual who had a deep spiritual core to him. and there were a number of people when he spoke at a very highly contested meeting who
said as he was speaking, he started to look like joseph smith. and they felt that that was a sign that a mantle of leadership had fallen on brigham young's shoulders. in 1847, december of 1847, brigham young was sustained. that means he was supposed by the quorum of 12 apostles and they voted to sustain him as president of the church. in 1847, brigham young led a group of 143 men, 3 women, and 2 children to the salt lake valley. that group was sort of a vanguard. they were paving the way, finding the best route, they were sent here to find the way and get things started. and once they had established a fort and got families settled and crops planted, brigham young and many of the men turned around and went back to the missouri river because there were approximately 11,000, 12,000 people who were still waiting there to come.
and so he went back to help organize the rest of this massive migration, which was going to come more than 1,000 miles to the salt lake valley. the ultimate goal in settling the salt lake valley or all of the utah territory at the time was to establish what the latter day saints referred to as zion. this is a community that was planned to be an ideal community. in a way, it was a utopian community. it was meant to be a religious city. it was meant to have equality and justice and peace and harmony and love. and so in order to do that, they felt like they had to be away from others, to lay out their pounds in this ordered system that joseph smith had established that we call the city of zion, where the streets are uniform. it's laid out according to cardinal points of the compass with the spiritual core at the heart of that community.
and so they were really about trying to build the kingdom of god on earth. in 1850, brigham young was appointed governor of the utah territory by the president of the united states. so that was an important honor given to him, and he took that to heart in going about doing good. one of the challenges in the territorial government is that while you might have a local person be a governor orspa be i few positions, most of the territorial officials would be outsid outsiders. they were brought from various places around the united states. usually somebody who was in political favor for some reason, so they were sent here to utah. so there was a great clash between brigham young and the mormons and these outside territorial officials. and there were probably faults on both sides. some of the territorial
officials were scoundrels. brigham young, on the other hand, was -- he was used to running things his way. and when the territorial officials came in, he wasn't as open to working with them. he went ahead and the money for the treasury got here long before the actual treasurer got here, so he was spending the money for the treasury and all these conflicts started to arise. if you're to say, what are the real kind of challenges in brigham young's systemality, one of them is that he was very plain spoken. he said exactly what he thought. even if it was very abrasive, and he wasn't afraid who he said it to. he was not one to play political games. he just rejected that. and so when he doesn't get along with the territorial officials and then word gets back to washington, d.c. and complaints back and forth, you just have conflict starting to build and tension building to the point
where the president of the united states at that time was buchanan, sent an army to utah. utah expedition, about 3,000 u.s. soldiers, which is a major part of the united states army at the time. to put down what they perceived was the mormon rebellion. and so the army came into the salt lake valley. they were prepared at the time if army attacked they were going to burn their houses. most of the people left the salt lake valley, and there was actually a man standing in front of this house ready to burn it to the ground if anything should go wrong. but it didn't. the army passed through peacefully. they set up a fort south of salt lake city, and brigham young was relieved of his duties as governor. one of the issues the federal government was concerned about was this report of plural marriage in utah or polygamy, as it's more widely known. and that was disturbing to many
people. also the mormon tendency toward communal practices and controlling local politics. there was -- there were no political parties here, or there was one political party, and it was all part of the church government. brigham young is the governor and all the other church leaders had roles. that's very concerning to the federal government. brigham young was probably one of the most -- is probably most well known for the fact that he practiced polygamy. it was a doctrine which was then revealed by joseph smith, and when brigham young was first taught that concept, it was very difficult for him to accept. and he later recalled that he looked out the window and saw a hearse carrying a body to the cemetery, and he wished he were in the coffin. that was his initial reaction to that. over time, he came to accept that, that doctrine, and
practiced it and became one of the most widely known practitioners of that doctrine. he had 55 -- he was sealed to 55 wives total, and to explain that, you have to kind of understand the mormon concept of sealing which is that people can be sealed for married for this life, but if you are sealed, you can also be sealed for eternity. another option is just to be sealed for eternity. and that means that that marriage will continue into the next life. so many of the women brigham young was married to, it was just a matter of women wanting to be married to him for eternity and not for life. so how many wives did brigham young have in his household? he was married twice monogamously, his first wife died of consumption when he was a young man, and then he remarried. then he had probably about 24
wives that were wives that he considered part of his household. family sometimes says 27, and you can argue endlessly about the numbers and what it all means. for brigham young, the idea of salvation was really i think the core thing that motivated him. he was -- you look at his sermons, and over and over again, he's constantly encouraging and sometimes berating people to live better lives, to give up sin, to get on their knees and repent. we don't have a lot of stories about brigham young as a father. there are some. two daughters wrote books about him, and they provide some great insight to him, but another daughter told a story about how she was out in the stables with her father and a hired man had left a very fine saddle on a floor and it was getting kicked around and dusty, and brigham young was serious. he had a quick temper. and a quick tongue.
and so he chewed out the stable hand who had left that there. and then he stomped in the house, and she followed along, a little girl following her father. he went in his bedroom and slammed the door. she could hear him saying, brigham, get on your knees and repent. get on your knees now. so seeing those inner glimpses from time to time of brigham young helps to get a sense of how important he felt personal behavior was and how much he yearned for having the acceptance of his father in heaven. brigham young died in 1877 in the lion house here in salt lake city. he had been actually declining for a number of years. he had a number of challenges. he suffered severely from rheumatism, at one point, he had
to have all his teeth pulled and he wore dentures. his final illness, some people -- some kind of intestinal thing, some people thought maybe it was appendicitis, some people thought other things so there's no surety what it was, but it finally took his life. brigham young, as always, a very interesting character, left very strict instructions about his funeral. he wanted his coffin to be a certain size, so many inches taller than he was, so many inches to the side, so if he wanted to, he could turn over just a little bit. he wanted it comfortable. he wanted a pillow under his head. he didn't want his wives or any of his children to wear black. he gave strict instructions, no black, because this was to be a joyful event. he was finally going home to his heavenly home. there was a grand funeral held in the salt lake tabernacle, and then his body was carried up the street on the shoulders of his workmen to a small cemetery on
his own estate where he lies buried still today. brigham young remains one of the most the ni influential people american history because of his vision for what could be built here in the american west. almost 400 mormon settlements in not only utah but idaho, nevada, california, arizona. they spread far and wide. they built important infrastructure. and he had that vision that brought tens of thousands of people here to the american west to establish these mormon communities and to build a society that was striving to be as christian as they could possibly be. >> you're looking at a photograph of wilfred woodruff,
the fourth president of the church of jesus christ of latter day saints. he was a very good journal keeper. he kept journals from the time he joined the church in 1833 and continued keeping them up until his death in 1898. this is his very first journal. and it shows you how meticulous he was in his journal keeping. he would spend as much as an hour a day writing in his journal. and for very important events, he would add a little bit of decoration. here, for example, is the entry for his marriage date. as you can see here, he's decorated it with lots of filigrees and other things to make it look almost like a little marriage certificate by itself. at the end of his journal, he kept statistical accounts of what happened to him in a given year. the table for 1837 summarizing
his life during that time period. it essentially tells how many meetings he had, how many miles he traveled, how many letters he wrote. very meticulous statistical tabulation of the most porbimpot events that occurred in his life. i blessed two children. i wrote 30 letters. i received 13 letters. when he kept up this kind of journal keeping his entire life in the church. from 1833 until 1898, a period of 65 years. and some of the entries are very poignant. he lived in the city of nabu with the founder of the church of jesus christ of latter day saints, joseph smith. he was there after joseph smith's death in 1844. and in 1846, the church completed the temple that was begun under joseph smith's direction before his death. this temple to which he and other latter day saints had
devoted an enormous amount of time and money and effort became a symbol of the great sacrifices they had given. when the people of illinois drove out the latter day saints in 1846, wilfred woodruff made an entry. he said i looked upon the city and temple of nauvoo as i retired from it, and felt to ask the lord to preserve it as a monument of the sacrifice of his saints. very poignant. he's getting his last glimpse of this building and asking god to protect it. as a monument to his people's sacrifice. the importance of temples to latter day saints is that they are the buildings in which they perform ceremonies that they believe will link families together for eternity. in most of today's world when people marry, they believe marriage is until death. latter day saints value families highly and believe they can be for eternity, and temples are
the placies where the ceremonie a performed that make linkage for eternity possible. now, in the case of wilfred woodruff, he crossed iowa and then in 1847, the following year, he crossed the great plains of north america into the great basin and finally reached the salt lake valley. when he reached the salt lake valley, he was traveling with brigham young. and in his journal, for that time period, he makes a note of the impressions that he and brigham young had when they entered the salt lake valley. he says, president young expressed his full satisfaction in the appearance of the valley. as a resting place for the saints. they had been driven from place to place, and at last, they thought here was a place where they could have freedom of religion and peace. he says here, while we comp
plated that in not many years that the house of god would essentially be built here in this valley, in what they call the tops of the mountains. having left their temple in nauvoo, the moment they enter the salt lake valley, they're already contemplating that in that valley will be built the salt lake temple. they arrive in the salt lake valley on january 24th, 1847. and that was a saturday. on sunday, they paused to worship. on monday, they climbed a nearby peak and on that peak they got a look at the valley and essentially declared this was the place they were going to be. and then brigham young went down into the valley between the two forks of a creek that flowed out of a nearby mountain. he put his cane in the ground and essentially said here will be our new temple location. wilfred woodruff was there on that occasion.
he took a stake and drove it in the ground to mark the place where brigham young said the temple would be built. in 1853, they finally began construction on that temple, and it took them 40 years to complete. in the meantime, the peculiar form of marriage practiced by latter day saints, what common people call polygamy, became an object of derision across the country. and in 1862, a federal law was passed prohibiting this kind of marriage. the latter day saints ignored the law, largely because it wasn't enforced and because they believed the law was unconstitutional. it violated their civil rights. finally, 20 years later, the pressure to discontinue plural marriage increased with the passage of another law in 1882, and then an even tougher law in 1887. combined with those laws were supreme court decisions essentially saying no, these laws are constitutional. and for the latter day saints who during this period of time
practiced plural marriage and believed in the importance of temples were forced to a choice. and woodruff talked about that choice in his journal. he essentially records a document he released in september of 1890 beginning the ending of that practice of plural marriage. and this is the journal in which he recorded that. so under the date of september 25th, 1890, he recorded in red ink, official declaration. whenever he put anything in red ink, it meant it was a title, something very important. official declaration, and then he copies into his journal a document that was released to the public and later called the manifesto. this did not end plural marriage, but it started the ending of plural marriage in the church. and in this document, the operative language, most important language, was this language down here that's in fine print, which basically
says, i hereby declare my intentions to submit to those laws. meaning the laws that had been passed and found constitutional, and to use my influence with the members of the church over which i preside to have them do likewise. that's the operative language. that's what began the end of the practice of plural marriage in the church. now, as i mentioned, it didn't end immediately. people who had made marriage covenants with multiple women continued to support them, and they continued to live their lives, but the number of new marriages began to decline between then and a period of, oh, roughly 14 years until 1904 when there was a second manifesto issued. after that time period, they dropped off considerably, and now, of course, today, latter day saints haven't practiced plural marriage for generations, and in fact, not only is polygamy prohibited in the
church, but anybody found practicing polygamy is excommunicated from the church. that decision to choose the preservation of the temples and that's really what drove this, woodruff felt inspired to say if things continued to go the way they were, the federal government would take over the church's temples and make it impossible for people to have the ceremonies that would join families together forever. so by issuing this manifesto, he and the members of the church were able to complete the salt lake temple. and on april 6th, 1892, when they finished the exterior, they had a ceremony in which they put the angel statue on the top over onto the capstone. and in his journal, wilfred woodruff records that event under the date of april 6th, 1892, he writes, this was the most interesting day in some respects the church has ever seen since its organization. the temple capstone was laid with imposing ceremonies, with electricity, by this time,
electricity had reached the salt lake valley, so they dropped the angel onto its high ped central using an electronic switch. it was presided over by woodruff. there were 50,000 on the temple grounds. and so this was a huge public event. the largest public event in the history of utah to that point. so a year later, april 6th, 1893, they completed the temple and dedicated it. from that time to the present, it's undergone a number of remodelings, but the exterior that you see in this 1892 photograph is essentially the exterior that you see today. this is a photograph of wilfred woodruff. and his wife. he was a man who had piercing eyes. all the photographs show eyes of a man who seemed to be able to look through people. but he was a very gentle man. in addition to being the fourth president of the church of jesus
christ of latter day saints, woodruff really was in many ways its most important historian for that first century. the most important historian i believe because he experienced many of the most important events of the church's history, from its huearly days through crossing the plains with brigham young to utah, to construction of the same salt lake temple. and he recorded these events in his journal, often spending tremendous amount of time doing that. it was this journal, this literary effort on his part, that causes us today to be able to plumb deep into these events because we had someone there who was a witness who recorded his experience in a journal. >> this is the tenth of a chain of 21 missions built by the
franciscans in cooperation with the spanish who were conquering california, essentially, trying to keep the russians out. and they along the coast of california established four forts at santa barbara, monterey, and san francisco. in between them, schools in spanish culture, which were missions. the idea was to get the coastal indians to be post spanish and keep out the russians and possibly the english and whoever else might be encroaching on the northern edge of mexico. it's the only mission in california that has continuously operated as a church from its founding to the present day. in the santa barbara area, the linguistic group of the indians came from the area from malibu, just north of los angeles, all the way up to san luis obispo, south of monterey county. and so one of the largest groups in california, and they
inhabited the area from malibu to san luis obispo and from the channel islands off the coast inland to what is now kern county. you know, when they established this mission, there were pretty good relationships going on with the shamash people. that deteriorated over time, as the populations dwindled due to massive disease incursions and more and more restrictions came from the spanish and later mexican government. along the way in the beginning, they were very welcoming. they enjoyed trade. the spanish note in all of their early diaries that the shamash people were manufacturers of the most beautiful baskets, stone tools, everything that they produced seemed to be high quality, and the spanish population was extremely impressed with the quality of the material culture of the
people. as time went on, and about half probably of the shamash came into the mission system, there was some discontent, and it grew partly because of a huge population loss due to disease, and because there was more and more restrictive life as the spanish became the larger part of the population. they had more laws and rules that were new to the shamash, and they were problematic to them. they were being cut off from many of their hunting and gathering places as the ranches expanded. and eventually, in the mexican period in 1824, we see the shamash revolt in what is just about the largest indian revolt in hispanic california. some of the spanish wanted to control the santa barbara channel, and they actually put more missions among the shamash than any other group in california. there's five missions in shamash
territory. santa barbara, san inez, and san luis abyobispo, and idea was to control the central part of the coast, which shipping would need in order to go from north to south, south to north, to expand in this territory. so it gave them a good deal of control of sea traffic, which is what they wanted to do. and control of the middle of california. in the mission, we have an outdoor museum as well as the interior museum rooms. we're in the outdoor museum right now. it has two different sections. a small section where we're standing, which features plants that were used by the shamash indians in their world, in their culture, and produced the food, the basket materials and so on that were important to them. and then the other part of the garden, which is below us here, is all plants that were
introduced by the spanish and the beginnings of agriculture in california. and all those plants were brought here between 1769 and 1830. and represent a cross section from across the pacific, from north and south america and from europe and asia. so those plants were brought, cuttings, seeds, and so on, by the spanish who gave them to the shamash and said see if you can make that grow. the tree that is right here is a rare island oak. there were many types of california live oaks, all of which produced wonderful acorns, which were the staple food of california indians. ground up and leached to remove the tannin acids from them, they become a very edible and nutritious meal. and the shamash were hunters and gatherers, and they were mare time people, so lots of fish, lots of acorns.
there's a really nutritious diet that they had before the spanish ever showed up with agriculture. the garden below us features the diet that the shamash change into in mission, and the things they learn to grow successfully. and you can see in the distance there, there banana grove. there were bananas growing, we know, at two missions. sant buena ventura and santa barbara. growing between other orchard trees. apparently, to keep them from freezing. they would put them down the center with other trees around them. so this garden is from clones and cuttings of original plants gathered throughout the state to become a mother bed for california mission plants. we're kind of involved in what the national park service likes landmarks to do, which is
restoration of the cultural environment. and this cultural landscape is important because many times we walk up to an old landmark building and it's surrounded by modern structures or plants that were introduced last week from somewhere else in the world. the idea of a cultural landscape is having the landscape around the building meet the same time period and give you, the visitor, an experience of what it would have been like in its most culturally important period. now, we're down in the spanish period part of la huerta garden. the grapes are justigating their autumn look. it's january, but we had a long drought, so they only are catching on that the rain is coming and dropping their leaves. but the mission grape is famous or infamous for being terrible for wine. being wonderful for cognac.
that's vancouver's words when he visited santa barbara in the 1790s. the grapes were really important. missionaries always wanted to have a church service, which would include communion and bread and wine. so you needed to make wine. you needed to have the grapes. they introduced grapes, and they introduced wheat, which grows in a dry climate, and of course, olives, because their diet is a mediterranean diet, was very heavily dependent on olive oil and oil was also used in in blessings at funerals and so on. this is an early olive taken from a cutting from halama, which is the mission early olive grove from the late 1700s. then down at the very end is one from general vallejo's garden in northern california. they're all the same variety of olives. and of course, citrus introduced
to california along with major crops that we see in california still making a major part of our economic agriculture here. we're standing next to a typical mission made out of cactus. this is a prickly pear version that produces three things that are really useful. it produces fruit. the fruit is delicious. it makes a wonderful drink as well. the prickly pear fruit is just fabulous, and then the little pads, you can cut them up and fry them up with your breakfast eggs. they're terrific. and then, it all is producing buds that are on it, the little buds. these guys produce a red dye. i don't want to put my finger in
it because it's going to get me red and messy, but when you break open here, if you get down to the red smear there, if you put this on a piece of paper, it's going to come up really brilliant red. this was used to dye fabric. and the bright red color came from the buds, so they would scrape them off the cactus and produce the dye for the fabrics that they were weaving. so you get clothes dye and all kinds of food out of this. plus, it's not a surface you want to push your way through. that means it's the ideal fence for all your agricultural fields because it will keep the cows and the sheep and everything else out of your fields and protect the crops. we really need to recognize the shamash are responsible for
agriculture and industry in california. people don't usually give them credit for that. but certainly, the local indians are who made a success out of this agriculture. we're standing on observatory hill on the campus of the university of wisconsin in madison. right next to two surprising effigy mounds on campus. madison is very lucky. it has more effigy mounds than any other city in the united states. so we're approaching chamberlain rock, which is a glacial eradek that was moved to the top of the hill from the lakeshore just a short distance below us, and coming up on the ring tip of a bird effigy mound built here around 1,000 years ago. effigy mounds are very difficult to photograph. they're quite shy. every time they see a camera, they sink down into the earth and hide themselves. they're not very spectacular,
prominent earth works, but they're very special. the ring tip extends towards us. the hedge is in the far distance, near the sidewalk and fence near the building. the body comes down the hild towards the lakeshore, and then the other wing is just out of sight on the other side of the body of the mound. we're looking at the bird effigy from a slightly different perspective, standing at the head. the body is extending down the slope down towards the lake in front of us, and the wings extend off to each side as if it's flying up towards the top of the hill. so these can be considered a kind of tombstone, really. they mark the graves of the dead, and are carved in the shape of animals and spirits, just as sometimes you see modern headstones carved in the shapes of urns or other architectural things today. not everybody has a mound. we have graves and sets of human
remains, cremation sometimes, sometimes full burials and it's no indication a mound was built, and some folks got mounds but had to share them. some folks got mounds that weren't effigies. they were just very simple dome-shaped constructions. there does seem to be some division in the effigy builder society, but we're not really clear what that division is yet. students that are studying this are beginning to suspect that it may be, if not economic, at least some sort of social difference. the people who were buried in the conical mounds have a little worst nutrition. they're a little bit more likely to have suffered an accident. again, they're more likely to have to share their mound with some of their fellow community members. effigy builders tend to get the mounds to themselves or with just one or two other people. and it may be that they're just higher ranking. they may be religious leaders. they may be political leaders. i wish we could ask them. that would be wonderful. we really know nothing about what's underneath these mounds. neither one has ever been
excavated. like all the mounds in wiscon n wisconsin, they're protected by state law. you cannot dig into a mound anymore. the time where archeologists would excavate a mound, that's over. we have to rely on older literature, and based on that, i would guess there is a single grave in this bird effigy holding an adult, a child, male or female, that we don't know. the mounds were built between 750 a.d. and around 1200 a.d. by a group that we call the effigy mound culture, effigy builders of the western great lakes. time period known as the late woodland. and they were gardeners and hunters who romed around most of southern wisconsin and portions of adjoining states, and they were spectacular people. they built these monumental sculptures for their dead and have changed the landscape permanently so that we cannot
forget them. they built these one basket load of dirt at a time. there's no sign they were digging deep pits to get fill for the mounds. probably they were taking very shallow scrapes in the surrounding area so that the land itself would heal quickly. and erase the damage they had done to make the mound. the madison area is an extremely rich environment. we have a concentration of several large lakes surrounded by productive marshes that would have been home to lots of water fowl, geese, ducks, along with plants like wild rice and edible roots. this would have been a wonderful place to live. very rich in resources. a place with enough shelter to see them through the winter. the presence of high hills like we're standing on left behind by the glaciers in close proximity to water may have inspired them to place the mounds here.
halfway between the earth and the sky. there was a religious and ceremonial significance to this place as well. the mounds are concentrated in particular locations in wisconsin and surrounding states. we believe those are the centers of the civic territories. the shapes change as you move from one territory to the next. these may be family or clan symbols. so the folks living in the madison area would have moved around the madison area and probably between one territory and another from time to time, but this would have been their home base. the campus has more mounds than anywhere else in the world, as far as i'm aware of. there are mounds on picnic point, which is a very popular spot to relax, look at the lake on the northwest side of campus. there's also a group of mounds including a goose effigy, a very nice one, near the lakeshore, near the student auditorium, and there are other mounds in the university's arb a aretem just a short distance from us.
we're walking onto a mound that is called a two-tailed turtle. it's not a turtle mound. that is a term that was applied to any effigy mound shown from above so you see all four limbs. it laid out like a bear skin rug. the actual creature that seems to be represented is a spirit known as a water panther. and lake mendota which you see down that direction is home to one of those spirits. we have the head of the spirit is up on the top of the hill just as the bird is, and the body extends down the slope as if it's crawling up from the lake. we have one arm extending toward us here, the hind limb is extending this direction, and then the tails, there were two tails that forked just below the hind limbs. one tail comes this way. the second one went towards the greenhouses and took a right
angle turn. it was actually a bent tail. and i wish, again, we knew why, because it's the only two-tailed effigy mound ever recorded in wisconsin. most just have the one tail. the culture has survived. the people who i have spoken to and interacted with are quite proud of the mounds. it's not uncommon when you visit a mound site like this to see offerings left behind by native american people. these are still significant places to wisconsin's tribal nations, and it's their heritage. and we're very lucky to be able to protect these places here in madison. so that they can be visited both by the descendants of the people who built the mounds and by the newcomers to the state. i have been studying the effigy mounds for 15 years, and in that time, i have learned a lot and other researchers have learned a lot about the mounds and about the people who built them. they are wonderful and engaging
works of art. you can see the hands of the artists still today on them. and at the same time, they're mysteries. they haven't given up all the knowledge they can yet, and as new technologies are invented, i am just anticipating new discoveries to come and wonderful things. and we'll get to know these people just a little bit more. >> today, we're at a national monument, specifically at the volcano area. still located within albuquerque, new mexico. the volcano area provides trails to five volcanoes and it looks out over the city of albuquerque, out towards the mountains. the volcanoes are important to petroglyphs national monument because they begin to tell the story, the geologic story.
about 200,000 years ago, a fi fischer formed and hot molten lava poured out in a series of six volcanic eruptions. some spreading a couple miles to the east. as these eruptions took place, they flowed out over layers of alluvial soil that were here in the rio grande valley. as these layers hardened, they hardened into the salt. what we've got here is a 17-mile-long curve of linear startment of black boulders on which we have over 24,000 petroglyphs. so while we're here at the volcano, the story of the national monument isn't just about a single petroglyph or petroglyph concentration. it also includes the volcanic cones and the mesa top that spreads out towards albuquerque. the pueblo people would come up to the mesa tops.
we have evidence of them carrying water and farming. sometimes they would send their children up here to keep the rabbits away from their crops. so we see we see many ancient tp here, and this becomes part of a larger spiritual landscape that's important to most pueblo people. we're here at boca negra canyon about a half-mile along the escarpment and we'll be walking on the mccaw trail. this is 113 feet tall. these black boulders once came from several sheet flows from the volcanos. boca negra canyon is the easiest place to see petroglyphs. most of our 150,000 visitors stop here first. this is one of the first petroglyphs that people who come to petroglyph national monument might see. it's a carving onto the rock.
pueblo people would use hammers and chisels to carve out the black patina, exposing the light color of the rock, which varies from a gray to a light brown to sometimes a red. some people ask us how these petroglyphs were discovered, but for the pueblo indians, they're as old as time. they've known about them since their creation stories. modern-day archaeologists date most of these images from about 1200 to 1650. a few are older, done by spanish sheep herders out here as part of the land grants. in the 1970s, archaeologists came out to the west mesa and began to inventory these images. later, interest in these grews and eventually it became a national monument. to the pueblo people, they believe that the petroglyphs choose when and to whom to
reveal themselves. sometimes it's the shadow. sometimes it's the glare. sometimes it's just the attitude and the sensitivity with which we look at these petroglyph images that reveal themselves. sometimes telling people not to touch the petroglyphs is not enough. we know that nobody should touch the petroglyphs, but we do give people an opportunity to touch an artificial boulder that we've created for such purpose, so they get the touching out of the way. we want people to understand that these are sacred images and they continue to be important to the pueblo people. eventually, over time, a patina will form and that's what's meant to happen, but till then, we ask people not to touch these images. petroglyph national monument is one of the few national park units that's owned and operated not solely by the national park service. petroglyph national monument is managed by the city of albuquerque and the national
park service, and we work together with the city to help protect and preserve these resources for the future. >> the last 20 years we've had several challenges -- land acquisition, being everything for everybody, the creation of trails, vandalism, the construction of roads through the monument, the expansion of the general aviation airport. but probably our biggest challenge is storm water runoff from upstream suburban development, because we're completely surrounded by the city of albuquerque. as you walk the trails of petroglyph national monument and you're looking along the escarpment, you might notice large concentrations of black boulders. and that's where we often see concentrations of petroglyphs. we're in the heart of the canyon where there's a dense concentration of petroglyphs. we've documented over 24,000 petroglyphs within the monument boundary.
the canyon is home to 5,000 of them. we see an animal over here. we're not really sure what it means. something that looks like a sheep brand and maybe a cross. those might have been carved by early spanish sheep herders. i see something that looks like a bird and some unidentified animals up on that rock. here we see a concentration of boulders with many hand images of different sizes. some have an additional appendage. the pueblo people believe if a child is born missing a finger or with an additional toe, that that's a sign of power. with a concentration of hand images here, we have to wonder why. maybe it's because people passed through this way. maybe this is a type of a calendar. we don't really know. only the people who carve these images know for sure. what we do know is if we followed the arroyo from the
heart of the canyon, we would end up in the pueblo. an 1,100-room adobe multiple plaza structure located on the rio grande. it was important to them because of the location to the petroglyphs. the high peaks where mother earth meets father sky. and they would come up here, they would follow spirit ways, they would say prayers, they would make offerings, and they would carve images into the rock. sometimes it's a form of passageway or a map. others might be a counting mechanism or clan image, but to many pueblo people, they say the spirits would leave this world and go on to the next world through these petroglyph images. the pueblo people call this place the place that people speak about. it belongs to all of us.
all americans. not just today but future generations. it's a place of respect. it's a place of solitude. it's a place of wonder. provo has a difficult early story. part of the big narrative of mormon settlement is about coming into into this place and making it work even though early american and british and other explorers never chose to settle here. this was seen as a difficult place to live and not a desirable patch of land. that was part of the lonlic for mormons taking it, frankly. brigham young wanted a place that could be isolated from other american settlers so that they wouldn't run into the same kinds of conflicts they'd experienced in the east. well, that dream was only partially realized because not only does the gold rush bring
some 30,000 nonmormons through utah in first three years of settlement, five years of settlement, the 20,000 or so native americans here, these stories became as difficult as the ones the mormons had experienced before. misunderstanding, cultural alienation, violent conflict, and misplacement. only this time, native americans are moved out of their tradit n traditional homelands, and so it becomes a difficult story to tell. human beings have been here for a very long time. provo, when the first anglo-american settlers arrived with intent to stay in 1849, there were already lots of people here. native americans have called this area home for hundreds, even thousands of years.
it had been the site of the largest concentration of native americans in what is now utah, in fact. the tipanogut band of the utes were located not for a from where we are to the west. they had long made their home here because of the plentiful resources with regard to both game in the mountains and canyons and the trout and fish that they were able to fish as the provo river meets what's now called utah lake. so, they had had a major population here. when the latter-day saints arrived in 1847, they chose the salt lake valley to our north. by 1849, a self-selecting group of latter-day saint as came to set until provo. the settlement of provo fits a broader settlement pattern for
the 1840s and '50 and '60s, in fact, the rest of the 19th century. the idea was partly religious but partly necessitated by the landscape as with ell. the religious component p is the idea that the mormons had a strong center place and then kind of satellite communities or branches they called them in the 19th century that would support a kind of center capital place. their language about this was religious. their idea about it came out of their own sacred texts. but the practical side was the errab ab arable land in these valleys was not easy to come by. timber was hard to come by. arable land seemed to be mostly along the creeks and rivers coming out of the mountain canyons. so in terms of large population
centers, this was a pressing question environmentally for early mormon settlement. and so the establishment of provo and other communities along what's now called the wasatch front follows a kind of pattern, and that is where one could locate near a canyon and have the benefit of its access mormon communities popped up, radiating outward from salt lake city all the way up into southern idaho, eventually all the way down to what's now california, san bernardino, one of the end points of the so-called mormon corridor. there's -- the united states has a bible belt. there's kind of book of mormon belt for mormon settlement as with el. and it really does stretch from southern idaho through utah, northern arizona, and into southern california. and so that's part of the story
is these little satellite communities eventually spaced strategically so that in a day you could reach another mormon settlement. one of brigham young's ideas was this was a way to get european converts eventually to utah safely. they could maybe come by way of maybe san diego. that eventually changed with the transcontinental railroad. they found a cheaper and safer way to get mormon converts from europe. but originally the idea was there would be this string of settlements that would form a kind of mormon corridor, and provo was one of those early satellite communities. some of the architecture that remains from the 19th century has a distinctly mormon feel to it. most prominently now is the provo city center temple, which for years was the provo tabernacle. in 2010, the interior was
destroyed by fire. and less than a year later the church of jesus christ latter-day saints announced it would be repurposed rather as a meeting house but as a latter-day saint temple, the most sacred of the expressions of architecture for latter-day saints. and so it's now one of the church's around 150 working temples, but before that, it had been a kind of cultural ecclesiastical center for the community. in fact, there's a kind of -- we might call it a sacred geography for early mormon settlements. and that is that the center of town had a church building, and this is true for provo as well so, the city center temple on the site of the tabernacle, which was on the site of an earlier tabernacle, that was all the center of the community. and that center space early latter-day saints saw as kind of biblical, maybe evoking a kind
of new jerusalem idea, but it's also very american in one sense. puritan communities evinced the same kind of centrality of the church, so early mormon settlements in utah, it's not unusual to find either a standing tabernacle or where one used to be at the center of town to. so it's a pretty telling symbol about the way those early settlers envisioned their community, that the church literally was the center. latter-day saints had a strong educational ethic very early on. when they established their community in western illinois, they actually got a charter from the state to establish a university in the city. it's indicative of their kind of yearning for education that would be in some ways secular but in some ways to be able to teach their own children in their own faith, so education always had this kind of both
secular and spiritual component. and so when mormons come to utah, that educational ethic comes with them. this was the site of one of the major educational institutions in the intermountain west in the late 19th, early 20th century. the provo city library is its current title, but it long served as the brigham young academy. the beginnings of the academy actually are the result of a couple of brothers with the last name dusenbury. they established a kind of private school here in provo. it struggled financially. eventually brigham young was involved himself in the rechartering of that school in the mid-1870s so, the academy bore his name as a result.
he had a strong hand in establishing its charter, its mission, and continued to struggle. it met in a building not for a from here that eventually burned down. this is the result, this beautiful building is the 1890s result of trying to re-establish the academy again. eventually this campus moves a little bit north of here in the early 20th century and becomes eventually brigham young university once it begins granting a selected member of doctorate degrees. vempbl eventually, its kind of private academy financial truck chstruc changed and the church itself takes over the university and becomes a private university that is directed by and funded by the church of jesus christ of
latter-day saints. and so in a way it reflects that early vision of brigham young, that it has a strong secular component of secular learning, but it also maintains more of an identity and a kind of religious mission as well. and so in a way eve aen the modern brigham young university reflects this early instinct of brigham young, who chartered it back in 1875. provo's identity is kind of inextricably linked with these educational institutions. there's no question about that. the fact that 30,000-plus students coming through the institution now, it's unquestionably shaped the way provo has developed over time. part of this is in terms of demographics as well. the county we're in right now, utah county, over 80% latter-day
saint. the county to the north, utah county, or salt lake county, rather, nowhere near that. salt lake city pretty even between latter-day saints and non-latter-day saints. utah as a state somewhere in the mid-60s percentile in terms of its mormon population. so this is an dense mormon demographic center both inside and outside the kind of provo area. this is referred to as happy valley. and it's lovingly so by mormons who know this is a very culturally mormon place and maybe a little bit more critically by folk who is come and can't for the life of them find a bar or have a very difficult time finding that cup of coffee in the morning. happy valley to them and its kind of mormon identity has a
little bit different feel to them. but that is definitely what makes provo provo. our culture is who we are, and when we look back at how our ancestors lived the kind of life that they lived and how difficult it might have been, that reflects on us because that is who we are. those are our roots. and these little bits and pieces that we uncovered tell that story, and that's the most important thing about archaeology is finding the pieces of history that complete the story. the significance of the meeting house to provo life originates with the early lds church culture in the eastern united states and in the central united states. the idea of a meeting house for
them to worship in was always there, but the problem was building one when you first arrived in a location. and so when you come to a place a, when you settle in a new area, they would build a fort, and for years they would meet together in the fort for worship. but a meeting house itself brings a greater cohesion to a community. it becomes the center of life, of a community, and especially of a latter-day saint community. after the latter-day saints had been in utah valley for about seven years, brigham young finally told them that it was time to build a meeting house. so in 1856 they began construction on the first meeting house. finally in 1861, they thought
they were almost done and they actually built a capstone to go over the front door that said "erected in 1861." unfortunately, it took another six years for them to actually finish the building, so it was actually completed in 1867. so it took them 11 years to actually finalize the building. 20 years later the second tabernacle was begun, and and fin finally constructed and after that the first meeting house or first tabernacle continued to be used but it became more of a civic center where they could hold county fairs and they could house art displays, and sometimes they even removed the benches and played basketball in it and had wrestling matches in it. so it really did take on this community social aspect more
than a meeting house after the second tabernacle was constructed. in 2010 the second tabernacle caught on fire and burned, in december of 2010. and it was such a tragic los for the community. everybody loved that building. it was still the heart of the community. so when it burned down, everybody was afraid that the walls that were left standing would also be torn down. but the lds church decided to convert it into a temple, and as soon as that happened, those historians and members of the community that knew there had been an original tabernacle, an original meeting house on that same lot right next to the second tabernacle, decided to find out if anything remained of that. so the lds church history
department brought some equipment in. they did what's called ground-penetrating radar, which sends -- it's much like seismic work, where you send signals down through the ground and it reflects back, and it located the actual foundation of that original meeting house. and through that, they knew that it hadn't been completely torn down. the base part of it still remained. so we were called in, the office of public archaeology, to do some testing. we tested in one corner, and sure enough we found the foundation. and it was just a couple of months after that that they asked us to fully excavate the foundation. it was so fun to find little bits and pieces of things that were important to people and people of all ages. we were able to find artifacts
that fell through the floorboards in the basement, and so we were able to find a lot of coins. we found nickels, dimes, pennies, some of them with holes drilled in them where they would at some point in their life use them as a necklace. we found little trinket, charms that the girls would use that would hang around their neck. we know that there was a lot of cooking going on in the basement, and we found plates and other cooking and eating utensils, and those, again, fill in another aspect of what was happening in the building. they were eating and socializing, and that's a big part of lds and of pioneer life, was socializing with each other. we found the slate pencils, again, from the school and educational aspect of the
school. we even found a lead bullet and a lead shot ball in the bottom there that somebody had lost. we found keys. we found doorknobs and other aspects. interestingly, the building itself appears to have been electrified in the 1890s. in the 1890s, a power plant was built up provo canyon, and probably one of the first buildings, if not the first building to receive electricity in the west, was this first provo tabernacle and the adjacent second tabernacle. and so we found electric light bulbs and other wiring suggesting that they had finally brought lighting into the building. just as important as the meeting house to the early pioneers, the early latter-day saints was the
construction of a bap tis trbap. and we were able to find this just on the southwest corner of the tabernacle where they had, with just enough room in it for a baptismal font, and in the center of it they probably had a little stove to heat the building. the baptismal font as we found it is constructed of wood planks, but it was probably lined with plaster to help that. the well is just very nearby and they would extract the water from the well to fill the baptismal font. over time, they finally laid pipe and brought in water from the well and from other places into the bab tptismal font wher they could fill wit with the
pipe. and the importance of the little center rock in the middle of the building is that that is where the stove was set, and they could probably heat the water so that when they got baptized the water was warm and not freezing, and that was a big thing for them, especially in the winter. in this particular case, we have a few of the items that represent some of the architecture that was within the building. and some of it was hidden architecture. we have pieces of the metal stove, the bottles that were tossed into the structure when it was abandoned. we have decorative pieces from the walls that show us what the building looked like. this is a column base that would have held a pillaster, a main support for the structure, and we found eight of these in the
basement supporting the main floor up above and the roof, and it's well carved around the edges that might have been visible and the parts that were not visible are just rock. but all of the rock that is put into the building and into the foundation was quarried from the mountains and brought down by horse and wagon. during the wintertime, often, where they would actually chisel it out down at the construction site into things like this to construct the building. we have pieces of slate, and we found several slate pencils. not only was this used for church meetings for the children and the adults to write on, but at times the building was used as a school. and so we have little pieces of that educational aspect of the building.
the block where the meeting house and the new temple set are still the center and the heart of provo, just as they were back in the 1860s. and even though you have busy cars in the streets, busy streets and cars rushing by and shoppers and government pildi s buildings around it, that is where people go to feel the heart of provo. it maintains not only its historic visual character but its feeling of character. so that has never changed. and in most lds communities, it's the same thing. those central squares, those
public squares are always the heart of, the lifeblood of that community. ♪ i belong to the tribe of the discovered ones. evidence says that we've been here for 10,000-plus years. our elders say that we've been here since time immemorial. we've got some stories that go back as for a back as the flood times, i guess, lake missoula flood, and we have stories about a place up on the peak on the northern part of our current reservation, and on that peak sits a log that's been petrified, and it sits stuck into the mountain at a certain
elevation. and what my grandpa told me was during that flood time it brought that over, because we don't have petrified wood around here. so it pushed that into the mountain right there. so if you reference that story, you know, we've been here for a lot longer than, you know, probably 10,000 years. today we're standing in old mission cataldo, and we're sitting in the interpretive center. and we have a lot of exhibits in here that represent the tribe, the black robes, father d. smith, and our transition into i guess today's life. our aboriginal territory, if you look at it today on a map, exceeds three states -- western montana, northern idaho, and eastern washington. and we shared territory to the
south of us with another tribe. to the west of us was the spokanes. to the north of us was another. from what i understand we had pretty good relationships, and it wasn't perfect but we had shared territories, shared resources, but from what i understand there were skirmishes also. so there are times where we didn't get along. we had a very intelligent person within our tribe. his name is circling raven. and we are told that he was chief for 100 years and that he was the last person in our tribe to live to be 150 years old. and he had a prophesy that stated that men with crossed sticks and long black robes would come to our people and teach us a new way of living because hardship was on the horizon. i guess the first thing that we
witnessed european contact was not them specifically. it was the disease that came. smallpox, whooping cough, and some other diseases that came. when the diseases struck our tribe, we had about 5,000 people in our territory. and it struck our people two different ways. 1842, when father smith came, we were down to 500 people. and if you can imagine pretty much everybody you know dying a horrible death, that's kind of what they went through. and that was just the first thing that took place. second place was the horse, which we took as very beneficial. if you can imagine people walking around and all of a sudden now they have a ride to take their things, to put their kids on, to put their families
on, it was a lot different mode of life. the next thing was the trade items that came to the tribe. and then following the trade items was the fur trappers. following the fur trappers was father smith and the black robes. when the father came in the 1840s the tribe was very happy because the prophesy was foretold, and from what i heard pretty much every single member of the tribe wanted to get baptized. we wanted christianity. we wanted that way of life. even though our tribe was decimated by disease, when father desmith came we were still a happy people. and when he came, that made us more joyous because of the prophesy. ♪ when the father came, we met him where north idaho college is
today. and we had our first christmas there. that exhibit represents our first christmas. after that, we wanted to build a mission, a church. the first we built was near a river. due to flooding we moved it to where it sits today, and under the direction of the father they built this wonderful church that has no nails. no nails. and the kids, they brought up a lot of the foundation stones from the river, and a lot of the people, they brought up the mud and the grass and they insulated the walls with it, and they took huckleberry juice and painted the ceiling. we already understood the power of one god. in our language, that's what it means, is the one creator. so when this new way of thinking and thought came around, it was quite similar to the way we had already understood, lived in
harmony with life and harmony with one another the best we could. and i guess some of the things, too, that the catholics did, it resonated with what we were doing. they had prayers and songs. we had prayers and songs. they used that incense. we used incense to bless ourselves. so a lot of those things are really similar to us. we moved from being a people that was kind of like around the lake, and we fished, we hunted. right around the 1870s, we were pretty much forced to move to the reservation, and that was that difference, was we were a people that enjoyed fishing, swimming, a lot of things that, you know, we had to do for survival, move about with nature. if the roots were ripe over here, we went that way. if the berries were ripe this
way, we went that way. and one of the difference was we were pretty much forced to go onto the reservation to where desmit was and we had to learn to be farmers. the coeur d'alene took our name. we were good businessmen. the fur traders were probably the best businessmen that they ever met. they called us coeur d'alene, which means sharp hearted, real shrewd traders, so they called us coeur d'alenes, which is a french term. >> the tribe is about 2,500 members strong today. the biggest decisions that the tribe faces every day is not losing ourselves. in this day and age, we have to worry about economic development. we have to worry about that kind of stuff, but we also have to worry about losing ourselves as
a people. when i grew up on the coeur d'alene reservation, we were very poor, very -- poverty. wasn't that many jobs. but we were close-knit family as a community. nowadays, you know, we have a multimillion-dollar casino and a lot of our business adventures, we're out there, we're doing the business world. but sometimes we lose sight of what's important and helping one another. and i think our tribal council really tries to address that with our people. we really want to not lose sight of that. so we really try to help not only our community but the surrounding community, the coeur d'alene community as a whole. we put a lot of money to education for everybody, because we believe everything starts within the community. and we like to give back not only to tribal members but nontribal members. for example, when we opened our casino, our elders on that
council at the time, before the state, they said we're going to set 5% aside for education, not for tribal members, education for all of idahoans. and so every year we take 5% and we give back to all the schools in the area, sometimes statewide, sometimes just in the area, and the state didn't require that. that's a requirement that we put into our gaming. and i think with that token of good will it showed we were serious and we were here to be good neighbors. so i really think that sets us apart from a lot of tribes. i think the future is education. when i was growing up, like i said, when i grew up on the coeur d'alene reservation, we were poor. nobody went to college. i was the first one in my family to go to college. and casinos were just starting. and since over the last 20 years now we've sent more people to college than ever. we've had people at brown,
stanford, become doctors, lawyers, and so i think that's the future of the coeur d'alene tribe. i think we are -- we are in the process of driving our own ship. you know, we've got people out there and they're coming home and we can offer good jobs for our people to come home and get a decent salary. and so i'm proud of that, and i think that's the next 20 years, i they's what you're going to see. we're in champion, wisconsin. this is the shrine of our lady of good help. in october of 1859, adele bryce was walking through this area when she claimed to have witnessed an apparition or a vision of the virgin mary. the catholic church defines an apparition as an appearance of jesus christ, the virgin mary,
or any of the saints. there were 3-0 cases that adele bryce believes she had visions of the virgin mary, and on the third vision, on the third appearance, the virgin mary instructed her to spread the word of salvation throughout the area, among the pioneer people living here in wilderness. and for the rest of her life, she did just that, serving more or less as a missionary here in the area to the pioneer families living in a very remote and rugged area of the mid 19th century. after she experienced the apparition, she confided in her parents and in the local catholic priest, and her father built a small shrine here at the location of the apparitions. in october of 1871, a huge wildfire broke out on the west side of green bay in a
community. it remains the largest wildfire in the nation's history. it claimed more than 1,200 lives. and the wildfire was so great that it created its own atmosphere more or less, a hurricane of fire, and it threw flames, sparks, heat, and ash across the bay of green bay roughly 35 miles and ignited wildfires here in the air a y of southern door county. on that night, as the flames began to spread here in southern door county, adele bryce and others gathered at the shrine, gathered at the chapel her father had built, to pray for their safety. and the following day as the fire had burned itself out and as the morning light came up, it was revealed that the entire area had been devastated by the fire except for an immediate area surrounding the chapel that had been built by her father. the shrine continued to draw
pilgrims and other visitors throughout the years as a somewhat modest attraction. at first catholic church took a somewhat skeptical view of the reports of the apparitions, but they never doubted the work, the good work and character of adele bryce. it wasn't until 2008 that the catholic church convened a formal investigation into the reports of the apparitions here at this site, and in 2010 the church concluded that visions experienced by adele bryce were, indeed, worthy of belief by the catholic church. the church's sanction of this site as worthy of belief is significant. it is only one of 12 sites worldwide that's approved by the
church. it's the only site in the united states at this time. so it ranks right up there with lourdes and fatima as far as church-sanctioned site where is there have been reported appearances of the virgin mary. we are at the site of america's first shaker settlement. this is where the united society of believers in christ's second appearing were first able to realize their vision of creating a communal, utopian, religious society in america. the shakers started in the mid-1700s in manchester, england. people derisively referred to
them as the shakers, which was a reference to their early worship, which consisted of shaking, crawling around on the floor, barking like dogs. they weren't the only group, religious group, doing this sort of thing in that time period. it was an ecstatic kind of expression of worship. some of them had been quakers in the past. none of them were happy with the existing religions of the time. and so they were meeting together discussing matters of spirituality, and all of them agreed that they believed that in order to live a pure life, christian life, that you had to be secelibate, you should own property in common, so communal ownership of property, they believed in pacifism and confession of sin. those are the basic ten nets of shaker faith and remain consistent throughout their history. out of this group of people
discussing spiritually in manchester came a young woman named ann lee. she was the daughter of a bla blacksmith, and she had been forced into a marriage she wasn't interested in having in the first place, and then subsequently had four children, all of kwhom dwhom died in infa when they were quite young. so she was particularly drawn to the concept of celibacy, because it was a way to free her from the cycle of grief. she was the one who ultimately brought them to the new world to practice their religion freely. so they came to america in 1774, and they stayed in manhattan for a couple years and fled to the albany area just as the british were invading manhattan. they were able to lease a parcel of land that was quite undesirable. it was all swampland and sand dunes and that sort of thing. but this was a poor group of people. they didn't have a lot of money. so this was the first place they
were able to settle themselves. and they became successful fairly quickly. by 1790, they had accomplished the garden seed industry, so they were among the first to standardize seed production, put the seeds in paper packets, and sell them to the outside world. so they very quickly became very astute and very successful business people. they made use of the erie canal to ship their products to the west, so their influence was pretty great. later on, they also had a tremendous influence in the area of the arts. the shakers are perhaps best known for their furniture, the ladder back chairs. it was only the chairs that they mass produced and sold to the outside worrell, bld, but the standardized process of these chairs was pretty early on. this community peaked, as most shaker communities did, in about the mid -1800s, and about that time there were about 300 people
living here, and it would have been like a beehive of activity. there were many, many buildings here at the site that unfortunately were torn down in the early 20th century, but you can really see it as a mini industrial village. it was densely developed. every building had a specific use. every shaker had a specific job that they were assigned to. and there was a tremendous amount of activity. they were celibate, so they had to have a way of getting new converts, and one of the things that they did was build these large-scale meeting houses like the one back here behind us. the meeting house was built in 1848, and on sundays the road would literally be filled from beginning to end with carriages of people who came to see the shakers in part because it was a curiosity. victorians loved a spectacle and they considered the shakers to be a very interesting spectacle, but some people came because
they truly were motivated by shaker spirituality and interested in their faith. and there were people who came to see shaker worship who subsequently converted. they would frequently have many famous guests here. martin van buren was their lawyer. he was frequently a guest who would come on sundays to observe shaker worship. general sherman came. nathaniel hawthorne. herman melville. mell vi has a character from this community in "moby dick," who makes an appearance in one of the chapters. it was quite the thing to do in that century to come and see the shaker worship. after ann lee died, she had appointed somebody to succeed her, which is one of the reasons why the fake shaker faith was able to continue. shea had the foresight to appoint someone to succeed her. that was joseph meacham. they're both buried in the cemetery at the site. if you look at ann lee, she is
never put on a pedestal. but if you look at her tombstone, it's slightly larger than the others. she wasn't necessarily considered better or important than anyone else. they really did strive for equality in the communities. joseph meacham really came up with the way that shaker communities were organized into separate family groupings. and for the shakers, they had a very different concept of what a family is than we do, because they lived communally, family was 100 people who were living and working together and or with schi -- worshipping harmony. they were expected to love everyone equally so, they were expected to break family bonds to a certain extent because they were joining a new type of family. so the shakers often were acc e accused of breaking up families,
but from their perspective they actually were providing a new kind of family. the shakers were very progressive in their ideals. they believed in gender and racial equality. so from the very beginning we know that there were black shakers. you know, as early as 1790. i was very curious about black shakers. we can't say there were legions of them, but there certainly were a good number of black shakers, and they truly were treated as equals in the community. so we don't have a researcher on staff, so we've worked with students at the suny albany public history program at siena college and other colleges in the area to go through the shaker journals and identify african-american shakers and start to piece together a story about them. so we had a student from suny albany who found six specific references to the shakers
sheltering fu ining fugitive sl which was a surprise to me because the shakers were always pretty savvy about politics and not putting themselves in a position where they get in trouble needlessly. so i assumed they wouldn't be writing specific things in their journals about sheltering fugitive slaves, but the student came across a reference that was something to the effect that brother f. took a run-away slave to schenectady to help him on to freedom in canada, which is really quite astonishing because you don't really come up with that kind of concrete evidence when you're studying the underground railroad. so we are continuing to build on that research and to get a better understanding of what it was like if you were a black person living in the community. the shakers took in a lot of orphans, and they took in poor people, and that was one way that they increased their numbers. they were never particularly firm about proselytizing and trying to get people to join the community i think because they knew that everybody had to fully agree to commit to this
lifestyle. otherwise it wouldn't work. so by the late 19th century, there were state-run orphanages, government-run orphanages that were being established, so there were fewer reasons to place your children with the shakers or an orphaned child with the shakers. also, as women were able to earn a living on their own, more opportunities became available for women, there were less economic reasons to join the shakers. and in general, interest in spirituality started to diminish. so by 1925, there were just a handful of shakers left in albany, and they were having a great difficulty maintaining all of the buildings and the site here. so albany county purchased the land from the shakers so that they could use it as a sanitarium for tuberculosis patients and so that they could build a new nursing home. and this was fairly common. a lot of shaker communities were closing down in that time
period, and many of them were used for institutional purposes, for prisons or what have you. so today there are nine buildings left in the church family portion of the historic district. and many of them have had their interiors altered by albany county. but we still have the 1848 shaker meeting house, which is the last large-scale meeting house with its superior left intact. so that's quite significant. it's a beautiful building. you can really get a sent of the h history of the place. the first experience that mormons had with the southern california area was there was a call for individuals to help with the mexican-american war that was occurring between 1846 and 1848. the mormon church raised a group of a few hundred men and sent them into southern california. they reached san diego and were
stationed at mission san luis rey, and they ended up coming into the area, purchasing items from different rancho owners. one of the owners they purchased items from was luis ribado. they first got a glimpse of the area. and the groups of individuals of the part of the mormon battalion that came here for war that end up going back to utah spoke highly of southern california and convinced the president of the church at the time, brigham young, to purchase one of the ranchos in the area. so that's how they ended up coming back as a group, and they raised a few hundred individuals. over 400 wanted to make the travel back to southern california and set until ttle i area. originally they were going to purchase the chino rancho, which
fell through, but it gave mormons an opportunity to purchase the san bernardino rancho. and that's how they ended up in san bernardino and ended up being the founders of san bernardino. the journey from utah to california was a very perilous one. there's lot of deserts you have to travel through, much -- many different types of terrain, and specifically when they got here to southern california there was a pass called the cajon pas that was very difficult. and once they reached that pass they realized there's a better route than had been taken previously and was little west of the cajon pass called the west cajon pass, and they ended up ingeniously traveling through that route and discovering that it was easier to maneuver down that way. it wasn't exactly easy, but it was easier than routes taken in the past. the wagon behind me was owned by jerucia beamis. she lived in utth and her and
her family decided to come to southern california, specifically the san bernardino settlement, in 1854. they made the travel here to southern california in this wagon that's behind me. again, it was a very, very perilous journey taking a wagon several hundred mile ace cros a desert in different types of topography. once they started settling here, others did as well. >> the first thing the mormons did when they purchased the land from lugo, they built a few houses in what is now downtown san bernardino, built out of adobe. but right away they heard about an all-out indian uprising throughout southern california from san luis obispo, which is a little further north, down to san diego. and the idea was, you know, because of the european intrusion there were a lot of people that -- you know, the
natives weren't happy with all the people. so the mormons built a fort, a stockade, and that's where they lived. they lived for about a year there. there were some skirmishes but nothing that serious ever materialized. eventually, after about year, plans were being made to lay out the streets of san bernardino. once they started laying out the streets of san bernardino, probably was i think 1853. that's when the county of san bernardino was formed. jefferson hite is probably the person who is most instrumental in spearheading the efforts to get everything built. a young man named fred paris was a teenager. he helped him out, and paris in his later years became very instrumental in san bernardino. hunt, we mentioned earlier, he was the one that probably encouraged brigham young to have a colleague out in mission chino in san bernardino. hunt had been back and forth.
he knew the way. he was kind of like the leader of the mormon families coming out. he spearheaded the effort to build a fort. he also was instrumental in billing a logging road up to the mountains, to what is now the town of crestline. and in about ten days they were able to build a 12-mile road. that road now is a paved road, and that's where they'd go up to the mountains, they would cut down trees and logs, and they would bring them down -- the logs for san bernardino purpose was used for frames for adobe house, but they also would send the logs over by wagon to los angeles, and they would trade, and that's how they kind of paid off their mortgage. however, in 1857, after six years, brigham young recalled his faithful back to salt lake.
there were a variety of reasons why he did so, and one of them is probably the fact so many mormons came out for different reasons. some were also going for the warm weather, you know, maybe going to the gold fields. so it worked, but then it was shorted. the mormons that stayed in the mission, about 60% of the town, you know, the population went back, but those that stayed they had their reasons. and probably, i'm just surmising, it was probably because, you know, faith-wise or whatever -- maybe it was the tight reins of brigham young or maybe because of the warm climate of southern california as opposed to salt lake city, gets pretty cold up there, and other opportunities. but a lot of them stayed, and they became very prominent pioneers of san bernardino years later. if brigham young did not have
the recall back to salt lake, what would san bernardino be like now? i spoke to a wonderful historian, leo langman. member latter day saints or the mormon church. his great, great and great grandfather was one of the two mormon apostles that came out with the families. i asked him what do you think san bernardino would have been like if it wasn't for the recall. he said it probably would have been like los angeles. because the work ethic, the cohesiveness was real strong. and all of a sudden you started getting a mixed bag. it became a railroad town. it really grew and became a strong town. it would be interesting what would have happened. we are here on the campus of bob jones university in
greenville, south carolina. our campus has been here since 1947. and it's a beautiful spot right here a mile and a half from downtown greenville. the university is a fully christian liberal arts education and our student body currently is about 2,800 students. that fluctuates from year to year. it really comes down to what our world view is and our viewpoint of the world is not secular. our viewpoint of the world is as it is revealed in the scriptures of the bible. that's the lens that we are looking through. whether it's science or whether it's math or whether it's education or whatever a person does in their life, it's really a bibly -- bib bli cal world view. it was founded by bob jones, sr.
it was at the tail end of the e van -- evangelist. he was concerned about the negative influence of secular of the 1920s. the school was started in florida right outside of panama city. during the depression years they moved to cleveland, tennessee. they were there from the early 1930s until 1947. they outgrew the school. so they picked up with about 2,500 to 2,700 students from cleveland tennessee and they moved to greenville, south carolina. and have been here ever since. in 1983 bob jones university went all the way to the u.s. supreme court on an issue of
innerracial dating. it was between a conviction and public policy. what happened was that the public policy overruled the biblical conviction. that was the problem of the issue and that's why it has repercussions today because if there are people who have religious convictions about things and it's in conflict with public policy, then what is the supreme court going to do about that? >> in trying to understand the bob jones university court case, officially known as bob jones university versus united states, this is no defense of the ban on ent interracial dating. it was wrong. it was racist. the school eventually recognizes that. but understand that you go back really to the south in the late 19th century after the civil
war. the tragedies of what slavery was replaced with was a system of segregation and also part of that terrible period was states, and i don't think it was all southern, but mostly southern states, they passed what are known as antimis, genation laws, i guess you could look at it as trying to keep families segregated. so this was for white southerners after the civil war right on through the -- probably the 40s and '50s. segregation was the reality. again, that doesn't make it okay. that's just the way it was. so what you have is bob jones,
sr. and the jones family, they come not just from the south but from the deep south, from alabama. you have the civil rights movement starting and things begin to change and so integration is going to start taking place nationally, especially in the south where the focus is. the university actually integrates only a few years after other colleges and universities in south carolina integrate. so integration really was never the issue. the issue is how do you handle race with an integrated student body. and the administration at the time, it was still bob jones jr. who would have been president still, the response apparently
was to keep a vestage of the old segregated world what was represented by the laws, the bans on interracial marriage. and the administration basically framed it as a religious liberty issue. and that was the argument that they made. because by 1964 the civil rights act had passed and the pressure was you can't do this and keep your tax exemption. and so the irs eventually just yanked the tax exemption. so we sued to get it back. and that suit was eventually lost at the supreme court level. i think it was 1983. . but we lost and the school basically went forward with no
tax exemption and operated. in 2000, dr. bob jones iii basically had made the decision that having that rule in place was such a detriment to our spiritual ministry that it should be dropped. and that came on the heels of the south carolina republican presidential primary between john mccain and george w. bush. >> welcome to the stand an extraordinary man who will be an exceptional candidate, george w. bush and his wife laura. >> george w. bush had lost new hampshire to john mccain and so south carolina was sort of do or die for george w. bush. he had decided to move to texas and stay there and became an
evangelical methodist. that was part of his identity. evangelicals really did identify with him. he came to woman pcampus and he and i remember very well about a day or two after the mccain camp decided to make an issue of the fact that the university, although integrated, banned interracial dating. >> the political tactics of division and slander are not our values. [ applause ] >> they are corrupting influences on religion and politics and those who practice them in the name of religion or in the name of the republican party or in the name of america, shame our faith, our party, and our country. >> and it was i think