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tv   American Artifacts Herblock Political Cartoons  CSPAN  April 28, 2018 11:25pm-12:01am EDT

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the dispute becomes public. released11th truman macarthur. for antions open armistice. it takes two years to hammer out an agreement. the battle lines do not move significantly from where they stopped in the summer of 1951. in july, 1953, -- >> announcer: you can watch this and other programs on our website where all of our video is archived. c-span.org\history. americanch week, artifacts take viewers into archives, museums, and historic sites. the library of congress houses the largest library of herbert block, known
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as herbloc. >> herblock was a midwestern born cartoonist. he began his working career in 1929, 6 months before the great depression. he was a moderate conservative in his start. less left,calized but it pushed him further toward the center. andhe great depression world war ii. in 1933, he joined the scripps newspaperpany enterprise association, which was situated in cleveland, ohio. in 1946, right after the second world war he joined the washington post where he spent the rest of his career.
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weeks aftert six the last cartoon appeared in the washington post. his last cartoon appeared on august 26, 2001 and he died a his 92nd birthday, and october. the library of congress has the herblock collection. we have about 13,460 of his editorial cartoons but we have nearly all the work he produced. away cartoons to friends but the have the majority of his work. he drew cartoons from hoover to the second george bush. you get to see how his career evolved, how his opinions changed, see how he drew particular pull residence. i brought out a selection of cartoons to give a sense of how he perceived different
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presidents and how his style evolved. herbert hoover, the first president that mr. block covered, it shows hoover at the cap, before camp david existed. camp furtherd a down in virginia. depicted leading a cap.e capitalists to his they are fishing. instead of getting economic the formperhaps send of cash incentives, the capitalist gets some fresh fish to sell. it is a pen and ink style. on a smooth board. this is typical of what would've been produced in the midwest at
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this point in time. the second cartoon i've brought out is about fdr. franklin delano roosevelt. mr. block is not quite embracing the democratic at. he is making fun of not being able to add additional supreme court justices, said therefore to support congress to implement his plan to improve the economy. we know ultimately roosevelt prevailed and the new deal past mr. block is making fun of him for wasting time when he could've been passing legislation but he is trying to implement the court plan to add six more justices to the court.
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here we have both candidates for president in 1948, truman and do dewey gesturing to a typical man that mr. gesturing to a man who looks like a typical character to show a respectable southern gentleman as he also represents congress. bloch is upset about the changes in the immigration plans implemented in the united states in the aftermath of world war ii. he is very much in favor of letting displaced people immigrate to the united states.
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[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2018] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] he is showing his disapproval of congresses immigration plan. rather than embracing their arrival. this is a cartoon about president eisenhower. joseph mccarthy and richard nixon through a smear campaign. what you need to know about this cartoon is it did not run in the washington post. it was a pro-eisenhower paper. they are very adamant about that in his cartoon. they felt mr. bloch's opinion of eisenhower failing to control mccarthy and went too far. we didn't run. it didn't run in the areas mr. bloch was syndicated, the other newspapers. they knew that a cartoon had appeared elsewhere.
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the washington post ran every single cartoon that he chose to draw after that. we can see mr. bloch's art style and a very loose drawing style. he's using a simple board. use white out as a way to enhance his image. being guided by president kennedy, he's got budget written in white out. it stands out in his cartoon. kennedy was hard.
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even as late as 1962. you they haven't found the years and big nose, he kind of looks generically handsome. that doesn't mean mr. bloch can't find faults to pick with him. but to some special privileges. people who have benefited. we have lyndon johnson. mr. bloch
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really admired his war on poverty. he did not admire his war on vietnam. he loved to take johnson quotes and misappropriate them. his particular cartoon shows we were willing to go more than halfway. he intended to talk about the peace table. bombing up more the vietnamese country. between 1972 and 1974. the time president nixon resigned, you opened the pages to see 100 74 cartoons attacking the president on watergate alone. he had drawn
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next seven coming out of the sewer at the eisenhower administration. with the exception he gave him as a newly elected president, known the collection of the washington post, he never relented. it doesn't mean he attacked it blindly. he had real issues from the things and the corruption and the wiretapping. things he
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didn't like, and to share it with others. that is the basic role of the editorial cartoon. and a good cartoonist does more than illustrate the news. he gets his point across, or she gets her point across. nixon is throwing some tape, an investigator who is represented by a hound dog. a bloodhound. while still clutching the most important evidence against him.
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you can see the bones of some of his indicted spirit is. left behind. when it came to jimmy carter, he saw him as a pretty ineffectual leader. it shows carter banging on his own presidential desk while refusing to take a leadership role. that's the most i can say about that. what a better way to show somebody is completely ineffectual at their job then to show them at their desk rather than behind it. -- show them in front of their desk rather than behind it. by the time -- it
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doesn't take long to figure out if he say her bloch, you might as well be saying -- that's how he became to be known as her bloch. but he really is herb block. he was not a big fan of ronald reagan. are moderate conservative sensibilities, the way the parents brought it up was to take care. he has to look out for the little guy. what he saw with ronald reagan was somebody who was turning a blind eye to the poverty and hunger
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and other issues in the united states in the 1980's. as ronald reagan drives by in his limousine. thinking those people haven't made a bad choice in their lives by not choosing to be rich. and that really good -- that really underscores his opinions that you had to help the poor and you had to understand the properties and institutions and not make assumptions about why people are poor. he do a lot of cartoons about the need to support the poor by providing better housing, better nutrition , better ventricle care -- better medical care. we can see that herb block have some great ideas. the line is not as steady. pencil has a tendency to smear in a way that whacks crammed is not. here we have george herbert walker bush. denying that he was involved in
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the iran-contra scandal. what mr. bloch is showing is while he is denying his involvement in the scandal, the testimony of the people who were the principal players are going to ensnare him anyway. mr. bloch like to draw that president bush with large lips. he was only saying to people, read my lips. here bill clinton is shown in a masterful attempt at tight wrote walking -- tightrope walking. miss lewinsky is not labeled miss lewinsky. that may be lost to people who look at the
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cartoon in the span of time. anybody who opened the post that day nude that was exactly what bill clinton was trying to balance. he was too ill during 9/11 to do anything about that. even though people were encouraging him and saying -- that 19th he died in october of 2001. it was an assumption a lot of cartoonists made early in the election and early in the presidency. they drew him as stupid. cartoonists that got to live longer came around on that. at this point this is how he is depicting him, under the control
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of dick cheney and his father. and ignorant about world affairs. this was drawn during the 2000 presidential election. as you can see in the last year and a half of his life, again the ideas are solid. he's coming up with an opinion. and he's able to see a way to express it. he is using -- with his pen. the white house as an institution,
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as a substitute for the sitting president, appears quite frequently in his cartoons when he wants to talk about policy rather than personality. that can be the white house in conflict with congress, because there are separate parts of government. he brings that up in some of his cartoons. it can also be the supreme court, i haven't brought any white house versus supreme court drawings today. the first one we have is from president kennedy's proclamation that in light of martin luther king's march on washington that it's time for the nation, a century after the american civil war, to fulfill its promise. as you can see, he
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is a strong supporter of that. he shows kennedy on top of the white house proudly waving his proclamation as if it were a banner. the next drawing is very famous. it is something a cartoonist can do. the united states has really strong libel laws. woodward and bernstein had to spend months and find a source to link nixon to the watergate break-in. mr. bloch true footsteps leading directly to the white house. other scandals were originated. it is careful not to draw nixon. this cartoon said you are not really going to run that by you. when he said yes, she went ok. she
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was prepared for the call she was going to get the next morning when that paper landed on people's front porches. involved in treating negotiations. if you know your constitution you know it's not the president who gets assigned treating death assigned treaties. -- assigned treaties.
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a congressman, a generic congressman can't do that. we haven't agreed to anything yet. mr. bloch is also -- there are constitutional differences between the white house and the u.s. capital. finally when we have a cartoon during the bush administration, george w. bush administration, mr. bloch believes strongly in separation of church and state. he believed that funding for religious groups violated that. one way he depicted it, of course, is by showing the newspaper headline.
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the guy rolling his eye and looking at the steeple of the white house emphasized the point that mr. bloch believed that george w. bush had a strong affiliation with religious groups. christian religious groups in particular. one of the issues that mr. bloch -- mr. block drew -- he really believed
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-- the public school on the other out.was blocked african-americans deserved an equal chance and equal opportunity. eight years after the board of education, which was supposed to desegregate the public schools and universities, and give everybody an equal education, in 1962 he pointed out that still was not the case. there were states in the country that still chose to shutter their public schools. we have an african-american girl holding a birthday cake, telling the white gentleman standing next to her that she's eight. and the james crow public school is on the other side of a fence. mr. block would republish this cartoon until public schools were accessible to children. he never stopped hammering on race and inequality. this appeared many times to remind readers that there was not equality everywhere. this cartoon was drawn in the immediate aftermath of the kennedy assassination. john f. kennedy was assassinated by lee harvey oswald on november twice second, 1963. this is a
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22, 1963.r this is a fake advertisement. and notice that it is sportsman, kids, maniacs. yet john cartoons -- this was important to him. on thatrawn cartoons issue from 1950's. illegalked access to weapoons. you sense the anger in this
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drawing. the exclamation points, the sarcasm, using the variety of tools. it is mostly textbased. it is really the text that makes this a particular cartoon. that makes this point in this particular cartoon. right now we are looking at cartoons from 1967. and we rotate every six months in march and september. what i try to do is select five cartoons that situates them in events related to the year. with a little tweak, some things that
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will resonate more successfully with others. we have this cartoon about the redwood forest insult sold to timber and mining interests. mr. block's very first cartoon -- he was in adamant that she was an adamant supporter -- he was an adamant supporter of beauty. johnson escalated the war by increased bombing in north vietnam. as you can see, it was mr. block's opinion that increased bombing would lead to more increased bombing. climbing up very
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cautiously and an increase in step of weapons. it's a really strong graphite drawing. graphite is a lubricant. that is what the white house is peeling off the drawing. some of it is just gone drawn -- just gone forever. it really brings that truth to bear. a businessman who holds a web -- a whip. this is about consumers, poor consumers that have the money to pay for goods out right. they pay over time and they pay more than 100% of the original costs. not to say that credit card bills, when they are not paid off promptly -- this is really about people taking out loans strictly from stores. that is egypt. he suffered a crushing defeat at the hand of the israeli six-day
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war 1967. he is pretrade is having a napoleon complex, when in reality nasser was pulling
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back from extremism, realizing he didn't have the financial wherewithal and trying to meet his agenda. charles schultz and herb block were good friends. they often did things to honor one another. mr. schulz, not so much in his peanuts cartoons. he was a big fan of herb block personally. here we have the time-honored character of snoopy cursing communism, communists in
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general. wishing they could bomb more in vietnam. what i want to do is select five cartoons they relate to a series of events or particular events in 1967, something that stands out in his work. for me what stood out in 1967 is how important it was for consumers. mr. bloch did a series of cartoons that highlighted the work of individuals in promoting consumer regulations, better safety for americans area we
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have the food and drug administration. and americans deceased from inadequate warnings. could he have drawn this cartoon today? i will ask you to be the judge. mr. bloch had suffered a heart attack in 1959, and quit smoking. he never gave up fighting about cigarettes after that. he hated what the industry was doing. here he showed the federal trade commission valiantly. in order to give more controls of what they can say. to protect consumers. most people remember
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ralph nader. in 1957 he took on the meat industry. in order to have stricter regulations about what it is what went into processed foods. upton sinclair and ralph nader were both brought to washington and offered an award by president johnson in improving consumer safety and food products. one of the issues in 1967 that
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attracted herb block's attention was overcharging americans for drugs. not everybody was treated the same. some markets, more heavily populated markets come -- markets, pay less. this is a double inadequacy related to how people -- the captain's look at all the research we have to do. it's hard to imagine today a time when the seatbelt was not part of the automobile. in 1967 researchers realized americans would be a lot safer in automobiles. it would reduce injuries. the automobile industry pushed back. the
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concept for this particular cartoon would be the alibi created extra pressure on the accelerator. it may surprise a lot of people that the library of congress houses cartoons. we have 128,000 cartoons and 14,460 of those by mr. bloch. it was one of the missions of the library of congress, the document and creativity, the intelligence of the american people. finally, i think it is a mark of a free society that we can gather opinions with which we do not agree and collect them and preserve them for future generations. there are a lot of countries in the world where nobody would dare do that. it is
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an example of one of the artists collected. people can look at the original in our reading room. anybody can come to the herb block gallery whenever the library of congress is open to the public. >> discussing the failues or john delorian and elon musk.

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