tv Settlement of Provo Utah CSPAN December 23, 2017 6:52am-8:01am EST
sky. they would come up and follow spirit ways, say prayers, they would make offerings and they would carve images into the rock. sometimes it's a form of passageway or a map. others might be a counting mechanism or clan image. but to many of the pueblo people, they say the spirits would leave this world and go on to the next world through these petro glyph images. they call this place the place that people speak about. belongs to all of us. all americans. not just today but future generations. it's a place of respect. a place of solitude, a place of wonder. this place has a difficult early story. part of the big narrative of mormon settlement of the region is about coming to this place and making it work even though
other earlier american and even british and other explorers never chose to settle here. this was seen as a difficult place to live. and not a desirable patch of land. that was part of the logic for mormons taking it. brigham young wanted a place that could be isolated from other american settlers so that they wouldn't run into the same kinds of conflicts that they had experienced in the east. that dream was only partially realized because not only does the gold rush bring some 30,000 non-mormons through utah in the first three years of settlement, maybe five years of settlement. the 20,000 or so native americans here, these stories became as difficult as the ones the mormons had experienced before. misunderstanding. cultural alienation. violent conflict and
displacement. only this time native americans are moved out of their traditional homelands. and so it becomes a difficult story to tell. human beings have been here for a very long time. provo, when the first anglo-american settlers arrived with intent to stay in 1849, there were already lots of people here. native americans had called this area home for hundreds, even thousands of years. it had been a -- the site of the largest concentration of native americans in what is now utah, in fact. one of the bands of utes were located not far from where we are, to the west, and they had long made their home here because of the plentiful resources with regard to both game in the mountains and
canyons and the trout and fish that they were able to fish as the provo river meets what's now called utah lake. so they had had a major population center here. when the latter-day saints arrived in 1847, they chose the salt lake valley to the north. 1849, a self-selecting group of latter-day saints came to settle in provo. the settlement of provo fits a broader settlement pattern for the 1840s and '50s and '60s and the rest of the 19th century. the idea was partly religious but partly necessitated by the landscape as well. the religious component is the idea of -- that mormons had of a strong center place and then kind of satellite communities or branches, they called them in
the 19th century, that would support a kind of centered capital place. their language about this was religious. their idea about it came out of their own sacred texts. but the practical said was aerable land was not easy to come by. the soil was alkaline. timber was hard to come by. arable land seems to be mostly in strips along the creeks and rivers coming out of the mountain canyons. so, in terms of large population centers, this was a pressing question environmentally for early mormon settlement. so the establishment of provo and other communities along what's now called the wasach front follows a kind of pattern. and that is, where one could locate near a canyon and have the benefit of its water and its
easy access to timber, mormon communities popped up, radiating outward from salt lake city all the way up into southern idaho, eventually all the way down to what's now california. san bernardino, one of the end points of the so-called mormon corridor. there is a -- united states has a bible belt. there is kind of a book of mormon belt for mormon settlement as well, and it really does stretch from southern idaho through utah, northern arizona and into southern california. so that's part of the story is these little satellite communities eventually spaced strategically so that, in a day, you could reach another mormon settlement. one of brigham young's ideas was this was a way to get european converts eventually to utah safely. they could maybe come by way of san diego. that eventually changed with the
transcontinental railroad. they found a cheaper and safer way to get mormon converts from europe. but originally the idea was that there would be a string of settlements that would form a kind of mormon corridor and provo was one of those early satellite communities. some of the architecture that remains from the 19th century has a distinctly mormon feel to it. most prominently now is the provo city center temple, which for years was the provo tabernacle. in 2010 it -- the interior was destroyed by fire, and less than a year later the church of jesus christ of latter day saints announced it would be repurposed rather than as a meeting house but as a latter day saint temple, the most sacred of the expressions of architecture for latter day saints. and so it's now one of the church's around 150 working temples. but before that it had been a
kind of cultural ecclesiastical center for the community. there is a kind of sacred geography for early mormon settlements, and that is that the center of town had a church building, and this is true for provo as well. the city center temple on the site of the tabernacle which was on the site of an earlier tabernacle, that was all the center of the community. and that center space, early latter day saints saw as kind of biblical, maybe evoking a kind of new jerusalem idea. it's also very american in one sense. puritan communities evinced the same centrality of the church. early mormon settlements in utah, it's not unusual to find either a standing tabernacle or where one used to be, at the center of town. and so the -- it's a pretty
telling symbol about the way the early settlers envisioned their community, that the church literally was the center. latter day saints had a strong educational ethic, very early on. when they established their community in western illinois, they actually got a charter from the state to establish a university of the city of navu, indicative of their kind of yearning for education that would be in some ways secular but in some ways to be able to teach their own children in their own faith. so education always had this kind of both secular and spiritual component. and so when mormons come to utah, that educational ethic comes with them. this was the site of one of the major educational institutions in the inter-mountain west in the late 19th, early 20th
century. the provo city library is its current title but it long served as the brigham young academy. the beginnings of the academy are actually the result of a couple of brothers with the last name dusenberry. they established a private school here in provo. it struggled financially. eventually brigham young himself was involved in the rechartering of that school in the mid 1870s. and so the academy bore his name as a result. he had a strong hand in establishing its charter, its mission, and it continued to struggle. it met in a building not far from here that eventually burned down. this is the result. this beautiful building is the 1890s result of trying to reestablish the academy again. eventually, this campus moves a
little bit north of here in the early 20th century and becomes eventually brigham young university once it begins granting a selected number of doctorate degrees. eventually it eventually its kind of private academy financial structures changed and the church itself takes over the university and it becomes a private university that is directed by and funded by the church of jesus christ of latter day saints. and so in a way it reflects the early vision of brigham young. it has a strong secular component of secular learning but also maintains a mormon identity and a kind of religious mission as well. and so, in a way, even the modern brigham young university reflects this early instinct of
brigham young who chartered it back in 1875. provo's identity is inextricably linked with these educational institutions. there is no question about that. the fact that 30,000-plus students coming through the institution now -- i mean, it's unquestionably shaped the way provo has developed over time. part of this is in terms of demographics as well. the county we are in right now, utah county, over 80% latter day saint. the county just to the north, utah county -- or salt lake county, rather, nowhere near that. salt lake city, pretty even between latter day saints and non-latter day saints. utah as a state, somewhere in the mid 60s percentile in terms of mormon population. so this is an unusually dense
mart mormon demographic center. both inside and outside the kind of provo area, this is referred to as happy valley. and it's lovingly so by mormons who know this is a very culturally mormon place. and maybe a little bit more critically by folks who come and can't for the life of them find a bar or have a very difficult time finding that cup of coffee in the morning. happy valley to them and its kind of mormon identity has a little bit of a different feel to them. but that -- it's definitely what makes provo provo. our culture is who we are, and when we look back at how our ancestors lived, the kind of life that they live and how
difficult it might have been, that reflects on us because that is who we are. those are our roots. these little bits and pieces that we uncovered tell that story. and that's the most important thing about archeology is finding the pieces of history that complete the story. the significance of the meeting house to provo life originates with the early lds church culture in the eastern united states and in the central united states. the idea of a meeting house for them to worship in was always there, but the problem was building one when you first arrive in a location. and so, when you come to a place -- when you settle a new area, they would build a fort. and for years they would meet together in the fort for worship. but a meeting house itself
brings a greater cohesion to a community. it becomes the center of life of a community. and especially of a latter day saint community. after the latter day saints had been in utah valley for about seven years, brigham young finally told them that it was time to build a meeting house. and so in 1856 they began construction on the first meeting house. finally, in 1861, they thought they were almost done and they actually built a capstone to go over the front door that said "erected in 1861." unfortunately, it took another six years for them to actually finish the building, so it was actually completed in 1867. so it took them 11 years to actually finalize the building. 20 years later, the second
tabernacle was begun. and finally constructed. and after that this first meeting house, or the first tabernacle, continued to be used but it became more of a civic center where they could hold county fairs and they could house art displays and sometimes they even removed the benches and played basketball in it and had wrestling matches in it. so it really did take on this community social aspect more than a meeting house after the second tabernacle was constructed. in 2010, the second tabernacle caught on fire and burned in december of 2010. and it was such a tragic loss for the community. everybody loved that building. it was still the heart of the
community. so when it burned down everybody was afraid that the walls that were left standing would also be torn down. but the lds church decided to convert it into a temple. and as soon as that happened those historians and members of the community who knew there had been an original tabernacle, an original meeting house on that same lot right next to the second tabernacle decided to find out if anything remained of that. so the lds church history department brought some equipment in. they did what's called ground penetrating radar, which sends -- it's much like seismic work where you send signals down through the ground and it reflects back. and it located the actual foundation of that original meeting house. and through that, they knew that it hadn't been completely torn
down, that the base part of it still remained. so we were called in, the office of public archeology, to do some testing. we tested in one corner and, sure enough, found the foundation, and it was just a couple of months after that that they asked us to fully excavate the foundation. it was so fun to find little bits and pieces of things that were important to people. people of all ages. we were able to find artifacts that fell through the floorboards in the basement. and so we were able to find a lot of coins. we found nickels, dimes, pennies, some of them with holes drilled in them where they would at some point in their life use them as a necklace. we found little trinkets, charms that the girls would use that would hang around their neck.
we know that there was a lot of cooking going on in the basement and we found plates and other cooking and eating utensils. and those, again, fill in another aspect of what was happening in the building. they were eating and socializing. and that's a big part of lds and of pioneer life was socializing with each other. we found the slate pencils, again, from the school and educational aspect of the school. we even found a lead bullet and a lead shot ball in the bottom there that somebody had lost. we found keys. we found doorknobs and other aspects. interestingly, the building itself appears to have been electrified in the 1890s. in the 1890s a power plant was
built at provo canyon. and probably one of the first buildings, if not the first building, to receive electricity in the west was this first provo tabernacle. and the adjacent second tabernacle. and so they -- we found electric light bulbs and other wiring suggesting that they had finally brought lighting into the building. just as important as the meeting house to the early pioneers, the early latter day saints, was the construction of a baptistry. we were able to find this very small building that they had constructed just on the southwest corner of the tabernacle where they had, with just enough room in it for a baptistmal font. in the center they probably had
a little stove to heat the building. the baptistmal font is constructed of wood planks but was probably lined with plaster to help that. the well is very nearby and they would extract the water from the well to fill the baptistmalfont. over time they laid pipe and brought in water from the well to fill it with the pipe. the importance of the little center rock in the middle of the building is that that is where the stove was set, and they could probably heat the water so that, when they got baptized, the water was warm and not freezing. and that was a big thing for them, especially in the winter.
we have a few items that represent some of the architecture that was within the building. some of it was hidden architecture. we have pieces of the metal stove, bottles that were tossed into the structure when it was abandoned. we have decorative pieces from the walls that show us what the building looked like. this is a pilaster, a column base that would have held a pilaster, a main support for the structure. we found eight of these in the basement supporting the main floor up above and the roof. and it's well carved around the edges that might have been visible and the parts that were not visible are just rock. but all of the rock that is put into the building and into the foundation was quarried from the mountains and brought down by horse and wagon. during the wintertime often,
where they would actually chisel it out, then, down at the construction site into things like this to construct the building. we have pieces of slate. and we found several slate pencils. not only was this used for church meetings for the children and the adults to write on, but at times the building was used as a school. and so we have little pieces of that educational aspect of the building. the block where the meeting house and the new temple sit are still the center and the heart of provo, just as they were back
in the 1860s. and even though you have busy cars, busy streets and cars rushing by and shoppers and government buildings around it, that is where people go to feel the heart of provo. it maintains not only its historic visual character but its feeling of character. and so that has never changed. and in most lds communities it's the same thing. those central squares, those public squares, are always the heart of the lifeblood of that community. ♪ ♪ ♪ [ chanting ] >> i belong to the tribe.
the name means our discovered ones. evidence says we have been here for 10,000 plus years. our elders say we've been here since time immemorial. we have stories that go as far back as the flood times, i guess, lake missoula flood. we have stories about a place up on mica peak on the northern part of our current reservation. and on that peak sits a log that has been petrified, and it sits stuck into the mountain at a certain elevation. and what my grandpa told me was, during that flood time, it brought that over because we don't have petrified wood around here. so it got that, pushed that into the mountain right there. so, if you reference that story, you know, we've been here for a lot longer than probably 10,000 years. today we're standing in an old
mission kataldo. sitting in the interprettive center. we have a lot of exhibits in here that represent the tribe. the black robes. father desmet and our transition into, i guess, today's life. our aboriginal territory, if you look at it today on a map, exceeds three states. western montana, idaho and eastern washington. we shared territory south of us, to the west of us, the spokanes, to the north of us as well. from what i understand we had pretty good relationships. it wasn't perfect, but we had shared territories, shared resources. but from what i understand, there were skirmishes also.
so there are times where we didn't get along. we had a very intelligent person within our tribe. his name was circling raven. we were told he was chief for 100 years and he was the last person in our tribe to live to be 150 years old. and he had a prophecy that stated that men with crossed sticks and long black robes would come to our people and teach us a new way of living because hardship was on the horizon. i guess the first thing that we witnessed european contact was not them specifically, it was the disease that came. smallpox, whooping cough, and some other diseases that came. when the diseases struck our tribe, we had about 5,000 people in our territory, and it struck our people two different waves.
and 1842 when father de smet came, we were down to 500 people. if you can imagine, pretty much everybody you know dying a horrible death, that's kind of what they went through. and that was just the first thing that took place. second place was the horse, which we took as very beneficial. if you can imagine people walking around and all of a sudden now they have a ride to take their things, to pack back, to put their kids on, put their families on. it was a lot different mode of life. the next thing was the trade items that came to the tribe. and then following the trade items was the fur trappers. following the fur trappers was father de smet and the black robes. when the father came in 1840s the tribe was very happy because
the prophecy was foretold, and from what i heard pretty much every single member of the tribe wanted to get baptized. we wanted christianity. we wanted that way of life. even though our tribe was decimated by disease. when father de smet came we were still a happy people. when he came, that made us more joyous because of the prophecy. when he came we met him where north idaho college is today and we had our first christmas there. that exhibit represents the first christmas we had. after that we wanted to build a mission, a church. the first mission that we built was on the st. joe river. due to flooding, we moved it to where it currently sits today. under the direction of the father, they built this wonderful church.
it has no nails. no nails. the kids, they brought up a lot of the foundation stones from the river. and a lot of the people, they brought up the mud and the grass, and they insulated the walls with it. and they took huckleberry juice and painted the ceiling. we already understood the power of one god. in our language that's what it means is the one creator. so when this new way of thinking and thought came around, it was quite similar to the way we had already understood, lived in harmony with life, and harmony with one another the best we could. and i guess some of the things, too, that the catholics did resonated with what we were doing. they had prayers and songs. we had prayers and songs. they used that incense. we used incense to bless ourselves. so a lot of those things were
really similar to us. we moved from being a people that was kind of like around the lake, and we fished, we hunted, right around the late 1870s we were pretty much forced to move to the reservation. and that was that difference. we were a people that enjoyed fishing, swimming, a lot of things that, you know, we had to do for survival, move about with nature. if the roots were ripe over here, we went that way. if the berries were ripe this way, we went that way. one of the differences was we were pretty much forced to go on to the reservation to where de smet is and we had to learn to be farmers. the see itself took our name. but we don't call ourselves that. it was given to us by the fur traders because we were good businessmen.
they were probably the best businessmen that they have ever met. the word means sharp-hearted, shrewd traders. it's a french term. so the town took the term. >> it's about 2500 members strong today. the things the tribe faced every day is not losing ourselves. in this day and age we have to worry about economic development and that kind of stuff. we also have to worry about losing ourselves as a people. when i grew up on the reservation we were very poor. poverty. there weren't that many jobs. but we were close-knit family as a community. nowadays, we have a multi-million dollar casino and business ventures. we are out there doing the
business world. but sometimes we lose site -- sight of what's important, helping one another. our tribal council tries to address that with our people. we want not to lose sight of that. we really try to help not only our community but the surrounding community as a whole. we put a lot of money into education for everybody because we believe in everything starts within the community. and we like to give back, not only to tribal members but non-tribal members. when we opened our casino the elders on the council at the time, before the -- the state said we're going to set 5% aside for education, not for tribal members, education for all of idahoans. every year we take 5% and give back to all the schools in the area. sometimes statewide, sometimes just in the area. the state didn't require that. that was a requirement that we
put into our gaming compact. i think, with that token of good will, i think it showed that we were serious and that we are here to be good neighbors. i think that sets us apart from a lot of the tribes. i think the future is education. when i was growing up, i grew up on the reservation and we were poor. nobody went to college. i was the first in my family to go to college. casinos were just starting. and since over the last 20 years now we have sent more people to college than ever. we have had people at brown, stanford become doctors, lawyers, and so i think that's the future of the tribe. i think we are in the process of driving our own ship, you know. we have got people out there and they're coming home and we can offer good jobs for our people to come home and get a decent salary. and so i am proud of that.
i think that's the next 20 years -- i think that's what you are going to see. we are in champion, wisconsin. this is the shrine of our lady of good help. in october of 1859, adele bryce was walking through this area when she claimed to have witnessed an apparition or a vision of the virgin mary. the catholic church defines an apparition as an appearance of jesus christ, the virgin mary or any of the saints. there were three occasions that adelle bryce believed she had visions of the virgin mary. and on the third vision, on the third appearance, the virgin mary instructed her to spread the world of salvation throughout the area among the pioneer people living here in the wilderness. for the rest of her life she did
just that, serving more or less as a missionary in the area to pioneer families living in a very remote and rugged area of the mid 19th century. after she experienced the apparitions, she confided in her parents and in the local catholic priest, and her father built a small shrine here at the location of the apparitions. in october of 1871 a huge wildfire broke out on the west side of green bay, in a community there. remains the largest wildfire in the nation's history. it claimed more than 1200 lives. and the wildfire was so great that it created its own atmosphere, more or less, the hurricane of fire. it threw flames, sparks, heat and ash across the bay of green bay roughly 35 miles and ignited
wildfires here in the area of southern door county. here adele bryce and others gathered at the shrine, at the chapel her father had built to pray for their safety. the following day as the fire had burned itself out and as the morning light came up it was revealed that the entire area had been devastated by the fire except for an immediate area surrounding the chapel that had been built by her father. the shrine continued to draw pilgrims and other visitors throughout the years as a somewhat modest attraction. at first the catholic church took a somewhat skeptical view of the reports of the apparitions, but they never doubted the work, the good work and character of adele bryce.
it wasn't until 2008 that the catholic church convened a formal investigation into the reported of the apparitions here at this site. and in 2010 the church concluded that the visions experienced by adele bryce were indeed worthy of belief by the catholic church. the church's sanction of this site as worthy of belief is significant. it is only one of 12 sites worldwide that is approved by the church. it's the only site in the united states at this time. so it ranks right up there with some of the others as far as church sanctioned sites where there have been reported images of the virgin mary.
this is where the united society of believers in christ's second appearing were first able to realize their vision of creating a communal utopian religious society in america. the shaker started in the mid 1700s in manchester, england. peop people referred to them as shakers which consisted of shaking, crawling around on the floor, barking like dogs. they were not the only religious group doing that sort of thing in that time period. it was a stastatic kind of exprn of worship. some had been quakers in the
past. none were happy with the existing religions of the time. so they were meeting together, discussing matters of spirituality and all agreed that they believed that, in order to live a pure christian life, that you had to be celibate, you should own property in common, so communal ownership of property. they believed in pacifism and confession of sin as well. so those are the basic tenets of the shaker faith and those remained consistent throughout their history. out of this group of people who are discussing spirituality in manchester came a young woman named ann lee. she was the daughter of a blacksmith and she had been forced into a marriage she wasn't interested in having in the first place and subsequently had four children, all of whom who died in infancy or when they were quite young. so she was particularly drawn to the concept of celibacy because
it was a way to free her from the cycle of grief. she was the one who ultimately bras them to the new world to practice their religion freely. so they came to america in 1774. and they stayed in manhattan for a couple years and fled to the albany area just as the british were invading manhattan. they were able to lease a parcel of land that was quite undesirable. it was all swampland, sand dunes and that sort of thing. this was a poor group of people. they didn't have a lot of money. so this was the first place they were able to settle themselves. they became successful fairly quickly. by 1790 they'd established the garden seed industry. so they were among the first to standardize seed production, put the seeds in paper packets and sell them to the outside world. so they very quickly became very astute and successful business people. they made use of the erie canal
to ship their products to the west. so their influence was pretty great. later on, they also had a tremendous influence in the area of the arts. the shakers are perhaps best known for their furniture, the ladder-backed chairs. it was only the chairs that they mass-produced and sold to the outside world. the standardized mass production of the chairs was pretty early on. this community peaked as most did in about the mid 1800s. at that time there were about 300 people living here. it would have been like a beehive of activity. there were many, many buildings here at the that unfortunately were torn down in the early 20th century. but you can really see it as a mini industrial village. it was densely developed. every building had a specific use. every shaker had a specific job that they were assigned to, and there was a tremendous amount of
activity. they were celibate, so they had to have a way to get new converts. one of the things they did was build large-scale meeting houses like the one back here behind us. the meeting house was built in 1848. and on sundays, the road would literally be filled from beginning to end with carriages of people who came to see the shakers. in part because it was a curiosity, victorians loved a spectacle and they considered the shakers to be a very interesting spectacle. but some people came because they truly were motivated by shaker spirituality and interested in their faith. and there were people who came to see shaker worship to subsequently converted. they had frequently have many famous guests here. martin van buren was their lawyer. he was frequently a guest who would come on sundays to observe shaker worship. general sherman, her man
melville, melville has a character from this community in moby dick who makes an appearance in one of the chapters. it was quite the thing to do in the mid 19th century, to see shaker worship. after ann lee died she had appointed someone to succeed here which is one of the reasons why the shaker faith was able to continue. she had the foresight to appoint someone to succeedle her. that was joseph meacham. both of them are buried here at the site. if you look at ann lee, she is never put on the pedestal. she is the founder of the shaker faith in america. if you look at her tombstone in the cemetery it's just slightly larger than the others. she was not necessarily considered to be better or more important than anyone else. they really did strive for equality in the communities. joseph meacham is the one really
who came up with the way that shaker communities were organized into separate family groupings. and for the shakers, they had a very different concept of what a family is than we do because they lived communally. a family was 100 people who were living and working together and worshipping in harmony. so entire families sometimes would join the community, but they were expected to love everyone equally. so they were expected to break family bonds to a certain extent because they were joining a new type of family. so the shakers often were accused of breaking up families. but from their perspective they actually were providing a new kind of family. the shakers were very progressive in their ideals. they believed in gender and racial equality. so, from the very beginning we know that there were black shakers. as early as 1790. i was very curious about black shakers, and we can't say that there were legions of them, but
there were certainly a good number of black shakers and they were truly tweeted ruly were trs equals in the community. we don't have a research ever o staff so we've worked with colleges in the area to go through the shaker journals and identify african-american shakers and start to piece together a story about them. so we had a student from suny albany who found six references to the shakers sheltering fugitive slaves. which was quite a surprise to me. the shakers were always pretty savvy about politics and not putting themselves in a position where they'd get in trouble needlessly. the student came across a reference something to the effect that brother f took a
runaway slave to help them to freedom in canada. which was astonishing. you don't come up with that concrete evidence when studying the underground railroad. we're building on that research to understand what it was like if you were a black person living in the shaker community. the shakers took in orphans and poor people, and that was one way they increased their numbers. they were never particularly firm about proselytizing and trying to get people to join the community, i think because they knew that everybody had to fully agree to commit to this life-style. otherwise, it wouldn't work. so by the late 19th century, there were state-run orphanages being established, so there were fewer reasons to place your children with the shakers or an orphan child with the shakers. also, as women were able to earn a living on their own, and more
opportunities became available for women, there were less economic reasons to join the shakers. and in general, interest in spirituality started to diminish. so, by 1925 there were just a handful of shakers left in albany, and they were having a great difficulty maintaining all of the buildings and the site here. so albany county purchased the land from the shakers so that they could use it as a sanitarium for tuberculosis patients and so that they could build a new nursing home. this is fairly common. a lot of shaker communities were closing down in that time period. and many of them were used for institutional purposes, for prisons or what have you. so today there are nine buildings left in the church family portion of the historic district. and many of them have had their interiors altered by albany county, but we still have the 1848 shaker meeting house, which is the last large-scale meeting
house with its interior left intact. so that's quite significant. it's a beautiful building. you can really get a sense of the history of the place. the first experience that mormons had with the southern california area was there was a call for individuals to help with the mexican-american war that was occurring between 1846 and 1848. the mormon church raised a group of a few hundred men and sent them into southern california. they reached san diego and were stationed at mission san luis ray. and they ended up coming into the area, purchasing items from different rancho owners. one of the rancho owners that they purchased items from owned a ranch near riverside, just south of us in san bernardino. and they first got a glimpse of the area. and the groups of the
individuals a part of the mormon battalion that came for the war that ended up going back to utah spoke highly of southern california and convinced the president of the church at the time, brigham young, to purchase one of the ranchos in the area. so that's how they ended up coming back as a group, and they raised a few hundred individuals, over 400, wanted to make the travel back to southern california and settle in the area. originally they were going to purchase the chino rancho, which that unfortunately fell through but it gave the mormons an opportunity to purchase the san bernardino rancho from the lugo family. that's how they ended up in san bernardino and how they ended up being the founders of san bernardino. the journey from utah to california was a very perilous one. there were a lot of deserts to travel through, much -- many different types of terrain. and specifically when they got
here to southern california there was a pass cajon pass that was very difficult. once they reached that pass, they realized there was a better route than had been taken previously. it was west of the cajon pass. they ended up traveling through that route and discovering that it was easier to maneuver down that way. it wasn't exactly easy but it was easier than routes taken in the past. the owner of this wagon lived in utah. she and her family decided to come to orn california, specifically san bernardino settlement, in 1854. they made the travel to southern california in this wagon that's behind me. again, it was a very, very perilous journey taking a wagon several hundred miles across desert in different types of topography. once they ended up getting here, more of their family started
settling in san bernardino settlement as well. first thing that the mormons did when they got -- when they purchased the land from lugo, they built a few houses in what is now downtown san bernardino, built out of adobe. they heard about an all-out indian uprising throughout southern california from san luis obispo, further north, down to san diego. the idea was, you know, because of the european intrusion, there were a lot of people that, the natives were not happy with all the people coming out. so the mormons built a fort, a stockade, and that's where they lived. they lived for about a year. there were some skirmishes but nothing that serious ever materialized. and eventually, after about a year, plans were made -- were being made to lay out the streets of san bernardino. once they started to lay out the
streets of san bernardino, probably was -- i think about 1853. that's when the county of san bernardino was formed. jefferson hunt is probably the person who was most instrumental in spear-heading the efforts to get everything built. a young man named fred paris was a teenager. he helped him out. paris later became very instrumental in san bernardino. hunt, i mentioned earlier, was the one who probably encouraged brigham young to have a colony out, you know, initially in chino, and then san bernardino. hunt had been back and forth. he knew the way to come here, and he was kind of like the leader of the mormon families coming out. he was -- he spear-headed the effort to build a fort. he also was instrumental in building a logging road up to the mountains, up to what is now the town of crestline.
in about ten days they were able to build a 12-mile road. the road now is a paved road. that's where they got -- they would go up to the mountains, they would cut down trees and logs and bring down -- the logs for san bernardino purposes, it was used for frames of adobe houses but they also would send the logs over by wagon to los angeles. and they would trade. that's how they kind of paid off their mortgage. however, in 1857, after six years, years, bringham young recalled his faithful back to salt lake. there were a variety of reasons why he did so. one of them is probably the fact that there's so many mormons came out for different reasons, the warm weather, maybe going to the gold fields. so it worked, but it was short-lived. the mormons that stayed, about
60% of the population went back -- those that stayed, they had their reasons. probably -- and i'm just surmising -- it was probably because faith-wise, maybe it was the tight reins of bringham young or maybe because of the warm climate of california as opposed to salt lake city and other opportunities. but a lot of them stayed. they became very prominent pioneers of san bernardino years later. if bringham young did not have the recall back to salt lake, what would san bernardino be like now? i spoke to a really wonderful historian named leo lineman. he is a member of the church of latter day saints or the mormon church. his great great grandfather was
one of the two more mom apostles that came out with the families. i asked him what do you think san bernardino would have been like if not for the . . . real strong, also a mixed bag. san bernardino became a railroad town and really grew and became a strong town. it would be interesting what would have happened. we are here on the campus of bob jones university in greenville, south carolina. the campus has been here since 1947. it's a beautiful spot right here a mile and a half from downtown greenville. the university is a fully christian liberal arts education and our student body currently is about 2800 students. that fluctuates from year to year. ♪ >> it really comes down to what
our world view is. our viewpoint of the world is not secular. our viewpoint of the world is as it is revealed in the scriptures, the bible. whether it's science or math or education or whatever a person does in their life, it's really a biblical world view, which makes all the difference in the world. a little bit of the background of the school, it was founded in 1927 by a very world renowned evangelist named bob jones sr. it was really the tail end of the great evangelist era. he was from south alabama, grew up in a very poor family, but he was always a strong preacher. he started this school because he was actually concerned about the influence, the negative influence of secular and liberal education of the 1920s.
and the school was started in florida, right outside of panama city. and then during the depression years, they moved to cleveland, tennessee and they were there from the early 1930s until 1947. they outgrew the school. and so they picked up with about 2500 to 2700 students from cleveland, tennessee, and they moved to greenville, south carolina, and been here ever since. in 1983 bob jones university went all the way to the u.s. supreme court on an issue of interracial dating here on campus. what happened was that the public policy overruled the biblical conviction. that really was the problem of the issue at that time and that's why it has repercussions today, because if there are people who have religious convictions about things and it's in conflict with public
policy, then what is the supreme court going to do about that? >> in trying to understand the bob jones university court case, officially known as bob jones university versus the united states, this is no defense of the ban on interracial dating. it was wrong. it was racist. the school eventually recognizes that. but to understand it, you go back really to the south and the late 19th century after the civil war, the tragedies of what slavery was replaced with was a system of segregation. and also part of that terrible period was states -- and i don't think it was all southern, but mostly southern states, they passed what are known as
anti-miss anti-missij -- mlaws. segregation was the reality. that doesn't make it okay. that's just the way it was. what you have is bob jones sr. and the jones family, they come from not just the south but from the deep south, from alabama. you have the civil rights movement starting and things begin to change. so integration is going to start taking place nationally, especially in the south where the focus is. the university actually
integrates only a few years after other colleges and universities. so integration really was never the issue. the issue is how do you handle race with an integrated student body. and the administration at the time was still bob jones jr., who would have been president still. the response apparently was to keep a vestige of the old segregated world, which was represented by the old laws, the bans on interracial marriage. and the administration basically framed it as a religious liberty issue. and that was the argument that
they made. by 1964 the civil rights act had passed, and the pressure was you can't do this and keep your tax exemption. so the irs eventually, i guess, yanked the tax exemption. so we sued to get it back, and that suit was eventually lost at the supreme court level. i think it was in 1983. but we lost and the school basically went forward with no tax exemption and operated. dr. bob jones iii made the decision that having that rule in place was such a detriment to our spiritual ministry that it should be dropped. and that came on the heels of the south carolina republican
presidential primary, between john mccain and george w. bush. let's welcome an extraordinary man who will be an exceptional candidate, george w. bush and his wife laura. [ cheers and applause ] >> george w. bush had lost new hampshire to john mccain, and so south carolina was sort of do or die for george w. bush. he had decided to move to texas and stay there and became an evangelical methodist. that was part of his identity. so evangelicals really did identify with him. so he came to campus and he spoke in chapel. i remember it very well. about a day or two after the mccain camp decided to make an issue of the fact that the
university, although integrated, banned interracial dating. >> the political tactics of division and slander are not our values. they are -- [ applause ]. >> they are corrupting influences on religious and politics and those who practice them in the name of religion or in the name of the republican party or in the name of america shame our faith, our party and our country. [ applause ]. >> and it was, i think, todfodd for cable tv for about a week or two, and it was pretty painful to live through that. within a week or so, dr. bob iii decided that it did hurt the school and our spiritual ministry. so he dropped the rule. i guess it was a few years
later, steven jones, the next president apologized. and i think in that apology he had the best rationale for it. in the end, it wasn't really about religious liberty. it was about -- i think i'm maybe paraphrasing here, but we were too captive to our culture. ideally for christians -- and hopefully we take our faith very seriously, and we want to tra transcend the world and what we consider to be evil in the world, and we simply didn't transcend what we should have. ♪ >> south carolina today is important in presidential elections because of the sequence in the primaries. it's the big one right after new
hampshire. you have iowa, new hampshire and then south carolina. and those three states are different demographically and culturally. south carolina is perhaps the first place you can test your appeal to a southern audience, typically more conservative, not just for republicans but for democrats, democrati inic candis and how they appeal, for example, to african-american voters. and there are greater numbers of those in the low country in the charleston area. so hillary and sanders basically are looking at it -- sanders can be thinking how am i going to do with african-americans, and this is his first opportunity to gauge that. it's not just for republicans,
but for the other parties as well. politics come to places like bob jones because some consider us as the old worn image of the bible belt. and someone has said that we are not just the bible belt. we're the bucking of the bible belt. and so if you get attention here -- >> thank you. it is good to be back among friends at bob jones university. >> -- then it basically expands outward beyond just the campus itself. and they're targeting the evangelical network vote, which is pretty well organized. i think what people misunderstand, they think it's more unified than it is. it's fractured like other groups. but they want to get their share
of it, their percentage. and even if you're not identified specifically as a evangelical candidate, you can still get a percentage. you don't want them to be angry with you. so one way you do it is symbolically, you visit liberty or you visit bob jones. candidates in this current presidential election cycle are retu returning. i think probably number one dr. p petit wants it to happen, which i think is appropriate and wise. number two, i think the candidates want to come back. i think since 2000 we basically have -- there's been some sort of redemption, i