tv American Perspectives CSPAN May 29, 2010 11:00pm-2:00am EDT
any way to prevent the monitor at the time of the incident -- is there any way that the driller -- i know you were not in the consul, but is there any way that there was no indication that something was coming up the well? >> not that i am aware of. >> to the best of your knowledge, there should have been an indication in the consul that something was going wrong? >> there should >> do you ever have a problem with people in the area making too much noise? >> sometimes you get quite a few people in there. but i have the authority to tell them to leave.
i asked them to leave. and everybody has been very cooperative with that. when i tell them that i need quiet, the quiet down. most of the time, when they come in there, they knew to be quiet. >> can we just walked back through, slowly, on the ship, when you are on duty, you say that, when you came on, they were pumping cement. >> they were already pumping cement. >> were they in displacement? >> yes. they were on the rig pumps. lossid you notice any one return? >> no, sir. >> therr was nothing displaced incorrectly? >> no, sir. >> did you notice any gas
cutting the mud or anything coming back into the well? >> no, sir. >> there were comments earlier of a bottoms up. do you know if they did a bottoms up in the changeover? did anybody tell you that? >> i do not know if they have done a poll bottoms up or what. i was not there during that period i know they did circulate. he did tell me that's they circulated. >> would you be monitoring gas? >> yes. >> and you were there during the said assembly? >> yes, sir.
>> was the guy working with you very closely? >> yes. >> at some point, you have to communicate with the alberta and die -- with the halliburton guy. >> yes. >> how? >> i finish what i am doing. halliburton does his thing. heefore i go any further, comes back to me. >> how far to the drillers scheck? >> it is one set of stairs, one flight of stairs. >> so he does with the acid do it as far as setting down wait. >> yes. they do the tests. i can monitor the pressure of the test. indication with halliburton, to.
>> when he was trying to chirac, did you notice any problems? >> no. everything went as planned. >> from your knowledge, when they tested with the halliburton unit, what you observed in your area, was there any issues? >> no, sir. >> when you were pulling out of the whole, did you notice that you were pulling whaet? >> i was not pulling whet. the first strings would be. >> with that be normal? >> yes. -you do not have any slugging te puck to push it down. it keeps coming up.
>> then you tripped in the hole with the displacement string, a mixed. >> yes, sir. you got to lead that's where you would put to the surface plugs. >> i did not get there. >> [unintelligible] >> [unintelligible] >> and you stop the bug that with a running stream. -- you stopped above that with a run in a string. -- you stopped above that with a running string. >> yes, sir. >> did you see any indication of leak off for any issues that would concern you? >> no, sir. >> in your opinion, was it a good test? >> it was a good test.
>> you were probably relieved and you did not make it to the point where [unintelligible] >> yes, sir, i was relieved. >> when you did your handoff, at any of those times, was there any information passed between the two crews of any abnormal conditions that might relate to it will control the event? >> no, sir. >> thank you, very much. >> good morning, sir. the >> the training provided to you -- by the way, thank you for bringing the training with u.s. cars the training history goes.
-- with you as far as the training history does. -- with you as far as the training history goes. training is a pretty important thing to work offshore. the the course that we approved, did it prepare you for the situation on the rig? >> it prepared for a lot. but i do not know that it prepared you for something that major, that the big. >> yes. >> i mean, it helped. it was a good course and it helped. but what we had felt there was too big to handle. -- but what we had out there was too big to handle. >> is there anything in place in the deep water horizon, whether
it be in the derek, in the moon pull, that could help augment people from going into an area and fighting like a fire suppression system? yes, around your counsel where you typically worked? is there a fire system -- around york area where you typically worked? is there a fire suppression system? >> i am not aware of anything right there on the rig floor. >> what i am referring to it is a sprinkler system. you work on the drill floor. re andere anything in thei that might have been installed. >> there are fire stations. you had them on the deck below
>> when you say fire stations, is it a location for a fire extinguisher? >> yes. it has fire extinguishers and hose stations. >> likewise, you ar well control training, it was relatively recent. was that specific to the tug of equipment that you sit behind every day? >> yes. yes, sir, i mean, you have different stacks, but it prepares you for a just about any case. >> you commented about a couple of screens in front of you. what were they? >> yes. my control station is high-tech screens. their computer screens that i am looking at. they have weight indicators and
flow measures and things like that. >> the information that you see on the screens, do they tell you what is going down in the whole or on the rig? >> of both. you sit on the rig, but it is happening down hole. >> if there was something, like a gas bubble, how do you know a cake is happening? is it based on something you see on the screen? >> yes. it is the return flow. it would, then you see a gain. >> those indicators, are they measured, what is actually located on the rig or down hole? >> on the rig.
>> so it is like a lagging indicator. >> but if it happens down hole, you do not see it pierre >> and that is a mile down. >> yes. >> -- you do not see it. >> and that is a mile down. >> yes. >> the training that you got here, at well cap, the tools they give you to run through the scenarios, were they similar to the screen to have there? >> it was not just like the screens i got, but they had everything that my screens have got. >> ok. >> you work on days and mr. anderson was on nights? to relieve you from what? >> mr. revet -- who relieve you
>> 800 feet. 25 stands. i do not know right off the top of my head. >> [inaudible] >> dds1 >> so that the record is clear, [unintelligible] >> yes, sir. >> it is fair to say that you do not know what is in the board of the dot at the time. >> i was not up there at the time, but i know where they were supposed to stop. i know what was supposed to be in there. i do not know what was in there, but -- >> thank you, sir.
>> thank you, sir. >> typically when you are monitoring, it doesn't come to the rise? >> yes, sir. >> did you feel that this will have more ballooning effects than any other well? >> it was a difficult well. i would not say it was worse than others. it was difficult. >> was there any concern addressed from trans ocean or with bp on any type of meetings about the difficulties you were having? >> not that i am aware of. >> do you participate in meetings with the vp? >> i participate in pre-fire meetings. -- pre-tire meetings.
>> ok. >> can i just have a quick clarification. ed1, eds1 and eds2, can you explain that to? >> it is when you have casing. >> do you have to selected that? >> if you have a heavier grade pipe that you cannot scheheer. >> do you have to select the that on your panel? >> yes. >> who does that? >> the engineer. >> does he coordinate with the the driller? >> yes. i would call him going printer into eds and tell him to put us in eds. >> have you ever been in eds 2.
>> [inaudible] if the dealer wants to activate -- if the driller wants to activate eds-2 [unintelligible] >> i do not have to. we make him aware. we are capable of doing it. >> thank you, sir. >> on your eds-1 and eds-2, the hydraulic power for those to function, does that come from the service or the stack -- from the surface or the staff ?utbacck
>> mr. seraile, will you please raise your right hand. >> idea. >> thank you. please be seated. >> the attorney sitting with you represents transition. do you feel comfortable sitting with him? >> yes. >> please state your name and spell your last. >> alan seraile, s-e-r-a-i-l-e. >> prior to becoming the assistant to driller did you hold any other positions of? >> yes. [unintelligible] >> how long have you held the position of assistant to driller? >> about a year.
>> was at all with the deep water horizon? >> yes, sir. >> how long have you been with transition? >> five years. >> can you tell me about your educational background? >> i did not graduate high- school. i quit in the seventh grade or eight great. >> thank you. you received well controlled training recently? >> yes. >> when was that? >> i cannot remember the date. it was recently, this year. >> in 2010? >> yes. >> did it specifically covered deep water drilling? >> yes. >> do you know who provided that training? >> transition.
-- trans ocean. >> how long had you been on your hitched prior to the incident? >> i was out there a week. >> you were on the deep water horizon for 52 hours. >> yes, sir. >> were there any specific problems on that well? >> we had problems before, such as taking a kick and a losing returns. >> when did you take the kick, sir? >> i do not recall. >> do you remember if you were on the rig floor? >> no. it had already taken the choke. >> what time did your tour start?
>> tower started at 11:30 p.m. to 12:00 a.m. >> can you give me a brief rundown of the day, from 11:30 p.m. until the end of your shift on the 20 oth? >> i think we were getting ready -- they were finishing up with the cement job. when they finished with the cement job, we started at the wholwhole. -- the hole. >> did you talk with anyone about what was completed? >> no, sir. >> do you usually do that? >> i talked with my relief. >> did you talk with your relief on the day at the
incident? >> no. >> at 11:30 p.m. the night before, what was discussed at the tower? >> we discussed what was going on. we were getting ready to pick up 3.52 being and to the surface flow. >> at any time, did any vip's come by the rig floor. >> i do not recall. do remember anybody from bp coming to the rig. >> yes, they came to the rig, but they did not come to the rig floor. >> can you tell me what happened up until the time of the incident. >> i went to bed when i was o ff. i called my wife and then i made rounds. >> you were in the sub-sea
office at the time? >> i had just walked out of the office. >> did you discuss any of it with chris pleasant? >> yes, we talked about what was going on. he was on the computer typing in his report on the casing test. >> at the time, was there any talk about potential will control issues? >> no, sir. >> what happened after you left his office? >> i was walking down the hall and i heard the gas venting. all of a sudden, you felt the first explosion. it blew me to the watertight door. >> ok. what happened after that to? >> after that, i walked outside. you could see the fire in the black crowned -- in the
background. >> where was that coming from? >> from the rig fofloor and the starboard side of the rig. >> what did you hear after the initial explosion? did you hear the initial explosion? >> i heard the first explosion -- the first explosion and then vented and gas that prevent then you felt the first explosion. i turned around and i was at the door, just standing there. >> was there a notification not to muster the engine control room? >> no, sir. >> there was not to?
>> no. >> did you hear the second explosion? >> yes, sir. >> how much time as between the first and second explosion? >> a matter of seconds. >> let me back up a little bit. how much time was between the venting and the first explosion? >> do you know? >> i do not know. i cannot recall. >> did you hear any engines revving up after the explosion? >> no, sir. >> anytime on the deep water horizon, was the bp locked out at any time? >> not that i know of. >> did that happen on any rig that you know of? >> no.
>> were you aware of any stat issues or any leaks or any problems with the function? >> no, sir. >> if there was, would you have been made aware of that? >> i am pretty sure i would have been made aware of that. >> the you have authority to activate the eds? >> only the senior tube pushers and the sub-sea. normally, when you displace the riser, what is the typical flow path from the riser back to the reagarig? does it then go to a mini flood pit or to a muscle?
>> it goes to the pit. >> as the assistant to driller, what is your role in the cabin? >> i am supposed to find out what is going on and do a daily checklist on the flow line returns and all of that. >> are you monitoring any thing on the dollar's consul at any time? >> yes, sir. -- on the driller's console at any time? >> yes, sir. >> what is it? >> pit voumes. >> i have no further questions. thank you. >> during the day, your primary
responsibility is to monitor the screen with the pit volumes? >> yes, sir. >> do you physically go there and talk to people and see if there are any issues? >> yes, sir. >> who do talk to? >> to the hand himself. >> are you comfortable with the procedure that you use for maintaining its volumes and controls? >> yes. >> all the days that you are on the rigs, were you monitoring volumes? was there anything abnormal or did you have to change the procedure in any way? >> no, sir. we just monitored off of our screens and verified with our deckhand. >> were you aware of any gains
that had occurred during that time when you're on the tower? >> no, sir. >> there was nothing through the trip tank? >> no, sir. >> were you aware of any unusual pressures that may have occurred while you were on the tower? >> no, sir. >> thank you. >> mr. seraile >> he is bringing your statement around -- >> mr. seraile, he is bringing your statement around. you were in the sub-sea office watching tv. you had turn the channel to the
rig floor. u.s. and the sub-the hand what was going on the floor. if you asked the sub-sea and what was on the floor. >> yes. >>i asked chris, "what are they doing?" he said, "i do not know. -- "i do not know." >> was it lower wasn't shooting up? " no, it was shooting up. -- >> no, it was shooting up. after the water came up, i saw mud come up. you could see the block was covered in mud. i turned to him again and i
asked him again what was going on. he did not know. he left out and then i left out. >> let me follow-up on that. could you tell if the water was coming out of a drill pipe or something on the floor or just in the general area? >> it was not through the drill pipe, i do not think. you could actually see the rotary table. you could see the water spring straight up. >> so there was so much water that your visibility wasn't scared? >> yes. >> thank you. -- your visibility was obscured? >> yes. >> thank you. >> are you familiar with the transition disc -- with the trans ocean disconnect procedures?
>> i am not supposed to do an eds until an oim is present. >> ok, thank you. >> good morning, sir. >> good morning. >> would you characterize yourself from the driller and the other fellows up on the floor as a team? >> yes, sir. >> how many people are on the drill floor working at any time, on the pump tower? the driller, yourself, and -- >> the driller, myself, and other aid the -- another ad, and forehands. >> -- and floor hands.
>> i think you actually attended the school at the same time as the other gentleman. when you're going through that training, d you practice flow control -- do you practice flow control as a team? >> it is based on an individual's performance. >> during the training and going through those scenarios, you have to do something, a move some bounds, and things of that nature. >> yes, sir. >> but you do not go through those scenarios with other peoples with you, as you might on the drill floor? if you were at work, other people would be helping with the the well control issue. >> yes, others would be helping with the will control issue. -- the well control issue. >> so in the trading, it is just
yourself. >> the training is with a couple of other guys. >> so you work together as a team to control it? >> yes, sir. >> do you typically go to the training as 18? you do it on your of time. >> yes, we do it -- do you typically go to the training as a team? you do it on your off time. >> yes, we do it on our off time. >> when you were down with chris in the sub-sea, do you know what he was doing? >> he was on the computer putting in his last casing tests. i do not know if it was a good test or what. >> did he tell you if he was doing anything else? >> no. >> de ucd chief made come in? >> yes come up -- >> did you see the chief made come in? >> yes.
>> did he tell you that the cement doubles going to be deleted? >> no, sir. >> did he tell chris -- going to be delayed and? >> no, sir. >> did he tell chris? >> i believe so. >> when david came in and told chris that it would be delayed, what did you all do then? is that when this all started? >> that is when all of this started happening. >> thank you. i appreciate it. [unintelligibl] >> no questions, thank you, capt.
>> no questions. >> bp? >> are there any questions that you'd like to offer at this time, sir. >> no, sir. >> if we ask you to come back for further questioning, will you make yourself available? >> yes. >> thank you. you were dismissed. >> thank you, sir. we will take a 10 minute break and resume at 10:45 a.m. thank you. thank you.
hand? a false statement given to an agency kathy united states is punishable -- of the united states is punishable. do you swear the testimony you will, give is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help y god? >> yes. >> are you represented by counsel? >> yes. [laughter] >> yes, sir. >> mr. morales, you are aware that a representative seated next to represents transocean, and you are fine with that. could you state your name and spell your live last?
>> heber morales, m-o-r-a-l-e-s >> can you stick your current position? roustabout. >> have had any experience prior to that? >> no, sir. >> can you briefly describe your responsibility? >> my responsibility is to assist the crane crew in cleaning, maintenance, and anyone else that may need assistance in other departments. also, rescue teams, fire response team.
>> how long have you the-- have you been on the rig prior to the date of the incident? >> since the thursday before i cannot recall the date, but the thursday before that. >> as a roustabout, did you ever make her way to the rate floor? >> everyone's in a while just for safety meetings -- every once in a while, just for seeking meetings. >> were you familiar with the equipment? >> no. >> can you give us your best recollection of the day? >> yes, sir. i got up. i want to eat. >> what time did you wake up? i cannot recall. around the clock in the morning. -- are around 9:00 in the morning. i went to eat at about 130
p.m. -- to cut 30 a.m.. after that, we have a pre-power meeting. i waited till about 11:30 to start working. as far as the work, we were boating on a supply , until about 6:00, when we went to eat lunch. after that, we saw the other crew that was working on the crane, replacing the reel, if they we done, or needed to be relieved. being that they were almost done, they told us to go about whatever else we had going on. we had a little bit of cleaning.
after that, it was probably somewhere around 8:30 at night, as i can recall. after that, w started making up tools for dril-quip, with a bucket machine, which is a tool that puts tools together. after that, after a few lifts were me, a few tools were put together, that thione at dawn car and the dril-quip represent -- that is one don clark and and the dril-quip rep -- i am not sure, a question came up, as i recall, and don clark went up to
the drill fuller. around the same time, i started seeing that much had started to come -- that mudd had started coming out of sowhere in the raid floor. i'm not sure where. at the first site, i was not sure it was mud. after a little while, i could not recognize the smell. hydraulic oil is pretty noticeable. i am not sure what it was. another roustabout that was with me had been working on other offshore rigs. he pretty much told me we're
having alowout. , not having the experience, i was like, let's see what will come about. as we were sitting there, seeing what was happening, what the drill floor was when to do, we noticed more and more mud coming out. it seemed that it stopped for a while, very briefly. then, it came out with much force. it was a much louder noise. the was a lot more coming out. even mud flowing out of the rig floor. at that point,, we moved as far
away back as we could. after that, the lights went out. when the lights went out, the first explosion happened. i was able to stand behind a post that is used when we store the riser. as i waited, the second explosion happened. that is when i saw the fire. that is when i decided to go to the life boat. i decided to go to the front. at that te, my first thought waso go to the firefighting equipment. i was not the only one there when i got there.
as i was on time in my boots, i noticed i was the only one there. i looked up at the desert again. by that -- at the end derrick again, and by that time, i knew we would not be able to fight this fire. i put my boots back on, and made my way back to the life boat. when i got there, there were other members of the roustabout group that thought the same as i did, there was no way we require to be ab to put the fire out. -- there was no way we're recalling to be able to put the fire out. awaited further instructions. just a few seconds after that, maybe mense, i cannot recall, we were instructed to board the
boats. we sat there waiting for whoever had to be on the life boats. we were lowered to the water. we went aboard. from then on, we made our way to shore. . . >> when you saw what ever you saw coming out, where were you? or whatever you saw coming out of the gasser, where were you >> right there. >> you know what a de-gasser
is? >> yes. down, and that is where i saw the mud coming out. >>an i take this? >> yes sir, if you don't mind. after you heard the bang from the gasser, how much later was that first explosion? >> i cannot really tell you. i do not recall, but it was a few seconds. >> did you hear any other noises prior to the first explosion, outside of what you're hearing coming from the gasser? >> no sir. >> how much later after the first explosion washe second one? >> just seconds. >> how long did it take you to
get from the location that you just indicated to where you were le to try to fight the fire? >> probably about 10 seconds if i had to guess. i just ran out there. >> do you remember any communication orders, where to muster, or how to fight the fire? >> as i ran out onto the rig, the alarm, they were saying something over the intercom, but to tell the truth, a really wasn't paying attention. after training every sunday, you know where to go. the fire was obvious, so, i knew where the fire was at. i did not receive a orders from anybody. >> why did you g to the lifeboats? >> that is where you go if you
are primary or secondary. if your office tower, you're required to go to the back -- if you are off-tower, you are required to go to the back. >> did you notice any damage to the bk of the vessel? did you see the other life vessels and? >> i could not see them from where i was standing. >> that is all i have for you, sir, thank you. >> i just want to follow up on that a little bit. you were standing behind some sort of stahion? >> yes, sir. >> i know is -- i know it is hard to remember, but did you notice any flying debris? >> i heard something flying. i could not tell youhat it was. but as i was standing there, at something hit the deck.
>> did something hit the stanchion a word standing behind? >> i heard -- did something hit the extensionou were standing behind? >> i heard something, but i did not know what it was. >> could you tell the direction of the explosion, or location or direction of which way the explosion occurred or came from? >> the first one, as i can recall, because i was directly looking at the deck, it was up and towards the back. the second one i cannot recall. at that point i was already behind the stanchion. >> was there any kind of
particular/or colored lig or anything that stuck in your mind -- any kind of particular flash or colored light or anything that stuck in your mind? >> the first explosion that i saw was yellowish, but after that it was a blue color. >> and the second one? >> i was not able to see. i was behind the post. >> thank you f your testimony. >> the good morning. you testified that you were involved in operations with eight supply boat. could you -- with a supply boat. could you testify what type of work you did? >> unloading equipment. >> can you tell us what you
unloaded? >> bayh host. >> did you participate in setting -- >> a hose. >> did you participate in tting that up? >> know. no. >> how would you characterize this particular arrangement? was it normal in your experience? >> a pump hand is the one who takes care of all that. as a roustabout, we just take down the hose, and that is a bit. >> do you recall when the mud transfer started? >> no. >> do you recall or have any recollection of when it may have ended? >> no. >> i have no further questions at this point. >> good morni, r.
after you were protecting yourself from the debris behind the stanchion, did you see fire? >> yes. >> where did you run a first? >> to the front of the rig. >> you said that was a fire locker? >> yes. >> what were your duties and responsibilities once you got to the fire locker? >> to put on the fire suit and wait for the shipmate to come up and direct us. as well as the crane operators. >> i think you said you did something with your boots? >> i untied my boots and try to put on at the fire suit. i kind of remembered, or noticed, that there was nobody around. it made me get up and look around.
i notice that it was too big of a fire to fight. >> so you started getting dressed like you typically do on sundays for a fire drill? >> yes, sir. >> did you get both of your boots on? how far along and did you get? >> no, sir. i untied both of my boots and, like i said, i . so, i looked around. after i tied my boots, i want to go see what the plan was. that is when they told me that we were trying to muster for evacuation. >> when you went to find out wh the plan was, where did you go to find that out and coup d'etat to? do you recall? >> i talked -- and who did you
talk to? do you recall? >> i talked to another one of the crew members. he had a fire fighting and jacket on. i thought we were going to go down to the lifeboats. there is a stairwell that leads tohat. the reason i talked to him is that i knew that a person had been ie starboard crane. not knowing what had happened to him, i was telling him that we should check on him. he had the fire suit on, or the jacket. he said, just go to the musters station, and he would check on him. >> what was your life but
number? >> boat number two. -- your lifeboat no.? >> boat number two. >> halliburton? >> no questions. >> dril-quip? >> no questions. >> that you, sir. >> is there any question that we did not ask you or any information relevant to this investigation that you would like to share at this time? >> no, sir. >> in the future, if we need you to testify, will you make yourself available? >> yes, sir.
>> coming up, will show you a number of commencement speeches, beginning with true breeze, speaking at loyola university. followed by lucy beckham, a 2009 high school principal of the year at the college of charleston graduate school. after that, the first female president of chile at american university here in washington. later, shanel poole at indiana state university. >> you can connect with us on twitter, facebook, and youtube and sign up for scheduled alert e-mail's at "the communicators.
>> tomorrow, a debate between the five republican candidates in nevada running in the june 8 primary. the candidates will be seen at 6:30 eastern here on c-span. >> tomorrow on c-span, president obama attends a campaign fund- raising event for california democratic senator barbara boxer, running for a fourth term. that is at 7:15 a.m. eastern here on c-span. >> now, drew reece, quarterback of the new orleans saints addresses the graduates of loyola university. he talks about the decision to
move their after hurricane katrina. from the louisiana superdome, this is about 15 minutes. [applause] >> thank you. what an honor it is to be here. thank you to father wilds, distinguished academic, it is deemed trusties, guest, and of course, the 2010 graduating class here at loyola university. i will be honest, i was a little nervous about using distinguished an esteemed in the same sentence, because i thought it would come out extinguished. that is not the description of wanted to use. certainly you are all
distinguished and esteem, and it is an honor to be here. we have a lot in common. most of us came to new orleans around the same time, the spring or summer of 2006, when that was not the most popular thing to do. for meat, i felt like coming to new orleans -- for me, i felt like it was a calling, and there must have been something drawing you hear as well, a much stronger force that we cannot necessarily describe other than we knew we belong here. now, four years later, we can reflect back and:3wf we can reft back and say we were part of something special. the work is not done yet, but we were part of something special. we have watched the city come back stronger than ever. we have seen the people come back with more passion and determination than before. we have all been part of the
super super bowl championship. [applause] we cannot leave that one out. the matter where you are from or where you go from here, keep your lens close to your heart -- keep new orleans close to your heart, and remember what you were part of, and know that we all are now linked together forever. as i looked out at the young men and women graduates of loyola university class of 2010, i am so excited for you all. what you are about to experience will be eye opening, certainly rewarding, challenging at times. they say that experience is what you gain when you don't get what you want.
i can promise you that over the next few years, you'll gain experience. he will not always get what you want. he will face adversity, but know that the sky is the limit as to what you can all accomplish. there are some of you that will be doctors, lawyers, politicians, writers, artists, teachers, coaches, inventors, and maybe one of you will even own an nfl franchise someday. i know another loyola university member who does, and that is mr. tom benson. i can tell you this, your best years are yet to come, but that does not mean it will be easy. in fact, i can guarantee you
that you will face adversity along the way, and for most of you, it will be the toughest thing you have ever had a face in your life. i will also tell you that every successful person you meet or talk to will say that it was because of that adversity that they were given the opportunity to reach new heights that they never thought possible. for me, it was my shoulder injury back in 2005, december 31, 2005. i was playing for the san diego and charters. i dislocated my right soldier going into an off-season in which i did not have a contract and did not have a job. when you have that kind of injury at the quarterback position, they are not that many people that come calling or knocking. at that time, i thought this is probably the worst thing they could have ever happened to me. but now, i look back at it for years later and i say it was probably one of the best things that ever happened to me. [applause]
because it brought me to new orleans. there are many others that have faced that adversity and been no similar circumstances are situations. i will be be a few examples. steve jobs, you might know him, the ceo of apple. he was adopted as a young baby. he went to college and dropped out after his first year. he ended up then inventing or starting apple, along with a partner of his, when he was 20 years old, in his basement. by age 30, he was fired from his position as ceo when he had a falling out with his partner and with the board at apple. for the next few years, there
was some soul-searching for him, but in the end, he ended up starting another company. you might have heard of it, pixar animation, which ended up getting bought out by disney for almost $8 billion. then another company that apple ended up buying of years later for $500 million, and he was right back for he was 20 years before as the ceo of apple, and there he is today, doing some absolutely remarkable things. what i have heard him say is that it was that adversity he faced when he was kicked to the curb so to speak from a company that he founded where he really gained strength and yet more motivation to go forth and do remarkable things, that he would not have been able to accomplish that he not gone through what he went through at age 30. another example, ellen
degeneres. we all know ellen. she grew up right down the road. she used to go to saints games at halftime at the old tulane stadium. i have heard ellen talk about the moment when she came out and how she was gay. at that point, she was having a pretty successful career. she was having a pretty successful career. once she announced that, for three years, she was out of work. people would not give her the opportunities that they had before. to her, that was the toughest thing she ever had to go through. but in the end, she was being
true to herself, and she then received a small opportunity to perhaps host her own tv show, her own talk show. i think we all know how that has gone. she is perhaps one of the most successful talk show hosts in history, and certainly by being from new orleans, we love her to death. we know what she has meant to this community and to the country and to the world. she is a source of inspiration, and somebody who would sit here and tell you that had she not gone through what she went through during those three years, that she would not be where she is today. so once again, the lesson being that adversity is an opportunity. adversity will make you stronger. adversity will mulch into the person you are meant to be.
you all probably remember the onside kick at the super bowl, right? how could we forget that. i will tell you the story behind that. the super bowl. i remember john payton came into the meeting at the beginning of that preparation for the super bowl and said we have an onside kick we are putting in to play. it is not a matter of if we are going to run it, it is when we are going to run it. it is going to happen. sure enough, it did. and it worked. thank god. [laughter] so the lesson there, it is not a matter of if you will face adversity in your life, but when. so when adversity knocks on your door, sees it as an opportunity, for that adversity is being put
in your life for reason. it is god's way of providing you with the strength and the tools to face future challenges and to mold you into the person that he meant for you to be. in the end, it is this adversity that will allow you to accomplish things in life that you originally thought were reserved only for your dreams. my second piece of advice to you is this. finally love to do, and then figure out a way to get paid for it. [laughter] sounds pretty simple, doesn't it? find what you love to do and then figure out a way to get paid for it. some of you out there think you know exactly what you want to, and then there are others who probably have no idea. i can tell you this. that is okay, because in the year from now, those that think they know exactly what they want to do might not have any idea at that point. those that don't know what to
do, you may have found your passion by then. i point is, be patient, and don't settle. the only way to do great work is to love what you do. as with every matter of the heart, you will know when you find it. my third piece of advice is to approach every opportunity with an attitude of gratitude and a mind-set that whatever you encounter, he will leave it better than when you arrived. we have all been part of that here in new orleans, but why stop here? in everything you do in life, leave your mark. be a great steward of the community and to society and to whatever business you are involved in, and understand that part of your purpose in life is to believe whatever you touch better than when you found it. so leave your mark and leave it better than when you found it.
no. 4, life goes fast. i was sitting in your seats 10 years ago. it is hard to think that was 10 years ago, because it feels like it was yesterday. i guess my point there is, don't forget to enjoy the moment, and reflect back on the journey from time to time. for meat, standing on that podium after week -- 4 me, standing on that podium after we won the super bowl was one of the defining moments of my life. what made even more special was the fact that i was holding my son, and the reflection on everything that we had been through as a city, as a team, to get to that point, and as we
watched the confetti come down and world champions come across the jumbotron, and looking at the of who dat nation just going crazy, beads lying everywhere, we recognize what a journey that had been and how special that was. there is no city, no organization, no group of people that deserve it more. i promise you that. [applause] but the journey is not over. don't forget to enjoy the little things in life. sometimes you get going so fast. i feel like the last three months have been like that for me.
but don't forget to enjoy the little things in life. watching the sunset with the one that you love, taking a walk in audubon park, sitting in rocking chairs on the front porch, watching the street cars go by, throwing the ball with your child out and the front yard -- out in the front yard. you work too hard not to enjoy those little things, so enjoyed the little things. my last piece of advice is don't forget why you were put on this earth. the mayor mentioned this earlier. we were all put on this earth to serve others. sometimes the more successful you get, people tend to forget that. it becomes more about how they can serve you as opposed to how you can serve others. so don't forget, no matter how
successful you become, to serve others. as you all sit here on graduation day, i believe everyone can agree that we have all been blessed with some great opportunities in our lives. the appreciative and respectful of those opportunities and never taken for granted. with that mind-set, just think about being able to give back what has been given to you. take the time to make a difference in the life of somebody less fortunate. it is amazing that the more generous you are and the more you choose to serve others, the happier you will be. and now, for the words you have been waiting for, in closing, i would like to leave you with a quote. we are going to finish strong, don't worry. [applause]
we don't know any other way, so here we go. in closing, i want to leave you with a quote, and i could have chosen any profound quotes, but i am choosing one for my grandfather. he is 85 years old and still lives on a ranch, herding cows and east texas. i heard all the time from him when i was growing up, according to my grandpa, there are three types of people in this world. there are those that make it happen. there are those that watch it happen, and then there are those that wake up one day and say what the heck happened? [laughter] so which one are you? that is what he would tell me. so i leave you today by first saying congratulations to the 2010 graduating class of loyola university.
and now, let's go make it happen. [cheers and applause] >> now, lucy beckham, the 2009 high school principal of the year, addresses the college of charleston graduation commencement. she discusses the value of education. from charleston, south carolina, this is about 10 minutes. >> i think when one asked what makes the school great, the obvious answer is, it takes
commitment and hard work from all the stakeholders. we have some of the best teachers, students, and parents in the country. when you add incredible community support, the end result is an award winning school. the funny thing for me is that when i began my career, i had no ambitions to be the national principle of the year. i was excited about being a teacher, and i will have to admit, i taught one of the board members sitting here, in fact, the one who is sitting to my right. she did quite well back then. as a student at the college of charleston 40 years ago, i was very fortunate to be praised for my -- to be placed at a high school realm a corner. father kelly, the principal, offered me a position as a math teacher. he asked if there was any mass of the bout would prefer not to teach. i said geometry. over the summer, i got my teaching assignment.
the only subject on it was geometry, and it was every. . needless to say, i had to study geometry books. i got help from experienced math teachers, including my mother. i tried to turn myself into a good geometry teacher by august. the next year, father kelly said in a schedule will be all geometry and one algebrai. it met at the old immaculate conception school, about eight blocks away by car. ",2ñ%ncboth buildings were on e schedule. each day, after teaching a section of geometry, durg the class exchange, i would run down three flights of stairs, to the parking lot, to my car, and drive down the seet as fast as i could without getting a ticket, into the other building, top two flights of stairs, into the classroom, pick up my chalk and begin.
great shape i had to do that because it was best for the kids. they needed a math teacher, and that principle thought i was the bought -- the one who could best handle it. i learned some important lesso that helped me through the rest of my career. i've learned that persistence and determination and flexibility are critical for suess in any field,ut especially in education. that has never been truer than it is today, as we face what is the real crisis in our country's public education system. for the next few minutes, i would like to talk to you about this crisis and what all of us can do to help. on the state and national level, we have far too many elected officials and citizens who seem to have a "wt's in it for me" attitude about our public schools. -- for me" attitude about our
public schools. some of them seem to be blinded by self-interest, or they are under the interest of special interest groups. they fail to see the connection between a strong system of public education and the future of america as a whole. they are focusing on what is going wrong, and ignoring the many successes. this type of thinking is at best misguided, and at worst it endangers the security and prosperity of our country. when people say the children are our future, it is the truth. children across this nation, from all sorts of backgrounds and circumstances -- the quality of their education and opportunities available to them should not be limited by their race, their family income, or there's a code -- their zip code. fi years ago, i was the mentor for a young man who led been
raised in generational poverty. his principal called to ask me to look out for him. he said he was a quiet kid, but one of the brightest in his class. keep abreast of the story. he lived in a small, -- he told me the rest of the story. he lived in a small, dilapidated home on the edge of town. the family had no car and no access to public transportation. his dad was dead. his mom never came to a meeting because she had no way to get there. doing homework was not an option. there was no quiet place to study and barely a place to sleep. he had missed the basic social experience that we all take for granted. going out to a restaurant and ordering from a menu, taking a car trip with a family. i learned more about the issues of poverty and social class and their impact on children from my relationship with michael than i
ever did in any course or seminar. although he was intelligent, the obstacles he faced were massive. he did that -- he did graduate from high school last year. it was a great day. he was the first member of his family to do so. he quickly found that having a high school diploma is not enough. after five months of looking for a job, to no avail, while attending community college, he opted to enter the u.s. army and hopes to go to college later. he understands that, to compete for good jobs in the world today, hmust have post secondary education. that is the new reality for every high school student in america. had it not been for the teachers who were willing to tutor and nurture and encoage him, michael, today, woulbe another dropout. as a nation, we cannot afford to fail the childrenike michael who desperately need a good educion to bre the cycle of property -- poverty.
providing adequate and stable funding for our schools is a national crisis, a problem in every state. cutting instructional days and letting our teachers go, canceling the arts and aletics programs that are being considered now -- these are awful ideas. [applause] if that is where we end up, then we will have failed these children and not given them the quality of education and opportunities that they need and deserve. please understand that america's economic forecast is dependent upon the quality and the skill of the work force. we're always only one generation away from a bright future or a great decline. on a trip to washington last fall, i visited the home of thomas jefferson. he was one of the visionary
founding fathers of this nation, and the principal author of the declaration of independence. his writings make it clear that he envisioned a strong system of public education as being critical to the success of this country. describe the system of education which would serve every citizen, chest and poorest -- he described a system of education which would serve every citizen, richest and poorest. he believed having an educated citizenry was required for the preservation of our liber. this crisis is simple and the solution is simple. ea of us and every citizen in america passed to actively seek ways that we can do our part to support our country by supporting public education. we all had a role to play. those of you who are entering the education field willave the privilege of molding future
americans. decide that you will always do what is best for your students, even if it is difficult for you personally. chooseo have a positive attitude, regardless of how many flights of stairs you may be asked to run, or if your teacher at the site and -- teaching at a summit is not what you wanted. be a blessing -- teaching assignment is not what you wanted. be a blessing. remember, teaching is a calling. it is missionary work. you have an opportunity to impact lives. be the teacher that you remember to your students. for those of you who do not plan to enter the education field, please do not thinkou are off the hook. .
on behalf of the children, i want to thank you, because you are making a huge difference. finally, there is another way that all of you can contribute, and that is by letting your voice be heard. speak up for our schools. learn about the candidates running for office and choose those who support public education. be careful, most of them say they do. boat in every election. let me say that again. vote in every election. don't miss one. be an advocate always for the children. we are so blessed to live in this great country, but we endanger our liberty and our prosperity without a strong system of public education for all of our children. please go out and do your part and make a difference for those children. god bless you, graduates, as you take on new roles in our society. god bless your families and
friends who are here today and who have helped get you to this point, and god bless america. thank you. [applause] >> now, the first female president of chile addresses the graduates of the american university service school. from washington, this is about 15 minutes. >> dean goodman and the class of a 2010 and all of your familyntr your kind words. please send me because i might
need them now that i am looking for work. i wish to thank of the american university for this incredible honor. you have bestowed an honorary doctorate upon me. i am honored and i speak on behalf of the the millions of countryman and countrywoman. our people have struggled to rebuild a democracy and we are so proud. the people of today struggled after one of the most destructive earthquakes in recent history. throughout chilean history, we have overcome challenges. allow me to and read my appriation because this university that includes chilean students, professors, and the dean had been involved with the struggle for and strengthening
of democracy and human rights in chile and all over the world. i am pleased to learn you have recently established a center for latino americans which will undoubtedly be a catalyst for deeply intellectual collaborations between your academy, community, and ours. i am proud to accompany you in the joys and happiness of this ceremony. i want to extend my special congratulations to all the students who are graduating today. that may extend congratulations to your parents and families. graduates, please join me in expressing your support for your friends and family. [applause] graduating from college is a bit like leaving the presidency. you look back and reflect with
pride on the hard work and the things you have accomplished. the most valuable lesson lies in what you have learned about yourself. you have the ability to work through the night and still be in top form tomorrow. leaving college, you like me, look forward to the future with optimism that you are not sure what that future holds. some of you may seek emploent, some that may go on to continue your studies. remember that the past you choose today will help guide your future but it will not determine it. when will help you reach your goal is hard work, perseverance, and a bit of luck. in my case, life has taken many unexpected turns. i studied resident -- i studied medicine and became president.
when the nicest has been able to share this milestone in your life. for this, i think you. graduates coming have earned your degrees and deserve a celebration. that is the good news. the bad news is that now comes the hard part because you have been given the tools and now is the time to go out and change the world. it is a world that expects much from you.3 regional challenges, economic crisis around ago, and a few difficulties in america. the financial crisis is the worst in the last 60 years and has a serious effect and is starting to recover. we must ask ourselves what we have learned from this crisis. first, the crisis was a result
of an extended absence of international political leadership. we lack the will to act on the many problems a globalization was expanding. it has been ignored for so long. the international economic crisis than we have endured since 2008 has become an example of the cost of globalization without rules. they believed it could be managed with a laissez-faire attitude and that the market would replace policy. we must learn this lesson. if we do not, humanity will face much larger problems in the future with many other baubles that will burst. the best example is global warming. the main challenge for the international community is to learn to help the global problem. as a rt, we need to design a
global social and political contract based on a new political paradigm whose aim is a collective action carried out five strong states capable of generating comprehensive relations that are sure and governance for the 21st century. that means one thing. must take multilateralism seriously. we cannot continue things as we have before. we must go ahead with the task that has been proposed. it points toward the viable path for improving this. we must coordinate fiscal policies and avoid imbalances. we must strengthen relations in order to avoid another global financial crisis. we must reform multilateral institutions. if we do not do this together, they will not be able to do and
alone. the international community is moving in this direction, but the truth is tha we are only at the beginning. you may wonder why a former president of chile is so concerned with this. first of all, everything is connected and we are all connected. the fact is that the tension between the paradigm of deregulation and the need to generate the regulations to ensure an ability has been a recurring theme in our democracies around our region. during the 1980's and 1990's, they flourished. many thought that democracy was here to stay. since then, we have observed how many doctors' fees have been unable to generate as expected. democracy faces a problem. democracies from the 1980's and
1990's have been lost in a world recession. let america has not been immune to this global phenomenon. on the one hand, this is the longest democratic stance in history. during the last 25 years, there have been 20 interruptions of the legitimately elected governments. until honduras, we have not seen a situation like this since the cold war. the more reason democratic terruption [inaudible] defending theark receive and searching for dlogue to solve political crisis is much better than when generation ago. take for example the response of
the union of south american nations, the 12 countries of south america, as we try to avoid a breakdown of democracy dung the crisis of 2008 or during the crisis in honduras. even so, the organization of democracy in latin america requires much more. it requires an understanding that democratic rules are totally and absolutely essential but they are not enough. we must pay attention to what the people think, how they experience of democracy, and what we can get from it. they never forget what others sometimes fail to remember. abraham lincoln reminded us 150 years ago that democracy is the government of the people but it also must by the people and for e people. this requires the socialization of organizations.
without a doubt, civil liberties and respect for human rights are the essence of democracy. guarantees for an individual for freedom of thought, religion, of the press, and association must be respected and also the freedom to live without fear. although in the entire continent, we respect civil rights and individual guarantees. in many places, there is the pressure from organized crime. this is why if we wish to consolidate and improve democracy, we must also defeat organized crime, corruption, inefficient judicial systems. when he spoke at this university, the american university, almost 50 ars ago, and i will quote, "where ever we
are, we must all in our daily lives live up to the age-old faith that peace and freedom of together. in too many of our cities and today, the piece is not to cure it is -- because freedom is not secure." let us bolster the freedoms. once we are sure to move forward to creating a format for public participation and citizen involvement. even if this means less power, which traditionally has been so powerful in america, let us not be afraiof giving up power because in reality we are not giving it up but we are giving it back. public apathy and the eroding democracies. public input and participation results in more efficient public policies.
keeping in min that democracy is the government for the people, let us ensure that democracy provide citizens with basic social needs. especially in latin america where the social dimension was not given the same thoughts that the modernization had. as a result, in many cases, we ended up eroding those democracies that we worked so hard to rebuild. during that time, the region's microeconomic management did improve creating a six year period of economic growth and bringing 37 million land americans out of property. that improvement has not been insufficient but it has stopped altogether. this was due to the international economic crisis. as a result, we run the risk of debilitating.
recent numbers are alarming. it has increased to 62 million people. in 2009, the number of unemployed people in increased 3.9 million from the previous year. this is why today with all of the energy, and democracy that makes sense with and not just a privileged few. we cannot afford to keep waiting for a society that enjoys civil liberties, equal rights, and equal opportunities. we need to go beyond handouts for the poor and towards the more universal and caring scheme of the modern welfare state. this requires a great deal of political. it requires sitting in the good times to have something to fall
back on. that is what we did. insuring social rights over time and not having conditions like today. this is not easy. it is even harder in times of crisis. the challenges are formidable but not insurmountable. many countries have shown that it can be done and we are one of them. we reduced poverty from 40% to 13.7% between 1990 and 2006. when the prices -- with the price of copr was high when it was most needed, we were ableo increase social standing by seven. % -- by 7.8%. we did have a fiscal stimulus plan to help increase jobs.
what this shows is that one can -pbe popular without being [unintelligible] [applause] it is possie to ensure minimum standards of welfare for our people so thatemocracy remains alive in our continent. as the democracy can improve standards of living, it may not happen right away but gradually and noticeably changes to a court in the degree that keeps the hope for democracy alive. my friends of the american university, let me conclude with a call for optimism of the future of latin america and the relationship between our region and the uned states. despite all of its difficulties, latin america has began to quickly overcome the crisis. we havto continue good macroeconomic management. there is a growing conviction that counter it -- cyclical
policies are possible. this is being carried out with very few exceptions by democracies. imperfect as they all are, but democracies nevertheless. during our seven regional meetings, we have reports of building dialogue and understanding. wherever possible, we reach agreements on those issues. i have no doubt that this role is not only desirable but viable. this year, as many of us celebrate the bicentennial of our independence, but americans want to embark and this road together, and that america building on those 200 years of friendship that stretches, "from the piece of the buffalo for the pommel the sounds of la's and and the story of antarctic lights."
thank you very much and congratulations again to the class of chita's intend. congratulations. [applause] >> now, and address at university of indiana. this is about 15 minutes. to indiana state university, nothing in my life was going right. i was a mess personally and financially. alcohol was a problem for my dad that i wanted to fix. i could not fix it. instead i became an angry, rebellious, and find it teenager who would listen to no one. i was eventually kicked out of school and arrested and labeled a juvenile delinquent. as a child with a criminal record, i had nowhere to turn.
indiana state university has been the rock of my life. coming here not only changed my life and set me on a path, but itaved me from a life of destruction. i was uncertain which way to go in august 2005. one direction was to enroll at ise new -- indiana state. it was special. my acceptance resulted in love and an abundance of resources including faculty and administrators who care for students in their need. as a first-generation college student, indiana state has become my safe haven, my place of restoration. it is not located in the fanciest cit nor is it
perfect, but the environment of indiana state and the people surrounding it have allowed me to grow as well as find peace and shelr. the university has provided me with mentors, resources, leaders, and teachers all of whom have inspired me. because of indiana state, but we, the css of 2010 graduating seniors, are confident in our professional choices. we have learned of leadership skills from serving in a variety of traditions. our experiences have provided us with the ability to master or tackle any challenges of life. our dreams and goals incorporate the many blessings, teachings, and life lessons we have experienced at indiana state i also know that i am qualified and prepared for a life of service. for example, for my work in college, i have been able to
found and serve as the director of my own nonprofit organization, the lamb, gorgeous ladies acting maturely. -- glam, gorgeous ladies acting maturely. indiana state has befriended me and other students with professional and life services to be able to do research, explore and steady policy, and influence social change. through the indian state study abroad program, i was able to travel to guadalajara, mexico. the opportunity provided to me by the internship i had with the office of the mayor of indianapolis and the county prosecutor's have me ready for my next phase of life. the social life at indiana state has been exceptional. even though i originally thought i was too old for the collegiate experience, as students we have had the luxury of hearing guest
speakers, attend conferences of world leaders, and network with influential people. many of us attended discussions and summits that created change. furthermore, my involvement with organizations and programs with scholars as well as my career experiences proves just how much indian state has done for me and all of the student body. my fellow peers and senior graduating class rates, thank you for walking me to the top. thank you for your ambition, motivation, as wl as perseverance. you are the reason that i have learned and enjoyed my relationship in my time spent at indiana state. thank you for being creators and innovators. you have stories of your own about your experiences and
opportunities at indiana state. because of your love and support, we all live as leaders, entrepreneurs come and inventors of change. on the behalf of the class of 2010 graduates and as a member of the sycamore ambassadors group, i want to say thank you to indiana state. i am a true blue sycamore standing with pride leaving a legacy for those who follow. we love life. thank you for providing us with many opportunities. most importantly, but we want to thank you for the knowledge to be all that we can be. thank you for giving us more from day one. most importantly, thank you to all of the professors, teachers, administrators who have opened their hearts to help us learn and achieve more. thank you for your patience and your willingness to always give
more. thank you to all your supporters, donors, and alumni who have paved the way and set the stage for myself and my fellow graduates. thank you, indiana state university, for educating men and women who are now qualified , certified, prepared to save lives, intellectually driven, and ready to conquer the world. stay blue, indiana state true. thank you. [applause] >> now, the co-founder of the d.c. central kitchen addresses graduates of gettysburg college. d.c. central kitchen serves about 4500 meals a day. he speaks about the importance
of community service. from gettysburg, pa., this is about 15 minutes. rustees, faculty, and the class of a thousand 10 -- 2010 -- [applause] it is an honor to speak with you today. this is an alpha omega a moment. i was lucky enough to speak to the students when they first came here as freshmen. i have gotten to know so many of them over the years. people have asked, and i think ny assume, that the subject of my speech today given the work i have done in my relationship with the school will be in the nature of asking the students to give back. i will be honest with you. that is the last thing i will do. if i may explain why. one last pop quiz. class of 2010, before you got here, a show of hands, how many
of you had done community service? look at this, america. but at this. rigid look at this. [applause] this is not a getting back generation. this is a very different generation. class of 2010, you were at the forefront of . , 60 million strong, young men and women born between 1985 and 2000, you are at the forefront of a very new era in america. your generation has been raised doing community service. whether this was going on mission trips, pushing grain policies, demanding fairer trade coffee, wearing toms, launching social entprises, supporting micro credit, rallying for equal rights, you have, since the day
you walked through the school, been redefining the concept of what it means to "do good work." you did not need an instruction nual. if you set out to rewrite the les of what it takes to do good work. the debt when you have created some to a arrived. with countless acts by individuals, wheer organized by your amazing sororities and fraternities, thelack student union, countless other groups, you all have cplely razed of the war on what it means to be graduating class from gettysburg college. -- you all have completely raised the bar on what it means to beat a graduating class. you plan and gardens at the farmhouse over on carlisle. you did service trips to help rebuild the gulf. he worked side by side with residence on the indian reservation as well as citizens
gettysburg's sister city in nicaragua. if i may bso bold -- through the campus kitchen, my favorite of all. you have delivered 10,000 meals to people in the adams county. you deserve an amazing round of applause for what you have done. [applause] if i may take a moment of personal pride, i would like to of knowledge professor chris vee who for so many years -- stand- up, chris. [applause] he has been leading freshman down to volunteer at my kitchen. i would like to acknowledge someone from the class of 2008. there you go. as wells cathy, melissa, and
megan who were the relationship team and toward this campus up. -- tore this campus up. [applause] not since world war ii has a generation answer the call to service in the numbers that just --hat this generation. the stakes have not been as high for them personally, but the stakes for our country have never been as high. someone called you -- would call you generation next." from where i stand having worked side-by-side with many of you coming you are "a generation now." this world needs you now. q. are the first of regeneration to hit the beach head, a national more midi. behind you are millions, millions coming your younger brothers and sisters who are
looking to you to break new ground, to go where others have not. they are looking for the same things you are down the road, a bright future and a good job. some of you harbored dreams of attaining great individual wealth, others helping to spur social movements. my advice to you today, many people think this is mulch -- mutually exclusive. you can do both, there i say you must. if i may be bold enough to generalize, you are a generation that seems hellbent on merging spirituality, lifeste, and in come, saying, i do not want to choose, i want to do both. nonetheless, you want to make a living, and that is important. this is a tough world you are going out into. you need to find a job that allows you to do that. reality is that there is something new out there and you have been exploring this step by step, this new hybrid business,
this notion that you, again, can do good and make wealth at the same time. in too many of our graduation across america what we are asking of your generation is to choose, saying after spending 10 years in yr life doing community service in the school after school, commencement address after address, speakers are always saying, "today you must choose -- do you want to be a .com or .org"? defy that. boldly go forward with the idea that you can be both. that is what our country needs. it is every generations right to redraw the map, to rearrange the order of things and create new rules. that is what people are dying to preserve as we speak. that is why people come to these battlefields to commemorate.
it is what makes america, even today, the greatest, richest, freest country in the world. each generation has the freedom, opportunity, and obligation to do better. the boulder, run further, and push harder. -- be bolder, run further, push harder. during the freedom of like you with a two dollar -- $2 drink special. lift up your crunk cup and guzzle every drop down. light this country up. [cheers and applause] our country needs your impossible dreams, born of the
exhilarating balance and optimism on display today. hold on to those dreams. never let them go. on them anmake the spirit o now you're generation's banner, your matterut -- your model, your creed. step forward together, today into your future. brothers and sisters, this will not be easy. the reality is when i started the central kitchen, i did not want to do it. i was a volunteer to try to get the other people to do it. i wanted to run and nightclub. sometimes you run into a wall where the path splits. sometimes you need to take that leap of faith. i will we all cannot be amazing athletes like karen epstein. she is one of those women who runs far. most of us need running buddies. that is what i would like to
wrap things up with. people oftentimes come to the valley and they think about the civil war. they do not realize that long before this was a conduit for the underground railroad. people can looking for a safe harbor overnight whether they were on their way north to freedom. what is often times forgotten about the overnight railroad is it the secret password. when you were looking for a safe word, the safe place, it is a friendith friends. that is what i would like to cle with today. you will never go further with a friend by your side. -- without a dave -- withourt a friend b your side. the friends you wrote your bicycles with, through the baseball with, those young men that when this day seems 1 million miles away, think of them.
some he may not have seen in a long time, reach back outith them and reconnect. let them know how important they are to you. the frenzy made in this class are some of the best friends you have to ruyour entire life -- the friends you made in this class will be some of the best you will have in your entire life. all of these things dissipate if you do not work at them and nurture your friendships. while it is important to send facebook updates, happy birthday, nothing takes the place of a simple note. i am thinking of you. you are important to me. there'll be times in your life where you run into a wall and people who know what you will save the world. you know those -- you will need those friendships to help steel yourself for the inevitable disappointment and the courage it will take to really search for word and not give up on those dreams. let me reemphasized -- american
need you to hold on to the optimism, this glorious optimism of youth. never ever let it go. do not think you need to trade that for a paycheck, brothers and sters. you can have both. that is that the country has always been abt. evy generation gets a chance to go out and redefine the les. that is your birthright. you do not have to accept the world as you at -- as you inherit it today. set your sights on changing the the rules, make new rules, redraw the lines. you do not have to go out and think, "i ve to give back." realize you can do this every sing day. that is really the important message and would like to leave with you today, that notion that america needs to move beyond the notion that we can give back our way out of the situations. i am part of a generation that is getting older every day.
10,000 people turned 60 every single day in america. he would not be wrong. i will tell you, in all honesty, we need you all to redefine the whole concept of what it means toive a good life, what it means to be a gettysburg graduate. today, brothers and sisters, go forth, be daring, be brave, be respectful of convention, the impatient with process, be friends with friends. as conan said, "burkhart and be kind." -- "work hard and be kind." when you make it big, tell jon stewart he can kiss your diploma. [cheers and applause] never stop believing. the lot, cla of 2010, and rock
the world. [applause] >> vice president joe biden delivered the commencement address for this year's graduating class at the u.s. naval academy in annapolis, maryland. in his remarks, he praised them for their character and integrity and paid tribute to the 11 female graduates who will be eligible to serve on submarines. >> admiral fowler, lieutenant general, i see the green -- gleam in your eyes. tell them we are waiting for them, my pilot said. [laughter]
undersecretary, in a great remarks. i want to give you one piece of advice -- be careful of your language in front of a microphone. [laughter] thank god my mother had passed. i would be one dead joe. you think i am kidding. i am not. [laughter] ladies and gentlemen, i was a pretty good football player at the university of delaware in 1960. i applied to come to this great academy. make considered me -- they considered me and i thought i would be a pretty good ball player. you had to debut of guys and i realize i would not get a chance to play at all.
i went to the university of delaware instead. [laughter] ladies and gentlemen, you know why the secretary of the navy, back in 1845, chose this site for the naval academy. seclusion. it was supposed rescue the midshipmen from the temptations and distractions of the bigger cities. he did not know armadillos or o'brien's would be hanging around here. [cheers and applause] i do not think he would pick the spot if he knew what annapolis look like today. for the few of you, like me, who may be, as a consequence of the temptations, had engaged in
minor disciplinary infractions i have never let that get in the way of talent. just as to me, john mccain, or a bunch of us. in keeping with the longstandin tradition, this is one othe two reasons i wanted to come here and give this commencement. i like to forgive minor infractions. therefore, in a longstanding tradition, i hereby absolving allidshipmen who are on restriction for minor conduct offenses as of now. [cheers and applause] i know you hesitated sharing because you thought you might be identied. we are not that. we are not bad guys. look, i must tell you that am genuinely proud and honored t be here today. this is one of the great, great
privileges of being vice president of the united states of america, getting to spe at the commencement of the academy. i must tell you that i am also very proud, and i mean this sincerely, to be in front of you, as the undersecretary said, so many young women and m who, by the mere fact they chose to come here in theidst of what was happening in the moment, have already demonstrated the strength of character and the finite promise to possess and the integrity you represent. you all -- there is nothing wrong with me. you all possessed rates that secretary bankrupt new were necessary -- when secretary george bancroft knew were necessary. you possess skills, talents, and
capacities that are far beyond anything sretary george bancroft could have thought of 165 years ago. notwithstanding that, you are part of a long continuum. you are writing a new chapter in a long history of the strong tradition of this great naval academy. you are all going to be part of a fraternity th goes back 165 years double bind together like a little i have seen in my experience noatter how long you serve in uniform, even when you are out of uniform, you will come across the annapolis graduates come to share stories, discuss those four years by the day, and no, know like few others know, that wherever you go there is someone that will have your back even though they do not know you personally. that is an awesome sense of pride and patriotism.
it is an awesome sense of pride and patriotism that comes over you all when you sing, "navy blue and gold." it is a feeling she had a right to share like all of you. -- it is a feeling that few have a right to share. this place is special. you have a special experience that has given you a bond that will last a lifetime. he will be amazed how tight that bond is and how long it will last. there are other bonds. i wod arg even deeper bonds, those of surrounding you on either side of the stadium, your mother's, your father's, your grandparents coming your other's coming your sisters. your girls, youruys, they are the ones responsible for the content of your charaer. they are the ones that brought you some carry out and 80 on campus when you were not able to
leave the yards. they were the ones who walked down the driveway every way to retrieve that cherishedetter during your plebe summer knowing it was the only way to hear your voice and know you were surviving. they were the ones who screamed, "go and 80, beat army" flatter than anything that had ever screamed in their lives -- they are the ones to scream, "go navy, beat army" louder than anything they ever have. they spent the last four years thinking of you with tears in their eyes, prayers in their hearts. for all of that and more, you of them. the united states of america i asked you all to give them a round of applause, a boisterous cheer come to those who have been cheering for you for so long. [cheers and applause]
stand up. [cheers and applause] they are not proud, are they? what a great honor. what a great accomplishment. for four long years now, you have looked forward to this moment. they have looked forward to it as well, to watch you walk across this stage, marines come in aviators, seals, submariners. maybe just a special bit of pride for the families of the 11th, the 11 who will be the first naval academy women who serve on submarines. [cheers and applause]
you women sailors are not only making history but like the 55 women who first graduated from this academy 30 years ago, they were an inspiration to you. got to appoint some of them as a senator. you live in submariners -- you other than submariners will inspire yr daughters and granddaughters in the way they never thought they could before. nothing, nothing is beyond my daughter and granddaughter's -- you have been trained by the very best. you leave here with an outstanding capacity to lead. you almost feel pretty good right now. those semesters of calculus, those 0530 pt's, memorizing
menus, thinking why you need to do this, reciting them in town halls. those are all behind you. you will be surprised how in a strange way they prepared you for what is ahead of you. they are behind you, but they prepare you. you managed to do at all without once losing the commander in chief's trophy. not once. [cheers and applause] as a matter of fact, admiral, that is pretty impressive, man. pretty impressive. to the united states naval academy, class of 2010, i say congratulations and welcome to the marines and welcome to the navy. [cheers and applause]
i can imagine no more rewarding a career, and 80 man once said, and any man who may be asked in this century but he did to make his life worthwhile i think can respond with a good deal of pride and satisfaction, "i served in the ited states navy." those words were the words of president john f. kennedy. like him, you will now be able to say in this century with a same degree of pride, "i served in the united states navy." all of you will be able to say you served in the most powerful, best equipped, most prepared navy and marine corps the world has ever seen and that is not a hyperbole. i have watched you in my 17
trips to afghanistan and iraq. a young captain was manning the post with six others who not only demonstrated and returned fire but was able to explain to me in great depth the history of the two trouble competing -- t wo tribal competing areas. you are prepared in a way that you have to be in the order for us to lead the world. the navy today is truly a global force for good with missions more diverse than ever before. there are 2000 marines in afghanistan. there are 13,000 sailors in iraq and afghanistan. there are 9000 more afloat in the waters of the region. they are fighting pirates in
thhorn of africa, at drug- traffickers in the waters around south america. station. correa -- stationed near korea, projecting power. you respond to national disasters and literally save lives at the same time spreading good will and support for america everywhere you go. folks, no graduating class kids to choose the world in which they graduate. every class has its own unique challenges. the class of 1940 looked over the horizon at the looming conflict that killed literally tens of millions of people and laid waste to europe. the class of 1915 -- 1950 soon left the stage and went to war
in korea, the first military test of the strategy of containment, onthenndured and succeeded from that moment on. the class of 1916 live in a world -- the class of 1960 were 18,000 nuclear missiles were aimed at the united states of america and over three and a thousand -- 300,000 men and women were ready against the soviet army along the curtain. the class of 1970 went to vietnam to stop communism in the asia and came back to a deeply divided country. past generations, your former colleagues, those who went before you, they faced immense challenges but they met them. th met them for fortitude,
unity of purpose, and a national security strategy that brought success. through the marshall plan, we rebuilt europe with the greatest military, nato, and the strongest economy in the world has ever seen we brought down the wall and made a lot of communist ideology. -- a lie of communist ideology. to the class of 2010, you will face great challenges from the moment you step off the stage. two wars, the threat of weapons of mass destruction in the hands of terrorists, pandemic disease, economic dislocation, and a growing gap between the rich and the poor of the world, ethnic animosities in the field states, a rapidly warming plant, an
uncertain supply of energy, food, and water, the spread of radical fundamentalism. these challenges are real. every generation has faced challenges. just like those who came before you coming you will prevail. also, like those who came before us, we need a strategy to succeed. we have laid out and devised what is required by congress the national security strategy treaty by president obama last week at west point, released yesterday. i would like to talk to you in little bit about that today. our national security strategy is made up of four basic principles to guarantee america's continued ascendancy in the 21st century, to
guarantee our security. the first principle of that strategy is that our strength and influence ultimately depends on our economic prosperity and innovation. president obama made that point last week at west point when he said, "at no time in human history has a nation of diminished economic vitality maintained its military or polical primacy." that is why we acted swiftly and boldly for the biggest stimulus package in the history of the nation to create jobs today to create a platform for aew economy of tomorrow with historic investments in renewable energy, transportation networks, research and development, building a piece by piece and theconomy that will not only be competitive in the 21 century but that is
dominant as we -- as dominant a we were in the 20th. if we do not, all of the special talents and equipment that has been entrusted to you will be very difficult to maintain. that is why we are modernizing health care to drive down costs. it is not merely about care. it is about controling our budgets so future generations are not paying off a debt of those of us who cameefore. that is why we are putting an end to the reckless practice and mentality on wall street that arly brought dowour economy. a strong economy is the only foundation upon which we can build a guarantee for our national security. the second principle is to use
all the municipalities of our power to allow future administrations to use all of the arrows in their quiver, and diplomacy, law enforcement, foreign aid, education, business, these are all vital tools that advance our security. just as in the past, your mind, our military capacity, it is absolutely necessary but not in and of itself sufficient to guarantee our security. although we reserve the right to act preemptively, we will strive to stop crises before they start coming to avoid wherever we can the choice of last resort for the danger of inaction. the third principle is that we should follow the example of
previous generations and build strong military alliances and effective international organizations. as i mentioned before, the threats we face from pandemic disease to terrorism, they had no respect to borders. they do not yield to the massive force. to defeat them requires responsible nations, not only to set down the rules of conduct for the 21st century as we did after world ii, but insist that other nations along with us in force enforse those rules of nduct. -- those nations along with lessenfus enforce the rulse of
conduct. . . they laid before the world the values behind our revolution. as they stated that the declaration of independence, we had, "a decent respect for the opinions of mankind." let the world know that we established a nation where all men are created equal, endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, among them life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness. we still hold these truths to be self evident. we act accordingly.
that is why, ultimately, the vast majority of the world population still looks to us or inspiration, still wishes to repair to our shores, and that is why we cannot undermine our strengths by compromising those now used in the name of security. -- those values in the name of security. they are our ultimate security. upholding our values makes us stronger. compromising them is what makes us week. -- weak. we reject as false the notion that we have to choose between our safety and our ideals. for if we yield on our ideals, they will have already won.
our ideals or what define us. our ideals are what sustain us. our ideals are what make us the greatest nation in the history of mankind. ultimately, they are a powerful incentive for the world to respond. . honor, courage, committent -- these are not only the values instilled in you here at the academy, these are also the values that define the rest of america. i have met literally every world leader who has been on t world stage since 1973, and they have no dou. i have never met one who has a doubt about who we are as americans. today, having earned the right to walk through the main doors
of bancroft for the first time, you will leave the yard and enter a long, distinguished line of naval academy graduates. chester nimitz, 1905, allen sheppard, class of 1945, jimmy carter, class of 1947, john mccain, class of 1958. he deserves a round of applause. he is a good friend. [applause] and he is a great american. charles bolden, class of 1968. the only question i have is this. who among you today will be mentioned by the graduating speaker in 2050 and 2070?
i ask that question with all seriousness. i mean it, for some among you will. you'll be, those of you who excel beyond all others, continue to be the inspiration for future generations. ladies and gentlemen, let me end where i began, with the founding of this academy some 165 years ago. in 1845, the yard consisted of 10 acres of land. it was a home to 55 midshipmen. today, a brigade of 4000 midshipmen roam these glorious 338 acres. 76,000 warriors and heroes have walked across this or a similar stage, grabbed their diplomas, and marched off to defend their nation.
you are bound to these men and women as sure as if they work your flesh and blood, as surely as had that been your ball makes. your experiences are -- as surely as if they had been your bunkmates. the commitment to your country and to your shipmates, a commitment embodied by a man who ned a silver star, bronze star, two purple hearts, a warrior by anyone's definition. the graduated from this academy in 1995. he eventually went to iraq, where he was named the lion of fallujah in 2004. during that operation, he was a
young lance corporal who was wounded by a mortar and received a purple heart. the major was drawn to this young marine. he could barely speak english. he had just received his green card, yet he put his life on the line for the country he had adopted. the major learned that this young lance corporal had a dream to follow in his father's footsteps. his father was a graduate of the vietnamese national military academy and hadought alongside us in vietnam. that young man wanted to attend a military academy and found inspiration in listening to the major's stories about his beloved annapolis. sadly, three years ago, the major lost his life during his fourth tour in iraq when he was killed by small arms fire while
leading iraqi troops that he had helped train. i am absolutely certain that the lion of falujah is looking down right now with immense pride at that former young lance corporal, who is about to have his lieutenant bars pinned on him and is about to receive the award as the marine with the heart of a warrior and the spirit of succs. that young lance corporal will realize his dream today as he walks across is stage. [applause]
as he walks across the stage to be commissioned as an officer in the united states marine corps. that is a story of honor, courage, and commitment. that is a story that represents all this academy is about, all that stands for. let me leave you with advice that only a graduate of this prestigious academy has the right to offer. it comes from the personal wrings of doug zembec. he wrote, be a man of principle. fight for what you believe in. keep your word. live with integrity. be brave. believe in something bigger than urself, and serve your country, a teacher, mentor, give something back to society. lead from the front, and u can, for your fears.
ladies and gentlemen, to me, that is what makes you midshipmen. that is the definition of who you are and who you will be. that is why i know with aolute certainty, after serving in high public office for ove37 years, that our country will reach strong -- will be strong for generations to come. so congratulations to you all. your future is literally america's future. make a brave. thank you. may god bless america, and may god bless the united states navy and marine cps, and they got protect our troops around the world. god bless you all. [applause]
>> you are going to find very quickly in this life beyond college that you are going to be required, on occasion, to dig the well little deeper. >> this weekend -- commencement addresses from leaders in the arts, sports, science -- that is at 3:00 eastern on c-span. >> tomorrow on "washington journal," a discussion on the u.s. economy and government spending. we also take a look at the environmental impact of the gulf of mexico oil spill with the campaign director of the gulf restoration network. after that, we will hear about congressional concerns regarding benefits paid to merchant -- paid to military personnel. "washington journal" is live at 7:00 p.m. eastern here on c- span.
some of the treaty before you is an evolution -- >> the treaty before you is an evolution of agreements that go back to the 1970's and that series of s.t.a.r.t. agreements that started out in the reagan administration and continued in some form in every subsequent administration. >> watched the moments that make history -- watch the moments that make history. it is washington your way. every program since 1987 is available free online. >> supreme court justice anthony kennedy on the prospect of a new justice. >> it it is stressful for us. we so admire our colleagues. we wonder if it will ever be the same. but i have great admiration for the system. the system works. after the appointment and the confirmation -- if there is a confirmation -- the system will
bring us a very good justice. >> with the confirmation hearings for elena kagan starting june 28, learn more about the nation's highest court in c-span's latest book. there are pages of conversations with all of the justices, active and retired. it is available in hardcover and as an ebook. >> we have an impact -- an update on the impact of the gulf of mexico oil spill. host: let's check in with sandy davis to get the latest on what has been happening in the gulf of mexico. good morning. how are you? host: good. thank you so much for joining us. guest: they're trying by pumping at a very high rate of velocity, drilling fluid into
the well. right now it's not been successful, i don't think. they were cautiously optimistic. yesterday they changed their tune slightly and said that they were going to keep trying until either they were successful or they could see that they were not going to be succsful. we did see the chief executive talking yesterday. what is their comment to residents in the gulf area? guest: i don't think they're speaking too much to the residents. i was in grand isle the last couple of days, and people down there are just so angry and frustrated. there's little exchange of conversation on the b.p. person in that area was wearing a local fireman t-shirt as opposed to the b.p. logo on his shirt. host: talk to us about the president's visit to the gulf region. tell us what he did down there
and who was on hand. guest: well, he first visited port, which also hasil come onshore, and he met with local leaders there. he had a long meeting. he was an hour and a half late for a news conference with reporters because he was behind closed doors with leaders. they've en very hard hit with oil. apparently he chewed out billy, who's been very vocal about what's gone right, what's gone wrong. but i think it was well received. i do. i think this visit was well received. host: we saw images of him actually picking up a tar ball from the sandy shores there. guest: i think the more connection was made with the local leaders who have been very, very frustrated and
upset, whether they were getting enough boom which corrals the oil and keeps it off shore. they've been frustrated with how many people they're getting to clean up the beaches, and i think he had a long meeting with them, and i think it helped calm him down. the president promised to put three times the man power on the beach whenever oil rolls in . he also promised that whatever materials they needed they would get. can you lk to us about what officials are hearing on the rig? guest: i've been mostly covering top kill and what's going on in grand isle. i'm sorry. i just don't know what part. host: one thing maybe you can reflect on us. as the ns comes down to the area you're in, how are local people reacting? guest: well, they're upset.
they think b.p. was taking shortcuts to make more money. they see b.p. as a very greedy company. they're very angry, because this has happened at the worst time possible. it's the beginning of the fishing seaso the beginning of the tour season is may, and it runs through november. there's big fishing tournaments that have been cancelled this weekend. i was down in grand isle wednesday and thursday. there's a marina there with 65 boat slips in it. there was three boats in the slips, and two of those were owned by the marina. they're devastated. this is killing their season. host: what are you going to be watching now in the next 24 hours or so? guest: i'll be watching weather top kill is successful. i think it's very shaky right now. i think they've had some successes with it. i mean, it's a simple premise. you shoot something into the well that's heavier and faster than the oil leaking out. you try to push it back down into the well. once you get that to occur,
then they're going to put a cement plug in it and try to plug it up permanently, but it's proven to be difficult. i mean, it's a mile below the surface of the water. the pressure down there is enormous. it's enormous, and it's all about the pressure. host: the president has tried to emphasize that many beaches in the gulf are open for business. it's not like the entire area is shut down in an attempt to get tourism going there. have you gotten a sense from beaches that are not yet affected if they're seeing a drop in visitors? guest: yes, they are. they're getting cancellatns. people are staying away. they're very, very worried about it. i don't know if you know about this, a quarter of the waters have been closed to fishing. when people hear those kind of things, they're staying away. they're staying away from our area. and it's true. it's not all the beaches that
are affected. it's certain sections. pensacola, destin, all of those places, ma even in louisisiana, they'r >> now a portion of a hearing on the explosion. first, the manager who testified by phone. following that, you will hear from a number of workers, the coast guard, and the mineral management service are conducting this investigation. it is the fourth state investigators have heard from witnesses. they will meet again in july. this is about two hours. >> good afternoon. we are resuming the hearings. are you on the other line? >> yes, i am. >> for the record, as a result
of the explosion and sinking of the deep water horizon -- deepwater horizon, secretary of homeland security and the the upper end of the interior convened a joint -- and the secretary of the department of the interior convened a joint investigation. are you aware of that? >> yes, sir. >> we have my co-chairman, right is the captain. in the audience, we have a representative of the interest.
can place you under oath. false testimony given to an entity of the united stes is punishable by fine or imprisonment. knowing this, do not swear the testimony you're about to give is the truth, the wholeruth, and nothing but the truth? >> i do. >> you may be seated. >> before we begin, we just want to remind you that you are represented by transocean attorney. is that ok with you? yes. and you confirm that we will have been in the room with new stock >> we do.
>> do you have a personal lawyer? >>no. only eddie is representing him personally. >> members will begin questioning. >> could you pleasstate your name? >> david sims. >> could he and identify himself since he cannot see? >> jason matthews. by to are you employed? >> bp. >> what is your current position? >> i am the operations manager for the relief well. what isour normal day-to-day operations?
>> my previous close of drilling operations manager for exploration and appraisal in the deepwater gulf of mexico. >> how long have you been with them? heritageeen with a since 1982. since 1982. bp officially since 2000. >> what is your educational background? >> science in mechanical engineering. >> from where? >> texas a&m university. >> how long were they in operation? >> i was in that position for approximately three weeks prior
to the event in question. what were you doing prior to those three weeks? those three weeks? >> i was engineering team leader. quite often you please describe your position. >> as engineering team leader, my primary responsibility was to develop well plans for wells that we would be drilling with the deepwater horizon. as an operations manager, it
changed to execution and of exploration and appraisal of wells in the gulf. >> i was engineering team leader for that well when it was planned. >> were you aware of any problems on the well, sir? prior to your arrival on the 20th? >> are you speaking prior to my arrival on the rig? >> from around march until april 20 as. -- 20th?
loss returns? >> prior to my job as operations manager? >> american samoa operations manager. -- as operations manager, were you made aware of any problems with that well? >> i was aware of some drilling problems that had occurred. >> what were those problems? >> we had lost circulation problems. we had taken a kick. the first part of the well was drilled by transition -- transocean mariannas. from the cation on horizon.
they came back in to resume drilling >> when rescheduled to go out to the deep water horizon? >> you are referring to? >> to the trip on the 20th. the scheduled trip was on the 20th. into return on the 21st. >> when did you make the plans to travel there on the 20th? >> iw ould say at least a wk bere, if not longer. >> what was the intent of that term, sir? t? trip was a hedule to for trip was a hedule to for leadership t