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tv   19th Amendment Legacies  CSPAN  August 31, 2019 3:40pm-4:01pm EDT

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lawmaker in the house of commons. i drew on my experience there to organize our new assembly and to reduce all the matters pending before it for the ease of the members. >> watch the entire three-part ceremony commemorating the anniversary of the general assembly sunday at 8 p.m. eastern. you are watching american history tv. penn state professor lee ann banaszak reflects on the 100th anniversary of women suffrage and talked about the tactics women used to get the night at the moment passed and ratified. this took place at the historians meeting in philadelphia. greta: lee ann banaszak, when was that women tried to get the vote, and what was it that triggered the movement? dr. banaszak: that is a great question. it started in seneca falls, but in truth, it started earlier
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than that with women who were interested in the abolitionist movement but were excluded in london and elsewhere. they thought it was important for women to talk about their own rights, and in fact, the question of the rights to vote in 1848 was probably, of the many items on the agenda was the most controversial, and it was a very close vote. people or women at the convention were more focused on other aspects of women's rights at the time, but that really is the date that we highlight as the start of the women's suffrage movement. greta: what is happening in other countries at this time? are women in other countries able to vote? dr. banaszak: to start, i would
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say that women in new jersey voted from 1776 to about 1807, so women and at least part of the united states have the right to vote, and then it is taken away at the constitution is revived. the first country to give women the right to vote was new zealand, and that was in 1893, so much earlier than in the united states, although 1890 is the first state in the united states to give women the right to vote kind of permanently, and that is wyoming in 1890. so the u.s. was not the earliest of the countries to give women the right to vote, but it was also not particularly late. in addition to new zealand, finland was early in 1906. at the other end, you have other countries which are surprisingly late.
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switzerland, for example, did not give women the right to vote until 1971. greta: what are the tactics women are using over the decades to get the 19th amendment passed and ratified? dr. banaszak: so there are a myriad of tactics used. probably the most important to mention, though, is the use of really the exclusion, segregation of the african-american women from the suffrage movement and kind of ignoring the aspect of african-american women's right to vote, because that was an important thing in convincing congress to pass the 19th amendment, but what it did mean is that when the 19th amendment came to pass, would only enfranchise a portion of women. so we look at what the 19th amendment did and did not do and look at racism as a tactic in terms of getting the right to vote. there are other things that were important.
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one of the interesting things from my perspective is women also were some of the first groups to lobby effectively in the way that we think of lobbying today, so that the national women's party kept a very extensive card catalog of every member of congress, that recorded who they were, what their interests were, when they were visited. they would be visited regularly by constituents. they would be lobbying extensively. every time a vote came up, they would go to the catalog and revisit the congressperson. and the last thing worth talking about is the use of making sure that you publicized the importance of women getting the vote, and that really happened in a series of suffrage parades, picketing the white house, the sorts of tactics we see social movements use today were also used by women of the time. one of the most famous stories is the story of the 1913 suffers
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parade, which occurred around the inauguration of woodrow wilson, and it occurred the day before, as woodrow wilson was arriving in washington, d.c. and in point of fact, it was such a large sufferage parade, and also there was a lot of violence by bystanders, so that actually overshadowed woodrow wilson's inauguration. greta: the interaction between the women marching and the parade goers is what makes headlines. does it help their cause? dr. banaszak: certainly alice paul, the head of the national women's party, thought it does. one thing it does is raising the consciousness of all citizens the fact that this is a concern of women. the other aspect of it is certainly the violence that occurred in that parade. also made people think about
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women and the protections they needed, in the sense of -- that violence could happen to a set of women walking peacefully through the streets, that really raised consciousness. greta: another tactic -- you mentioned picketing outside the white house, but the arrest of these women, and some of them go on hunger strike. dr. banaszak: that is correct. greta: and then they are force-fed. what you think the impact of learning that was on the american conscious? dr. banaszak: it certainly -- certainly brought the public to a position of opposition against not only the local leaders, who had arrested women, but also
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really put pressure on woodrow wilson in terms of supporting the right to vote. i mean, the necklace i am wearing today actually is a commemoration of that. when women came out of prison, they were given a pin that had this jail door on it to commemorate the fact that they had been in jail, had been force-fed. greta: who came up with that, the idea for the pins? dr. banaszak: that was the national woman's party. most of the women arrested were part of the national woman's party. greta: once the united them and is ratified, what is the expectation on women, female voters? dr. banaszak: there were a lot of debates about what female voters would do in two ways.
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the first question is whether they would even bother to register and turn out to vote. so certainly there were people who argued they would be uninformed voters, that they would not be interested in politics, that they would simply follow their husbands in terms of voting. on the other hand, early on in 1920, others noted a real interest in women voting, so the st. paul newspaper, for example, in 1920 wrote a whole article on how women were really going out to register to vote and how important that was. the second question was how they would vote, right? so what would they do when they walked in the voting booth? and there was an expectation early on, one expectation was they would follow the progressive movement, because they were prominent women activists -- jane addams,
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florence kelley -- who were part of that active movement. political parties were very much hoping that they could incorporate women and that women would vote the same way that their husbands did. early on, they organized women's divisions and really tried to bring women into the party in a separate way. greta: and what was the outcome? dr. banaszak: well, it is hard to say, because we do not really know what women did in the voting booth -- obviously, we have a secret ballot. there are some political scientists who tried to estimate what the women's vote was based on some statistical analysis. mostly what they have uncovered is really not much different from men in those early elections, that women were not the progressive voters that many politicians thought they would be, but they did vote kind of
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with the regular party. greta: when, then, do women go from being voters to participating in politics and then running for politics themselves? dr. banaszak: so, um, women -- i would argue women were participating in politics from the very beginning, but not necessarily in the electoral politics that we think of. women ran for office really early. elizabeth cady stanton ran for congress. she only got 12 votes, but she was out there. the first woman to run for president, victoria woodhull, was in 1882. what you do see is the number of women in political office grows
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very slowly after the 19th amendment, so if you look at where women served state legislatures or where they served in congress, even as late of the 1940's, you only have 1.5% of most state legislatures and 1.5% of congress being women. so what that averages out to is in your local, state legislature, would be three women, and that is both houses, right? it is really not until 1970 that you see the first jump in women serving in political office. so in the 1970's, you see women
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entering state legislatures in bigger numbers for the first time, and it is really not until 1990 on the national level that you see the first real jump in women entering into congress. sadly, even with those numbers, you are talking about not that large of a percent. so if you look worldwide, the u.s. really does not look very good, in terms of women's representation on the national or local level. we've ranked 78th out of all countries in terms of women's representation. greta: what do you think the legacy of the 19th amendment is for different ethnic groups, and who were the leaders of women's rights for those different groups? dr. banaszak: yeah. well, so, one legacy of the 19th amendment for african-american women as they still had the right to vote, so you see white
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women saying, we are done, we have the vote, now we are going to focus on other issues, but for african-american women, that was not true. so for the 1930's, 1940's, and 1950's, african-american women are still fighting for the right to vote, and many of them had been active in the women's suffrage movement, ida b wells. i was talking with a colleague before we came here about local women in pennsylvania, and one of the things we tend to focus on are people fighting for the right to vote. there was daisy elizabeth adams lampkin, who joined the new negro women's equal franchise federation, continued to fight for the right to vote through the 1920's, the 1930's, and the 1940's, all the way into the modern civil rights movement. and all around the country, there are stories like that of
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women who really have not seen, been recognized in our history books because they have either not been part of the traditional story we tell, or were fighting on the local level, and one of the things i hope is that this 100 anniversary allows us to really celebrate them. greta: and begin to those who were part of the movement, wherever you live, wherever you live. prof. banaszak: i mean, there are many opportunities as the celebration occurs for local and state groups to really explore their own history and see those women who may not have been written into their history books but were nonetheless really important in the right to vote. greta: what you think the lasting legacy of the 19th amendment is? dr. banaszak: there are lots of lasting legacies. we need to recognize that much of our politics today feeds back
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to much of the way the suffrage movement worked and of the battles that were fought then. the think, for example, example of race continually in our politics and the way it plays out in the current women's back to whatks happened through the suffrage movement. i think that's probably the one that to me is most important.
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>> i think they would think, this is what we fought for, but a word of caution. 100 years is a long time. the battle for suffrage was 70 years. womenw even at this point still are underrepresented in those venues, i think there would be a note of appreciation. greta: thank you. labor day weekend on american history tv. tonight on 8:00 p.m. eastern on lectures of history, a discussion on abraham lincoln
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and native americans. america, a film on the invasion of southern france. and a commemoration of the first general assembly held in jamestown. click for list of tasks on -- explorestory tv our nation's past every weekend on c-span three. american history tv products are available on the c-span store. note to c-span. or to see what all of thecheck out c-span products. -- c-span.org. >> tonight on lectures in history, abram lincoln and native americans. we visit these stony brook classroom of professor kelton to talk about the dakota wars, the
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removal of the novel hope, and the sand creek massacre. here is a preview. so, what about lincoln? what are we to make of them? a has left posterity with troubling legacy, and i will admit, historians often get asked, who is the best president ? answer would be a ram lincoln because of his determination to preserve the union and he oversaw the end of slavery, but when we look at this through the lens of indigenous history, lincoln is perhaps no different from any other president in the 19th century. someone who is in favor of westward expansion and believed in manifest destiny.
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it is hard to say that the buck should stop with him. he was very busy fighting the civil war. the result a lot going on. but i assume that for the thousands of dakotas who were fleeing their homeland, the book should stop with him. for those thousands who had to endure the long walk in wretched conditions, the book should stop with him. k should stop with him. and for the cheyenne and arapahoe who were murdered, lincoln should come under more scrutiny. learn more about abraham lincoln and native americans tonight at 8 p.m. and midnight eastern on "lectures in history." history tv,ican where we bring the classroom to you. next on history bookshelf,
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mallory factor talks about his book "shadow boxes." he he discusses the impact of the employee unions and the impact they have had on policymaking. this was recorded in washington, d.c., in 2012. john.nk you, in nevada, school districts recently laid off seven of their teachers of the year. some of the best teachers in the classroom got pink slips. in michigan, school district's are spending over a quarter of their budget on retirement benefits. in wisconsin, property taxes went up every year over the past decade. why? the answer can be summed up in two words. government unions. unions use their power to press government to put their interests first. in contract negotiations, unions always insist on seniority-based

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