tv American Artifacts The Year 1968 in Images CSPAN March 3, 2019 1:20pm-2:00pm EST
could hack it. they had this really heavy gear, they have their weapon, and they were carrying it on this road march. she pulled her women aside and said, no matter what happens, don't you dare start crying and you better keep up. like, i have ahe pulled her won feeling they will try to test us. that is exactly what happened. her women cap. step for step. announcer: eileen rivers tonight at 8:00 eastern on c-span's q&a. like, i have a feeling theyeach week, americans takes viewers into archives, museums, and historic sites around the country. smithsoniant the national portrait gallery and washington, d.c. to two or their one-room exhibit examining the pivotal events and personalities of the year 1968. our guide it through the collection of 30 images is portrait gallery historian james barber. james: welcome to the national portrait gallery. my name is james barber.
today we are going to look at the year 1968. 50 years back. exhibitiona one-year about the year 1968. thise will begin here with iconic image of us, the earth. this was taken on the mission of apollo eight. there was the first space mission of any nation that would leave earth's atmosphere and a distant object. the only other ones in the race where the russians and there was a space race at this time. this image, it surprised the three astronauts. the three astronauts were william manders, who had the camera, james lovell, and frank. did not exactly prime them, or whether they forgot or what, but william anders rolled out -- look at his window in the orbiter craft,
sees this incredible site that no one had ever seen. he has got black and white film. and he hollers over to his fellow astronauts, i mean color. can you give me some? they obviously did give him some and he snapped this image. as well as a number of other images. it is called earthrise. it was really a first. this occurred at the end of the year in december of 1968. the exhibition and we will look at the beginning of the year. welcome. we are in the one-room show, 1968. some 30 objects here that we used to tell the story of that tumultuous year. just a little bit about the organization, why these objects and why are they in these
locations. as a historian, i think in terms of chronology. but also there are topics that we will see. this wall, for instance, is topical vietnam. had we done it strictly chronological, we would have had , his mad person of the year cap or 41967, he had a bad year. but if we did it, -- did it chronologically, we would put fleming in the wall. she won the gold medal for sports to we will talk about her in a bit. let's start with vietnam. that had been a major topic of discussion for a number of years in the 60's. that's really defined the 1960's as well as space. which con -- which john kennedy initiated. president lyndon
johnson as his person of the year gala for here. 1967. a bad year in for instance in 1964, he was man of the year, but that was for a good thing. he was were going well. even in vietnam. things were not going well in country,nd in the there were pieced him and more demonstrations all over. as itsose lyndon johnson person of the year that year for not having a good year. his problem was obviously vietnam. ec here and antiwar poster bringing the troops home now. there were student demonstrations throughout the nation. a slogan.e these protesters would use throughout wherever they were. bring the troops home now. january to theom person of the year cover, to this is now march.
the meal i massacre which involved a lieutenant. this is a time cover. i should mention that we will see a number of time covers in this exhibition. there may be as many as 10. this is the cover that actually appeared a year later. the time of his trial, he would be convicted of a number of murders. and then he would be pardoned 1974 by richard nixon. an image of lieutenant kelly, and in the middle here, this is a fascinating photograph. this is a photograph of president lyndon johnson and first lady lady bird johnson. and they are watching tv screens in the oval office. johnson has just given a national address. withs march 31, 1968, and two surprises. the one surprise was that he was
prepared to accept a peace in vietnam instead of outright victory. the second surprise was that he announced he was no longer a candidate for the presidency. he would not run for second term. his political base, they were dismayed at this, and it shocked the nation. it was a surprise. so much of a surprise that labor -- lady bird johnson did not believe he would say that until he said it. >> i shall not seek and i will of mycept the nomination party for another term as your president. vietnam. begin with unfortunately, vietnam would linger on well into the next administrator. let's move on here in our exhibition here and this wall talks about civil rights which
was another defining issue of the 1960's. we begin here with a photograph of dr. martin luther king. , and let mege explain why all of these images focus on what was in our collection for the most part. we haven't been collecting portraits, for 50 years. you will see a great diversity of portraiture. in fact, the portrait gallery opened in 1968. that is also an anniversary for us. this image of dr. martin luther conference at a news and he is announcing hishe is at initiative for that year, a poor people's campaign. part of that campaign -- a big part of the campaign was if you
see at the top, the march on washington. poor people's march on washington. that occurred after his death. he did not live to see that. but it continued, it went on. occurred on washington in mid-may. they arrived, marchers, from all over the country, arrived in mid-may and stayed on them all. the reflecting pool and the lincoln memorial, stayed there for six weeks to bring attention to the plight of the poor. nationwide. know sooner arrived then the rains arrived. forrain created mud, and many days, they were up to their ankles in mud. this is why we chose martin luther king, this image of him. 1968 image. it has been asked why didn't we
to hismething referring assassination. the answer to that is that this room only holds certain thirtysomething images. the entire story of martin luther king but we do have a video and a video stand in the corner of the room. that fills in an awful lot of what we can't show on the wall. the next image beside martin luther king is the time magazine's cover image of robert f kennedy who in march announced his candidacy for the democratic party. he was for a of things that lyndon johnson was not for. the two men never got along. once kennedy entered the race, johnson pretty much knew that
that was it. and he stepped aside. the image we see here is a time cover by lewis here was a cover that appeared right after kennedy's assassination in los and it's a very somber image of kennedy. kennedy was, of course, at peace candidate, he was doing very well coming in just one the california primary and at the time of his assassination early june, the thing i remember about , thewas the funeral train train that left new york city to to washington, d.c., kennedy was buried in arlington cemetery area's brother, john. and they were just crowds of people turned out throughout that 250 mile journey from new york city lighting the roads. the image that you see high above in the center here is of robert kennedy and he is with
wife helen. and his he was just ending a 25 day fast in support of the great growers theyickers of california were trying to unionize and chavez was her and much involved in that and kennedy was shot as is number one advocate probably in the senate, in washington. kennedy arrived in that picture you see on their breaking bread, sharing a piece of bread and chavez is breaking his fast. kennedy and chavez was entitled the gun
in america and for every cover that time did there was a cover story and that was the story that was entitled the gun in america time wanted it, witho assassinations, martin luther king and robert kennedy, two time felt it was time to do a major story on the gun as they titled small arms and guns in america. this was an expensive cover to by roy lichtenstein and the parameters in 1960 in all walks of life were being disbanded and tested lichtenstein and the in time magazine was doing the same thing with its artists. he really had not used pop artists too much before. in the 1960's, they began and liechtenstein was one of three major pop artists that time have used. the other two mainly would be andy warhol and robert rothenberg. here,age of liechtenstein
this is an image of print on acetate, sheets of acetate and for every different color you see here, there is a different sheet of acetate. it was a time-consuming process to put this cover together. as i mentioned, it really was one of times most iconic images. before we leave the gun in america i should mention that roy lichtenstein did a month before the cover in his style of robert kennedy and that came out in mid-may and gallery owns that cover. i should mention that when i say covers, this is the original arch for the covers that time photographed and put on the covers of the magazine. art on all original of these images. the liechtenstein image of kennedy would not have been really appropriate for an image
that would follow so closely as death. liechtenstein was the perfect artist to capture kennedy's .olorful vibrancy conversely here, to use a real gun for gone in america may have been a little bit too much, too graphic so lichtenstein's image , was too much it. the second part of the wall is armed resistance. we move from the peaceful resistance of martin luther king to the images here of four black panthers, and the image here of stokely carmichael and h rap brown, and carmichael has a revolver stock in his waist --
stuck in his waist, and h rap brown is holding what appears to be a shotgun. the image here is of bobby steele, and that was at the time of healy newton's murder trial. steele and newton were the founders of the black panthers in 1966. this image shows seale at newton's trial for murdering a policeman. this shows eldridge cleaver, another black panther. cleaver was known for the book that he wrote, "soul on ice," a collection of essays that dramatically laid out the black panther agenda.
it was on racial matters and inequality and whatnot, and it sold quite a number of books. the next topic we look at is culture and counterculture. this has a wall all of its own too. this is a center wall at the exhibition, a wall you see if you enter the room, and we look at culture, pop culture, counterculture, literary culture. the photograph of the top is of joan didion, she had a major book come out that year called " slouching towards bethlehem" and the book was a series of essays on going home, that kind of thing. but the main article, essay, was called "slouching towards
bethlehem" and it was about the haight-ashbury counterculture of san francisco. and she meets a heavy family -- hippy family with a five-year-old girl who is on acid, so it is quite an experience. the book is very popular today, and readers who review it will say how relevant it still is today. below that we have another "time" cover about hippies. "time" would do an article on the hippies, explain who they were, what they were all about, what they believed in, how they lived and all that. the gallery has two images of this, and this is not the one that made the cover of time. the cover of "time" was just like this in design, but it had
yellow's in it. we own that one too. so why is this one out and not the other one? this one, the conservation, this one was in much better shape, condition, than the one that actually made the cover, we couldn't use that. now, why did "time" not put this on the cover? it's a good question. i wish somebody could tell me. so the hippies will move down to the center image, which is of jimi hendrix by an unidentified artist. hendrix was a huge name at this time, 1968. he was voted by "rolling stone" and "billboard" magazine as artist of the year in 1968.
and he formed his band, jimi hendrix experience, just a three-member band in england, and he would come back to the states at this time to perform here. this is one of few objects -- one of a few objects that the style of the art really invokes the 1960's. this is by an unidentified artist. it just speaks to the style of the 1960's. so we will leave jimi hendrix and we will look at two other bands of the era. before i talk about them, let's talk about the photographer irving penn. he was contracted by "look" magazine, a picture-journalism style magazine, and the contract was
to go to san francisco and to do a photo story of the counterculture that was going on in san francisco, the haight-ashbury section of san francisco, and penn managed to get 10 musicians here and he took a picture. they were two bands, and the question is, why didn't he take separate images of these two bands. well, anytime you get 10 rock 'n roll musicians this is your portrait. so who are these people? this is janis joplin with her band, big brother and the holding company here on the left-hand side. add this is jerry garcia and the grateful dead on this side.
they are very young. this is an early image of these two bands. so that was his take on the san francisco music scene, and the photograph would appear in "look" magazine. the poster here of sidney poitier, we focused on 1968, all the images here for the most part, we were looking for images from 1968, as well as events that occurred in 1968. sydni poitier, one of his lesser-known movies, was "for the love of iv." in 1960 -- "for the love of ivy. he was described as the martin luther king of the movies, and sensitive, so poitier was one of the leading stars of hollywood of at least this year and other years in the 1960's. let's look at television, and to do that we need to look at this case in the center of the room.
before we leave movies, we have to include barbra streisand, who appeared in the movie version of "funny girl," and she would win an oscar for that role the following year. i'm not sure there is anyone else like her, she won oscars, tony's, grammy awards, she did it all, but in 1968 she was "funny girl."
besides the photograph of streisand, we have to "tv guide" here, and this is television culture of the day, comedy culture. "rowan & martin's laugh-in," and when they got to deepen to presidential politics, the smothers brothers -- "the smothers brothers" were pulled off the air. we will move to sports. it was a memorable year for sports and we will look at it chronologically, with this "time" cover of vince lombardi from the green bay packers.
the cover is from 1962, so why do we use it? because nothing really changes, they have won multiple championships in the 1960's, including the first two super bowl's of the 19 -- of 1967, and the 1968 super bowl against the oakland raiders, at the orange bowl in miami. nothing much has changed, so we used the 1962 cover for the 1968
show, the best image we could show of vince lombardi. this was an olympic year. if nothing else occurred in 1968, there would be two major events, the olympics and it was a presidential gear. in 1968, the olympic games, both summer and winter, were held in events, the olympics and it was a presidential gear. the same year. and what you see on the cover of "sports illustrated" is heidi fleming, the only american to win a gold medal at that olympics -- is a key fleming -- is peggy fleming, the only american to win a gold medal at that olympics. her mother made the dress, amateur sports only. moving on to summer sports, the photograph here of arthur ashe,
he is serving at the first u.s. open. before 1968, it was called the national championships and it was an amateur event. in 1968 and went pro and became known as the u.s. open, which is how we know it today. arthur ashe would beat tom mocker in the final match, this is a photo from that match, but ashe would win a trophy but he couldn't eat the prize money because he hadn't declared himself a pro yet. i like this quote on the label saying that, "what i like best about myself is my demeanor. i'm seldom ruffled." and i really was arthur ashe.
he was known for his civic sense of duty. he refused to play in south africa as a protest against their policy of apartheid, so he was very much involved in what would be that peaceful resistance, so he was very much an activist. above arthur ashe is yet another "time" cover, and this is of denny mcclain of the detroit tigers, and he would take the detroit tigers to the world series, they would win the world series, and denny mcclain would win most valuable player, which was unusual because it was
almost never given to a pitcher. the cy young award was given to a pitcher. and in this picture, tommy smith would win gold and john carlos would win bronze, and an australian by the name of peter norman would take the silver. as you can see, their gloved fists are in the air as a quiet protest against racial inequality the experienced in america, an iconic image. in doing an exhibit like this, sometimes there are juxtapositions you can't anticipate until you lay out the show, and this is a wonderful example of juxtaposition, arthur ashe and carlos and smith. arthur ashe felt exactly the way these gentlemen did about racial inequality in america, but ashe,
as i read earlier, he just expressed it in a much different way. it is an interesting juxtaposition, and very relevant, this kind of protest is very relevant to today. we are seeing this with the national flag, so these are issues that linger. we will move from the sports men and women to politics. 1968 was also an election year, a presidential election year, and we have a number of images to illustrate that. but before he could to those images, let's focus on shirley chisholm. she is from new york city, and she is the first african-american woman to win an election to the house of representatives, and that would occur in 1968.
she really represents america moving forward. juxtaposed with that is governor george wallace of alabama campaigning for the presidency as an independent, and he really represents the america of old. any exhibits, you don't often have this kind of juxtaposition. in fact, we were wondering how to lay this out, because he wasn't a typical presidential
candidate in 1968, although later she would run for president. so that on paper, when you lay these things out, you kind of wonder how they are going to lay out, but once they got on the wall, things seem to fit. above them are two democratic candidates, hubert humphrey and his vice presidential candidate edmund muskie. and the small image at the top is richard daley, the mayor of chicago. this was a very memorable convention, not for so much of what went on in the convention hall, but the student protests and the police brutality outside the convention. and daley, mayor daley knew it might be a contentious week, and he was right. when he was asked about the chaos and the protesters and all of this, all he could say was, at least no one was killed.
but there were many arrests and much heavy handedness from the chicago police department. this is a "time" cover by the same artist that did the rfk, a very different cover, more of a cartouche, it is not a painting. we move from the democrats to the republicans. richard nixon was running again after losing to john kennedy in 1960, and he would emerge the winner. his running mate was spiro agnew. nixon wanted someone who was competent, but he didn't want anyone who would upstage him,
and spiro agnew was perfect for that. he was a maryland governor but nobody really knew him, and he was perfect for next and, who was then dwight eisenhower's vice president for eight years, so he knew what agnew was in for very well. but the nation didn't know what these men, the turmoil they were going to cause later, but that is later. this was a time -- was a "time"
cover by the same artist who did this one of edmund muskie and hubert humphrey. this cover was of the three apollo eight astronauts, william anders, frank gordon, and james lovell. those men were "time" men of the year for 1968, and well-deserved. apollo eight, amerco was in the space race with russia, and to further american interests they upped the schedule of apollo eight, and when you watched these things on television, it all seems to go perfectly. in a documentary years after the mission, the flight director was interviewed and he gave these gentle men a little more than a 60% chance of success, and they interview the wives of the astronauts.
and they all said that when they were saying goodbye to their husbands, they really didn't know when it was just goodbye or a final goodbye. these gentlemen knew exactly what the odds were, and it all went by script, it was a complete success, apollo eight, it was the first time that human beings would leave earth's atmosphere and travel somewhere, to the moon. they would orbit the moon a number of times and take the great picture of earth. it was a proud moment for america. apollo eight was a tremendous upswing, the right event to end
the year on, a proud moment for nasa and a proud moment for the nation, so 1968 really ends on a bright spot. this is not the end of what to see at the national portrait gallery, this is just a one room exhibition, but there are core -- corridors filled with interesting people who have their own stories to tell, and we hope to see lots of people come. >> you can watch this or other american artifacts programs anytime by visiting c-span.org/history.
>> c-span, where history unfold daily. in 1979, c-span was created as a public service by america's cable television companies. and today we continue to bring you unfiltered coverage of congress, the white house, the , and public policy events in washington, d.c. and around the country. c-span is brought to you by your cable or satellite provider. >> this weekend on "american history tv," world war i and its aftermath. he chronicles how the war affected americans, prohibition, and raceuffrage, riots. here's a preview. >> i talked earlier about and re riots. the advent of fake news during the war and i will give you a couple examples of this great -- of this. brewer was christian heinrich and the brewers in the country were german-americans.
the moment we declare war against germany, the temperance forces begin spinning beer drinking into treason. and there's this rumor that goes in the "newinted york times," whereby christian heinrich has erected at his farm in hyattsville a large concrete flooring he has established so the german artillery can be established on top of that and bombard the nation's capital. this is complete fake news but the new york times has prejudice, and the hysteria leading up to the war after the zimmerman telegram was posted. the bureau of investigation, the precursor to the fbi sent a couple men out to his house search the house and to search the farm and it turned out to be with his family mausoleum he was building for his wife, but these rumors got started that there was this fifth column of germans who were ready to rise up adopted state, and
that never happened. there were rumors that every german might be a spy or a soldier in the kaiser's army and be willing to fight against their adopted country. another example of fake news is from a center of wisconsin, one of the leading pacifist, if you can believe this, a leading pacifist and leading the pacifist wing of the republican party, a senator quote fighting bob, the pacifist. and he was from wisconsin. he gave the speech i believe in st. paul, minnesota and he was basically saying the germans were not justified in seeking the lusitania in 1916 and there's a transcript of the and there was a reporter on site who wrote the whole thing down wrong and that was then listed in all the newspapers. he basically had him saying he believed the germans were justified in thinking the lusitania and this caused a na