tv Reel America Man at the Moon The Flight of Apollo 8 CBS News Special... CSPAN December 22, 2018 10:00pm-10:54pm EST
is talking the, has very much of the frenchman about him. there are probably little mannerisms that jefferson incorporated and had for the rest of his life, but definitely people could >> you can hear more from gaye wilson this sunday on the presidency at 8 p.m. at midnight eastern on american history tv. on december 27, 1958, apollo 8 splashed down. that same evening, cbs news issued a special report reviewing the mission. up next, experience apollo 8 the way millions of americans did 50 years ago. anchored by walter congress, this includes pre-mission interviews with frank borman, james lovell and william anders. an extended portions of the television coverage from liftoff to splashdown
1000 miles southwest of hawaii. >> listen to the words of three men flying around the moon. createde beginning, god heaven and her. eartth. s without form. movedirit of go moved upon the face of the waters and god said let there be light. god saw the light. the light from the darkness. >> the darkness he called light. the evening and the morning in the first day. god said the best of the waters. divide the waters. god made -- and provided the
waters. it was so. heaven, thepon evening and the morning of the second day. >> god said let the waters under the heavens together together under one place. it was so. god called the dry land earth. saw that it- god was good. from the crew of apollo 8, we c lose with a good night, good luck, merry christmas and god bless all of you, all of you on the good earth. >> those words of genesis were scratched on tablets many years
ago after men crawled out of its caves and begin the ages long process of exploring its universe and himself. today, a great new chapter has been added to the story of creation and growth. man literally has wrenched himself away from the earth that bound him down through millennia. he has soared through the moon. he has come back safe. that is the meaning of the mission of apollo 8. humankind's first flight into the orbit of the moon. an event written larger on the books of history and any our generation has seen. trouble in turbulence, anger and asses assassination is coming to an end. apollo 8 achieved every one of his major mission aims, and something else. it lifted the spirits of earthbound mortals and carried them too along the horizons. let there be light in the firmament of the heavens, said
genesis. today, there is a . in the next hour, we will look at thit. this is a broadcast of the flight of apollo 8. >> a cbs news special report -- man at the moon, the flight of apollo 8. brought to you by western electric, manufacturing and supply unit of the bell system. important news events. spacerica's greatest triumph, one of man's most remarkable achievements is the result of work of thousands of people with billions of dollars. we've seen, heard and talked a great deal of the sophisticated hardware, guided them so accurately to and from the moon and kept us in touch about their progress. the three men were the heart and soul of the mission, although their very human personalities tended to be submerged beneath their cool, supposedly
functioning technical skills. many hopes and dreams about someday leaving his planet. in interviews, prior to the flight, they reveal how they felt. >> to be on the first team. i think friendly competition among groups, among nations, among people is always healthy. i think the competition which we have in space between the soviet union and ourselves is very healthy. i would like to be the first around. >> not saying the complete or a, i hope our flight flight of americans will be the first to see the backside of the moon. program as a whole would have survived as well after the fire, if we didn't have this momentum and desire to complete this goal. >> we have been planning this
flight for years and years. sometimes when you read about it, you think the goal is academic. understand you are really going to try something like this. now it is getting closer. we are not just talking about something in the future, we are talking about right now. the goal is just as important as it was in 1961. >> i think what risks there are, they are well considered in design, or to attempt to alleviate these risks, i think the gain we will get with the ourlo program, the gain of country and all nations in the world will receive from this first step of exploration will make it more than worth it. >> we have taken a conservative approach to this first lunar mission. it makes sense. we only have to concern ourselves with one vehicle. we don't have to train for a rendezvous.
really, this is the program we have been working on for almost 10 years now. there is a lot of good, hard engineering in it. i don't think we left anything unturned. i hope we haven't what you never know until we finally go. walter: these three quite men prepared for what frank borman would call a fantastic voyage. ae three men apollo group, veteran of the program. he became an astronauts six years ago after a career in aviation. now an air force colonel, he's married and has two teenage sons. james lovell, pilot, is also 40 and flew with borman. lovell, a navy captain, and graduate of annapolis actually replaced mike collins on apollo 8 after collins ran into medical problems. lovell is married and has four children. the youngest apollo 8
crewmember, pilot william anders, 35, a space rookie until this flight. is a major in the air force and a graduate of annapolis. he has a masters degree in nuclear engineering. he's too married and has five children. these three men joined in a spectacular adventure. they took their final walk across the earth before leaving it for more than six days. with borman in the lead, the three astronauts suited up and carried portable air condition ers added to the van that will take them to the lodgaunch site, the saturn v moon rocket. went starting with the voice of jack king at mission control. >> we have ignition sequence start. the engines are on. 4, 3, 2, 1, 0. we have liftoff.
clear the tower. >> that looks good. it looks like a good flight. it is a beautiful takeoff so far. this building is shaking under us. the camera platform is shaking. what a beautiful flight. man perhaps on the way to the moon. if all continues to go well. >> the other four engines on the first stage should cut out. >> two minutes. >> the rocket will be 20 miles high and going 3000 miles per hour.
>> we see the first stage cut off. all engines show the second stage is burning perfectly. >walter: hours after that perfet liftoff came the historic decision to go for the moon. here is how it sounded. >> apollo 8, houston. apollo 8, you're a go. over. >> roger. tli.r: go for trends lunar injection means to fire up the third stage engine to drive the astronauts up to 24,000 miles per hour, break them free of earth orbit and send them off to where no man has ever gone, towards the moon. during that early part of the voyage, the crew went through a
rehearsal of maneuvers to be carried out on the way to the first lunar landing attempt. at the front of the third stage just behind the spacecraft is a compartment for carrying the lunar excursion module. a vehicle that actually to put u.s. astronauts on the moon's surface next year. when the third stage separates, the panels will break open, exposing the less. future astronauts ahead of the third stage will turn the capsule around. they will maneuver back and pull it free. there was no lam aboard this trip but on the lunar landing flight, there will be, flying in tandem towards the moon. what will eventually act as the mothership, aiming only to achieve lunar orbit. sunday, one day along on their half a million miles round-trip, yesterday became sick. borman was apparently hit by a 24-hour flu.
while lovell and anders were not feeling well, but the illnesses cleared up, enough to deliver a long-awaited television -- small camera telephoto lens. man seeing his first long-range view of the earth as a big white blob, although the interior shots were just fine. -- thnear the earth. once we get a good view of the earth, we will stop and let you see what we see. jim lovell is preparing lunch. bill is holding the camera. >> we have a picture. ok, let's see what we have. >> that is the earth, but it is
not the telephoto lens. it is regular glass. betweencoming halfway the earth. 31 hours, 20 minutes into the flight. we have about less than 40 hours ago. .ou can see bill has his suit demonstrate how things work in 0 g's. [indiscernible] i certainly wish we could show you the earth. it is a beautiful, beautiful view, but the predominantly blue clouds,nd and white particularly one strong vortex.
very beautiful. happy birthday, mother. walter: ground control told the astronauts how to fix the camera before the second telecast which came monday for more than 200,000 miles out. >> i hope everyone is enjoying the pictures. how far away from earth? about 180,000. yourselves from 180,000 miles out in space. i keep imagining a traveler of another planet, what i think about the earth from this altitude, if it is inhabited or
not. >> you don't see anybody waiting, is that what you are saying? >> just kind of curious whether i would land on the blue or brown part of the earth. >> you better hope we land on the blue part. >> so do we. you some idea of what we can see. i could pick up the gulf and where houston should be. also, the mississippi. i can see baja, california. i'm using the binoculars which we have on board. >> we are seeing the entire earth now, including the terminator. we cannot see anything passed the terminator at all. are you able with your binoculars to see the dark horizon or anything past the terminator? >> negative.
we cannot see anything passed the terminator with the binoculars. walter: of life continue on near-perfect course. the spacecraft now in the dominant moons gravity in drag along faster and faster. the first man in history to reach history of preparing to go around it, losing all contact with earth as they traveled across the backside where they would perform the critical braking maneuver needed to achieve orbit. -- all systems go. over. >> [indiscernible] >> roger. in the oven at 3:50. current altitude away from the calnot aautinot all miles.
>> you heard the remarks of jim lovell. thanks a lot, troops. we will see you on the other side. walter: it was an agonizing wait for those back on earth. this animation shows how the 20,000 pound spacecraft engine was fired, slowing the council to prevent it from whipping around the moon. the initial blast was the put the apollo 8 into an elliptical orbit, to be corrected to a near circular path 69 miles above the lunar surface. on the ground, no one yet new if that braking maneuver would work or even take place. as apollo 8 came around the moon, voice contact again was established. >> we've got it. apollo 8 now in lunar orbit. there is a cheer in the room. this is apollo control houston, switching out to the voice of jim lovell. report as follows.
i will give you a shot of the horizon. >> roger. got one. copy the picture? >> apollo 8, this is use houston. we cannot see many terrain features. narrow, is a very bright impact crater should be in the field of view now. >> roger, bill. >> you will see it on the upper part of your screen. >> how would you describe the color of the moon? >> the color of the moon looks a very whitish, gray. lots of footprints in it. graders look -- craters look like pickaxes hitting concrete.
interest,tter of there was a lot of what appears to be very small craters that have these little white rays radiating from them. >> roger. >> it looks like we just got -- >> we are going over the crater borman. there's the anders. lovell is south if it. >> roger that. craters haveimpact soft spots in the center. fine, white dust around it. >> roger, understand. >> apollo 8, this is houston. it looks like we can see cones now. >> roger.
edge.s is right on the >> roger that. >> we are going to terminate our program and get on with operation. loi2 maneuver was executed perfectly, putting apollo 8 into the proper 69 mile high circular orbit. later that night, another telecast with the astronauts described their thoughts on what lay below them. >> different thing for each one of us. carries its own impressions of what he has seen today. is it my own impression type.ast, lonely from nothing. it looks like clouds and clouds.
does not appear to be a very exciting place to live or work. what oa view. >> my thoughts are very similar. it is awe-inspiring. and makes you realize what you have back on earth. -- earth from here what do you think? >> i think the thing that impressed me the most was the lunar sunrises and sunsets. these in particular bring out the stark nature of the terrain and the long shadows bring up the release here, really hard to see on this surface. walter: the flight of apollo 8 was a spectacular success even before the crew began the risky
like back to earth. saidiet space scientist this event goes beyond the limits of national achievement and marks the stage in the development of the culture of earth man. the flight was also a great national achievement and this was noted by three of the western world's leading scientists. our correspondence interviewed several. first, lovell. termstruly scientific for of astronomy, how do you view apollo 8? a lot of new information from you coming out of this? >> i doubt there will be a tremendous amount. it was never intended to be an enterprise. the significance of the flight is an immensely important stepping stone to the apollo program which we hope will now
end up by getting an american on the moon in 1969. and then astronomers like myself will be very interested in deed in the material returned home. >> what about the photographs? they should have still pictures. >> i imagine that when we see those photographs, they really will be quite splendid and marvelous. so have the photograph sent back by the lunar orbiters. that also given many reservations about the nature of the moon. i didn't think we should expect too much from a scientific point of view. >> is this really a springboard now? >> i think it is. it is a springboard and an amazing demonstration of american confidence. what amazes me also is what you
call the logistics. the organization and management of this vast project. less than eight years since president kennedy started off the program. the accomplishment in that time despite setbacks is really stupendous. >> we must remember it is not primarily a scientific business at all. it is done as the pyramid's were was built. parthenon something we can do that is magnificent and wonderful. man is made that way. whenever there is a challenge of this kind, somewhere someone will pick it up. we will go to the self full, north pole, or climbed on everest. >> why does man pick up a challenge like this? >> i don't know. he is made that way, all through history. now we come to a point, and somewhere, somewhere is going to
go to the moon. i will be very sorry indeed if my country, the richest, most horrible country in the world did not try to do it, and did not try to do it first, as a matter of fact. >> i think there is a much stronger purpose, national andose in going into space that has to do with the fact that space is there now within our grasp. it is now within the possibility to be explored. we have a technique to do it but it requires a great deal of effort which is a very difficult thing to do. i think by this nation reaching out, by striving to do this and by being bold enough to go ahead and explore, not just the moon but beyond the moon, other planets, we will be engaging in an activity that leaves us on as a nation, gives us forward momentum to do this.
you will find that most nations or societies that have come to promise in history have been ones that were actively reaching out. exploring in one way or another. i think it is an index of the spirit of the people, as well as their technical abilities. i think it is very important for the national spirit that we do this. technologicale byproducts that come out of this are just that -- they are byproducts. walter: we pause now for station identification. much of the final period in lunar orbit was spent taking film and photographs. these scientists will learn more than they ever known about the earth's mirrors neighbor in the universe and the spot where the first u.s. astronauts are to
land. on christmas day, the apollo group after circling the moon 10 times is ready to head for home. as before, the critical maneuver had to be performed while the spacecraft was behind the. e moon. legal see what happened with animation while hearing mission control. >> here in the control center, we have just counted down. we should have ignition at this time. burnll be a three minute, nominally. it will increase the spacecraft velocity by 3522 feet per pernd, or some 2395 miles hour. following the maneuver, the spacecraft should have a velocity of about 8800 feet per second, 6000 miles per hour. walter: no one on the ground would know if the spacecraft was
going that fast until it reemerged from behind the moon a a few minutes later. a few minutes later, it did. one of the most romantic moments. -- dramatic moments. >> apollo 8, over. >> hello, apollo 8. loud and clear. >> roger. there is a santa claus. walter: later came a christmas day telecast. >> we thought what we would do today is show you life inside apollo 8. we have seen you the moon, the earth. we thought we would invite you to our home, our home for at least four days. you can see the instrument panel . off each day on the instrument panel. we are working on the fifth day.
we are all looking forward to the landing on friday. here in the part of the spacecraft we call the lower equipment bay, we have the president's advisor on physical fitness, jim lovell, about to undergo an exercise program that we do every day. aroundice that he floats very freely. just bumpe dhid his head on the optics, navigating. he's working with an exercise device designed to keep him in shape. here we have some cocoa. adding about five ounces of hot water to that.
sugar cookies. some orange juice. chowder. chicken and gravy. a little napkin to wipe your hands when you are done. i hope you guys have a better christmas dinner today than the astronauts. >> we don't have any complaints down here. we will bring you up to speed when you get back. >> this area, the lower equipment bay. we have our optics equipment
right here. here bynavigation down the stars and the horizon, or the earth. this is where we find out exactly where we are in space, but direction and how fast we are traveling. our computer takes the information that tells us how to maneuver to get home safely. -- if i get too busy, i float out of sight and go up into the tunnel, which is the tunnel for the hatch of the lunar module which we don't have on board, of course. that's about all we have for today. are wishing each and every one of you a very merry christmas. walter: the next day more than
halfway home, the astronauts had their sixth and last telecast from space. we hear first from michigan control. someth a telephoto lens at 97,000 nautical miles. >> on the earth, so far out in space. i think i must have the feeling old travelers used to have. a very long voyage away from home and now we are headed back. i have that feeling of being adrift, but still happy to be going back home. that is what you are seeing right there. >> roger, bill. we should be glad to get you back soon. >> this is frank. we have enjoyed the television
shows. becauseo the future there will be rendezvous in the ear'thth's orbit. television to the lunar surface itself. until then, apollo 8 is signing up. we will see you back on that good earth very soon. >> all right. walter: this morning, the perfect light of the remarkable apollo 8 ended in the predawn darkness of the pacific, southwest of hawaii. on target, on schedule. before starting its long descent the command module at two separate from its service module and successfully penetrate one more barrier -- the earth's own atmosphere. the voice of mission control begins the last chapter of the flight's story. >> the flight director has confirmed separation.
separation of the command module and service module. we have been looking at data on the command module alone and all the values look quite good. the total blackout we are predicting this morning is on the order of three minutes. since we have very little experience reentering of these velocities, we must caution you those are only estimates. we have lost signal. the network controller says we :46. lost signal at 1:46 our estimate is that this continue --iod will let's see -- three minutes.
>> it is now two minutes past the time we should have heard from the spacecraft through the lac blackout. >> ken mattingly puts out another call. there is jim lovell. good.s we're looking i cannot tell if it is borman or lovell. >> we are in real good shape, houston. real fine. >> 146 hours, 58 minutes. within the last minute, as reported, they have a flashing light in sight. they followed that with we have contact with the group. >> ye s, we saw this -- yes, we saw the spacecraft coming down off the port side of the aircraft carrier. slowlyt light in the sky descending to the surface of the pacific.
it is now 5000 miles. just about this moment, it should be landing on the surface of the water. walter: the astronauts waited patiently more than an hour in their space capsule for the rescue helicopter. when dawn came, the astronauts climbed into a life raft and were hoisted aboard 80 minutes after splashdown. >> borman, lovell and anders. standing on the steps and a cheercher goes up -- goes up from the flight deck. all of them looking in good condition, needing a shave, of course. captain lovell shaking hands with ben james. walking slowly down the red carpet. >> would you care to say a few words to the crew? >> thank you. we are just very happy to be
here and we appreciate all your efforts. i know you have to stay out here during christmas and that made it tough. jim and i usually seem to fly in the summer. we cannot tell you how much we really appreciate you being here and how proud it is for us to participate in this event. thousands of people made this possible. i guess we are all part of the group. thank you very much. walter: then there was the traditional giving the ship caps to the three astronauts who were the first visitors from have ever had. the astronauts then were taken to the ship's sick bay for medical exams while the navy began the task of recovering the space capsule. before the astronauts arrived on the carrier, president johnson placed a call to talk to them from washington. he later listen to a tape recording of the president's words. >> you have taken us, taken all of us all over the world into a
new era. my thoughts this morning went back to more than 10 years ago when we saw sputnik racing through the skies and we realized america had a big job ahead of it. it gave me so much pleasure to know you men have done a large part of that job. we rejoice that you are well. congratulations from all of your fellow countrymen and all peaceloving people in the world. walter: the president spoke of the russian launching of the original sputnik more than 11 years ago. a fact that jolted many americans into thinking seriously about space for the first time. cbs news that a broadcast on the subject that winter and i was the correspondent. that's go back in time now and look at our evaluation of the then brand-new space race.
just three month ago, last october 4, a new moon came over the horizon and kathy different light on our affairs. sputnik was a serious threat. if not to our immediate security, then our central security. it shows a conflict with our allies. moscow's mood has been one of new conflict. the soviet threats. the sputnik is first in the world. the entire world ecstatic over a great victory of soviet science. the first step into the cosmos. sputnik overall confidence. the race for control of the moon's surface. here is the first space vehicle. still on the ground. it might have been launched more than a year ago, a year ahead of the russians. originally, there was a joint
army/navy project to put a satellite in orbit but the white house canceled that in favor of the lower priorities scientific program. right now, there is no problem in that technique of orbiting a satellite. we need tests and more tests. every quantity of tests, there is a definite number of failures. the russians keep their failures to themselves, we don't. sum up, we are a year behind the russians. a year we lost in the switch of the military to the scientific program. we hope to make up some time by using satellite with better instruments, and thereby select more information. the russians are gathering valuable data right now. walter: since those dark days of 1958, the united states too has been gathering valuable data. flight after flight, spacewalks, rendezvous and now the trip to the moon. the united states is likely to
put a man on the moon before its soviet space competitor. at the very hour of splashdown, we sent cameras to look at the riskiest trial of all -- landing on and taking off from the moon. the vehicle in mid-1969 is being prepared today by engineers. this is lunar module number five to be attached to apollo 11. here is the cabin in which two astronauts will stand. final adjustments on the instrument panels. this is the hatchway down to the lunar surface. an engine slowed by in plastic for protection. this si is it. lead the lunar module, in conversation with each other.
the radar antenna has been removed for safety during the flight. perhaps the most critical engine is this 1 -- the engine that is the lift the upper stage off the moon and get the astronauts back to their command vehicle for return to earth. it is a smaller version of the same engine that got the apollo 8 astronauts in and out of lunar orbit and back on course for the earth. there has been some troubles with the lunar module. apollo 8 was originally intended to test the module and earth orbit but it was not ready. now the question is will it be ready and safe for the next test and the moon landing before the end of 1969. mike wallace weeks to a senior engineer about that and how all of that works. >> a strange looking bird, the lem, how does it work? >> this is a spacecraft that is used to take men down to the lunar surface. it's docked through the command
module, where the spacecraft docks around here. two of the three astronauts enter through this tunnel. lem inside, they detach the from the command and service module. using this descent rocket engine, they dissent to the lunar surface. >> that is the only rocket engine known to man. >> it has to be in order to land softly on the surface. >> than what? >> once on the surface, the astronauts will come out through the front hatch and climb down this ladder to explore the lunar surface. they will take out some scientific equipment. when they have completed their experiments, they reenter and the upper portion detaches from the lower portion, hopefully. definitely. stage. called the ascent
we blast off from the lunar surface using this engine. we then rendezvous into lunar orbit with the waiting service module. we are tracking them all the time with our radar. you can see the antenna from that. >> there is no backup system on this module, is there? >> no, that have to work in order to get the men safely home. >> when they turn the ignition, if nothing happens, there is no way for anybody, any place to help? >> that is correct. that is why we have made it as simple and reliable as we can. >> is that why you are overdue with the lem? i gather it is somewhat behind schedule and there was some skepticism whether it would make it in time -- he did not make it for apollo 8. >> we were very close on apollo 8. we were having some relatively minor troubles with electromagnetic interference. at the time that the missions were being reviewed.
waslso happened that nasa quite interested in performing the type mission we just saw on apollo 8 because they can have -- without lem being there, they can take additional fuel reserves for the lunar orbit. >> apollo 9, the lem goes along but this is just earth orbit. what happens? >> all the steps except actual landing for the lunar mission. we will fire both of our rocket engines. we will separate the ascent from descent stages and go through the entire mission. we will even practiced an emergency procedure which is walking from space from the forward hatch to the side hatch. >> apollo 10, you are going all the way to the moon and the lem will to send to 50,000 feet. >> it will go down into the vicinity of the moon. >> is it possible apollo 10 will
actually land on the moon? >> it is possible, not likely. we will probably want two full manned missions before we actually go for the landing. >> is it ready? >> yes, sir. >> you would go a long? >> right today. walter: the next giant step -- to put a man on the moon. the flight of apollo 8 has inspired many men. in a moment, we will hear some great poetic reflections on its meaning. on christmas morning when the three astronauts were soaring around the moon, the new york times carried on page one an statement ofder american poetry. it said all that needed to be set about the flight of apollo 8. we asked him to read it into our cameras. here with writers on the earth together, brothers. >> man's conception of themselves and of each other has
always depended on their notion of the earth. when the earth was the world, all the world there was, and the skies in heaven and the ground beneath mens' feet moved hell. they saw themselves as creatures of the center of the universe. the sole particular concern of god. from that high place, they rode and killed and conquered as they pleased. earthenturies later the was no longer the world, but a small, wet spinning planet of a solar system, although the edge of an inconsiderable galaxy and the immeasurable distances of space. when there was no heaven, no hell beneath the feet, men began to see themselves not as god directed actors as the center of a noble drama, but as helpless, victims of a senseless farce where all the rest were helpless
victims also. and millions could be killed and worldwide wars or in lasted cities or concentration camps without a thought or reason. but the reason, if we call it that one. now in the last few hours, the notion may have changed again. for the first time in all of time, men have seen the earth. seen it not as continents or oceans from a little distance of 100 miles, but seen it from the depths of space. seen it whole and round and , that firstd small imagination and never dreamed of seeing it. as the 20th century philosophers of absurdity and despair were incapable of guessing that it might be seen. seeing it so, one question came to the lines of those who look at it. is it inhabited, they said?
then, they did not laugh. what came to their minds s 100,000 miles or more. like into their minds was the light on that little, lonely, floating planet. that tiny raft in the enormous empty night. it inhabited? the medieval notion of earth putting men in the center of everything. beyond the range of reason, even lost in absurdity and war. this latest notion may have other consequences. froormed as it was in the mindsf aerobic voyagers who were also men, remake our image of mankind. no longer that preposterous figure at the center. no longer that the grading
victim off of the margins of reality and blind with blood. man man last become himself. is,ee the earth as it truly small and blue and beautiful in that eternal silence where it floats is to see ourselves -- brothers on that bright loneliness in the eternal cold. brothers who know now they are truly brothers. walter: we began this broadcast with words from genesis. "god sawsame versues, everything that he made and behold it was very good. in the evening and the morning was the six-day." today was the sixth day of the flight of apollo 8. this is walter cronkite. good night. >> this cbs news special report,
films ofn watch our public affairs in their entirety on her weekly series, reel america, saturday at 10 p.m. and sunday at 4 p.m. eastern on american history tv. >> senator elizabeth dole did not attend ku here in lawrence, kansas but recently decided to have her papers house at the dole house of politics. we take you inside to learn about her career that dates back all the way to the lbj administration. >> we are at the dole institute of politics, which was founded in 2003 to honor the life, service, and legacy of sor