tv The Civil War Civil War Turning Points Overview CSPAN September 29, 2018 5:59pm-6:51pm EDT
the 1919 film "the lost totalion" about the lead up the end of world war i and an army unit of men from new york who run out of water and food after being surrounded by german forces for seven days in october. at 6 p.m. eastern on american artifacts, women's history with a visit to civil war related sites in alexandria, virginia where women worked as nurses and aided communities of newly freed slaves. and, a look at how first ladies have influence political and cultural times through fashion. watch american history tv this weekend on c-span 3. >> c-span, where history unfolds daily. in 1979, c-span was created as a public service by america's cable television companies. and today, we continue to bring
you unfiltered coverage of congress, the white house, the supreme court, and public llc events in washington dc and about -- public policy events in washington dc and around the country. yourn is brought to you by cable and satellite television provider. american history to, historian and national parks service ranger robert dunkerly lists his top 10 turning points of the civil war. this was part of a symposium hosted by the emerging civil war blog. know, it is such a lovely treat to see so many familiar faces. the downside of that is i probably had a dozen people come up and say, "i am sitting in front to heckle you!" and like family, i guess. is chris mackowski, editor in chief, and on behalf of my colleagues, welcome. it is so nice to see so many
familiar faces and meet so many new friends. if you are new, first time please stand up so that we may recognize. [applause] as you may have heard, this event is sold out, so those folks who just stood up otherwise would put us over the top, thank you very much. i would also like to take a moment before i get really started and thank the service crew who are here from stevenson ridge, the servers, the hospices, the bartenders. [applause] hostesses, the bartender, all those working behind the bar to keep your thirst quenched. some of you may be familiar with this book, "turning points of the american civil war." the first book we have engaged
with our engaging civil war series of us through the southern illinois university press. what my colleague and i were putting this together, we thought, that would be a great topic.um one of the things i think is really exciting about this weekend is that we are able to take this book and its essays and continue the conversation through a series of presentations, through informal conversations we will have amongst ourselves, and of course, online. we will be broadcasting a number of segments online live on facebook. folks will be able to join in from home. we have lots of different ways to carry on the conversation. our goal is not to convince you that there was anyone turning point, but instead, the war, unspooled as a continuum of events, a series of connected dots. our speaker tonight will elaborate on that point a little
more. before i get too far away from the book, i want to point out that several of the contributors of this volume are here over the course of this weekend. if you are looking to get your book signed, i will introduce them later on this evening so you can pick them out of the crowd and get some autographs. it was a real true pleasure to be involved in the project and work with so many fantastic historians who are trying to help us see the war in a new way. to contextualize all of that for us tonight we will start out with my friend, bert hungrily. author a historian and who is actively involved in the historic preservation and research. he holds a degree in history from st. vincent college and a masters in historic preservation from middle tennessee state university. he has worked at nine historic sites, written several books and over 20 articles. his research interests include life,ology, colonial military history and historic commemoration. he is currently a park ranger at richmond's historic national battlefield.
than 400sited more other battlefields on his own, including -- 1000 historic sites worldwide. when not reading or writing, he enjoys hiking, photography and hanging out with emerging civil war. dunkerly.ome bert -- these generally in welcoming bert dunkerly. [applause] >> thank you, chris. i want to thank chris and dan and rob, for inviting me to be here tonight. i appreciate a chance to be part of the program. i am going to offer an overview of "turning points" and one thing i wanted to emphasize is, how the war unfolded. a have to remember, from the perspective of the people who lived through it, it is a series of highs and lows. there are a lot of ups and downs
, momentum changes and times when things are going really confederacy, and times when things are going really well for the union. series of roller coaster changes and it must have been incredible and exhausting to live through that. there are key moments that i them.o touch on some of when it comes to turning points, i think we also need to see that there are degrees of change. change happens slowly and perceptively. i have a top 10 list, and i have the top 10 civil war list as opposed to another top 10 list, that i will share with you tonight. this is my top 10 of what i consider an important -- what i consider important turning points. as i go through this, i also want to emphasize that we need to see that lots of different togetherend and come
in something like a turning point or a key moment. social, military, economic, diplomatic events all intertwine, they all influence each other. i hope you will see that as i go through my top 10 list. you will hear from some other speakers this weekend, and they .ill have their own key moments i will be curious to see what you think of my top 10. list, by the way, is chronological. we will start with my first key moment or turning point, and that is balls bluff and the formation of the joint committee on the conduct of war. balls bluff was a union disaster , a battle that happen in the fall of 1861 in 11 county. union troops pushed back against the potomac river and there were heavy casualties. 1861 in 11of
county. committee was formed that would influence union military policy. -- in the fall of 1861 in loudoun county. it influences how union officers as ashley in union virginia are able -- especially in union virginia will conduct the war. it involves caution, political intrigue, backstabbing and political maneuvering in the army of the potomac and the eastern armies in a general. it would influence how generals conducted the war. it will influence the hiring and firing of generals and appointments. it will have a long-lasting impact on the culture of the army of the potomac. every organization has a culture and that is the culture that is going to grow in the high command in the army of the
potomac. the joint committee on the conduct of war is extremely important in influencing that from an early stage. the next key moment or turning point that i have for you, is shiloh. >> shiloh was a massive two-day battle. the largest battle fought up to that point in the war. it would produce more casualties in today's been all of american history after that point. think about that. impact was just staggering. the number of killed and wounded, the total number of casualties. so what we are going to have as a result of shiloh is what i call the "slow death of the one battle syndrome." the mentality that one big war.e would end the commanders like grant and sherman are going to see that one big battle is not going to do it.
,hat the war is going to go on it will take large armies and many more large battles and a determined effort to conquer and win the war. i think both sides see that after shiloh. shiloh is also an important union victory in western tennessee. the union armies penetrated pretty deeply into confederate territory and the confederates would not get the territory back. aroundm that area shiloh, union armies can penetrate even further into mississippi and alabama. so it started the process of infiltrating into the deep south and occupying and interacting with southern civilians and bringing up the larger question should be in war. so shadow is extremely important for all those reasons area also in april of 1862, is the confederate is
correction -- the confederate conscription act of 1862. in april of 1860 two, in the current confederate soldier automatically has his enlistment extended for three years with no say in the matter. the act would also call for the conscription of white males from 18-35. that is important because it is the first time that either government, union or confederate, has taken that step toward gearing up for a long, hard war. the confederacy would end up maleizing 80% of its white military age, 80%. they could not have waged this war as long and hard as they did, unless they had massive mobilization of men and resources.
asthe conscription act, icy, the first step in the process. the confederate government is going to institute all caps of controls that are very invasive to private it is an area among them far and income tax, price evenols, tax in kind, and more prescription as the war goes on. the confederate government is really clamping down and exerting its authority. and for the civilian population of the confederacy, it is tolerated for the most part in most places. there are areas of resistance, but it is tolerated. that would allow the war to be prosecuted as long and hard as it was definitely a key moment. the seven days campaign is
extremely important, one of those momentum shifts. had been armies winning many victories, they have come up to the gates of richmond and the confederates would turn them away. so we are going to see, first of all, the union armies are stopped. we are going to see the emergence of a new commander named robert e lee, committing the army of northern virginia. he would establish his aggressive reputation and establish a bond with his soldiers. that is one of the strongest that any commander has in the war. it also unleashes what i call the rising tide of emancipation. time, a lot oft union soldiers come into contact with african americans in the south and there is a groundswell of political agitation on the lincoln administration to do something more about slavery. turning point, then,
is antietam and the emancipation proclamation. antietam is another huge momentum shift the confederates were on the offensive. they were invading northern territory. they stopped at an teen -- antietam there we are the battle was a stalemate and the confederates were forced to return to virginia. and then, of course, they must a itself.tion it was probably a surprise to a lot of you, the proclamation changes the nature of the war and gives the union another cause, reuniting the country, but also attacking slavery. and it would pave the way for the enlistment of a large number of african-americans. it also has huge political and diplomatic ramifications. in issuing the proclamation over territory that he does not
control, president lincoln is we don't the world, recognize this as a conflict within our nation, we see this as an eternal rebellion because the emancipation proclamation goes into effect in laces that the union does not control, it is against the seceded states. moment, england and france would pull back from their considerations of recognition and more open support of the confederacy. and obviously, the emancipation proclamation will unleash all kinds of social and political --nge that no one so saw coming and it would unfold in the years after. southwest, the next -- going back west, the next turning point is brix berg. i note -- vicksburg.
i know that this will generate some murmurs and controversy. i know that there was another battle fought in pennsylvania at the same time. [laughter] too.e gettysburg you will probably hear about this over the weekend, but what i will say about vicksburg is you have the elimination of a army.erate not just the defeat of the confederate army, but an entire confederate army, thirtysomething thousand men is gone, off the map. they surrender. some of those man, a good number of them would find their way back into the confederate service, but for the moment, they are gone. it would obviously open up the mississippi river to union control, controlling the entire length of the river, and as with union forcesr, have penetrated very deeply into the heart of the confederacy and from the vicksburg they can go anywhere they want.
they can go south, they can go up going east and doing more destruction to confederate infrastructure. so, vicksburg is extremely important for those reasons. following up on that, i'm going to say the elevation of the u.s. grant to commander. .e is seen as a problem server -- problem solver. vicksburg had been attacked from many directions multiple times. grant got the job done. then, grant would be sent to chattanooga to deal with that problem in the wake of the disaster of chickamauga. then he would be brought to virginia to deal with the problem here and he will eventually deal with it. the way thatands wage the wards to to win successfully.
he wants to use the unions , manpower,industrial resources, to. their potential he wants to attack on all fronts simultaneously. he understands strategy and the wider view of the war. grant wants to not just engage and pull back, and fight battles over and over the way that they had been done before, grant wants to attack and keep on attacking, not just attacking, but maneuvering. it is a different style of warfare. it is constant. it is growing. it is going to unleash an overland campaign. as grant said, the beginning of the campaign, no matter what happens, there will be no turning back. that sounds like a good title of a book. [applause] sorry. but, grant to being in place, it is putting the right person at
the drivers seat to take controls of things -- takes control of things. returning to the west, next, shermans march to the sea. atlanta in september of 1864 is crucial, but even more than that, the march to the sea. think about what that means. army, 60,000 men are in the middle of georgia, they can go anywhere they want. they can go south, they can go left, they choose to go east. and march towards atlanta. and along the way, they will attack confederate industry and infrastructure and civilian morale. the confederates are powerless to stop them. it does a lot of things. obviously, it would impact of the confederates'ability to wage war, their war effort, it would destroy resources, food, railroads, factories, it would
demonstrate very clearly to the civilians that the confederate government cannot protect them and that their own army cannot protect them and if sherman's army makes its way through georgia and up through the carolinas, lots of soldiers wives will be writing to their in the trenches saying, we have lost everything. we cannot be protected here at home, we are not safe here. everybodyrates to pretty clearly what the union army, by then, is capable of and what the confederacy is not capable of. isnext turning point lincoln's reelection in 1864. public, thee union union civilians had been through a lot. there had been a lot of ups and downs.
1864 was a pretty bumpy year for them. think about the casualties from the overland campaign and disasters like a new market, bermuda hundred, cold harbor. lincoln's reelection is essentially a vote on the continuation of the war and a continuation on the way the war is being conducted. its aims, objectives and the manner in which it is being fought. and lincoln wins reelection. so the union public is the hind for the most part the direction that things are going. the vote is kind of close. lincoln wins with 55% of the vote. but it is enough of the northern public that supports the way things are going to keep going in that direction. and for the confederacy, what had been ais, there lot of hope that just holding out and dragging the war on and inflicting casualties, just
making it cost more, would wear on the northern public. but, it wasn't enough. so the confederacy realizes after november of 1864, there is no political or diplomatic solution to this. the only way the confederacy is going to get its independence is on the battlefield. that becomes pretty clear to them. 10.umber and this might surprise some of you, appomattox. before you say, wait, bird, that is the end of the war -- wait, bert, that is the end of the war. of course, it is. but it is important to see the ending of the war as one of the war and not something separate. we tend to see the surrenders as something separate that happens when the war is over. of course, appomattox is the first of what would be 4 major
surrenders. there is a book on that out there. [laughter] but, appomattox occurs while the war is still going on. so appomattox is going to be lincoln's political ideas manifest while the war is still on.g appomattox would set the stage for how the war was going to end and how the other surrenders would unfold. a spiritx is done with of generosity, confederate soldiers are paroled. nobody is going to prison. nobody is going to be punished. appomattox is done with a spirit of conciliation and that would set the tone for how the other surrenders would occur. how the war was going to end, and all the thousands of places across the south where the war does end, and it would set the stage for reconstruction and union military policy, union government policy and social
views, civilian views of the war. for good and bad. appomattox is certainly good in the way that it unfolds. grant could have messed that up, but it went well. showing mutual respect and the confederates being allowed to go home, it would set the stage for a positive ending to something that had been very awful. there is lingering tension, there is bitterness, it is not always a happy ending everywhere and you could also argue that the way appomattox ends with that sense of brotherhood, that shared, nullity that the soldiers have, that would set the stage for -- shared that the soldiers have, it would set the stage for the ugliness that would come i cfo mattoxd but as extremely important and a pivotal moment, as -- ugliness
that would come after. as extremeppomattox importance and a pivotal moment. all the moments i have highlighted show the two new momentum, the different factors tying in, the social, political, economic and so on. at could also stop and look the fact that i chose just as many events that happen in the eastern theater as the western peter, and i think that would be best western theater and i think that would be good fodder for another symposium. that is my top 10. thank you for your time. to take anye glad questions, if we have time for questions. >> ladies and gentlemen, robert dunkerly. [applause] >> i always love when i can do
that sort of, voice of god in the back -- you know when the radio voice -- ds does anybody have any questions ? i am going to ask a question, appomattox as a turning point verses like a point of no return, it is a fascinating idea. like things could not have unfolded differently? : appomattox wasn't the first surrender and i can't let the appomattox model, it would be applied every time other confederate armies go to the table to surrender after that. what was done at appomattox is repeated at the other surrenders. so appomattox is important for that reason. >> it serves as a template. and as he think of the end of the war today, we think of appomattox, even though there is
this long, drawnout, messy ending to the war. k, first question, every -- over here. please introduce yourself and let us know where you are from. >> i have from alexandria virginia. i noticed you left out an elephant in the room, the three-day battle of gettysburg. i guess that was intentional. [laughter] bert: gettysburg is important. when i thought about it, i really feel that big smirk is probably one of the two because outlined.sons i gettysburg is important and a momentum changer for sure, but as an of the day, the army in northern virginia is still a fighting force and they will
come back to virginia and refit and be ready to tangle with the army of the potomac again. so i think that vicksburg just edges it out. >> i have a question back here. >> jim from south carolina. i agree with you about lincoln's reelection as being a turning point. in fact, i would argue that it is more than just a momentum these others are, this was the turning point at change.thing could beyond that, i am interested in your appomattox as a turning point. if appomattox can be perceived as a turning point, what about lincoln's assassination? bert: that definitely is, that is a good point. when lincoln's -- when news of his assassination gets out there, it definitely changes the interaction between confederate soldiers going home and union soldiers who they encounter in the deep south. there is a lot of fear about what is going to happen next, nobody knows. there is a lot of uncertainty.
you have to change the administration, there is a definite sense of retribution among a lot of radical republicans in the union government, so definitely come a big deal. >> one of the things i have always found fascinating about that is that we tend to think of the assassination as the narrative and of the war and the start of the reconstruction during. a tidy narrative point, but really, the soldiers themselves saw the war continuing onward and make his assassination are medically changes how that is going to carry out -- dramatically changes how that is going to carry out and it becomes a significant turning point. >> yes, lincoln's assassination would unfold in that climate. is thentioned that there sense of brotherhood and reunification that comes out of appomattox, but now it has been tinged. you're also going to see a bit
of a harsher edge to house some reconstruction policies are put in place. >> question back here? i am rosemary nichols, from the capital district of civil war in a new york and i think i get the distance award. [laughter] [applause] at least, it took me four hours the comment i want to add here set about likins reelection. one of the things that have theys struck me about that, savvy way in which lincoln and his advisers managed to make certain that the union troops were able to vote. i submit, i have seen the numbers, without those votes,
lincoln would not have one. >> that's a good point. this is the first wartime election the country has ever had. that's a novelty. there's a massive effort to allow the troops to be furloughed or to vote absentee. there are still a lot of mcclellan nights who want to support him. [laughter] but enough of the military are supporting lincoln. it is fairly close. he wins with 55% of the popular vote. the electoral college is a lot greater, but that's a very different system. the popular vote is only 55% for lincoln.
>> [inaudible] >> i'm from baltimore. opinion thatolster pittsburgh is more important than gettysburg. the point that i was going to try to make is that it is actually sealed, the relationship between lincoln and grant. whoinally found somebody would stick to the job and get it done. this was the direct result of the pittsburgh campaign. it sealed the fate of the confederacy. >> thank you. i agree. grant as his
problem solver. grant will be sensitive to shane a new graph -- chattanooga. has that ultimate trust and confidence in grant. >> lincoln even says, he is my man and i am his for the rest of the war. i see a running thing so far. it's like sharks and jets by the ends of the weekend -- and of the weekend. i'm from maryland. i want toterized -- hear more about why you reach those conclusions about the battle of antietam. >> with the battle itself, i don't want again to the details. both sides feed troops over the course of the day, the day ends with the union advance that a and bothy a division
sides pull back and settle down for the night. the battle had swung back and fourth many times over the course of the day. at the end of the day, i see it as a drop. both sides have thought themselves out. the combat is not renewed after that. in the big picture, it is a union victory. the emancipation proclamation on top of that pushes it over the edge. he works at third antietam so we has some strong feelings about that. >> one of my favorite battlefields, by the way. yes, ma'am. historian.a i've always been fascinated about the fact that they had collections during the civil war. it seems like that doesn't happen the world, that you have elections in the middle of the civil war. on if that ist
uniquely american? it's phenomenal to me. >> it is. i think it is a unique phenomenon. that the government wanted to carry on as much a sense of normalcy as possible. lincoln knows he can garner a lot of support for the military by having the soldiers vote. i can't really speak much beyond that. compare it to other conflicts. i haven't studied that enough to know. >> question over here? you said that 80% of the men in the confederacy were being used of the entirey -- male population or a certain age
group? did that include the support behind the troops? >> sure. just to clarify. 80% of the eligible white males of military age. the white males between -- the to 65.oes from 16 80 percent of them will be pulled into the military. there are exemptions. there are draftdodgers and all that. best research we have. it is prissy of -- pretty a president. >> i'm from south carolina. one of the strategic things that clever, mostvery of the men who died in the civil
war died from disease. he took a group of young healthy soldiers when he marched through york. by sixnot brought down individuals. -- sick individuals. [inaudible] seems to me that that would've been tremendously demoralizing for the southern troops. >> it certainly was. we will go from a static warfare siege at richmond and petersburg to active campaigning in the armies are now out in the field. topdn't see that as a major 10 kind of turning point because these others overshadow that. thehe time that we get to
fall of richmond and petersburg, rings are well lined up. one of our speakers tomorrow will talk a little bit more about richmond under seas. -- siege. a 24/7 richmond guy. you understand, we were talking earlier about military, social, economics all tied up in that particular spot. lots of ups and downs. maybe not one particular one but lots of back and forth. >> definitely. richmond, the last couple of years i have really studied the confederate war effort. the policies of the government. the impact on civilians. that's why i threw in the conscription act, it takes that political will to maintain and do what the confederacy did with
mobilizing its resources. >> hi. i'm from the -- from long island. you mentioned and led to -- atlanta as a critical turning point. a more important one was right before the election. there are going to influence a lot of people voting three weeks later. >> that's a good point. cedar creek happens close to the election. it's a battle that helps protect that pennsylvania, washington, d.c. area. if that would've been a confederate victory that would've been terrible for union morale. it is important because of its timing and location. >> questions back there? >> i'm from pennsylvania.
i'm going to throw this softball up to our gracious host. luster insay grant's the war, what about the loss of stonewall jackson? >> i would agree on both points. i'm obviously a fan of grant. he understood how this war needed to be fought. he had the ability to do it. sherman did, too. and handful of other union generals. jackson is brilliant. he's aggressive. he can do wonders. i don't like to plate the what if game. if he had lived, -- >> don't. >> i'm not going to. >> come on, come on. >> it definitely hurts the confederate cause. absolutely. ? quick, -- >> quick comment back
here. to offer a little extra context about elections during wartime for us. >> there was a question earlier about elections in the middle of a civil war. are other nations that do have elections in wartime. most nations that are run on a parliamentary system, those that are now part of the british commonwealth, have the ability to flexibly scheduled their elections. the british decide not to have an election until 1945 when they voted churchill out of the office. there's a lot of flexibility. when you have governmental systems like the united states where there are fixed timetables, the continue to have elections. numerous times in the 20th century. if you count the indian wars is where times, we have wartime elections from 1864 to the end of the 19th century.
there are three nations that have had elections for their presidents in the middle of the civil war. the united states, the republic of korea in 1952 when they reelected sigman ray, and in a disputed election, the syrian arab republic when they reelected assad. [laughter] it's disputed. it is a rare event in the middle of the civil war. the first two results were not disputed. the latter one is. it is a rare event. it's a testament to the strength of the united states constitutional system but it was able to winter the test and continue to be strong -- inter-that test and continue to be strong. wilson from massachusetts.
i have a question on number 11. gettysburg. [laughter] sorry, you were the one who brought it up. >> i did. itselferms of gettysburg being an important battle, no doubt. readingred to me in about the withdrawal from gettysburg and what leads into escape from the jaws of defeat -- what happens at williamsport brilliantly conducted in the middle of the night, fooling the union side, was pretty significant. he marched on from there. , heas another minor battle went on. think thatcant he was -- do you think that was in terms of the whole picture?
>> the action of williamsport is a lost opportunity. gettysburg,back to gettysburg obviously change the momentum and causes tremendous casualties that lee can't replace. it's a confidence builder for the union army. we will see george meade stamm place and maybe that's not necessarily the best thing. some stability is. the union common soldier is going to get confidence coming out of this victory on home soil. all of those things come out of gettysburg as well. i'm from alabama. i agree with you on the vicksburg, but on a scale. if you have new orleans on that scale, you still feel like the expert is going to outweigh it? good point.
new orleans is the largest city in the confederacy. it is captured very early in the war. it is captured fairly easily. it is going to stay in union hands for the whole war. that is a tremendous blow to the confederacy. i'm still going to stick with vicksburg. i think the loss of 30,000 combat veterans is something that you can't do without. new orleans didn't have a large garrison. fall, theburg's entire river is now in union hands. the confederates can still operate a little bit. essentially the river is now in union hands. i will stick with vicksburg. i love gettysburg two, by the way. park summit, pennsylvania. you mentioned political will.
i was wondering since most of the folks in the confederate congress would be more inclined to us -- to favor safe conscription laws over a federalized system. who was responsible for mustering that political will? >> that's a good question. i'm not sure. it is ironic that the confederacy is founded on the idea of state rights but they created very centralized and strong and invasive central government. they had to to wage the kind of war that they are going to fight. it does lead to conflict with certain state governors like joe brown in georgia and north carolina who resist the intrusion of confederate government in many ways. conscription, drawing food sources, the use of railroads, you name it. the state governments and confederate never not --
national government are butting heads in the name of the same cause. to a lot of internal division in the confederacy, which doesn't help their cause. >> from california. if you are going to put gettysburg and 11, where would you put all of atlanta? without that, would we have had a march through the state? >> that's a good point. maybe i would lump atlanta's fall with a march to the sea. crucial,of atlanta is it is a transportation hub. it's in the heart of the confederacy. timing, context is also important with all of these. atlanta is fall offsets the disaster of coal harbour and the stalemate at petersburg. gives the union public that
things are happening in the right direction. i will still say, the march to the sea, i'm going to say it. it's a reversible. you can't undo what sherman does. >> one of the things i think is interesting about the march to thesea, this goes back to first point of continual events. to can trace it back vicksburg and what sherman learns on that march. you can tie that into the march where sherman takes a lesson. and thelug in groups things that grant lands. these continual offense continue to build and build. -- events continue to build and build. i want to add tear list. a few things.
[inaudible] combination of pittsburgh, gettysburg, and antietam -- it's a combination of those things. >> that's a good point. maybe that will take some of the heat off of me. we'll put them together. things happening east and west. the cumulative effect. the overall effect. same thing with perryville and antietam. time for one last question. about talk a little bit grant and the importance and individual can have. how significant was the remover of general mcculley and? >> it's a huge impact. all joking aside, mcclellan has
way he just -- certain wants to fight the war. he doesn't want to touch slavery. he doesn't want to have an impact on southern civilians. he wants to conduct a war in a methodical process. when the army of the potomac is on the peninsula, the union commanders, the troops, the union public starts to realize, you can't fight the war this way. it's not going to be effective. mcclellan is going to be on the outs politically because his concept of how the war should be fought is not going to be in vogue anymore with both the northern public and the union military. more and more people will see, we have to be hard on civilians. we have to do something about the slavery issue. do have to engage and fight and take losses. there are going to be losses.
takes thatremoval element out and allows for another commander who shares those thoughts to come in. think bert set himself up. way to pute -- yourself out there. [applause] >> thank you. [applause] learn more about the people and events that shaped the civil war and reconstruction every saturday at 6:00 eastern, only on american history tv here on c-span3. next, jonathan landy talks about the assertion among u.s. colored troops during the civil war. he explores the different reasons why the soldiers joined the war.