tv Politics and Public Policy Today CSPAN December 23, 2017 12:00am-2:05am EST
then we see the choir in front and it makes a great picture. ♪d even longer. this is older than the temple itself. the oldest thing inside is this organ case. these gold pipes next to me here have looked down on decades and decades of history. so a lot of history in this organ case and in the building. the soupd of the tabernacle
huge wall of sound going over me and out into the room. ♪ i have been here 23 years now and i'm still thrilled as much as i was the first time i heard them. ♪ one great story has to do with helen keller who was here in the early 19 hundreds and spoke at the pulpit behind where i'm seated here, if you can call it speaking. we know she was deprived of her eyesight and learned to speak if a very guttural voice. she gave a presentation to a packed house. they asked if there was anything she would like. the organist came and played
come come thee saints. they placed her hands on the wood of the case and the person said she just wept as she felt the throbbing of the great instrument and the pipes playing the song the pioneers had played. there is something unique about this choir that comes across to audiences. i think it's a combination of things. it's not just how well trained they are and how professional they are. i think it's their sincerity about their message. when they turn to the audience to sing god be with you until we meet again i see tears in the eyes of the people out there. i know the stories of the choir
members. i know what they are going through in their families and they are singing from the heart. it comes across when the audience hears them sing. >> young was the second president of the church of jesus christ of latter day saints. he was living in a little community called mendon. when the first missionaries went out carrying the book of mormon one of the first places they went was to mendon. they talked to his brother-in-law and he was introduced to it through family relationships. he did not immediately take.
he was interested but it took him two years of study and talking to missionaries before he was committed and baptized a member. once he joined the church he was a fully devoted member. when he is committed to something he is committed whole heartedly. he took many small roles and responsibilities. young was one of the men that was selected to be an apostal. he took on the important role of testifying for christ. in many ways to leave the church. that form of apostals became more and more important in the leadership of the church.
now, there were others. this is a very difficult time for church members, a very confusing time. they with respect even sure we should have another profitable church. how could you replace a man like joseph smith? young, who is the one that got to majority of the saints, who gathered the majority of the saints together. he was a very interesting man. he was a great leader. there are interesting things about him. he tended to lead by example. if you're going on a trip he is at the forefront.
if you to dig out of a mud hole he is the first one there with a shovel. he was just very very capable. he was able to envision a future, envision what they needed to do and how to get it done. i think more than anything else he was also an individual who had a deep spiritual core to him. there were a number of people when he spoke at a very highly contested meeting who said as he was speaking he started to look like joseph smith. they felt that that was a sign that a mantle of leadership -- young was sustained. that mains he was proposed by the form and the membership voted to sustain him. in 1847 he lead a group of 143
men rn men, three women and two children. they were paving the way. they were finding the best route. they were sent here to find a way and get things started. once they established and got family settled young and many of the men turned around and went back to the missouri river because there were approximately a little over 12,000 people who were still waiting there to come. so he went back to help organize the rest of this migration that was going to come more than a thousand miles. the ultimate goal for all of the territory at the time was to establish what the latter day sapts referred to as zion. it was a community that was
most of the territory officials would be outsiders. they were brought from various places around the united states. so there was a great clash between young and the mormons and these outside territory y'a officials. some were scoundrels. he was used to running things his way. when they came in he wupt as open to working with them. he went ahead and the money for the treasury got here long before the actual treasurer got here. he was spending the money and all of these conflicts started to arise.
if you're to say what are the real kind of challenges? i think it is that he was very kind spoken. he said exactly what he thought. he was not one to play political games. when he doesn't get along with the territory officials abdomen then word gets back to d.c. and complaints you just have conflict starting to build and tension building. the president of the united states sent an army to utah, utah expedition, about 3,000 soldiers, to put down the mormon rebelli rebellion. they came into the salt lake valley. they were prepared at the time
that if they were attacked they were going to burn their houses. there was a man standing in front of this house ready to burn it to the ground. the army passed through and set up a port south of salt like city. yu young was relieved of his duties. one was the reports of polygamy. that was disturbing to many people. also the mormon tendency towards controlling local politics. there were no political parties here or there was one political party. it was all part of the church government. all of the other leaders had roles. that's very concerning to the federal government.
young is probably most well known. it was a doctrine which was revealed by joseph smith. when young was first taught that concept it was very difficult for him to accept. he'll later recall that he looked out the window and saw a hearse carrying a body to the cemetery and he wished he was in the coffin. over time he came to accept that doctrine and practiced it and became one of the most widely known practitioners of that doctrine. you have to understand the concept which is that people can be sealed for this life. if you're sealed you can also be sealed for eternity.
another option is just to be sealed for eternity. that means that marriage will be continued into the next life. many were married. he had probably about 24 wives that were wives that he considered. he can argue about what it all means. the idea of salvation was really the core thing that motivated him. you look at his sermons and over and over again he was constantly
encouraging and some times b getting people to get on their knees and repent. we don't have a lot of stories about yuoung as a father. another daughter told a story about how she was out in the stable with her father and a man left the saddle ton floor and it was getting kicked around and dusty. he had a quick temper and a quick tongue. so he chewed out the stable hand who left that there. he stomped in the house. he wept in his bedroom and slammed the door. she could hear him saying brigham, get on your knees and repept. get on your knees now.
seeing those glimpses helps you get a 2k3w4ri6r78s of how he fe important he felt personal behavior was and how much he yearned of having the accept taps of his father in heaven. he lied in the lion house here in salt liake city. he had been declining for a number of years. at one point he had to have all of his teeth pulled and he wore dentures. so there's no real assurety of what took his life. young left very strict instructions so if he baptwante
nevada, arizona. they spread far and wide and build important infrastructure. he had that vision that brought tens of thousands of people here to the american west to establish these mormon communities and to build a society that was striving to be as christian as they could possibly be. you're looking at a photograph of woodruff, arguably the most important historian of the first century. woodruff was a very good journal keeper. he kept journals from the time he joined the church in 1833 and continued keeping them up until his death in 1898. this is his very first journal and it shows you how meticulous he was in his journal keeping.
he would spend as much as an hour a day writing in his journal. here is the industry for his marriage date. he decorated it with things to make it look almost like a little marriage certificate by itself. at the end of his journal he kept statistical acould wacount what happened to him in a given year. table for 1837 summarizing his life during that period. it tells how many miles he traveled, how many letters he wrote. it was a statistical tabulation. i blessed two children. i wrote 30 letters. i received 13 letters. he kept up this kind of journal
keeping his entire life in the church, a period of 65 years. some of the industries are very poi poignant. he was there after smith's death in 1844. in 1846 the church completed the temple. they devoted an enormous amount of time and effort became a symbol of the great sacrifices they had given. woodruff made an entry in his jourm. he said i looked upon the temple and city as i retired from it and failed to ask the already to
preserve it as a monument. it think it's very poignant. he is asking god to protect him as a monument to his peoples sacrifice. the importance is they are the buildings in which they perform ceremonies that they believe will lipg families together for eternity. he crossed iowa and in 1847 the following year he crossed the great plains of north america into the great basin and reached the salt like valley.
when he reached the salt lake valley he was traveling with young. in his skbrournl for that time period he makes a note of the impression that he and young had. he says president young expressed his full sats faction in the appearance of the valley as a resting place for the saints. he says while we contemplated that in not many years that the house of god would essentially be built here in this valley. so having left their temple the memt th moment they eptntered, they are already calculating. they arrived on july 24th.
it was a saturday. on sunday they paused to worship. on monday they climbed a nearly peak. on that peak they got a look at that valley. and then young went down into the valley. he put his cane into the ground and said here will be our new temple location. woodruff was there on that occasion and took a stake and drove it into the ground. in 1853 they finally began construction and it took them 40 years to complete. in the meantime the peculiar form of marriage became an
object of across the country. it is largely because it wasn't enforced and they believed the law was unconstitutional, that it violated their civil rights. come bieped with the laws were supreme court decisions saying no. these laws are constitution that. they were forced to a voice. he essentially records a document that he released in september of 1890 beginning the ending of that practice. this is the journal in which he
recorded that. so urnder the date he recorded n red ink official declaration. so official declaration. he copies into his journal a document that was released and later called the manifesto. it started the ending of plural marriage in the church. the most important was this language which basically says i here by declare my intepntion t submit to thouse laws and to hae them do likewise. that's the operative language. as i mentioned, it department end immediately.
people who made marriage covenants continued to support them. the number of new marriages began to decline between them and a period of roughly 14 years until 1904 when there was a second manifest toe issued. after that they dropped out considerably. and the fact not om is it prohibited in the church but anyone found practicing is from the church. that decision to choose the preservation of the temples, he fell inspired to say if things continued to go the way they were they would make it impossible to have to ceremonies that would join families together forever. he and the members of the church
from that time to the present it has undergone a number of remodellin remodellings. it is the exterior you see today. this is a photograph of woodruff and his wife. he was a man who had piercing eyes. all of the photographs show eyes of a man who seemed to be able to look through people. he was a very jegentleman. woodruff was in many ways the most important historian. he was the most important historian because he experienced many of the churches events. he recorded these events in his
it's the only mission that has continuously operated as a church from the founding to the presented day. the group of indians came from the area north of malibu to south month rerey county. they inhabited this area inland. when they established this mission there were pretty good relationships going on. that deteriorated over time as the populations dwindled.
that were problematic to them. they were being cut off for many of their hunting and gathering places. we v eventually we see the revolt. i think the spanish wanted to control the santa barbara channel. they actually put more missions than any other group in california. there is five missions. the idea was to control the central part of the coast which shipping would need in order to go from north to south and south to north. it gave them a good deal of control which is what they wanted to do and control of middle of california.
we are in this out it's door museum. this small connectisection whic standing which was used in their world and their culture and produced the foods and so on that were important to them. and then the other part of the garden which is below us here is all plapnts that were introduce by the spanish and the beginnings in california. all of those plants were brought here and represent a cross section from across the pacific from north and south america. those plants were brought by the spanish who then gave them and
said see if you can make it grow. the tree that is right here is a rare island oak. there were many all of which produced wonderful acorns which were the staple food of california. they were mer time people. lots of fish and lots of acorns. there is a really nutritious diet before the spanish ever showed up. the garden below us features the diet th diet and the things they learned to grow successfully. you can see in the distance there the what that that grove.
there were what thbananas growi. they were noted by the french explorer growing between other orchard trees. they would put them in the center with other trees around them to keep them from thesing. it is restoration of the cultural environment. this cultural landscape is important. many times we walk up to an old landmark building and sur roupdroup -- sur rourounded by modern cultur.
their diet was used -- it was used at prisons. this is the mission early olive growth from the late 17 hundreds. down at the very end is one from northern california. they are all the same variety. of course citrus along with groups are two of the major crops still making a major part of our success in agriculture.
so the fruit is fabulous and then the little pads, you can cut them up and fry them up with your breakfast eggs. they are terrific. it is also producing the bugs that are on it. these guys produce a red die. i don't want to put my fuinger n it but when you break it open, if you put it on a piece of paper it will come a bill i can't red. the bright red color came from the bug.
they would produce the dye for the fabrics they were weaving. you get clothes die achb aye an kinds of food from this. it's not a surface you want to purpose your way through -- push your way through. it will keep the cows and sheep and everything else out of your fields and protect the crops. what we really need to recognize is they are responsible for agriculture. the local ipd yndians are who ma success out of this agriculture. >> we are standing on observatory hill in madison.
we are approaching chamberlain rock. coming up on the wing tip built here around a thousand years ago. they are very difficult to photograph. they are quite shy. they sinening down into the earth and hide themselves. they are not prop napt earth works but they are very special. the wing tip extepids towards us. the hedge is near the sidewalk and fence. the body comes down the hill towards the lake shore and then the other wing is just out of sight on the other side of the body of the mount. you're looking at this from a slightly different perspective standing at the head.
the body is extending towards the lake in front of us. so these can be considered a kind of tombstone really. they mark the graves of the dead and are camped in trved in the animals or spirits. we have graves and cremation some times from the same time period. some got mounts but had to share them. some were very simple dome shaped. we are not clear what the division is yet. students are beginning to suspect that it may be if not economic at least some sort of
social difference. the people that were buried there have a little worse nutrition. they are a little more likely to have suffered an accident. they are more likely to have shared some of their kmcommunit members. it may be they are religious leaders or political leaders. i wish we could ask them. that would be wonderful. we know nothing. like all of them in wisconsin they are protected by state law. you cannot dig into a mound. it is over. we have to rely on older literature. based on that i would suggest there is a single holding an adult or child that we don't know. the mounts reveal between 750
a.d. by a group we call the builders of the western great lakes. the time period known as the late woodwoodland. they were guard they are -- gardeners and must waworkers. they built sculptures. they built these one load at a time taking topsoil from the sur roupding areas. they were probably taking very shallow scrapes so that the lapd would heal quickly and erase the damage they had done to make the
moup mound. we have a concentration of several large lakes that would have been home to lots of water foul, geese, ducks and plants like wild rice. this would have been a wonderful place to live and a police station with enough shelter to see them through the wipter. the preps of high heels may have inspired them to place the mounds here half way between the earth and the sky. we believe there's a significance. we believe they are the centers of specific territories. the shapes clapg as you move from one territory to the next. the folks living in the area would have moved around the area
and between one territory and the other. this would have been their home base. there are moupds out where there is a very popular time to relax and look at the group and there are other moupds in the arb arboritum. this is not a turtle mound. it was applied so that you see all four limbs. it laid out kind of like a bearskin rug. this is a spirit known as a water panther.
the lake is home to one of the those spirits. we have the head of the spirit up on the top of the hill just as the bird is. the bod exextends down the sleep. the hind him heading this direction. there are two tails. the second wept and took a right angle turn. it was actually a bept term because it's the only two ever recorded in wis wis. most just is the one hill. the people are quite proud of the moupds. -- mounds.
these are still very significant places to wisconsin's triable nations. it's their heritage. we have lucky to be able to protect these places here in madison so they can be visited by the descendents of those who built the mounds and by the newcomers. i have been studying the mounds for 15 years. i have learned a lot about the people who build them. you can see the happeneds of the artists still today on them. at the same time as new technologies are invented i'm anticipating wonderful things.
we'll get to know these people just a little bit more. >> today we are at the volcano's day use area still located within new mexico. the area provides -- the volcan because they begin to tell the geologic story. about 200,000 years ago a fis r fissure formed, a crack in the earth's crust and hot, molten lava poured out in a series of six volcanic eruptions some spreading a couple miles to the east. as these eruptions took place, they flowed out over layers of soil that were here in the rio grande valley.
as the layers hardened, they hardened into basalt. so what we have is a 17 mile long curvilinear escarpment on which we have over 24,000 petro glyphs. the story of petro glyph national monument is not about a single petro glitch or petro glitch concentrations. it also includes the volcanic cones and mesa top spreading out towards albuquerque. the pueblo people would come to the mountaintop. sometimes they'd send their children to keep the rabbits away from their crops. we see many ancient trails up here. this becomes part of a larger spiritual landscape that's important to most pueblo people.
we are at the canyon along the escarpment. this is a volcanic escarpment, 113 feet tall. these black boulders came from several sheet flows. this is the easiest place to see petro glyphs. most of the 150,000 visitors stop here first. this is one of the first you might see when you come to the national monument. it's a carving onto the rock. pueblo people would use stone chisels and hammers and carve out the dark black patina, exposing the light color of the rock which varies from a gray to light brown to sometimes a red. some people ask us how the petro glyphs were discovered. for the indians they are as old as time.
they have known about them since their creation stories. modern-day archeologists date most of the images from 1200 to 1650. a few are older, those done by early spanish sheep-herders out here as part of the land grants. in the 1970s archeologists came out to the west mesa and began to inventory the images. later, interest in these grew and eventually it became a national monument. to the pueblo people. they believed that the petro glyphs choose when and to whom to reveal themselves. sometimes it's the shadow. sometimes it's the glare, or sometimes it's just the attitude and the sensitivity with which we look at these petro glyph images. sometimes telling people not to touch them is not enough. we know that nobody should touch the petro glyphs but we do give people an opportunity to touch an artificial boulder that we have created for such purpose so
they get the touching out of the way. we want people to understand that these are sacred images and they continue to be important to the pueblo people. eventually, over time, a patina will form and that's what's meant to happen. petro glyph national monument is one of the few national park units that's actually owned and operated not solely by the national park service. it's managed by the city of albuquerque and the national park service and we work together with the city to help protect and preserve these resources for the future. in the last 20 years we have had several challenges. land acquisition, being everything for everybody, the creation of trails. vandalism, the construction of roads through the monument, expansion of a general aviation airport. probably our biggest challenge is stormwater runoff from upstream suburban development
because we are completely surrounded by the city of albuquerque. >> as you walk the trails of petro glyph national monument and you look along the escarpment you might notice large concentrations of black boulders. that is where we often see concentrations of petro glyphs. we are in the heart of the canyon where there is a dense concentration of petro glyphs. we have documented over 24,000 petro glyphs within the monument boundary. this canyon is home to 5,000 of them. we see an animal over here. we are not really sure what it means. something that looks like a sheep brand and maybe a cross. those might have been carved by early spanish sheep-herders. i see something that looks like a bird and unidentified animals on that rock. here we see a concentration of boulders with many hand images of different sizes.
some of which have an additional appendage. the pueblo people believe, if a child is born missing a finger or with an additional toe, that that is a sign of power. with a concentration of hand images here, we have to wonder why. maybe it's because people passed through this way. maybe this is a type of a calendar. we don't really know. only the people who carved these images know for sure. what we do know is, if we followed the arroyo from the heart of the canyon we would end up in the pueblo, an 1100 room adobe multiple plaza structure located on the rio grande. it was important because of the location to the petro glyphs, the high peaks where earth meets sky. they would come up and follow spirit ways, say prayers, they
would make offerings and they would carve images into the rock. sometimes it's a form of passageway or a map. others might be a counting mechanism or clan image. but to many of the pueblo people, they say the spirits would leave this world and go on to the next world through these petro glyph images. they call this place the place that people speak about. belongs to all of us. all americans. not just today but future generations. it's a place of respect. a place of solitude, a place of wonder. this place has a difficult early story. part of the big narrative of mormon settlement of the region is about coming to this place and making it work even though other earlier american and even
british and other explorers never chose to settle here. this was seen as a difficult place to live. and not a desirable patch of land. that was part of the logic for mormons taking it. brigham young wanted a place that could be isolated from other american settlers so that they wouldn't run into the same kinds of conflicts that they had experienced in the east. that dream was only partially realized because not only does the gold rush bring some 30,000 non-mormons through utah in the first three years of settlement, maybe five years of settlement. the 20,000 or so native americans here, these stories became as difficult as the ones the mormons had experienced before. misunderstanding. cultural alienation. violent conflict and displacement. only this time native americans are moved out of their
traditional homelands. and so it becomes a difficult story to tell. human beings have been here for a very long time. provo, when the first anglo-american settlers arrived with intent to stay in 1849, there were already lots of people here. native americans had called this area home for hundreds, even thousands of years. it had been a -- the site of the largest concentration of native americans in what is now utah, in fact. one of the bands of utes were located not far from where we are, to the west, and they had long made their home here because of the plentiful resources with regard to both game in the mountains and canyons and the trout and fish that they were able to fish as
the provo river meets what's now called utah lake. so they had had a major population center here. when the latter-day saints arrived in 1847, they chose the salt lake valley to the north. 1849, a self-selecting group of latter-day saints came to settle in provo. the settlement of provo fits a broader settlement pattern for the 1840s and '50s and '60s and the rest of the 19th century. the idea was partly religious but partly necessitated by the landscape as well. the religious component is the idea of -- that mormons had of a strong center place and then kind of satellite communities or branches, they called them in the 19th century, that would support a kind of centered
capital place. their language about this was religious. their idea about it came out of their own sacred texts. but the practical said was aerable land was not easy to come by. the soil was alkaline. timber was hard to come by. arable land seems to be mostly in strips along the creeks and rivers coming out of the mountain canyons. so, in terms of large population centers, this was a pressing question environmentally for early mormon settlement. so the establishment of provo and other communities along what's now called the wasach front follows a kind of pattern. and that is, where one could locate near a canyon and have the benefit of its water and its easy access to timber, mormon
communities popped up, radiating outward from salt lake city all the way up into southern idaho, eventually all the way down to what's now california. san bernardino, one of the end points of the so-called mormon corridor. there is a -- united states has a bible belt. there is kind of a book of mormon belt for mormon settlement as well, and it really does stretch from southern idaho through utah, northern arizona and into southern california. so that's part of the story is these little satellite communities eventually spaced strategically so that, in a day, you could reach another mormon settlement. one of brigham young's ideas was this was a way to get european converts eventually to utah safely. they could maybe come by way of san diego. that eventually changed with the transcontinental railroad. they found a cheaper and safer way to get mormon converts from
europe. but originally the idea was that there would be a string of settlements that would form a kind of mormon corridor and provo was one of those early satellite communities. some of the architecture that remains from the 19th century has a distinctly mormon feel to it. most prominently now is the provo city center temple, which for years was the provo tabernacle. in 2010 it -- the interior was destroyed by fire, and less than a year later the church of jesus christ of latter day saints announced it would be repurposed rather than as a meeting house but as a latter day saint temple, the most sacred of the expressions of architecture for latter day saints. and so it's now one of the church's around 150 working temples. but before that it had been a kind of cultural ecclesiastical
center for the community. there is a kind of sacred geography for early mormon settlements, and that is that the center of town had a church building, and this is true for provo as well. the city center temple on the site of the tabernacle which was on the site of an earlier tabernacle, that was all the center of the community. and that center space, early latter day saints saw as kind of biblical, maybe evoking a kind of new jerusalem idea. it's also very american in one sense. puritan communities evinced the same centrality of the church. early mormon settlements in utah, it's not unusual to find either a standing tabernacle or where one used to be, at the center of town. and so the -- it's a pretty telling symbol about the way the early settlers envisioned their
community, that the church literally was the center. latter day saints had a strong educational ethic, very early on. when they established their community in western illinois, they actually got a charter from the state to establish a university of the city of navu, indicative of their kind of yearning for education that would be in some ways secular but in some ways to be able to teach their own children in their own faith. so education always had this kind of both secular and spiritual component. and so when mormons come to utah, that educational ethic comes with them. this was the site of one of the major educational institutions in the inter-mountain west in the late 19th, early 20th century. the provo city library is its current title but it long served
as the brigham young academy. the beginnings of the academy are actually the result of a couple of brothers with the last name dusenberry. they established a private school here in provo. it struggled financially. eventually brigham young himself was involved in the rechartering of that school in the mid 1870s. and so the academy bore his name as a result. he had a strong hand in establishing its charter, its mission, and it continued to struggle. it met in a building not far from here that eventually burned down. this is the result. this beautiful building is the 1890s result of trying to reestablish the academy again. eventually, this campus moves a little bit north of here in the
early 20th century and becomes eventually brigham young university once it begins granting a selected number of doctorate degrees. eventually it eventually its kind of private academy financial structures changed and the church itself takes over the university and it becomes a private university that is directed by and funded by the church of jesus christ of latter day saints. and so in a way it reflects the early vision of brigham young. it has a strong secular component of secular learning but also maintains a mormon identity and a kind of religious mission as well. and so, in a way, even the modern brigham young university reflects this early instinct of brigham young who chartered it back in 1875.
provo's identity is inextricably linked with these educational institutions. there is no question about that. the fact that 30,000-plus students coming through the institution now -- i mean, it's unquestionably shaped the way provo has developed over time. part of this is in terms of demographics as well. the county we are in right now, utah county, over 80% latter day saint. the county just to the north, utah county -- or salt lake county, rather, nowhere near that. salt lake city, pretty even between latter day saints and non-latter day saints. utah as a state, somewhere in the mid 60s percentile in terms of mormon population. so this is an unusually dense
mart mormon demographic center. both inside and outside the kind of provo area, this is referred to as happy valley. and it's lovingly so by mormons who know this is a very culturally mormon place. and maybe a little bit more critically by folks who come and can't for the life of them find a bar or have a very difficult time finding that cup of coffee in the morning. happy valley to them and its kind of mormon identity has a little bit of a different feel to them. but that -- it's definitely what makes provo provo. our culture is who we are, and when we look back at how our ancestors lived, the kind of life that they live and how difficult it might have been, that reflects on us because that is who we are.
those are our roots. these little bits and pieces that we uncovered tell that story. and that's the most important thing about archeology is finding the pieces of history that complete the story. the significance of the meeting house to provo life originates with the early lds church culture in the eastern united states and in the central united states. the idea of a meeting house for them to worship in was always there, but the problem was building one when you first arrive in a location. and so, when you come to a place -- when you settle a new area, they would build a fort. and for years they would meet together in the fort for worship. but a meeting house itself
brings a greater cohesion to a community. it becomes the center of life of a community. and especially of a latter day saint community. after the latter day saints had been in utah valley for about seven years, brigham young finally told them that it was time to build a meeting house. and so in 1856 they began construction on the first meeting house. finally, in 1861, they thought they were almost done and they actually built a capstone to go over the front door that said "erected in 1861." unfortunately, it took another six years for them to actually finish the building, so it was actually completed in 1867. so it took them 11 years to actually finalize the building. 20 years later, the second tabernacle was begun.
and finally constructed. and after that this first meeting house, or the first tabernacle, continued to be used but it became more of a civic center where they could hold county fairs and they could house art displays and sometimes they even removed the benches and played basketball in it and had wrestling matches in it. so it really did take on this community social aspect more than a meeting house after the second tabernacle was constructed. in 2010, the second tabernacle caught on fire and burned in december of 2010. and it was such a tragic loss for the community. everybody loved that building. it was still the heart of the community. so when it burned down everybody
was afraid that the walls that were left standing would also be torn down. but the lds church decided to convert it into a temple. and as soon as that happened those historians and members of the community who knew there had been an original tabernacle, an original meeting house on that same lot right next to the second tabernacle decided to find out if anything remained of that. so the lds church history department brought some equipment in. they did what's called ground penetrating radar, which sends -- it's much like seismic work where you send signals down through the ground and it reflects back. and it located the actual foundation of that original meeting house. and through that, they knew that it hadn't been completely torn down, that the base part of it still remained.
so we were called in, the office of public archeology, to do some testing. we tested in one corner and, sure enough, found the foundation, and it was just a couple of months after that that they asked us to fully excavate the foundation. it was so fun to find little bits and pieces of things that were important to people. people of all ages. we were able to find artifacts that fell through the floorboards in the basement. and so we were able to find a lot of coins. we found nickels, dimes, pennies, some of them with holes drilled in them where they would at some point in their life use them as a necklace. we found little trinkets, charms that the girls would use that would hang around their neck. we know that there was a lot of
cooking going on in the basement and we found plates and other cooking and eating utensils. and those, again, fill in another aspect of what was happening in the building. they were eating and socializing. and that's a big part of lds and of pioneer life was socializing with each other. we found the slate pencils, again, from the school and educational aspect of the school. we even found a lead bullet and a lead shot ball in the bottom there that somebody had lost. we found keys. we found doorknobs and other aspects. interestingly, the building itself appears to have been electrified in the 1890s. in the 1890s a power plant was built at provo canyon. and probably one of the first
buildings, if not the first building, to receive electricity in the west was this first provo tabernacle. and the adjacent second tabernacle. and so they -- we found electric light bulbs and other wiring suggesting that they had finally brought lighting into the building. just as important as the meeting house to the early pioneers, the early latter day saints, was the construction of a baptistry. we were able to find this very small building that they had constructed just on the southwest corner of the tabernacle where they had, with just enough room in it for a baptistmal font. in the center they probably had a little stove to heat the
building. the baptistmal font is constructed of wood planks but was probably lined with plaster to help that. the well is very nearby and they would extract the water from the well to fill the baptistmalfont. over time they laid pipe and brought in water from the well to fill it with the pipe. the importance of the little center rock in the middle of the building is that that is where the stove was set, and they could probably heat the water so that, when they got baptized, the water was warm and not freezing. and that was a big thing for them, especially in the winter. we have a few items that represent some of the architecture that was within the
building. some of it was hidden architecture. we have pieces of the metal stove, bottles that were tossed into the structure when it was abandoned. we have decorative pieces from the walls that show us what the building looked like. this is a pilaster, a column base that would have held a pilaster, a main support for the structure. we found eight of these in the basement supporting the main floor up above and the roof. and it's well carved around the edges that might have been visible and the parts that were not visible are just rock. but all of the rock that is put into the building and into the foundation was quarried from the mountains and brought down by horse and wagon. during the wintertime often, where they would actually chisel
it out, then, down at the construction site into things like this to construct the building. we have pieces of slate. and we found several slate pencils. not only was this used for church meetings for the children and the adults to write on, but at times the building was used as a school. and so we have little pieces of that educational aspect of the building. the block where the meeting house and the new temple sit are still the center and the heart of provo, just as they were back in the 1860s. and even though you have busy
cars, busy streets and cars rushing by and shoppers and government buildings around it, that is where people go to feel the heart of provo. it maintains not only its historic visual character but its feeling of character. and so that has never changed. and in most lds communities it's the same thing. those central squares, those public squares, are always the heart of the lifeblood of that community. ♪ ♪ ♪ [ chanting ] >> i belong to the tribe. the name means our discovered
ones. evidence says we have been here for 10,000 plus years. our elders say we've been here since time immemorial. we have stories that go as far back as the flood times, i guess, lake missoula flood. we have stories about a place up on mica peak on the northern part of our current reservation. and on that peak sits a log that has been petrified, and it sits stuck into the mountain at a certain elevation. and what my grandpa told me was, during that flood time, it brought that over because we don't have petrified wood around here. so it got that, pushed that into the mountain right there. so, if you reference that story, you know, we've been here for a lot longer than probably 10,000 years. today we're standing in an old mission kataldo.
sitting in the interprettive center. we have a lot of exhibits in here that represent the tribe. the black robes. father desmet and our transition into, i guess, today's life. our aboriginal territory, if you look at it today on a map, exceeds three states. western montana, idaho and eastern washington. we shared territory south of us, to the west of us, the spokanes, to the north of us as well. from what i understand we had pretty good relationships. it wasn't perfect, but we had shared territories, shared resources. but from what i understand, there were skirmishes also. so there are times where we didn't get along.
we had a very intelligent person within our tribe. his name was circling raven. we were told he was chief for 100 years and he was the last person in our tribe to live to be 150 years old. and he had a prophecy that stated that men with crossed sticks and long black robes would come to our people and teach us a new way of living because hardship was on the horizon. i guess the first thing that we witnessed european contact was not them specifically, it was the disease that came. smallpox, whooping cough, and some other diseases that came. when the diseases struck our tribe, we had about 5,000 people in our territory, and it struck our people two different waves. and 1842 when father de smet
came, we were down to 500 people. if you can imagine, pretty much everybody you know dying a horrible death, that's kind of what they went through. and that was just the first thing that took place. second place was the horse, which we took as very beneficial. if you can imagine people walking around and all of a sudden now they have a ride to take their things, to pack back, to put their kids on, put their families on. it was a lot different mode of life. the next thing was the trade items that came to the tribe. and then following the trade items was the fur trappers. following the fur trappers was father de smet and the black robes. when the father came in 1840s the tribe was very happy because the prophecy was foretold, and
from what i heard pretty much every single member of the tribe wanted to get baptized. we wanted christianity. we wanted that way of life. even though our tribe was decimated by disease. when father de smet came we were still a happy people. when he came, that made us more joyous because of the prophecy. when he came we met him where north idaho college is today and we had our first christmas there. that exhibit represents the first christmas we had. after that we wanted to build a mission, a church. the first mission that we built was on the st. joe river. due to flooding, we moved it to where it currently sits today. under the direction of the father, they built this wonderful church. it has no nails. no nails. the kids, they brought up a lot
of the foundation stones from the river. and a lot of the people, they brought up the mud and the grass, and they insulated the walls with it. and they took huckleberry juice and painted the ceiling. we already understood the power of one god. in our language that's what it means is the one creator. so when this new way of thinking and thought came around, it was quite similar to the way we had already understood, lived in harmony with life, and harmony with one another the best we could. and i guess some of the things, too, that the catholics did resonated with what we were doing. they had prayers and songs. we had prayers and songs. they used that incense. we used incense to bless ourselves. so a lot of those things were really similar to us. we moved from being a people
that was kind of like around the lake, and we fished, we hunted, right around the late 1870s we were pretty much forced to move to the reservation. and that was that difference. we were a people that enjoyed fishing, swimming, a lot of things that, you know, we had to do for survival, move about with nature. if the roots were ripe over here, we went that way. if the berries were ripe this way, we went that way. one of the differences was we were pretty much forced to go on to the reservation to where de smet is and we had to learn to be farmers. the see itself took our name. but we don't call ourselves that. it was given to us by the fur traders because we were good businessmen. they were probably the best businessmen that they have ever
met. the word means sharp-hearted, shrewd traders. it's a french term. so the town took the term. >> it's about 2500 members strong today. the things the tribe faced every day is not losing ourselves. in this day and age we have to worry about economic development and that kind of stuff. we also have to worry about losing ourselves as a people. when i grew up on the reservation we were very poor. poverty. there weren't that many jobs. but we were close-knit family as a community. nowadays, we have a multi-million dollar casino and business ventures. we are out there doing the business world. but sometimes we lose site --
sight of what's important, helping one another. our tribal council tries to address that with our people. we want not to lose sight of that. we really try to help not only our community but the surrounding community as a whole. we put a lot of money into education for everybody because we believe in everything starts within the community. and we like to give back, not only to tribal members but non-tribal members. when we opened our casino the elders on the council at the time, before the -- the state said we're going to set 5% aside for education, not for tribal members, education for all of idahoans. every year we take 5% and give back to all the schools in the area. sometimes statewide, sometimes just in the area. the state didn't require that. that was a requirement that we put into our gaming compact. i think, with that token of good
will, i think it showed that we were serious and that we are here to be good neighbors. i think that sets us apart from a lot of the tribes. i think the future is education. when i was growing up, i grew up on the reservation and we were poor. nobody went to college. i was the first in my family to go to college. casinos were just starting. and since over the last 20 years now we have sent more people to college than ever. we have had people at brown, stanford become doctors, lawyers, and so i think that's the future of the tribe. i think we are in the process of driving our own ship, you know. we have got people out there and they're coming home and we can offer good jobs for our people to come home and get a decent salary. and so i am proud of that. i think that's the next 20 years -- i think that's what
you are going to see. we are in champion, wisconsin. this is the shrine of our lady of good help. in october of 1859, adele bryce was walking through this area when she claimed to have witnessed an apparition or a vision of the virgin mary. the catholic church defines an apparition as an appearance of jesus christ, the virgin mary or any of the saints. there were three occasions that adelle bryce believed she had visions of the virgin mary. and on the third vision, on the third appearance, the virgin mary instructed her to spread the world of salvation throughout the area among the pioneer people living here in the wilderness. for the rest of her life she did just that, serving more or less as a missionary in the area to
pioneer families living in a very remote and rugged area of the mid 19th century. after she experienced the apparitions, she confided in her parents and in the local catholic priest, and her father built a small shrine here at the location of the apparitions. in october of 1871 a huge wildfire broke out on the west side of green bay, in a community there. remains the largest wildfire in the nation's history. it claimed more than 1200 lives. and the wildfire was so great that it created its own atmosphere, more or less, the hurricane of fire. it threw flames, sparks, heat and ash across the bay of green bay roughly 35 miles and ignited wildfires here in the area of
southern door county. here adele bryce and others gathered at the shrine, at the chapel her father had built to pray for their safety. the following day as the fire had burned itself out and as the morning light came up it was revealed that the entire area had been devastated by the fire except for an immediate area surrounding the chapel that had been built by her father. the shrine continued to draw pilgrims and other visitors throughout the years as a somewhat modest attraction. at first the catholic church took a somewhat skeptical view of the reports of the apparitions, but they never doubted the work, the good work and character of adele bryce. it wasn't until 2008 that the catholic church convened a
formal investigation into the reported of the apparitions here at this site. and in 2010 the church concluded that the visions experienced by adele bryce were indeed worthy of belief by the catholic church. the church's sanction of this site as worthy of belief is significant. it is only one of 12 sites worldwide that is approved by the church. it's the only site in the united states at this time. so it ranks right up there with some of the others as far as church sanctioned sites where there have been reported images of the virgin mary.
this is where the united society of believers in christ's second appearing were first able to realize their vision of creating a communal utopian religious society in america. the shaker started in the mid 1700s in manchester, england. peop people referred to them as shakers which consisted of shaking, crawling around on the floor, barking like dogs. they were not the only religious group doing that sort of thing in that time period. it was a stastatic kind of exprn of worship. some had been quakers in the past. none were happy with the existing religions of the time.
so they were meeting together, discussing matters of spirituality and all agreed that they believed that, in order to live a pure christian life, that you had to be celibate, you should own property in common, so communal ownership of property. they believed in pacifism and confession of sin as well. so those are the basic tenets of the shaker faith and those remained consistent throughout their history. out of this group of people who are discussing spirituality in manchester came a young woman named ann lee. she was the daughter of a blacksmith and she had been forced into a marriage she wasn't interested in having in the first place and subsequently had four children, all of whom who died in infancy or when they were quite young. so she was particularly drawn to the concept of celibacy because it was a way to free her from the cycle of grief.
she was the one who ultimately bras them to the new world to practice their religion freely. so they came to america in 1774. and they stayed in manhattan for a couple years and fled to the albany area just as the british were invading manhattan. they were able to lease a parcel of land that was quite undesirable. it was all swampland, sand dunes and that sort of thing. this was a poor group of people. they didn't have a lot of money. so this was the first place they were able to settle themselves. they became successful fairly quickly. by 1790 they'd established the garden seed industry. so they were among the first to standardize seed production, put the seeds in paper packets and sell them to the outside world. so they very quickly became very astute and successful business people. they made use of the erie canal to ship their products to the
west. so their influence was pretty great. later on, they also had a tremendous influence in the area of the arts. the shakers are perhaps best known for their furniture, the ladder-backed chairs. it was only the chairs that they mass-produced and sold to the outside world. the standardized mass production of the chairs was pretty early on. this community peaked as most did in about the mid 1800s. at that time there were about 300 people living here. it would have been like a beehive of activity. there were many, many buildings here at the that unfortunately were torn down in the early 20th century. but you can really see it as a mini industrial village. it was densely developed. every building had a specific use. every shaker had a specific job that they were assigned to, and there was a tremendous amount of activity. they were celibate, so they had
to have a way to get new converts. one of the things they did was build large-scale meeting houses like the one back here behind us. the meeting house was built in 1848. and on sundays, the road would literally be filled from beginning to end with carriages of people who came to see the shakers. in part because it was a curiosity, victorians loved a spectacle and they considered the shakers to be a very interesting spectacle. but some people came because they truly were motivated by shaker spirituality and interested in their faith. and there were people who came to see shaker worship to subsequently converted. they had frequently have many famous guests here. martin van buren was their lawyer. he was frequently a guest who would come on sundays to observe shaker worship. general sherman, her man melville, melville has a
character from this community in moby dick who makes an appearance in one of the chapters. it was quite the thing to do in the mid 19th century, to see shaker worship. after ann lee died she had appointed someone to succeed here which is one of the reasons why the shaker faith was able to continue. she had the foresight to appoint someone to succeedle her. that was joseph meacham. both of them are buried here at the site. if you look at ann lee, she is never put on the pedestal. she is the founder of the shaker faith in america. if you look at her tombstone in the cemetery it's just slightly larger than the others. she was not necessarily considered to be better or more important than anyone else. they really did strive for equality in the communities. joseph meacham is the one really who came up with the way that shaker communities were organized into separate family
groupings. and for the shakers, they had a very different concept of what a family is than we do because they lived communally. a family was 100 people who were living and working together and worshipping in harmony. so entire families sometimes would join the community, but they were expected to love everyone equally. so they were expected to break family bonds to a certain extent because they were joining a new type of family. so the shakers often were accused of breaking up families. but from their perspective they actually were providing a new kind of family. the shakers were very progressive in their ideals. they believed in gender and racial equality. so, from the very beginning we know that there were black shakers. as early as 1790. i was very curious about black shakers, and we can't say that there were legions of them, but there were certainly a good number of black shakers and they
were truly tweeted ruly were trs equals in the community. we don't have a research ever o staff so we've worked with colleges in the area to go through the shaker journals and identify african-american shakers and start to piece together a story about them. so we had a student from suny albany who found six references to the shakers sheltering fugitive slaves. which was quite a surprise to me. the shakers were always pretty savvy about politics and not putting themselves in a position where they'd get in trouble needlessly. the student came across a reference something to the effect that brother f took a runaway slave to help them to freedom in canada. which was astonishing.
you don't come up with that concrete evidence when studying the underground railroad. we're building on that research to understand what it was like if you were a black person living in the shaker community. the shakers took in orphans and poor people, and that was one way they increased their numbers. they were never particularly firm about proselytizing and trying to get people to join the community, i think because they knew that everybody had to fully agree to commit to this life-style. otherwise, it wouldn't work. so by the late 19th century, there were state-run orphanages being established, so there were fewer reasons to place your children with the shakers or an orphan child with the shakers. also, as women were able to earn a living on their own, and more opportunities became available for women, there were less
economic reasons to join the shakers. and in general, interest in spirituality started to diminish. so, by 1925 there were just a handful of shakers left in albany, and they were having a great difficulty maintaining all of the buildings and the site here. so albany county purchased the land from the shakers so that they could use it as a sanitarium for tuberculosis patients and so that they could build a new nursing home. this is fairly common. a lot of shaker communities were closing down in that time period. and many of them were used for institutional purposes, for prisons or what have you. so today there are nine buildings left in the church family portion of the historic district. and many of them have had their interiors altered by albany county, but we still have the 1848 shaker meeting house, which is the last large-scale meeting house with its interior left intact. so that's quite significant.
it's a beautiful building. you can really get a sense of the history of the place. the first experience that mormons had with the southern california area was there was a call for individuals to help with the mexican-american war that was occurring between 1846 and 1848. the mormon church raised a group of a few hundred men and sent them into southern california. they reached san diego and were stationed at mission san luis ray. and they ended up coming into the area, purchasing items from different rancho owners. one of the rancho owners that they purchased items from owned a ranch near riverside, just south of us in san bernardino. and they first got a glimpse of the area. and the groups of the individuals a part of the mormon
battalion that came for the war that ended up going back to utah spoke highly of southern california and convinced the president of the church at the time, brigham young, to purchase one of the ranchos in the area. so that's how they ended up coming back as a group, and they raised a few hundred individuals, over 400, wanted to make the travel back to southern california and settle in the area. originally they were going to purchase the chino rancho, which that unfortunately fell through but it gave the mormons an opportunity to purchase the san bernardino rancho from the lugo family. that's how they ended up in san bernardino and how they ended up being the founders of san bernardino. the journey from utah to california was a very perilous one. there were a lot of deserts to travel through, much -- many different types of terrain. and specifically when they got here to southern california
there was a pass cajon pass that was very difficult. once they reached that pass, they realized there was a better route than had been taken previously. it was west of the cajon pass. they ended up traveling through that route and discovering that it was easier to maneuver down that way. it wasn't exactly easy but it was easier than routes taken in the past. the owner of this wagon lived in utah. she and her family decided to come to orn california, specifically san bernardino settlement, in 1854. they made the travel to southern california in this wagon that's behind me. again, it was a very, very perilous journey taking a wagon several hundred miles across desert in different types of topography. once they ended up getting here, more of their family started settling in san bernardino settlement as well. first thing that the mormons
did when they got -- when they purchased the land from lugo, they built a few houses in what is now downtown san bernardino, built out of adobe. they heard about an all-out indian uprising throughout southern california from san luis obispo, further north, down to san diego. the idea was, you know, because of the european intrusion, there were a lot of people that, the natives were not happy with all the people coming out. so the mormons built a fort, a stockade, and that's where they lived. they lived for about a year. there were some skirmishes but nothing that serious ever materialized. and eventually, after about a year, plans were made -- were being made to lay out the streets of san bernardino. once they started to lay out the streets of san bernardino, probably was -- i think about
1853. that's when the county of san bernardino was formed. jefferson hunt is probably the person who was most instrumental in spear-heading the efforts to get everything built. a young man named fred paris was a teenager. he helped him out. paris later became very instrumental in san bernardino. hunt, i mentioned earlier, was the one who probably encouraged brigham young to have a colony out, you know, initially in chino, and then san bernardino. hunt had been back and forth. he knew the way to come here, and he was kind of like the leader of the mormon families coming out. he was -- he spear-headed the effort to build a fort. he also was instrumental in building a logging road up to the mountains, up to what is now the town of crestline. in about ten days they were able to build a 12-mile road.
the road now is a paved road. that's where they got -- they would go up to the mountains, they would cut down trees and logs and bring down -- the logs for san bernardino purposes, it was used for frames of adobe houses but they also would send the logs over by wagon to los angeles. and they would trade. that's how they kind of paid off their mortgage. however, in 1857, after six years, years, bringham young recalled his faithful back to salt lake. there were a variety of reasons why he did so. one of them is probably the fact that there's so many mormons came out for different reasons, the warm weather, maybe going to the gold fields. so it worked, but it was short-lived. the mormons that stayed, about 60% of the population went
back -- those that stayed, they had their reasons. probably -- and i'm just surmising -- it was probably because faith-wise, maybe it was the tight reins of bringham young or maybe because of the warm climate of california as opposed to salt lake city and other opportunities. but a lot of them stayed. they became very prominent pioneers of san bernardino years later. if bringham young did not have the recall back to salt lake, what would san bernardino be like now? i spoke to a really wonderful historian named leo lineman. he is a member of the church of latter day saints or the mormon church. his great great grandfather was one of the two more mom apostles that came out with the families.
i asked him what do you think san bernardino would have been like if not for the recall. he said it probably would have been like los angeles. the work ethic, the cohesiveness was real strong, also a mixed bag. san bernardino became a railroad town and really grew and became a strong town. it would be interesting what would have happened. we are here on the campus of bob jones university in greenville, south carolina. the campus has been here since 1947. it's a beautiful spot right here a mile and a half from downtown greenville. the university is a fully christian liberal arts education and our student body currently is about 2800 students. that fluctuates from year to year. ♪ >> it really comes down to what our world view is. our viewpoint of the world is not secular.
our viewpoint of the world is as it is revealed in the scriptures, the bible. whether it's science or math or education or whatever a person does in their life, it's really a biblical world view, which makes all the difference in the world. a little bit of the background of the school, it was founded in 1927 by a very world renowned evangelist named bob jones sr. it was really the tail end of the great evangelist era. he was from south alabama, grew up in a very poor family, but he was always a strong preacher. he started this school because he was actually concerned about the influence, the negative influence of secular and liberal education of the 1920s. and the school was started in florida, right outside of panama
city. and then during the depression years, they moved to cleveland, tennessee and they were there from the early 1930s until 1947. they outgrew the school. and so they picked up with about 2500 to 2700 students from cleveland, tennessee, and they moved to greenville, south carolina, and been here ever since. in 1983 bob jones university went all the way to the u.s. supreme court on an issue of interracial dating here on campus. what happened was that the public policy overruled the biblical conviction. that really was the problem of the issue at that time and that's why it has repercussions today, because if there are people who have religious convictions about things and it's in conflict with public policy, then what is the supreme
court going to do about that? >> in trying to understand the bob jones university court case, officially known as bob jones university versus the united states, this is no defense of the ban on interracial dating. it was wrong. it was racist. the school eventually recognizes that. but to understand it, you go back really to the south and the late 19th century after the civil war, the tragedies of what slavery was replaced with was a system of segregation. and also part of that terrible period was states -- and i don't think it was all southern, but mostly southern states, they passed what are known as anti-miss
anti-missij -- mlaws. segregation was the reality. that doesn't make it okay. that's just the way it was. what you have is bob jones sr. and the jones family, they come from not just the south but from the deep south, from alabama. you have the civil rights movement starting and things begin to change. so integration is going to start taking place nationally, especially in the south where the focus is. the university actually integrates only a few years
after other colleges and universities. so integration really was never the issue. the issue is how do you handle race with an integrated student body. and the administration at the time was still bob jones jr., who would have been president still. the response apparently was to keep a vestige of the old segregated world, which was represented by the old laws, the bans on interracial marriage. and the administration basically framed it as a religious liberty issue. and that was the argument that they made. by 1964 the civil rights act had
passed, and the pressure was you can't do this and keep your tax exemption. so the irs eventually, i guess, yanked the tax exemption. so we sued to get it back, and that suit was eventually lost at the supreme court level. i think it was in 1983. but we lost and the school basically went forward with no tax exemption and operated. dr. bob jones iii made the decision that having that rule in place was such a detriment to our spiritual ministry that it should be dropped. and that came on the heels of the south carolina republican presidential primary, between
john mccain and george w. bush. let's welcome an extraordinary man who will be an exceptional candidate, george w. bush and his wife laura. [ cheers and applause ] >> george w. bush had lost new hampshire to john mccain, and so south carolina was sort of do or die for george w. bush. he had decided to move to texas and stay there and became an evangelical methodist. that was part of his identity. so evangelicals really did identify with him. so he came to campus and he spoke in chapel. i remember it very well. about a day or two after the mccain camp decided to make an issue of the fact that the university, although integrated,
banned interracial dating. >> the political tactics of division and slander are not our values. they are -- [ applause ]. >> they are corrupting influences on religious and politics and those who practice them in the name of religion or in the name of the republican party or in the name of america shame our faith, our party and our country. [ applause ]. >> and it was, i think, todfodd for cable tv for about a week or two, and it was pretty painful to live through that. within a week or so, dr. bob iii decided that it did hurt the school and our spiritual ministry. so he dropped the rule. i guess it was a few years later, steven jones, the next president apologized.
and i think in that apology he had the best rationale for it. in the end, it wasn't really about religious liberty. it was about -- i think i'm maybe paraphrasing here, but we were too captive to our culture. ideally for christians -- and hopefully we take our faith very seriously, and we want to tra transcend the world and what we consider to be evil in the world, and we simply didn't transcend what we should have. ♪ >> south carolina today is important in presidential elections because of the sequence in the primaries. it's the big one right after new hampshire. you have iowa, new hampshire and
then south carolina. and those three states are different demographically and culturally. south carolina is perhaps the first place you can test your appeal to a southern audience, typically more conservative, not just for republicans but for democrats, democrati inic candis and how they appeal, for example, to african-american voters. and there are greater numbers of those in the low country in the charleston area. so hillary and sanders basically are looking at it -- sanders can be thinking how am i going to do with african-americans, and this is his first opportunity to gauge that. it's not just for republicans, but for the other parties as well. politics come to places like bob
jones because some consider us as the old worn image of the bible belt. and someone has said that we are not just the bible belt. we're the bucking of the bible belt. and so if you get attention here -- >> thank you. it is good to be back among friends at bob jones university. >> -- then it basically expands outward beyond just the campus itself. and they're targeting the evangelical network vote, which is pretty well organized. i think what people misunderstand, they think it's more unified than it is. it's fractured like other groups. but they want to get their share of it, their percentage.
and even if you're not identified specifically as a evangelical candidate, you can still get a percentage. you don't want them to be angry with you. so one way you do it is symbolically, you visit liberty or you visit bob jones. candidates in this current presidential election cycle are retu returning. i think probably number one dr. p petit wants it to happen, which i think is appropriate and wise. number two, i think the candidates want to come back. i think since 2000 we basically have -- there's been some sort of redemption, i