tv American History TV visits Riverside California CSPAN December 2, 2018 1:59pm-3:06pm EST
tonight, we visit the washington library at mount vernon for the 2018 program, discussingistorians what it means to be american. >> one nation indivisible was in a sense we are all together. somehow -- is somehow elemental to it means to be an american. when you look at george forge, theat valley ability to improvise and be almost a guerrilla fighter, to live off the land, to do what we need to do to get the job done. >> certainly minority groups were not. religious groups were not.
that changes over time. over time more people are brought into the american family. >> tonight, at eight >> welcome to riverside, california, 55 miles east of angeles.los it has a population of almost 330000 and is home to the university of california riverside founded in the 1870's. birthplace of the california citrus industry after the navel orange was introduced and successfully grown. next hour, we visit several locations in the city to discover its unique history. we begin with a visit to the mission inn hotel, a well-known destination with a history of hosting presidents, celebrities,
social leaders, including booker t. washington. mission isthe integral to the city's identity back then and today. a social center. , people would come to the mission, not just to stay here, but as a small community, like going to plays, having dinner, recreational activities. today, the revival of the mission inn in the 1980's was important to riverside. found by ans abolitionist. abolitionist -- by 1874, he liked riverside, he thought it would be a good environment to bring his family out. they were living in wisconsin at that time. his wife had a lot of breathing
problems. he thought the dry desert air would be better for her. 1874, he brings his wife and four children out. the eldest is frank miller, 17 years old. they get here after two and half weeks of travel. frank miller did not want to leave wisconsin to begin with. he was not impressed with riverside at that time. but he and the entire family decide they will make a go of it. quickly discovers he is not a hotel man. he sells the hotel to his son frank miller. frank runs the hotel for about two decades. he finally gets the idea to build a grand destination hotel where people will come and stay for months at a time. between 1903 and 1931, that is inn he built the mission that we know today. there is no longer the adobe cottage. in 1948.rn down
if you had a hotel roast -- post to come he had to have a swimming cool. people would drive by, go to las vegas or los angeles, which is what happened to riverside. they only have five of the adobe bricks left in the collection today. we have one on display, the best-kept of the adobe bricks. adobe is baked clay. sometimes they would add different materials to make it strong. it is considered an inferior building material. when they used it in glenwood cottage, they covered the old adobe so people would not realize it was the building material. frank miller showcases the adobe. the reason the mission inn even exists today is to reason. one is the railroad and the citrus industry. it made perfect sense that you would have a hotel here in riverside for people to stay.
a lot of times, it was people through. eventually, it would be people looking at the citrus industry, looking to take part of that. we have a lot of wealthy people coming back from the east coast to escape those winters. eventually, we end up having a lot of famous people coming through here, whether it is politicians or hollywood stars or even social activists who made a stop your quite friendly at the mission inn. the hotel was a great place for a lot of different people to come. and riverside also because the railroads and the citrus industry that made it. by 1885, the largest per capita city in the nation, more than chicago, new york, it was riverside because of that industry. people would come in, give speeches. miller heard that booker t. washington was going to be in town to give different speeches. he invited booker t. washington to come to the hotel. he gave a presentation.
of theiller, at the end day, did in my booker t. washington to have dinner with him at the hotel restaurant. initially, booker t. washington declined. he did not want to put frank miller in a bad position of having to desegregate his dining room. by frank miller would not hear of it. he insisted that booker t. washington's with him at the family dining table. this is something that frank miller did. he was a man that, in many ways, was ahead of his time, promoting friendship and understanding between different ethnicities, different religions. >> we are standing in the lobby of the mission inn hotel. this has been the main lobby ever since this portion of the hotel opened in 1903. when we talk about the mission revival architecture, that is the style this building was built originally. it was unique to southern california at the time. the time being the turn of the 20 century. to southernaction
california rediscovering its spanish and mexican past. so we had a person by the name of arthur benton who was an architect, who lived in the l.a. area. he really championed -- since we have a unique area here in southern california, unique climate, unique place -- we need to have our own unique architecture. he is the one who championed, since people were coming up to see missions and the like and study our spanish past, that we should in effect build missions for them to come to. he is the one who really championed having a mission revival architecture for southern california and we should do all of our buildings that way, at least a number of them, in that form. we get here to the mission inn, this is the penultimate version of it, from 1903. he is the architect that worked
on this wing and the second wing of the hotel, bringing in both the mission influence and the whole southern california influence in the building. in order to identify mission revival architecture, you look for a few things. rough stucco walls, red tiled roofs, maybe arched parapets. but in the lobby here, we have heavy beams. along with the very heavy columns. these have all been retrofitted during the renovation of the hotel. but if you had been here prior to, this would have all been .egular beams then you have the dark ceilings with the typically white wall. that is typical of the missions, too. they used lime plaster, which is bright white. most of the wood was stained in some way. so we had very typical dark features with a very light walls. that is another feature of the
mission revival architecture. behind me is the presidential lounge. when this building was originally built in 1903, that was the largest suite in the hotel. in may of 1903, just three or four months after the mission had opened, president teddy roosevelt was here in selling california. frank miller, the man who built the mission inn, invited him to come here and he spent the night in that room. at that time, it gave the epithet of the residential suite. that is how it was known for many years. it was later on that the presidential lounge came into effect. would we see across from me over here are all the presidential whoraits of the presidents have been here at the hotel, before, during, or after their presidency. president roosevelt is up there. we have president taft in october of 1909.
when president taft came through here, this is october 1909. it was typical because he was our largest president that people would build special furniture for him. mr. miller built the taft chair or had the taft chair billed for the banquet. the vent what was. best built -- built for the banquet. the story goes that mr. taft said in it and that was very offended because it was even too big for him. ,he interesting point is that despite the faux pas, frank miller put the chair out here in the lobby and it has pretty much been here in the lobby ever since, so people can sit in it and get there picture taken in it. you can usually put a couple or even a couple with small kids and get everybody into that large chair. it is a mainstay here in the lobby of the mission inn. 1940, richard and pat nixon were married here in the hotel, the presidential suite at
that time. it would be later on that he would become the conscious men -- the congressman, the president, etc. frank miller, despite the fact that he was not a highly educated individual, he ran in circles with attorneys, tycoons of business, and the like. manas the consummate hotel and the consummate booster for riverside. the house at 3356 lemon street in riverside became the focal point of a legal battle in 1915 when california sued a japanese immigrant for violating their alien land law. now undergoing preservation work, the home helps tell the story for the fight of civil rights of the state. >> it turned out to be a flashpoint for an initial battle
against the exclusionary policies by the state of california, and the nation as well, against japanese-american and asian immigrants. it is not a mansion. it is an ordinary house. but it was occupied by japanese immigrant who decided he was not going to put up with the continuation of the prejudicial practices that he had experienced during his entire time as an immigrant. harada arrived in san 1898.sco in he trained as a schoolteacher, but he was an independent individual. he wanted a better life, more choice, more freedom for his young family. he left behind him when he embarked initially his young wife, who was pregnant at the time. over several years, when he worked on galley crews on navy
vessels, he went back and forth and there were several trials and jubilation's and setbacks before, in 1905, his family -- tribulations and setbacks before, in 1905, his family were reunited. at that point, the family began to operate restaurants and a boarding house. the family grew. again, the first son was born in japan, but all of their many other children were born as american citizens. they were not among the first ore of japanese-american japanese immigrants to come to riverside. like many immigrant populations, there were some in the vanguard and others came to where some of their compatriots had already settled. so it was through his connections that he had in the bay area down to the redlands area, i believe, they wound up settling in riverside where
there already was a strong japanese-american immigrant population as well as chinese immigrant, korean immigrant populations. of california alien landlord 1913 essentially stated that no one who was ineligible for citizenship could own agricultural land. notourse, harada house was agricultural land, but it did not prevent the state of california from bringing suit against harada for the purchase of the house. children, allinor toddlers at the time, were american-born and therefore american citizens. needed toe decided he move away from the immigrant into aareas of riverside
more upscale neighborhood for the health and safety of his family. unfortunately, his new neighbors idea of anto the japanese family moving into the neighborhood. they quickly rallied against him and organized the suit. it was the first challenge in california to the alien land law exclusionary policy. after a couple of years of complex battling, court battles, the family prevailed. a superior court decision in riverside affirmed the 14th amendment rights. the name remained in of the minor american-born children ripen till the very last one of those children -- right up until the very last one of us children passed away in 2011. there was an interesting international political dynamic at the time.
there is an evolution in a way that people felt about the japanese community in riverside. in riverside, their prejudice against the asian immigrant population was not quite so severe as in some other price of california, but it was certainly there. nexts ashley the harada's -- it was actually the hara da's new next-door neighbor who was originally in the civil war, who brought the suit. but they eventually became friends with the family. you could see there were individuals in town who were supportive of the .apanese-american immigrants frank miller, the founder, essentially come of the mission inn, was very involved with asian communities and asian culture, and age strong -- a strong and direct supporter of
harada in the legal case. as people got to know some of the immigrants as individuals, as is often the case, you learn from your own personal experience that your assumptions were in direct. not to say -- were in current -- were incorrect. not to say that the prejudice went away. and came back with a vengeance during world war ii. transported off to camps in the inland west. the conditions were harsh. denying that it was in fact incarceration. it was very hard on those who endured it. died in theh camps. their children were able to come back to riverside, however, because they were among the few
japanese families who had supportive neighbors or friends who were willing to take care of their property. backoungest daughter came after the incarceration period to live in a house for the rest of her life. childrenof the harada had this as their home base for the rest of their lives as well. in spite of all this, insight of being put on a bus and shipped to essentially a concentration the younger sons both served in the 442nd regiment of the army, served well and loyally. this is something that is a hi'section of jukic conviction. he came to be an american and to enjoy american life. one of the military
uniform items, the jacket. the harada sons served in a medical capacity in the army. then the 442nd regiment was entirely, almost entirely, japanese. and served well and lost many members, including some who were based in riverside originally. .t was donated by his daughter the youngest daughter and the last family member to live in the house essentially threw away nothing. so the contents of the house date right back to the 19 teens when the family quite a property. behind me, you see a small percentage of the many boxes and containers that hold the contents that they -- of the home, family a posse is
which is waiting to -- family's home. historicith the preservation architect to rehabilitate the home, to reflect the period of significance, which certainly includes the time of the legal 1918, up to the incarceration period. there is an inscription on a second-floor plaster wall the very day they were leaving, scrawled in pencil on the plaster, noting the date that in 1942, when they were shipped off. that period encompasses the history that is significant, not just for riverside and not just for the family, but it is part a a national story, multifaith national story, having to do with the diverse immigrant populations that make up the country and the difficult journey to achieve justice.
george brown junior served the people of southern california for 35 years in the u.s. house of representatives. next, we will visit the university of california riverside where we will take a look at his political papers and learn about his legislative legacy. >> george brown was a congressman who served the southern california area for 34 years, most of it in the inland empire. the inland empire is part of a geographical area that makes up parts of riverside and san bernardino counties, which is inland southern california, about an hour east of los angeles and may be an hour north of the border. it used to be mainly an agricultural community. now it is a lot of urban and cities. he was first elected to congress in 1963, to the 29th district, which was serving parts of east
los angeles. he served until 1970, when he decided to run for senate in california. he lost the primary in that election. so he had to take a break from congress. but then, when a district opened in the inland empire, which was in his childhood home, he decided to run for congress 1973, and he served the inland empire continuously until he passed away in 1999. >> i think these kinds of collections are a really important to learn about history. there is so much that i don't think people realize they could for, becauseection it is not just political papers. you can learn about the progress of things, like scientific research on climate change. from the 1960's to the late 1990's, it really shows you how research changed on those things.
i think his collection in particular, because he was a congressman for such a long time and because he kept such a wealth of research material, it is a unique perspective into these issues. i think that the experience of going through the war probably is what motivated me to go into a political career, although i didn't do so directly after the war. the very shortly, within a few years, i had gotten into politics with the idea i had this idea that-- wars are unnecessary and that good political leadership could prevent them. >> these are some items i pulled related to the vietnam war. george brown is really known for his opposition to the vietnam war. u.s. stancethat the
military intervention which leads to other conference around the world, he wanted to seek a peaceful solution through the united nations. so some of these documents here, this is in 1965. this is a speech he gave on the floor of the house during a defense appropriations bill, which basically was asking for, i think, $700 million. a lot of that would find the vietnam war. said, mr. chairman, i rise to express my great doubts about what we are to propose here. i do not say this lightly. i know, as all of you know, and as the president knows, that what we are proving here is not merely a routine request to meet the temporary needs of the defense department, but we are being asked to approve the policy and the actions of the administration in waging war in vietnam in the name of the america people. this, i cannot do. i think that was a really
powerful statement, he being the only person to vote against the appropriation bill. it's a him apart. when he did run -- it set him apart. when he did run for senate, that was a big part of his campaign, showing that he was against the war the whole time. at that point, people began to turn against the vietnam war. primary, what was supposed to be a pretty easy campaign for his opponent, turned into a close race with a lot of young people flocking to brown, approving his message at vietnam stance. he ended up losing that primary, but it was not supposed to be that close in the first place. i think it showed the power of him in the beginning standing up against it. resolutionhere is a that he and a fellow colleague put together. this is to remove troops from vietnam in 1969.
throughe putting legislation that did not pass, but it shows their commitment to getting troops out of vietnam. this here is the photo of george brown, right here in the back. this is in november of 1965. there was a protest in washington against the vietnam war. this is him and some others leaving the administrative offices to join the protest. , at family this protest, the capitol police confronted them. brown said that they could go ahead and arrest him. he wasn't going to leave. in 1994. passed it was signed in 1992, but then each country of canada, the united states come in mexico had to have their legislative branch ratify the agreement. that was something that was tough in the united states for bill clinton to do, because
there was a lot of polarizing opinions on nafta at the time. george brown actually was undecided for a long time whether he would vote on it or not. the resources we have on nafta are pretty interesting. there's a lot of both sites trying to convince him of either way, how to vote. so some of the documents we pulled here, up here, a very small sampling of the documents that he was being sent, different briefings from different agencies and groups, talking all about nafta. so the collection is a great resource for anyone wanting to learn about it. because we have boxes of briefings and opinions and information about it that was sent to him in order for him to make that decision. undecided sort of because he didn't want businesses in the united states
to move from the united states to countries, like mexico at the time didn't have strong labor laws like the united states. they did not have strong environment to laws. he was worried that -- environmental laws. he was worried that, once has, companies would move because they had cheaper labor and not having to follow environmental rules. that is where he was resting on his decision. some other documents we have, this is something a staff member wrote him. it is talking about how the next day he was going to get a call from the president, asking him to vote for nafta. this one is really interesting thatse it is telling him the president will probably ask him what he wants in return for his vote. it even says in here that that is not something that brown usually does. he offeredwanted to,
him some things to ask for, which includes guaranteeing that labor rights would be included , that they endorse an executive order that brown forwarded to them and some inland empire projects that brown might use as leverage. is hisght here handwritten note from different phone calls that he had on november 2. he received phone calls from chris dodd, a senator from connecticut, from former president jimmy carter, and from the secretary of state at the time. they were all asking him to vote for the law. but this much is interesting because it is his nose on the conversation. carter, he expressed
concern for his reelection the next year. the secretary of state called to yet.f i had come to it so his personal notes on what people were calling him about. we brought out some stuff to of --bout, brown's record on norton air force base. norton air force base was a base near downtown san bernardino, which is a big city in the inland empire. part of it was in brown's just right. in 1988, the air force decided to close five basis as part of their defense realignment and base closure. it was something they had been doing periodically just to save costs for the air force after world war ii and the cold war.
they thought they were spending too much money on basis. norton air force base and george air force base, a smaller base, were both on that list of five. both of those were in seminar dinner county. -- san bernardino county. it was something that george brown fought very hard against to stop the base from closing, and then once the base closure was happening, to try and realign the base so that people wouldn't lose their jobs, and to bring more economic twoment into the area. and basically what we have here is -- right here, is just one file out of boxes of files of different correspondence and research that brown and his staff did on the base, on the economic impact of taking the base away and of taking different units from the air force, shifting them from
norton air force base to other bases, and basically research on bringing in economic development as well. another thing we have here is his testimony at a hearing before the armed services subcommittee on military installations and facilities, and this was something that he actually joined forces with a republican congressman, jerry lewis, who had the george air force base in his district, and they both worked together since they both are parts of san bernardino county that were going to be affected, and they both testified before this house committee on how it would impact their district and why they thought it shouldn't happen. >> we're losing thousands of jobs. we're uncertain as to the fate of thousands more, and we really think the air force ought to be able to do a little bit better job if for no other reasons than for good p.r. than
what they're doing here. now, i have no problems with a decision that's based upon what contributes to the national security, what is cost effective, and, of course, what's in accordance with the base commission's recommendation. >> and then we also have here, brown staff put together a record of all that he had done for the base closure, and this is just dating from 1988 when it was announced to 1990, the base fully closed in 1994, so this is just even a sample of about four pages of different phone calls and letters and hearings that he put together, and i think this was mostly put together to show his constituents that he was trying and he was doing what he could for them since this was going to be a big impact on their economy and on their jobs. his staff did put this together, and it really has a
good tire line of the events that were happening as well. and unfortunately, the base did close, but in the 2000's, it started to get some more economic investment. right now there's the san bernardino international airport there, which does pretty much cargo flights, but they're thinking of bringing in passenger flights as well, and there's been some industrial growth as well. so it's starting to come back, but it definitely was something that took a hit for about 10 years there and really affected sap bernardino, so i think it's an important part of our local history that people could learn a lot about through the collection. so the next seft documents we pulled are related to bipartisanship. that was something that brown was always a very big proponent of. he was willing to work with anyone as long as they were interested in the same things he was interested in and would help get his legislation and
passions passed. but we have some specific documents here in the 1990's. he was doing a lot of work with the california democratic delegation of congress and the california delegation as a whole, and he did a lot of work to try to build a birth partisan california delegation that would really work together for california and work on california issues. so we have here a lot of planning documents that he had talk ff put together to to the offices of other california congressmen and ask if they were interested, what kind of things would they be interested in, how he could build a bipartisan delegation. we have here a teammate talking about building unity in the california congressional delegation. and then we also have some examples of how he did that, so
's got -- he worked with republican congressmen to the co-chair on the bipartisan task force on the future of nasa in california, so he created a lot of task force as well. it was a task force on base realignment, which was when bases were closing and how they could keep jobs in california. another with congressman on the environmental comblickedses of u.s.-mexico economic development. he had a staff member put together a list of all the bipartisan sort of efforts that he had made, and in 1996, he writes, i'm not satisfied with the progress we have made either in building an effective democratic delegation or bipartisan delegation. however, i believe we should continue to try and explore alternative courses such
through social interaction, individual relationships, regional projects of bipartisan interest, etc. this should help build a culture of cooperation to help balance the inevitable partisan differences. so i think that just proves to me it wasn't just something he was doing. to have show his constituents that he was a bipartisan congressman. it was something he was actually very interested in to try and get things done. and then i have over here, kind of what george brown was infamous for, was smoking cigars. there's many anecdotes of brown always having a cigar in his mouth. so he ended up actually donating a cigar box and some cigar cases here that we have in the collection. they're just fun to bring out, and then these are some memories from his staff. he had a party in 1995 to celebrate his birthday, and i
believe 25 years in congress, and so former staff members were asked to write their favorite memory of george brown, and this is just a sampling where all of them mentioned his cigars and how he was sort of a point of pride that he would drive in a car with you and you had to not roll the window down with all the smoke. and if you could last, then he really kind of respected you. so that's just something that shows a little bit of brown's character outside of being a olitician. >> in the early 19 owe 0's, california experienced its second gold rush with the growth of the citrus industry. up next, we'll hear how this fruit transformed riverside into one of the wealthiest cities in the country. >> we have almost 280 state parks in california, so we're really lucky to have a park here in riverside that covers
the citrus industry and the history of citrus. we have almost 100 varieties of citrus here in the park, and so that ranges from everything from oranges to grapefruit, lemons and limes, couple caughts, man arains, and we do taste things every weekend for visitors, so you can always come to the park and sample some of the fresh fruit we picked off the tree that morning. and, of course, the industry wouldn't be possible without a woman who lives here in riverside in the 187 owe's through the turn of the century, and she was a really interesting woman. she was really well known for planting the first washington naval orange trees in her yard, and the story goes that she watered them with her dirty dish water, but, of course, she's a more complex character than that. she lived in the south. she lived on the east coast, and she moved here to riverside in the 1870's with her third husband, luther tibbetts, and one of their former neighbors from washington, d.c., actually mailed them the two washington
naval orange trees here to riverside, and he had also mailed them to texas. he had mailed them to the san gentleman quinn valley. he mailed them to several different places to see where the fruit was going to do best, where it was going to thrive. and so here in riverside, those trees that he planted and watered with her dish water really took off, and they bloomed into beautiful, healthy trees. the fruit really ripens perfectly here, a combination of climate and also our sandy soil, the trees really liked that as well. and so it's just a perfect place for the washington naval orange, and it really took off. everyone took note of this new fruit. no one had ever seen like it before. it was so sweet. it was easy to peel. it had very few seeds, and so her neighbors and friends started taking cuttings and graphing their own trees, and that, of course, is what started the citrus industry here in riverside, and it really took off and became what riverside is known for.
so this is also a great view, because it gives us a sense of what riverside would have looked like during the peak of the industry. so in the 1880's and 1890's as the industry was really blooming, have you lived liked out and just seen acres and acres and growth and growth of citrus treefs all different kinds. while obviously the washington naval orange was predominant and was the main crop, we also have, you know, lemons and grapefruit and things like that that would have been grown as well. so it's a great thing to give us a sense of that historic mindset of what the landscape would have looked like during that time. in 1895, about 20 years later, after she had first brought those trees here to the city, riverside was the richest city per capita in the country. so it was a very, very wealthy place, but for certain people, right? of course, not everyone shared in that wealth. and so that's where we've been doing a new project here in the park called the relevancy and history project, aiming to bring in sort of those hidden
histories and lesser known stories of laborers and other people who helped bolster that industry, but who aren't necessarily always heralded in historic records. so we're trying to bring in some of those lesser known it's a s you can see, very picturesque landscape, and so we're trying to bring the people back into the park to tell those stories. >> we're in the visitors' center. when they walk in, they see our newest exhibit that we've recently unfolded in march. we unveiled it, finding ourselves in the story and story tellers, the citrus and inland southern california, so this is a great starting point for them to really get a sense of the people involved in the citrus industry and the region. what's important is to focus on, well, who are the laborers also that made it possible, so we talk about chinese immigrants who came to the region in mid to late 19th
century. who brought their wealth of nowledge with them relating to citrus cultivation and harvesting. one thing we talk about here is that citrus began in china. it was discovered in china and 7,000 years ago, traveled throughout the world, and eventually evolved into multiple, thousands and thousands of different type of varieties. well, the chinese immigrants have some of that knowledge from them, that long time of cultivation and harvesting so that cultural knowledge was part of it, and one thing that we'd like to highlight here, things from, you know, best practices and harvesting techniques, thousand cut the fruit appropriately without damaging the tree or damaging the fruit. and also they worked in the parking houses as well, and so how to handle the fruit
carefully, so that the integrity of the skin is not compromised and then, you know, it will withstand a transport. so that cultural knowledge is really vital, in addition to the labor that it provided as pickers and packers at that point in the industry when it was first emerging in the region. we also talk about the racial politics. i think that's a must when we're talking about the rise of the citrus industry in this region. that are involves certain groups being pushed out and others coming in to fill the gap. so late 19th century, as you may know, the chinese were targeted for a series of exclusion acts and anti-chinese sentiment really unfolded across the landscape here. and so this anti-chinese acceptabilityment pushed
chinese immigrants out of the area. and they formed a chinatown here in riverside and built a community, but because of the hostile conditions that we see the population, that population really being forced out because of those conditions, what ends up happening is you see another immigrant group coming in to take the place and fill that gap, and that was the japanese immigrants, so they filled that gap around late 19th, early 20th century. for the bulk of the 20th century, mexican immigrant and mexican-american labor was the mainstay, both in the groves and in the packing houses. we've certain focused on that in multiple ways, talking about community formation, segregated schooling. but we have to that in conjunction to other populations, such as african-americans. t's a story of early
african-american settlers, and he came from back east in the south. come into the area and starting off as laborers, but eventually developing as a merchant class, and one individual in own a ar was able to significant, relatively large size grove in redland, and so now there's a park named after him in redland, and he became pretty successful, and we see, you know, different families become successful. but it's important that we talk about that, too, really capture that notion of the hidden history of citrus. people really, their eyes, you know, get wide, and i hadn't heard of that. people are really well versed in the history that might come through our doors when we
present this information. you know, they're surprised by it, but then they're also pleased at countering it. it adds a nuance and different layers to the story overall, which was needed. really, if we want to be inclusive and have these stories represent the people that live here today and have ived here for generations. >> cornelius earl rumsey was a collector of native american artifacts from around the united states. the riverside metropolitan seum was founded when rumsey donated his collection in 1924. we visited the museum's collection center to see some of the items mr. rumsey gathered. >> the founding collection is very much focused on artifacts a as this one, which is bag that was worn across the body and could be used to carry a great many things.
this particular style of work is typical of the woodlands area of the great lakes, great and area around minnesota wisconsin and all of that area, and ibes and objiway chippewa, and this is likely an example of the chippewa tribal areas. and again, the craftsmanship is extraordinary, and over time, something like this has so many risks attached to it, so we're very fortunate to have something of such good condition from over a century ago reflecting the craftsdzmanship. now, prior to the availability of such things as glass beads, the natives who did this kind of work would have done similar patterns using dyed porcupine kills or other materials that replicated this. so the fact that something they didn't manufacture, such as
glass beads, doesn't mean that they invented an entirely new art form. they adapted what they had been doing to the newly available materials, and that includes such things as manufactured fabric, as you see around the edges of this very fine piece. it's really in solid, gorgeous condition, and as you can well imagine, something like this that's completely covered with glass is heavy. o before us now is an apache basket. it's the designation for a jar like form like this. it's often used of ceramic vessels, but this is woven willow and devil's claw. willow is the buff-colored, and devil's claw is the plant that as used to create the darker pattern. this is an extraordinary basket, the craftsmanship that's really very impressive.
it does have a design against people's attention and the swastika motif, which is alternatively known as the irling log motif, or a sun motif. it's a very ancient symbol used across the world. and this particular piece is twined, which means that the craftsman, crotchts woman almost certainly, circled some f.b.i. russ material around and built this up, wrapping each one all the way around from pulling the shape in to make the neck of the piece and then ending at the top here. it's 24 inches tall. it's the tallest piece that we ave in our unusually expensive basket collection and was certainly a pride and joy of cornelius' runs he's collecting career. from the lake tahoe area, our tag says that's where it was
collected. it suggests that, in some cases, some of these are extraordinary pieces that traveled a bit before they wound up in collector's hands. so now we're looking at another example from cornelius rumsey's collection, the founding collection of the riverside metropolitan museum, and this piece -- we're in a different geographical area right anyway. this stems from a group who is northwest coast people, and they are very well known for this very characteristic stylization of animal motifs, and this piece is a tape. it's folded in half. this is the neck hole. it's made of deer hide, and it's been painted in a black and a red pigment, and if anyone who's familiar with totem poles will be very familiar with the motifs that you see on this, there's a bear. there's a raven. it's bilaterally symmetrical.
they've done the design on both sides, and something like this was very inspiring to collectors. there was nothing else like this kind of stylistic approach to imagery in any of the part of north america, the northwest coast peoples who are extraordinary in their ability to stylize animals, and it's still going on today. the crafts people up there have carried on this tradition and developed it fully, and this also sets an example of something that may have been used for the native people's own purposes or may have been something that was created just for the market that was well known among indigenous north american peoples for collectors to acquire work. they've got some evidence that's in use which suggests that did experience some use before being acquired by
cornelius rumsey. this is an example of the breadth of the collection, that even though the riverside metropolitan museum's mission is focused on riverside, and the riverside area, there are collections that cover the whole country and, in some cases, stem from other parts of the world. riverside itself is very ethnically and historically diverse, so these collections do relate to the people who have wound up making this area their home. you know, often a founding collection defines the trajectory that a museum will take from that point forward. as it happened in this case, it just became one part of the scope of collecting that this museum developed. it's always key to the identity, because it's what the museum is first northbound for, in the case of our founding collection because it has so many exceptional works in it, they've been published often and are well known for them, so it's something we value highly. >> i can well imagine he was
looking for extraordinary examples of whatever work was being done by the tribal people in the areas he was traveling through or in conjunction with trading posts that he may have visited or other collectors, or even at the time that he was collecting, there were dealers and these kinds of things. so i'm sure that what he was trying to accumulate was a representative sampling from across the continent. and did he an excellent job of finding stellar examples. as we approach our own 100th anniversary, which will occur in 2024, we're looking forward to doing a highlight exhibition focused entirely on the rumsey ollection. >> while in riverside, we took a driving tour. city with historical consultant and former director of the riverside museum, vincent
moses. the riverside was founded in 1870, shortly after the civil war by judge john wesley north, who was a radical abolitionist before the war, who was on the nominating committee for abraham lincoln to be the republican candidate for president in 1860. he, in fact, ran lincoln's ohio campaign in the 1860 presidential election. that colony he founded with some like-minded individuals was a joint colony, and their intent was to create a civilized, high level kind of cooperative commonwealth on the edge of the california desert, and it lasted for a while. in fact, riverside is the result of his work. but by 1875, he had wonder lust again and he left riverside for northern california to help oleander and fresno.
riverside was a citrus town, the home of the naval orange culture, first naval orange trees introduced here in 1873. and it made the community a really wealthy, prosperous place, and by 1900's, surrounded by probably 20,000 acres of washington naval orange trees. we're going to drive up past california citrus state historic park, and i'm proud to have been a part of the planning for this state park. you know, often we think about real estate, of the movies or oil is what made southern california. really, it was citrus first. we're looking at california citrus state historic park, which now has over 200 acres of bearing naval orange and late naval orange groves. it's not fully built down as far as the historical structures go. but we're working on that, too. it's to interpret how
significant the industry was not only to the economy of southern california and the state of california, but how it influenced the culture, land companies, transportation systems, the railroad, the california fruit grower exchange was so powerful, it's known as sunkist. that was the trademark, and they renamed themselves in 1951, and here you see the fruit stand. he manages the groves for the state on contract. this is what old riverside would have looked like when we had 20,000 acres of naval oranges surrounding the city. it would have been incredible. and with the or charred growing, how does that, with the water situation, can you talk to us about how that may affect the growth of agriculture here, yes, i can. this was a desert, semidesert right here, semiarrid region,
citrus required irrigation, this is not rain-based agriculture. and it's not dry farming. citrus trees require naval oranges, especially require about 40 -- what's called minor inches of water per year, distributed throughout the year, to grow and to produce a crop. so early on, riversiders and other citrus communities, especially riverside first, had to develop irrigation systems, and this is all watered by the famous gauge canal, which was built beginning the 1880's and completed at the end of the 1890's by a british syndicate of the water house family put together, which bought out matthew gauge and owned his -- and then purchased his 3,500 acres of groves here and developed citrus on this entire area. we're going on down magnolia
avenue here now out of the immediate riverside area. you'll see that this is suburbanized now. but in 1920, this would have all been washington naval orange, oh, by the way, we're going by the trint tree right here. this is the last remaining parent naval orange tree. >> the one that's covered. >> the one that's covered. >> and it's covered for this reason. the university of california riverside citrus research center has covered that along the city to protect it against the asian citrus, which is a iny, almost microscopic vector that carries one called the greening disease. it threatened citrus all over the world. it's from china. it's devastated the florida citrus crop, and we now know it's in california, and that tree, which was planted in 1873 and then moved to the site you just saw, is threatened by the sill, and if it gets bitten by
a bacteria bearing silid, it's gone. so the city and the university have covered it with mesh to protect it from the silid, which is a pretty radical approach, but this is the last remaining parent naval orange tree, which created the vast citrus industry of california. we're on mission avenue now. originally seventh street. i wanted us to see this area, because this is an historic district in two ways. it's a national register seventh street national registered district, and it overlaps with the mission inn historic district that spreads out away from seventh. and, of course, we're going now past the national historic landmark mission inn, frank miller's own contribution to the city of riverside. the mission inn is significant because it's the largest mission revival structure in california, maybe in the united states. the mission inn, though, has
been visited by several presidents who stayed there, ronald reagan, nancy reagan theodore roosevelt spent the night in the so-called presidential suite when the mission wing first opened in 1903. and then the next day presided over the replanting a one of the orange trees in front of the new lynwood mission inn. of earlyen the scene peace conferences, before world war i. international visitors from all over, including asia and europe. so, quite a significant role played in southern california. kind of a regional hub, a national winter resort. the shermanis
institute, one of the last ia-run boarding schools for native americans. and that mission-style building is the sherman indian museum. in the late 1800's thanks to helen hunt jackson and some others, there was a real move to try to americanize, bring them up to speed, up to "civilized status," that is the native american population, by then residing mainly in reservations. to americanize them, and the way to do that, the government felt, was to bring them into boarding schools around the country and teach them english, teach them skills they can use in society. teach girls traditional, what are now stereotypical female skills. and the young men, the boys, male skills like carpentry, mechanics. that sort of thing.
maybe not assuming they would ever go to a university. sherman institute was originally established at perris, just to the south east of us here, in the 1890's. becauseller, wanting, he was a real advocate of the arts and crafts movement, and his hotel had just been redesigned and rebuilt in the mission revival style based on california missions, roughly, he wanted to get a real mission. that's not to denigrate his intent, he was always a promoter as well as a progressive, for the time. so he convinced the federal government they should move sherman institute from perris riverside. riverside lost its status as an elite city maybe in the early 1970's, but it is gaining it back again, and as it does it takes on a more 21st century look, mixed with the historic
district buildings. now we are kind of reestablishing, refocusing, like a lot of cities, toward the digital world and the digital future, and clean energy. we will turn in front of solar max. that building was vacant for a long time, and now a friend of mine, a chinese entrepreneur, purchased this building and now in manufactures solar panels this building. >> and it is distributive nationwide? >> distributed nationwide. she even brought a chinese manufacturing line to the united states, so these are bona fide u.s.-manufactured solar panels. i think i see riverside regaining status as one of the elite cities in southern california. it had been really a competitor even with los angeles before world war ii, and because of the navel orange culture.
while it lost a step for a while, we are regaining some of that status because of the level of our university, capacity, clean energy programs, the fact we own our own utility and have our own water and electric generating capacity. attractingide is now a large population of the new generation of millennials. they are geared to the 21st century, everything about it, all its digital capacity, international ability to do online trade, online business. think it is headed that way. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2018] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> our cities to her staff recently traveled to riverside, california to learn about its rich history. learn more about riverside and other stops on our tour at
www.c-span.org/citiestour. you are watching american history tv. all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. >> announcer: decorated world war ii veteran and former arizona representative stewart udall was interior secretary from 1961 to 1969 during the kennedy and johnson administrations. next on american history tv, environmental historian scott einberger talks about his book, "with distance in his eyes: the environmental life and legacy of stewart udall." mr. einberger details the late secretary's role in expanding federal lands, parks, monuments and recreation areas, as well as helping write environmental protection and natural resource conservation acts. the u.s. capitol historical society hosted this 50-minute event. >> on behalf of the u.s. capitol historical society, my name is chuck digiacomantonio, i am the chief historian of the society.