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tv   Reel America Nuremberg- 1948  CSPAN  March 20, 2020 12:45pm-2:01pm EDT

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and, again, as gerhart points out, the american army was more interested in winning the war. that was the best way, they thought, to stop the killing. >> thank you to all of our panelists. [ applause ] [ proceedings concluded ] american history tv products are now available at the new c-span online store. go to c-span store.org to see what is new and check out all of the c-span products. c-span, your unfiltered view of government. created by cable in 1979. and brought to you today by your television provider.
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♪ ♪ >> it was 1945. the war was over. slowly, painfully, life came back to the ruins of europe.
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the war was over, but there was no peace. despair crouched over the continent. hopelessness circled europe like a bird of prey. why? what were the forces? what were the issues in a war that turned nations into rubble heaps, and populations into beggars. the people wanted the answers. they wanted to know what happened. and why. in the palace of justice in nuremberg, the people of the world came together. for there sat the international military tribunal to judge the
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chief nazi war criminals. ♪ ♪
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>> just as robd robert h. jackson, the chief american prosecutor, makes the opening statement for the prosecution. >> the privilege of opening the first trial in history -- >> the privilege of opening the first trial in history for crimes against the peace of the world imposes a grave responsibility. the wrongs which we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated, so malignant and so devastating that civilization cannot tolerate they're being ignored because it could not survive there being repeated. that four great nations flushed with victory and stung with injury stay the hand of vengeance and voluntarily submit captive enemies to the judgment of the law is one of the most significant tributes that power has ever paid to reason. this inquest represents the
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practical effort of four of the most mighty of nations with the support of 15 more to utilize international law to meet the greatest menace of our timetype aggressive war. the common sense demands law shall not stop with the punishment of petty crimes by little people. it must reach men who possess themselves of great law and who use it to set in motion evils which leave no home in the world untouched. in the prisoners' dock sit 20 broken men, reproached by the humiliation of those they led almost as bitterly as by the desolation of those they have attacked. their personal capacity for evil is forever past. merely as individuals, their fate is of little consequence to the world. what makes this inquest
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significant is that these prisoners represent sinister influences that will lurk in the world long after their bodies have returned to dust. they are living symbols of the arrogance and cruelty of power, of racial hatreds, of terrorism and violence. they are symbols of fierce nationalisms and of militarismi of intrigue. and warmaking which have embroiled europe generation after generation, crushing its manhood, destroying its homes and impoverishing its life. they have so identified themselves with the philosophies they conceived and with the forces they directed, that any tenderness to them is a victory and encouragement to all the
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evils which are attached to their names. what these men stand for we will patiently and temperately disclose. we will give you proof of incredible events. the catalog of crimes will omit nothing. it may be that these men of troubled conscience do not regard a trial as a favor, but they do have a fair opportunity to defend themselves. a favor which they rarely extended to their fellow countrymen. we will not ask you to convict these men on the testimony of their foes. there is no count of the indictment that cannot be proved by books and records. and we will show you the
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defendants' own films. you will see their own conduct and hear their own voices as they re-enact for you from the screen some of the events in the course of the conspiracy. the acts of the defendants have bathed the world in blood. and set civilization back a century. they have subjected their european neighbors to every deprivation. they have brought the german people to the lowest ebb of retchedne retchedness. they have stirred hatreds and incited domestic violence on every continent.
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these are the things that stand in the dark shoulder to shoulder with these prisoners, the real complaining party at your bar is civilization. >> the united states of america present count one of the indictment. that all the defendants participated as organizers or accomplices in a common plan or conspiracy to commit crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity. >> the aims of this conspiracy were open and notorious. >> the aims of this conspiracy were open and notorious. it was far different from any other conspiracy ever unfolded before a court of justice. >> the hard left war experiences were relived. >> its history of the history of the nazi party which grew from the brawling streets of munich
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in the '20s. from the beginning, hitler and his followers were committed to the use of any means, whether or not they were legal or honorable. their aim was the highest degree of control over the german community. their intentions were blatantly put forth in the party program. and they preached their favorite doctrine up and down the land. they said that persons of a so-called german blood were a master race, entitled to subjugate or exterminate other races. they said the germans should be ruled under the leadership principal by which each subleader owed unconditional
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obedience to his superior and so on right up to adolf hitler. they said war was a noble and necessary activity of germans. and they said that the nazi party alone had the right to rule germany and the right to destroy the party's enemies. ♪ their rise to power was based on fraud, deceit, intimidation and coercion. culminating finally in terror. and flame. into that flame went the
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democratic constitution and the freedom of the german people. for the fires set by the nazis exte extended. hans, a witness who held a high portion in the berlin police administration, tells of his investigation of a fire. >> to speak briefly and to state the facts, first of all, we ascertained that quite generally, hitler had stated the wish for a large scale propaganda campaign. they took on the job of making the necessary proposals and they thought of setting this on fire. a group of ten reliable men was made ready. they were informed about every
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detail of the plan. it was expected and he gave his assurances he would do so, that the police would be instructed while still suffering from shock to take up a false trail. >> ugs tsing the fire as a pret for seizing fire, the nazi conspirators lost no time in peari i tearing germany away from a policy of peace. late in 1933, they led their nation out of the disarmament conference, quit the league of nations and embarked on a course of secret rearmament. by 1934, the new armaments program was going full blast.
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ge german industry was again turning out the tools of war. one year later, they could announce from the strong foundation of the national ideology, today rises once again the german armed forces. a few days later, a general announced the new law for compulsory military service. the law was signed by defendants gering, hess, frank, frick and von dyer. the training began.
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♪ finally, in the spring of 1936, the nazis sent their new troops marching. >> on march 7, 1936, soldiers of the army, which was created by order, crossed the sacred river of german history and occupied the former garrisons. they pledged whatever decisions he may make unbreakable faith and obedience. they vowed to follow him and prove their sincerity by their love for germany. >> the sound of boots grew louder on the streets of nuremberg. but hitler said, the german
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people is not a people which welcomes a war. today, tomorrow or the day after tomorrow. it is not in the character of the germans. it is by nature not only peaceful and peace loving, but above all conciliatory. our country, our millions of peasants, want to bring in their harvest. millions of workers, they want to perform their work. but the nazi conspirator continued to plot new aggressions against peace. in november 1937, hitler called a special meeting with defend t defendants and generals. the meeting was secret, but a
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lieutenant colonel, hitler's personal aggiagitant recorded hitler's words. >> it must be our first aim in every case of entanglement to concur czechoslovakia and austria simultaneously. the annexation to of the two states could constitute a considerable relief. th >> this set the stage for nazi expansion and act one came three months later where a defendant finally engineered a meeting between the austrian chancellor and hitler and defendants. the austrian foreign minister at the time also attended the meeting. now he takes the witness stand.
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did hitler demand this man be made minister of security. >> that was one of the demands. >> were there demands made with regard to currency exchange and customs? >> there were demands of an economic nature of every kind. >> hitler told you that you had until february 15 to accept this terms, didn't he? and he told you that if you didn't do so, he would use force? >> the ultimatum as hitler stated it was he intended as early as february to march into austria and that for the last time he was prepared to postpone it. >> faced by th e ed by these th austrians carried out all hitler's demands. the nazi conspirators were satisfied. a month later, when they announced a plebicide, they
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demanded it be canceled. another ultimatum demanded he resign within three hours. fearing invasion, he resigned and a new chancellor was appointed. that same day in berlin a conversation was transcribed. kepler spoke first. >> we represent the government now. >> that's it. you are the government. listen carefully. take the notes. the provisional austrian government sends to the german government the request to support it in its task to prevent bloodshed. for this purpose, it asks the german government to send troops as soon as possible.
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everything has collapsed. our troops will cruoss the border. >> the act was written joining austria to germany and signed by defendants. hitler, of course, had said -- >> germany doesn't intend to become involved in austria. >> the curtain fell on act one. already the nazi conspirators prepared for act two. with this 1938 memorandum from hitler to his high command. >> it's my decision to smash czechoslovakia by military
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action in the near future. it is the job of the political leaders to bring about the politically and militarily suitable moment. >> henline was labeled the leader. a defendant issued another memorandum reading -- >> it will be set in motion by means of an incident in czechoslovakia which will give germany provocation. the fixing of the exact time for this incident is of the utmost importance. >> germany signed the munich pact with england, france and italy. this pact involved the transfer of the sudatan land to germany. the conspirators called it their last territorial demand. before the ink was dry, they were making other plans. for hitler's goal was the
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complete absorption of czechoslovakia. now the czech president was called to a meeting with hitler and defendants. they gave him the ultimatum. they would be incorporated into germany or czechoslovakia would be invaded and prague destroyed from the air. he was helpless. defendants signed the decree make i making them germman protectorate. hitler had said -- >> i have promised and repeated here that there will be no more territorial problems for germany and europe. i will be no longer interested in the czech state and will guarantee it.
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>> now according to more of the notes, hitly er reviewed the pl from 1934 to '39. the notes read. >> first rearmament. the introduction of cuome milit service. one year later, austria and brought about pay considerable reinforcement. the next step was bohemia and moravia. i did not organize the armed forces in order to strike. the decision to strike was always in me. in the name of the united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland, sir shorecross presents count two, crimes against peace, charging that all the defendants participated in
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the planning and waging of wars of aggression, wars in violation of international treaties agreements and assurances. >> austria and czechoslovakia are ceased. the conquest of poland. again, a lieutenant colonel tran described hitler's words. >> the solution of the problem the man's courage. it's impossible without invasion of foreign states or a tax on foreign property. first no question of sparing poland. we are left with the decision to attack poland at the first suitable opportunity. we cannot expect a repetition of the czech affair. there will be war. >> meanwhile, according to the well established practice, the conspirators stirred up an issue to furnish frontier incidents which could justify an attack on
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poland. then on 23 august, the nazis signed their non-aggression pact with russia. hitler told his high command -- >> poland is in a position in which i want them. i'm only afraid at the last moment someone will make a proposal for mediation. >> appeals were made, twice by the pope and by president roosevelt. >> finally, mr. roosevelt asks an assurance be given him the german armed forces will not attack and above all not invade the territory or possessions of the following independent nations. he then names as those coming into question.
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on 1 september, 1939 they went smashing into poland. and into a new world war. for france and england, faithful to their mutual assistance pact with poland, immediately declared war on germany. they opened mass attacks on polish towns and cities. hitler said -- >> destruction of poland in the f forgrand. never mind it be plausible or
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not. no pity. take a brutal attitude. >> as usual, before the attack on poland, hitler told the world -- >> during the troubled months of the past year, the friendship between poland and germany has been one of the reassuring factors in the political life of europe. >> the path of destruction started in poland but led across all europe. each new aggression was based on hitler's principal that in war, victory, not right, is what matters. >> non-aggression treaty, it's firmly resolved to maintain peace between denmark and germany in all circumstances. >> on 9 april 1940, german troops invaded denmark.
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♪ the german government is determined in view of the friendly relations that exist between norway and germany and the new circumstances to prejudice the norwegian state, 2 september 1939. >> on 9 april 1940, german troops invaded norway.
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♪ ♪ >> i assure the governments of belgium, holland and luxembourg, germany will not violate their neutrality. >> on may 10, 1940, german troops invaded belgium, holland and luxembourg.
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♪ >> to establish reliable relation of germany to yugoslavia will represent an element of calm to our nerve racked continent. this peace is the goal of all disposed to perform constructive work, 1 june 1939, adolf hitler. >> on 6 april 1941, german troops invaded yugoslavia. ♪
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these criminal methods brought them early success. by 1941, they had most of europe under their heel. now an evil ambitious for power and more power drove them on. but two of the world's mightiest nations, the united states and soviet russia, remained to block the nazi drive for world supremacy. they had to be dealt with firmly, immediately and now germany asked for cooperation from her full partner in aggression to the east and from her junior partner to the south. in berlin, they drew up the axis pact, the blueprint of the new order, and parcelled out the
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continents of the world for domination. italy was to get the mediterranean sphere. japan was to get the orient. and to germany would go the rest of the world. in june 1941, in violation of their non-aggression pact, the nazis went into soviet territory, according to military plans long made. as usual, there was no declaration of war.
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hitler had said, today germany, tomorrow the world. and this was tomorrow. ♪ planned warfare in the east, air warfare in the west. for now a defendant was hurled with full force against the people and cities of britain. hitler, after all, had told them, i will blot out their city. ♪ ♪
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♪ on 7 december 1941, the japanese, keeping their end of a bargain, struck at the united states, also without declaration of war. japanese bombs s rained on pear harbor, spreading war finally to the pacific. the new order was on the march, world war ii flamed around the globe. >> in the name of the union of soviet socialist republics, counts three and four, charging
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that all the defendants committed war crimes in germany and in all those countries occupied by germany. >> the nazi conspirators committed crimes against enemy armies, against prisoners of war, against the civilians of occupied lands. they believed in the barbaric doctrine of total war and considered themselves freed from the restraints mu s of internat law or customs of war. their ruthless policies were ordered in directives like this one from a general of the high band. the soldier has lost all claim to treatment as an honorable opponent. active or passive resistance must be broken immediately by force of arms. prisoners of war attempting to escape are to be fired on without previous challenge. no warning shot must be fired. more proof of this savage nazi
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policy comes from the affidavit of a former gestapo officer. >> there existed in the prisoner of war camps small screening teams headed by lower ranking members of the gestapo. it was the duty of these teams to segregate the prisoners of war who were candidates for execution according to the orders that had been given and to report them to the office of the ga ta poe. >> a letter from a defendant in 1942 stated clearly -- >> a large part of the soviet prisoners of war has starved or died because of the hazards of the weather. in many cases, prisoners of war could no longer keep up on the march because of hunger and exhaustion. in camcamps, no shelter was giv.
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>> when some objected, the defendant answered with this. >> we are concerned with the destruction of an ideology. therefore, a prove and back the measures. >> this is proved by the testimony of the a general who worked under an admiral. crimes against populations were plotted by the nazi conspirators. will you explain what took place at this conference? >> first of all, there was a short talk. particularly as regards the polish region. secondly, they spoke against the measures, the projected shooting and experiment nation measures being directed against the
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polish nobility and clergy as well as all elements that could be regarded as embodiment of the national resistance movement. he said at the time more or less ver bay it verbatim they will be responsible for these events.
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>> defendant frank, nazi governor of poland was guilty of mass murder. >> taking advantage of the focus of attention on the western front by carrying out wholesale liquidation of thousands of poles. >> these atrocities were not restricted to the east. here is the proof in a village in france. sheer the proof in the town of bande, belgium.
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here is the proof in the caves italy where 350 hostages were carefully listed. and systematically murdered. and here is czechoslovakia. in blind retaliation for the assassination of ss man heidrich, the nazis murdered all the men and sent their women and children into slavery in germany.
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but this was not enough. boys were moved into the ruins and ordered to level the village to the ground. ♪ it was to be the nazi's example to all occupied peoples. but more terrible still were the concentration camps which from the beginning had been the conspirators' chief weapon against opposition of every kind. german anti-nazis were the first victims. with the war, their numbers swelled to include citizens of all the nations of europe. their fate is described by
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witness hess. >> i commanded auschwitz and estimate 2.5 million victims were execute and experiment nation by gassing and burning. a total dead of about 3 million. included among the executed and burned were approximately 20,000 russian prisoners of war. the remainder included 100,000 german jews and citizen fs from holland, france, belgium, poland, hungary, czechoslovakia, greece and other countries.
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>> medical experiments were standard procedure at many concentration camps. these included lowering the body temperature to 28 degrees centigrade, high altitude tests in pressure chambers, experiments with poison bullets and contagious diseases and even sterilization experiments. this was genocide, preed meprem destruction of peoples. the direct result of the nazi's claim that they had the right to destroy the party's opposition. tomorrow the world. dead or alive. >> in the name of the french republ republic, count three and four, the final charges of the indictment.
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>> all the defendants committed crimes against humanity, including the murder and persecution of all people opposed to the nazi party and the enslavement, exploitation and deportation of civilian populations. the slave labor policy was the responsibility of defendant salko who admitted in 1944 -- >> out of the 5 million workers who arrived in germany, not 200,000 came voluntarily. >> forced labor meant brutal and degrading treatment. >> all the men must be fed, shelter and treated in such a way as to exploit them to the highest possible extent at the lowest possible expenditure. >> another defendant added. >> the slavs are to work for us. so far as we do not need them, they may die. >> slavery was only one aspect
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of nazi exploitation. defendant gerring in a talk with authorities in 1942 discussed another. plunder. >> god knows you are not sent out to work for the welfare of the people in your charge but to get the utmost out of them so the german people can live. this concern about foreign people must cease now once and forever. i have before me reports and what you are expected to deliver. it makes no difference to me in this case if you say that your people will starve. >> nazi crimes against humanity were not limited to foreign peoples. defendant frick directed a program aimed at aged, insane or incurable germans. the so-called useless eaters.
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thousands were committed to institutions. few ever returned. evidence proved they were murdered because they were useless to the plans of the nazi conspirators. perhaps the greatest crime against humanity the nazis committed against the jews. the campaign of hate and murder that goes to the heart of the nazi movement.
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>> german citizens are only those of german or related blood willing to serve the german people. marriages between jews and citizens of german or related blood are prohibited. ♪ ss general strupe in charge of the warsaw ghetto in 1943 had learned his nazi lessons well.
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in a secret report he said -- >> ordered on the 23rd of april, 1943, the cleaning out of the ghetto with utter ruthlessness. i decided to destroy and burn down the entire ghetto. jews left their hideout but occasionally remained and jumped out of the windows when the heat became unbearable. life in the sewers was not pleasant after the first week. tear gas bombs were thrown into the manholes and the jews were driven out and captured. countless numbers of jews were liquidated through blasting. the longer the resistance continued, the tougher became
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the members of the ss police and were discharged their duties in an excellent manner. >> little by little, the nazis were reaching what they called the final solution, the total extermination of the jews of europe. hess described the process well. >> we had two ss doctors on duty as auschwitz to examine incoming transports. the prisoners would be marched past one of the doctors who would make spot decisions as they walked by. those who were fit for work were sent to the camp. others were sent to the extermination. children of tender years were x exterminated because they were unable to work. we endeavor to fool them into thinking they were to go through a delousing process. it took from three to 15 minutes to kill the people.
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we knew when the people were dead because their screaming stopped. we usually waited one half hour before we opened the doors and removed the bodies. after the bodies were removed, our special commanders took off rings and extracted the gold from the teeth of the corpses. >> this loot was transferred to secret vaults. the labor chief knew that 6 million jews died in the final solution. in his will he said -- >> anti-semitism we violated a basic commandment of god's creation. it's hard to admit mistakes, but the whole existence of our people is in question. we must have the courage to rid ourselves of anti-semitism.
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god has taught me that. >> defendant frank himself said before this court -- >> we have fought against jews and allowed ourselves to make utterances which were terrible. 1 thousand years will pass and this will not be erased. >> the prosecution rests. >> the defense begins. they call 61 witnesses and introduce 38,000 affidavits on the defendants' dehalbehalf.
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these attorneys were selected by the defendants. many are well-known german lawyers and each now rises to plea acquittal. some make blanket denieals of al guilt. >> some of the defendants had, without doubt, a great influence in those fears which did not interest hitler. they had no power whatsoever in the great decisions concerning war and peace, armistice and peace offers. >> other attorneys lead their clients through a carefully prepared defense.
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>> i now continue. it has also been stated by the prosecution that they would have had no one to carry out the orders to kill if you hadn't made that propaganda and if you hadn't conducted the education of the german people in that sense. >> i don't believe that those who had been given the order to carry out the killings or to pass an order to kill, that those people would have been made to do this by my periodical. hitler's book existed. the contents were the authority, the cause. >> next comes cardenbreuner. you are accused of establishing a camp. the witness testified having seen new this camp and further
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testified having seen you at the inspection of gas chambers and while these chambers were in operation. >> the testimony is wrong. every concentration camp of which i knew anything was established by himler. >> later the prosecution is allowed to cross examine the defendants. rosenberg is questioned. >> did your ministry force people to leave their homes, to go to germany, to work for the german state? >> it is true that force was used and it is not denied that terrible encroachments occurred.
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>> now raeder takes the stand. >> on the 23rd of may, hitler said he would give you an indoctrination on the political situation and he said, we are left with a decision to attack poland at the first opportunity. did you still think that he had no aggressive intentions? >> i believe that for a long time. just as the general said, after hitler had solved the czech problem purely politically, it was hoped he would solve the polish question without bloodshed. i believed that until the last moment, until the 22nd of august. >> keidel is cross examined. >> yesterday, your counsel showed you this order dated 16 september 1941. it said that it is necessary to take immediate cruel measures and that human life in the east is absolutely worthless.
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do you remember the basic idea of the order, that human life costs absolutely nothing? please answer the question. you signed this order with this statement? >> ya. >> do you remember any other reason for such great mortality among soviet prisoners of war? >> no reasons for this mass murder. they seem to be completely wrong. that i do know. >> now vonn ribbontraup. >> are you telling the tribunal you knew nothing about the effect of military pressure on austria? >> i wish to stress again that i knew nothing about military measures and that if i had known something, i wouldn't see any reason not to say so.
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but it is a fact that before and after the hitler meeting, i was so busy taking over the foreign office that i could give slight attention to the austrian problem. >> then gerring is cross examined. >> at the end of the meeting, you used the following words, didn't you? german jewes must forfeit. then the pigs won't commit more crimes. do you still say neither hitler nor you knew of the policy to experiment nature the jews? >> i already have said that not even approximately did i know to what degree this thing took place. >> you did not know to what
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degree? but you knew there was a policy that aimed at the liquidation of the jews? >> no, not liquidation of the jews. i only knew that certain perpetrations had taken place. >> spare takes the stand. >> you were present on april 23, 1945 when hitler received the telegram from gerring suggesting that he take over power. what did hitler say on that occasion? >> hitler was most excited about the contents of the telegram and he expressed himself in a very clear manner. he said that he knew for some time that gerring had failed, that he was corrupt, that he was a drug addict. it was typical of hitler's
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attitude that he followed it up by saying that he can negotiate the capitulation. he stated in an offhand manner it doesn't matter who does it. his disregard for the german nation was expressed in the way he said this. >> after months of examination and cross examination, several defendants make final statements to the tribunal. frank is first. >> i myself speaking from the very depth of my sentiments and from the experiment of five months of this trial want to say this. now that i have gained the last insight into all that which has been committed in the way of dreadful atrocities, i feel a terrible guilt within me. >> funk declares. >> when these measures of terror and violence against jews were
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put up to me, i suffered a nervous breakdown because at the moment it came to my mind with full clearness that from here on the cantastrophe took its cours up to the terrible and atrocious things about which we have heard and about which i knew only in part at the time of my imprisonment. i felt ashamed and guilty at that moment. i feel the same way today. but it's too late. >> now shirock speaks. >> it's my guilt that i educated german youth for a man who committed murdered millionfold. >> schoct is next. >> everything he promised to the german people and to himself he did not afterwards keep. he promised equal rights for all
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citizens and without regard to their capabilities his adherence got privileges before all other citizens. he promised to fight against political lies and together with his minister and by himself he never did anything but disseminate political lies and political fraud. he released criminals and put them into his service. he did everything in a way of not keeping his promises. he deceived the world, germany and me. the tremendous danger contained in this system only became really clear the moment we were approaching the end. everything that has happened during this trial, everything you have seen in the way of orders which were carried out without any hesitation, did after all turn out to be mistaken. that is why this trial must contribute to the prevention of such distorted wars in the future and to the establishment
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of prince pipals for human cooperation. >> keidel again. >> i was not able to prevent what should have been prevented. that is my guilt. i can only wish that out of a clear recognition of the causes, of the disastrous methods and terrible consequences of this war there will arise for the german people a new hope for a better future in the community of nations. >> now frank. >> we call on the german people whose representatives we were to abandon this wave which was doomed to failure and the will
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of justice of god and which is doomed for everyone who may try to follow it anywhere in the world. >> the last defendant to speak is fritcher. >> you of the prosecution did not expect anything good from hitler. you are amazed about the extent of what really happened. but then try to understand the indignation of those who did expect something good from hitler and were betroy ayed. i am one of these betrayed. >> finally, both defense and prosecution sum up their argument es for the tribunal. >> an aggressor can be branded by the world's conscience. that supreme organ of humanity must have not only real but also moral authority.impartial judgm looked at and stand above the
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contesting parties. >> in the name of the united states of america, justice jackson delivers his summation. >> according to the testimony of each defendant, these men saw no evil, spoke none and none was uttered in their presence. if we combine only the stories from the front bench, this is the ridiculous composite picture of hitler's government that emerges. it was composed of a number two man who never suspected the jewish extermination program, although he signed over a score of anti-semitic decrees. a number three man who was merely an innocent middleman transmitting hitler's orders without reading them, like a postman or delivery boy. a foreign minister who knew little of foreign affairs and nothing of foreign policy. a field marshal who issued
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orders to the armed forces but had no idea of the results they would have in practice. a security chief who was of the impression that the policing functions of his gestapo gastap were what on the lines of directing traffic accident. a party philosopher who had no idea of the violence which his philosophy was inciting in the 20th century. a governor general of poland who reigned but did not rule. a fran cone yan has job was to put forth filthy writing of the jews but had no idea anybody would read them. a minister of the interior who knew not even what went on in his own office, much less the interior of his own department, and nothing at all about the interior of germany.
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the president was totally ignorant of what went in and out of the vaults of his bank. to say of these men that they are not guilty, it would be as true to say there has been no war. there are no slain, there has been no crime. >> sir heartily shore cross delivers his summation. >> this trial must form a milestone in the history of civilization. not only marking that right shall in the end triumph over evil, but also that ordinary people of the world and i make no distinction here between friend and foe, are now determined that the individual must transcend the state. the state and law are made for man, that through them he may
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achieve a fuller life, higher purpose. >> the general delivers his summation. >> and when we asking have the charges against the defendants been proved before the court? have the defendants been convicted of their guilt, there is only one answer. their crimes have been proved. neither the statements of the defendants, nor the arguments of the defense were able to refute our grave accusations. it has been impossible to cast doubt on events which actually took place. the truth cannot be challenged. that is the real meaning of this trial. that is the lasting result of our long and strenuous effort. >> in the mean of the french republic, another summation. >> when this international trial is closed and the principle war criminals sentenced, we shall go back to our own countries. the fate of these men now lies
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entirely with your conscience. this is beyond our competence. our task is finished. now it is for you in the silence of your deliberations to listen to innocent blood crying for justice. >> lord justice lawrence, francis bittle, united states, mr. defaber, fenrance. the verdict will be based on the opinion of the majority.
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>> october 1st, 1946, the verdict is delivered by the president of the tribunal. >> of the organizations, the sssd ga staup poe and leadership core are found guilty. the high command and sa and right hand not guilty. as for the individual, gering, guilty of conspiracy, crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. death by hanging.
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rue do rudolph hess guilty of conspiracy and crimes against peace. life imprisonment. guilty of conspiracy, crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. death by hanging. willhelm kitel. guilty of conspiracy, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity. death by hanging. caldenbrener. death by hanging. >> alfred rosenberg, guilty of conspiracy, crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. death by hanging. hans frank. guilty of war crimes and crimes
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against humanity. death by hanging. wilhelm frik, guilty of crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity. death by hanging. julius striker, guilty of crimes against humanity. death by hanging. walter fonk. guilty of crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. life imprisonment. -- not on this indictment, released. karl durnits. guilty of crimes against peace and war crimes. ten years imprisonment. iraq raider, guilty of conspiracy, crimes against peace, and war crimes. life imprisonment.
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balldor fenshera guilty of crime against humanity. 20 years imprisonment. fritz sulko, guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity. death by hanging. alfred yodel. guilty of conspiracy. crimes against peace. war crimes and crimes against humanity. death by hanging. france vanpoppen, not guilty of this indictment. released. albert spare, guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity. 20 years imprisonment. -- guilty of conspiracy, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity. 15 years imprisonment.
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arthur sies inkwaut. guilty of crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity. death by hanging. hans pricher. not guilty on this indictment. released. martin boreman, tried in absence, guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity. death by hanging. >> the trial is over. >> seven begin their prison sentences.
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geurring chooses to die by his own hand. the other ten wait for the gallows. number nuremburg is more than an answer to a question. this trial is part of the great effort to make the peace more secure. it constitutes action of a kind to ensure that those who start a war will pay for it personally. nuremburg stands as a warning to all those who plan and wage
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aggressive war. >> coming up on american history tv, the 75th anniversary of the liberation of the auschwitz concentration camp. that's followed by a u.s. holocaust museum ceremony from january marking international hall exhaust remembrance day. then holocaust scholars on new findings on what happened during world war ii. and later, real america, with the 1948 u.s. army film nuremburg about the first trial holding nazi war criminals. the l t

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