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tv   First Ladies As Influence Makers  CSPAN  August 31, 2013 7:00pm-12:01am EDT

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what that means is we oppose the policies, by necessity the logic is we hate black, gays, women, jews. but the editor at large been shaken -- ben shapiro is our >> biographer kitty kelley on december 3. on january 5, mark litan. but tv's book club returns in september with our cleat of 'sich -- mark leibovitz "this town." >> we picture june cleaver with a vacuum cleaner, frying bacon for breakfast. that doesn't skew or one of the
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most important trends for women, which was that american women's labor force participation increased. not only do they not go home after world war ii, they increasingly enter the labor market across the 19th -- the 1950's. >> a history of women in the workplace sunday at 1 p.m. eastern. >> next, highlights from season one of "first ladies, influence and image." the 50thdiscussion on anniversary of the march on washington, and the legacy of martin luther king jr..
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series, first ladies, influence and image. over the next couple of hours, we will visit places with history curators. away fighting the revolutionary war, martha washington ran their plantation. >> it is clear that martha arrived at mount vernon in 1859 and there was a lot of management that she had to do. when she married george washington, she brings with her to mount vernon 12 housemates. that is really almost unimaginable luxury. these are slaves that are for the most part, not field labor, not producing crops, which is where your income is coming from. they are doing things like cooking, serving at table, clean the house, doing the laundry, doing selling, this is not productive labor in the sense that it is not productive
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income. she brings them with her and she brings financial resources to the marriage as well as her managerial skills. it makes mount vernon a successful operation and it makes it possible for washington to be away for eight years fighting a war. the fact that he has this support system that enables him to volunteer his time and talents to run the revolution is clearly critical. first, a farm manager, who during most literal revolution is a distant cousin of washington. \washington. then run by washington as a nephew. -- washington's nephew. and then it is run by his niece. i think that tells you about the closeness of the family relationship. it is clear that what they are at mount vernon with martha washington, she does take
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charge. since her interaction with the slaves, she is interacting with the cooks in the kitchen, the maids serving in the house. there are also slave women who are spinning on a continual basis to produce yarn. she supervises what the gardners are doing. martha was a great lover of gardens and having flowers. she liked having a kitchen where she could go out and bring in vegetables for what they were going to serve at mount vernon. she was the one planning the menus. there were a lot of levels that she is working with. it is a big operation her whole life. the room that we refer to and show off in the mansion as the washington's bedchamber is the room in the south wing of the mansion that was started in 1775 right before george washington left to participate in the continental congress and the
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revolutionary war. george washington always referred to it as open quote mrs. washington's chamber" and as "mrs. washington's chamber" and it is always referred to as her area. she spent time in that chamber, doing her hour of spiritual meditation. perhaps later in the date writing letters, talking with her coax -- her cooks to plan menus for the day, giving assignments she also use that room for teaching the children, telling them stories. you can imagine how wonderful it would have been in that room. one of the most notable pieces is the bed in that bed chamber. that is the bed on which george washington died. but we also know that martha
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washington's had a role in acquiring that bad. another piece in the room had a very close connection with martha washington, her desk. although very little of the correspondence between george and washington -- george and martha washington has survived, because they savored their private correspondence. two letters had been found that had slipped behind one of the drawers in that desk. that is the preserver of that little bit of very personal correspondence. it is not just the place where she slept. i can't picture her sitting in her easy chair by the fire -- i can really picture her sitting in her easy chair by the fire with her grandchildren around. and i imagine it must've been
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very comfortable for her. >> before she became first lady in 1797 and during her early married life, abigail adams spent her time in quincy, massachusetts. >> the story of abigail adams in the revolutionary war is a story of sacrifice, commitment to country, and abigail rose to the occasion. for the first 10 years of their married life, john and abigail lived in this home from 1764- 1774. it is where they raised their four children. that was the birthplace of their second child, john quincy adams, who went on to become the sixth president of the united states. it was also an important home because the primary link between she and john adams, who was serving in philadelphia at with the second continental congress was the letter writing. it was from this house that she was provided a window back here that he was provided a window back here of what was happening in the colonies during the war. she would report to him about the militia.
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during the battle of bunker hill and emptied 75, she took her young son to the high point -- the in 1775, she took her young son to the high point of the hill and would watch the battle. she would report to john adams about what was happening. she was literally the eyes of the colony in that area. this room in particular could be considered the classroom for abigail, the schoolmistress, and her four children. one must remember that the schools were closed down. the children did not benefit from a formal education. instead it was up to abigail to teach the lessons. not only of arithmetic and french, but also plurality, literature, and what was going on in the revolutionary war. she was there educator and this was the room where many of those
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losses would have taken place. she reported to john adams during the revolution are at -- revolution at one point that she began to take up the works of lawless into history. -- rollins ancient history. i know if anyone has ever read it, but for a 7-year-old boy to accomplish this, he had a very good instructor in abigail adams. ever the patriot, abigail adams opened a home next door, john adams's birthplace, for refugees. she rented out the house to a farmer, mr. hayden, and his son. they would provide for her here. she reported in one of the letters that she met with have with very ill treatment. she asked mr. hayden to share his house with the refugees, but he refused. by the time she received a response from john adams, like many things, she had taken care of the problem.
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she had paid mr. hayden to leave the premises and therefore, could provide for the refugees herself in the house. she reports to john that again young john quincy is marching out behind house behind the militia. she welcomed these militiamen to her home and supported the revolutionary war with her actions. in 77, abigail realize they have outgrown their battle college -- cottage. she began to negotiate with her cousin to purchase the house you're standing in front of right now. john adams enjoyed a lot of peace and tranquility in this home, as did abigail, so he christened it peace field. there were two smaller bedrooms
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on the third floor and a small kitchen at the back of the house. there were about seven and a half rooms to this home essentially. this was their home base. before becoming first lady, have a bill would spend nine years in this house. the first year, she was essentially setting up the house after just returning from europe. she had remembered this house as one of the grand houses in quincy, but her perception of grand had changed since living in europe. she began making plans for a way to enlarge the house. she wanted to improve on the size and height of the ceilings and the size of the space. she would tell her daughter not to wear any of her large hats because the ceilings were too low. she began working with architects to enlarge the size of the home, in effect, doubling the size, adding a long haul and along entertainment room where she would receive her guests. the sensitivity to the architecture on the outside and
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the flow of the home, she had the builder dig down so they could lower the floors and get the high ceilings that she desired without disrupting the architecture on the outside of the house. you step down two steps and you are in a different world. a typical day for abigail would be to rise at 5:00 a.m. she had many chores to do and much of her child -- a time was spent attending the farm, taking care of the orchard, and taking care of the house. she also loved those early morning hours to spend by herself, preparing herself for the day. but most importantly, having a chance to indulge in one of her novels. although this is a presidential home, it is the home of a family. abigail, instead of having servants do the work for her, even as the first lady, she would also be contributing to the kitchen and the running of
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the household. this is something she continued throughout her life, no matter what her position was. she was very involved. she had children and grandchildren visiting her here and this was a very active and lively household. she also spent a great deal of her time writing, because their misfortune in being a part was our fortune. in one letter, when he is asking her to come to a philadelphia, have a deal with right of the room she was in and the window and the view that she saw. the beauty that unfolds outside of the window of which are now right tensley to forget the past, an indication that while she was back at peace field, she was on a new beginning as the first lady of the united states, as the wife of the president, and still as a mother. she would describe life here at peace field so romantically that john adams would reply in one of his letters, oh, sweet little farm, what i would do to enjoy the thee without interruption. >> the lettis letter is one that everyone associates with abigail adams. what is lesser-known and
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fascinating about the letter is the comments that come quite far down in the letter. the first section of her letter to john is questioning and voicing her concerns about va's role in the revolutionary war. she writes, "what sort of defense virginia can make against our common enemy, whether it is those situated as to make enable the fence, but are not the gentry lords and common people baffles, are there unlike the gentry?" and she points out more. of this i am certain, that it is not founded upon that generous and christian principle of doing to others as we would that others should do unto us.
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>> brought up as a quicker, dolly madison was known for her warm hospitality, social graces, and sense of elegance and style. >> if you were a visitor, you would enter at the front door and be shown immediately into the madison's great drawing room. mrs. madison had many lady friends that she would invite your. margaret bayard smith was a favorite of hers, and the daughter of thomas jefferson were also frequent visitors. it also include her own family, her sister's especially, anna and lucy. they were always welcome guests, who often stayed for extended visit here at mount year. -- montpelier. in the drawing room, you see many of the faces of american
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states mint, but also entities like the bust of athena, the declaration of independence, and the nurture of homework, and they need -- a miniature of homer, and then you have a painting that was 200 years old even when it madisons purchase it. in blending the classic and the american, they are trying to place in america in the important role of history. this is where they would have dinner. they would have a chance to meet one another, conversed socially and casually, and then they might be invited to dine in the dining room. after supper, the ladies would then adjourn back into the drawing room. maybe they would serve some
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coffee and tea. this was the social center of the house. if you were an invited guest of the madisons or part of the intimate circle of family or friends, you would be invited into the dining room from the drawing room. and here, dolly madison would in an unusual setting for the timeframe set at the head of the table and her husband, james, would sit at the center of the table. dolly would direct in, it -- with direct the conversation and james would be able to engage in intimate conversation with the people immediately to his right and left. this table today is that for eight people, but there could be as many as 20 people served in the dining room. that would not be unusual. and indeed, dolly madison considered dining at maag pier to be so much more relaxing than entertaining in washington. she said she would rather serve 100 people here than 25 in washington. many historical figures were
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here with the medicines. james monroe is here, general lafayette, henry clay, margaret bayard smith, dolly madison's good friend and writer from washington. once, the vice president offered to do the honors for her what she was sitting at the head of the table. and she responded, oh, no, watch with what each i'd do it, and indeed he said, -- he had to admit the ease with which she did it. it was if, he said, that she was born in paris. here we have very creation of something that we still have. this is typically of -- typical of the style of the day. a jazz classic lines, a simple trade, and a much more simple
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and elegant fashion than that either before or after it. this is what she would have worn while she was the first lady. it was the regency style. but many of the dresses were more elegant. this represents what she wore at her inaugural. this was james madison's first inaugural. and it is described as a symbol of velvet. and she wore pearls -- simple, obhof velva it. and she wore pearls. it was an indication of the dining that you would find in the courts of europe. dolly was setting a style that was unique to american fashion. a lot of people think that dolly set the fashion of the turban. and that is not quite true. it began in persia, and it moved through france and england. but dolly popularized the style and it was considered her top -- a classic look, to where some
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extravagant turbaned often topped with feathers on top of her head. and sometimes, they thought her fashion was a little too regal. there is one instance where she wore something that was lined in hermine. and she had some guilt edging in her turban. and people said this was overstepping things. she looked to rebuild, to queenly. and they were afraid thatqueen dolly" was setting -- they were afraid that "queen dolly" with setting the wrong town for america. many people felt that she was the last matriarch of this generation. but others felt that because of the growing tender in her life, she did not have the money to buy the latest fashions. she had to where many of the old
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clothes. she is often wearing the same thing. >> the james monroe museum in fredericksburg shows a unique perspective of the first lady for her personal belongings. >> elizabeth monroe was a true partner in her husband's career and was a good sounding board for many of the policies and issues he had to be involved with. she was some one her husband to go to for valuable advice. we go through an art of elizabeth monroe's life. mrs. monroe had a very well- developed sense of style, a heritage of it. she had shoes that she inherited
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from her mother that she continued to wear into her lifetime. as the is -- the mistress of oak hill, she was responsible for maintaining the household accounts. and she did it on a small ivory memo pad. they are ivory pieces with days of the week inscribed on them. and whatever to do list that she might have could be written on here with a charcoal pencil and then be wiped off. it reflects someone with organized, busy, and making use of a very practical item in her life. the relationship that mrs. monroe had with her sister was a strong bond. in very much the style of the time in giving a gift of sisterly love, she presented to one of her sister in the 1790's jewelry made from her own hair. joe were made from human hair became very commonplace in the 1800's. later in the 19th century it is associated with memorializing dead loved ones.
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it is a sign of mourning. but it can also be a sign of affection, a very personal gift. music was a very important part of elizabeth monroe's upbringing and life. she was trained in playing the piano. we have a -- and astor pianoforte a circa 1790. elizabeth did not have as well developed a budget as her style. due to the long years of public service that her husband put in. they were able to make some pretty good deals on a variety of items. her jewelry is a reflection of that. mrs. monroe sought to combine elements of high-quality with versatility. we have your necklaces and
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associated other jewelry that are in aquamarine and citrine, and each could be worn with or without a pennant. you have a couple of different uses. a bracelet or a joker is possible with the amethyst jewelry. there is a coral tiara. it gives you several different options in creating her jewelry accommodations. >> the blue room is the monroe'' and one of the most authentic in the house. you can go back to one -- if i could go back to one time in the white house, i would probably go back to the monroe timeframe in the white house, because the wheels of history begin to come to life. and of course, monroe felt that the era of good feeling, as it was called, would last forever. people began moving west in big numbers. i would like to be listening to what was going on. in furnishing the house, james monroe and his wife were very
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into french everything. they spoke french at home and they lived in french -- france. they spent a lot of money on things, such as these clocks. these things are still in use, many of them. many of the things he acquired are still in use. when you see our earliest things, many of them are in the blue room. we have these wonderful gilt chairs and sofas. their work -- they were acquired by president monroe from france. he was criticized for buying french things and not american. and in 18 20's, the white house passed a law that the white house for a juror had to be of american manufacturer. this room is much more of a period room in that sense. it is a place where the munro's would probably feel the most comfortable, too, like teddy roosevelt in the east room.
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they would walk in and say, i understand this room. and this is wallpaper that is of our vintage. >> the only first lady born outside the u.s., lisa katherine adams, had to adjust to her new life in america, and the family of her husband, john quincy adams. >> when louisa and john quincy first came to than old house, they had just landed in europe in washington, d.c., and made the journey of two old currency. the journey was very difficult. she was brought to this house to meet her father and mother in law and of that moment she would write, had i stepped on to know was arc, i could not have been more utterly astonished. she had a challenge in winning over abigail adams. john adams was easy. he took to her right away.
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she always felt very comfortable with him and very well-liked by him. abigail was more skeptical, perhaps due to john quincy t.d. in. he only give abigail a little bit of information about his wife, and was not forthright in his intentions. in many ways, it was a surprise that he married her so quickly. and abigail did not get a chance to know her. she was quite concerned that although she was an american citizen, she had never stepped foot on american soil. this is not what she intended for her son, john quincy adams. but through time, she learned to grow and love and understand lisa -- lisa and a forged a strong relationship. she described abigail adams at the end of her life as the planet around which all
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revolved. unlike john adams, john quincy adams did not live at peace field year round. they would return in the summer months to get a break from the politics of washington. her grandson, henry adams, remembered louisa catherine fondly. he describes her and her relationship with the family. he always felt that she was the odd one out because she was born in england and educated in france. she remained a foreign personality to many of the items, itemsthe adamses, but not to henry. his fondest recollection is of her entertaining at t in this room. john quincy adams and louisa would inherit this room from john adams. they thought about selling the house, but after discussion they
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decided it was important to the family story, to hold on to this house for future generations. >> during andrew jackson's brief hiatus from the military in the early 1800's, rachel jackson entertained family and friends at their home, the hermitage. >> they came to this property in 1804. he was just retiring for a while. when they first moved here, he spent a lot of time at home. the primary people who would have visited prior to 18 -- the war of 1812 would have been friends and relations in the area. rachel had a huge family and they all had lots of kids. there were a lot of them and they were in and out all the time. rachel was very close to her family. jackson being an orphan, grew very close to rachels family. after the war of 1812 when he
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has become this national hero, there were people here all the time. basically, they were acknowledged to be nice horses, very cordial and very welcoming. -- nytes hostess, very cordial and very welcoming. they have lots and lots of company for the rest of rachel's life. they had many dinner parties and things here at the hermitage. there used to findings in the city, so they -- fine things in the city, so they acquired a good deal of those things, too. they had quite a bit of silver, such as these punch cups used. they would add some highly liquor out punch. she had very nice things with
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this dual image of her as this from the country lady. -- frumpy country they. jim was not so much that. -- she was not so much that. i think it was more about living in the country than anything about her appearance or clothing. during the war of 1812, there are letters from her that say things like, yes, do not let fame and fortune blind you to the fact that you have a wife and i am home and i need you. i think he knew pretty well that she would have preferred him just to stay home and the plantation owner and jackson. this is the earliest letter that we have that jackson wrote to rachel. it was written in 1796. referred to her "my dearest heart."
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it says, with greatest pleasure i sit down to right with you -- write to you, though i am absent from you. i will be restored your arms, there to spend my days in domestic sweetness with you, the companion of my life, never to be separated from you again during this transitory and in fluctuate -- and fluctuating life. there were lots of comments and visitors about her flower gathering and picking. one lady was here on her honeymoon and she and her husband were indicted tuesday. she mentioned -- to step -- were invited to stay. she and her husband mentioned the garden. she walked through the garden with rachel and rachel gathered flowers for them before they left. we don't know what kind of health rachel was in overall. it is apparent that throughout the fall of 1828 her health was not very good.
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but the campaign for president that jackson was going through have a huge effect on her health. this is the letter that jackson wrote on the day rachel actually died, december 22, 1828. he is writing to his friend, richard keith carl. in his letter, he describes the onset of her final illness. he says that she was a few days hence, suddenly violently attacked with pains in her left shoulder and breast and such was the contraction at her breast that suffocation was apprehended. it was clear that she was very in very serious condition.
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he talks about going to washington, like he is assuming she will get better, and off we will go. unfortunately, she did pass later in the day. according to the stories of her death, jackson called for her to be bled when she died. he was a big believer in heroic medicine, basically that the medicine that did not hear you did not kill you would cure you. even though was clear that she was not alive anymore, he asked that dr. to believe her. supposedly, there is a little stain that came out when the doctor did try to bleed her. and then some things about his morning -- if mourning, a
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calling card that he printed in black, suggesting he is in mourning. and then a book that was given to him by a friend of his, mrs. rutledge, that had the wrong inscription in it. it was a book to help him, come for him, to help him along. -- comfort him, to help him along. jackson was completely devastated. he was preparing plans to go to washington on a steamboat and it was up more than he could deal with almost. this is something with her picture on it that he had with him pretty much all the time. it would be on a chain or strap that he could wear around his neck, on his bedside table at night so that he could see it in the morning when he awakened. and she was with him pretty much all the time, even though she
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had passed away. this is the book that was very important to jackson. this was rachel's songbook, and she made this cross stitch cover for her book, so it would keep the book nice. after her death, jackson kept a number of things like this very close at hand, so we could refer to them. another way of keeping rachel close. jackson had abbott after rachel died of purchasing were using were keeping the things that reminded him of her. this is a central hallway of the hermitage manchin. although the house burned after rachel's death, jackson insisted that they repurchase the same wallpaper that rachel had chosen for this space. she had liked it. it reminded him of her, and he wanted it here. this is jackson's bedroom. after rachel's death, she was never far away from him. he kept many mementos of her around.
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in the early 1830's, he had a portrait that was a special favor of his copy, so that he could have hanging over the fireplace so that it would be the first thing he saw in the morning and the last thing he saw at night, according to the traditional stories passed down in the family. he would go out to her tomb every evening and spend some time out there. >> educated in the graces of society, angelica van buren was well-suited for the white house. later at his retirement in kidder hook, n.y.. >> angelica them during would spend the summer months here. occasionally, also the winter months, but they would spend the summer months here. in the dining room, angelica van buren would serve as a hostess. van buren had many social events, political events. and during those times, angelico
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would be hostess for those occasions, just as she was at the white house. she was quite refined, being that she was a wealthy and had all the appropriate social graces of the time, so much so that the ambassador from france who was purdue the critical of american social graces complimented her. later, he added another 100 acres on to the 130 acres they had here. typically, the women in the house would engage in a variety of activities, polite conversation, read or recite from memory to one another. they would often play parlor games in here. anjelica was trained in philadelphia on the heart. there were occasions she would have played a part for the other female guests here in the greenroom. this is the breakfast room here.
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it is a much more intimate room compared to the main hall. it is the place where the family had their daily meals. the china you see here monogrammed here"vb" is the daily china. angelica could be seen serving some one -- someone here. she suffered a miscarriage, and we know from letters that she wrote that during that time, she convalesced on this couch here in the main hall. earlier, while she was serving as host is in the white house, she had another baby girl -- as an infant. -- to die as an infant. here on the second floor, they would have spent a great deal of time while bought -- while visiting her father-in-law, president van buren.
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it is easy to imagine her wearing one of the stresses here, or even at the white house as she hosted president van buren. the parasol is likely would use while strolling the grounds in the summer months on the air -- on their large farm of 240 acres. they had a very close relationship. he was a very amiable man, which was why he was so successful in politics. and she was trained in the social graces of the time. i think they genuinely care for one another. >> while her husband, john, rebuild his political career, letitia tyler managed the kids and the plantation. >> he and his wife, latisha, and their family moved here to williamsburg to establish the law practice. he constructed his law office, and the foundry.
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the house they live in is no longer here, but here in williamsburg, it was perfectly to traded at the center of the legal part of the town. the courthouse was right across the street. this is sort of the beating heart of williamsburg, even in the 1830's. all of the political activity, the social activity, they are really living at the center of it. and this fantastic 18th-century house that they were living in, as john tyler was resurrecting his political year -- career. latisha was operating out of the house and running the various plantations all over the place. it is right here that she suffered a stroke in 1839 that partly paralyzed her, although she was still able to retain control on the family accounts, of all of the family business,
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while john tyler was actually getting involved again in the business. it was here that he learned he was elected vice president and also in the spring of night -- of 1841, it was here that he became the next president of the united states. and it was here that she was informed she was the next first lady of the united states. >> julia tyler -- julia gardner was 30 years younger than him. >> when they got to for belvedere, they had put a barge in the bay. everybody was very pleased. the ship turned around and went back to washington.
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a hard core few wanted to fire the gun again. they sent a request down to the captain. it was turned down. but at that point, somebody looked over and as they are passing, the request was changed to stop the ship and honor -- and fire the gun in honor of the first passenger appeared when they could not do that, the governor fired a cannon. the right breach blew out and killed seven people, among them senator gardner. also the secretary of state, and the secretary of the navy. everybody downstairs thought the ship had exploded. all of those handsome young officers that were surrounding my grandmother who was 23 years old at the time, but very beautiful, my grandfather had been trying to talk to her because of -- but could not because of all the handsome young males. they all rushed to do what they
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had to do and left her standing there. she knew her father wasn't there, so she followed behind them. i've grandfather followed behind. -- my grandfather followed behind. and he was calling out, "don't let ms. gardner find her father is dead." and when she heard that, she fainted right back into the arms of my grandfather. he caught her tenderly. he picked her up and carried her. she came to, and later, she wrote her mother sang the first thing she remembered was going down the gangplank in the arms of the president, and she struggled and her head fell over so she could look up into his eyes. and she wrote her mother that she relies for the first time that the president of media elite.
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>> she had parties at the white house. she was immensely dedicated to the concept of the annexation of texas to the union. during that time, she was able to sway john c. calhoun, who was a contemporary of my mother's from south carolina, and she was able to sway him to vote for the annexation of texas. and she worked on henry clay, but i don't know whether she was really successful. biji took henry clay out to dinner. and this is a woman without a chaperon, a president's wife, alone having dinner with henry clay, and she did not mind at all. and she wrote her mother a letter, which i think it's priceless. she said, mother, mr. clay was a little insulting. when i told him that my husband wanted him to vote for the annexation of texas, he said to me, i am wide taxes should not
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be an efficient -- and next but i -- and i replied, my husband is both. john tyler was born in charles city county. he purchased his house and came down here once before he retired from the presidency. he and julia gardner were married. she said, the hand of god and nature have been kind to my sherwood forest, but i can improve upon it. and she did. she had the moldings imported
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from italy. shad the mantelpiece is brought in from italy. and the knocker on the front door, it has been meticulous the polished through the years. that was one of her contributions to the house. julia and her mother were very close. and we are exceedingly fortunate to have many letters written between juliet and her mother from his plantation. this house is only one room wide because you want the breezes to go from the north to the south and from the south to the north. they would sit in the hall quite frequently. she sat in the open doorway that led to the south porch and wrote letters to her mother. and quite frequently, she commented on the president, who kept his feet on the banister and would read his newspaper and throw it on the floor.
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in the gray room is a table, and it is the table on which we are told john tyler fed her breakfast in her bedroom after he had been around the house. after his horseback ride, he would go to that table and have breakfast with his wife, which he would personally carry in on a tray, because she was still in bed. also, her mother writes her and says commanders stand from other people who believe that you sleep until 9:00 in the morning, and the president brings you breakfast in bed. and she says, please, do not take advantage of an elderly gentleman who dotes upon you. in the afternoons, julia rights to her mother frequently what she is doing on his plantation. she records almost every piece of furniture in the house. brothers visited, and became her
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buying agents. they bought and you're from a store and when it comes, they found cuts on the bottom edge of the mayor. her mother writes her back and said, don't be so picky of minutia. we have record of a ball that she had in honor of her sister margaret, who came here very frequently. and the portrait is a portrait of julia ann margaret. -- julia and margaret. you can see the water in the background. the ball that she had for margaret started at 9:00. and then, she says, they danced
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the virginia rail and the waltz ]the virginia rail and the waltz until the sun rose, and the finest champagne flowed unceasingly. among one thing that julia did here for entertainment was, they allowed all of the house serving children to play continuously with the children of the big house. in her letters, julia tyler speaks of her children playing with the children in the yard. and she speaks of their dancing with the children in the yard. the supervision of the house servants, and there were many, there were a total of almost 90 slaves on the plantation. i think there were 13 house servants. they would care for her as well as the others on the plantation. they were happy.
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and she loved it. she refers to the melody of his voice. she always refers to his intelligence. she had a wonderful time here. >> sarah polec took a much more active role as first lady, just as she had done throughout her husband's political career as a congressman, speaker of the house, and governor. >> the traveling desk is indicative of sarah's life with james k. polk, mainly as his health made. he had no staff, so sarah took a hand on attitude toward being his wife. the traveling desk she took with her on her long trips to washington, d.c. as she traveled twice a year, these are troops that could take 30 days. she is communicating with her family and friends back home, so she wrote tens of thousands of letters during her lifetime. the portraits are painted by
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ralph earl when james and sarah were in washington as congress and lady. is there was a helpmate to him throughout his political career. when he was writing speeches, she would complete them for him. daly, they would read the newspaper and she would underlined passages she thought he should read. she was a fixture in the gallery in congress. it was a great time of speeches of politicians. henry clay and calhoun and others were giving their famous speeches of the day. 14 members of the house of representatives, and the last four or the speaker of the house. and he was the only speaker at that time to become president. it brings a whole new social status to washington, d.c., and sarah played one of the hostesses in washington. typically, congress would act -- enact a memorial officially thanking him for his service.
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the congress was so widely divided when he left the that they refuse to do that, but it is interesting. a number of politicians wrote poems in honor of sarah at the time that she left. supreme court justice joseph story road a palm mourning the loss of her in washington this society. >> how sarah looked was important to her from the standpoint of how she was perceived by the public. she also saw it as a reflection on the presidency itself. she was known for having beautiful dresses and looking incredible in a white house that was also a beautiful. the dress was purchased in texas and warned by her in the late administration. it was the dress costume of a first lady before she was properly dressed.
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the white dress is a ball gown, also made in paris, france. it was a style mrs. polk used to give the indication she found a style she liked and looked good in. it is a beautiful town in silk and satin. it has a great deal of lace attached to it. mrs. polk often purchased addresses and would buy a great deal of material to go along with them so she could change the way they looked. instead of having to buy five or six down, she would buy a single down and buy extra material to make them look differently. she was a master at excess are rising. she had a wonderful collection of handbags and purses. -- she was a master at access arising -- accessorizing. her head dresses are unusual. the are incredibly rare.
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few of these headdresses survive from this time period. they tend to get one out. one unusual piece, a turban. by the 1840's, probably has fallen a little out of fashion. dolly madison was still alive and was in making the visit to the polk white house. this is the inaugural stand. it was a gift from president- elect polk to his wife. she carried it with her on the day of his inauguration. his is is gilt paper and features the lithograph images of the first 11 presidents from washington all the way to james k. polk. she carried it with her during the spring of 19 -- 1845.
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it features the lithographic image of the signing of the declaration of independence. the polks came into the white house a young, vibrant couple. the white house was split and that was why polk said he would run for only one term only. sarah polk used the white house to enhance her husband's political prestige. dining in the white house was a serious affair. twice a week, she would entertain 50-75 people. the china news was beautiful. it is considered some of the most beautiful of the white house china. it features the presidential seal. the guinness that is why it embossed with gold. they had 80 said that was blue and a dessert set in green. you will often read that mrs. polk did not allow alcohol in the white house.
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she stopped the serving of whisky punches at public levees, but wine was one of the largest bills. one of the more interesting on in the collection speaks to sarah and her ability with music. we have the music book that has hand written acacias. when of the books inside was the song hail to the chief, she is credited starting to use as the official song of the president. >> eastern new york was considered the frontier at that time. >> eighth time in the home that belonged to millard and abigail fillmore. they met when they were both teachers. they both had this desire and love of reading. abigail was brought up in a family that had many books. her father was a baptist preacher.
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he loves to read. she was surrounded by books her whole lifetime. when she moved into this house with millard, she continued that. they have their own personal library. she wanted to let young people read extensively about the world as it was. this room we are in is the focus of the entire house. history is made right here. she independently employed herself as a teacher. she tutored young students in the evening in the course of history. this room would have been the living room. it also served as their kitchen. here in front of the fireplace, millard and abigail would spend hours in front of the fireplace and do their reading and writing. abigail cook in this very room. it was their kitchen. this is the bedlam.
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here's the staircase has quite an angle to it -- this is the bedroom. the original staircase has quite an angle to it. as a young wife and mother dressed in a long skirt and with a toddler on her hip, she ascended that ladder into the bedroom. when can this room, we have been fillmore bed and dresser. she was a wonderful seamstress. we have her quilts, a colorful " in a tumbling block pattern. -- a colorful quilt in a tomblin blot pattern. it was a vibrant community. we can envision abigail having a very full life. we see her as a hospitable young
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young wife, young mother, teacher. >> after leaving congress, franklin and james pierce moved to concord, new hampshire to raise their family. >> franklin pierce had just finished serving two terms in the house and senate. he resigned about a year earlier than his term was up to move back to concord to be with jane and to raise their two children here. this is the only house in concord that they ever owned. they bought that and moved in, in late may, 1842. >> we're in the dining room here. typically the family would have their main meal at noon time. james pierce was kind of a -- jane pierce was kind of a shy reclusive person. she didn't entertain a lot in her private home. this they took to the white
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house. they had eight rooms they had to furnishish with their personal furniture. so this was one of the pieces that went to the white house with them. this was known in jane jane's sister's family as the white house table. they had to borrow furniture to take to the white house with them. this is one piece that they borrowed from jane's sister, mary. they also took the little writing desk and chair that long belonged to franklin pierce. as a uld have been used guest room. we think this belonged to betty pierce. it has been refinished and lengthened, so it fits an adult. this is the master bedroom of the pierce home. this is the room where their second son, franky, died of typhus when he was 4 years old. this was a great blow to both
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jane and franklin. he was the apple of their eye. quite an interesting little character, according to their letters. they were devastated by his death. jane was in mourning for quite a long time over franky's death. >> i think a big house, especially with only one child now, was too much for jane to take care of. i don't think she was interested in house keeping, particularly. i just don't think she was capable of taking care of a house. pierce went off to war in 1847, and they sold the house when he came back in 1848. then they lived in a boarding house when he came back, and they lived in a boarding situation for the rest of their lives. >> mary was james pierce's sister. they were close friends throughout life. mary was there for jane at all the most important times in her life.
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jane came to andover to visit the cousins. mary and john had children. franklin and jane became very close and attached to those children after their son passed away. this is referred to as the summer white house. it is called that, because franklin pierce would come visit his wife in andover. he would visit them in the summers, in particular. it is believed the administrative staff stayed just across the road from them. jane and franklin were staying in and -- andover because there had been a death in the family. their uncle, james laurnts lawrence had died. they returned to andover where they could get ready to move to the white house. unfortunately the train ride was devastating for the family. they were about a mile mile out of andover.
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an axelrod broke on the frane train. as i understand it, benny was a baby, moving about, and when the train rolled down, he was hit in the back of his head very severely. he did not survive the crash. mary rvices took place at acres' house. jane did not attend. she could not make it to the final procession of the funeral. jane was sick most of her life. she has been referred to as tuburcular, and she probably died of albuquerque -- uberculosis. >> harriet lane hosted many tivities at her home which prepared her for her life as first lady.
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>> in the spring of 1848, just a month before harriet's birthday, they moved here. this was the place she would call home until the age of 36 when she married and moved to baltimore. >> this room is a social room. this is the social hub of the home. this is the place where harriet lane might serve tea to friends and guests, write letters to her friends. it is the room where the family lived. they would spend time together. play games, sing. just enjoy each other's company. very much like we would use a family room today. here we have harriet lane's piano. this was a gift from her uncle, james buchanan. this was probably purchased some time in the mid to late 1860's. as you see, we have her music book here. this is embossed with her name on the front. this included a number of pieces, italian classics. we also have patriotic songs in
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here. one of her uncle's favorite things to do was so sit in the parlor and listen to his niece play the religious hymns. he was a devout presbyterian. listening to his niece play hymns was very wonderful for him. she was over the moon she might get to come any him as his companion. upon visiting queen victoria, miss lane made a good impression. the queen was impressed with her. as a result, the few of them formed a very interesting friendship that would continue throughout both of their lives. this was actually a gift that the queen gave harriet. it is a beautiful gold bracelet. inside it has her name, harriet lane, and the date of 1857, when she received the gift.
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behind me we have a legitimate graph of queen victoria and her husband, chris albert. these were a dip nath matic gift presented to james buchanan and his niece harriet lane during their time in the white house. what's special about these is they actually hung in the white house and were braut back here o their home in wheatland. harriet lane spent quite a bit of time traveling with her uncle, james buchanan. they also entertained people in the white house, as well. one of the most interesting groups they had visit them was the japanese delegation. they came to the white house in 1860 and they came bearing all ypes of gifts. here are some of the things they brought. miss lane found all of these very intriguing. here we are in harriet lane's
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bedroom in wheatland. this room is furnishished in a way that it might have been furnishished when she was living here. the funks that you see today are actually pieces she owned after her marriage in 1856. behind me you will see her wardrobe. this is a piece she would have stored her european gowns she bought in paris. she was known for her fabulous clothing. she had a penchant for european fabrics. most of her clothing was handmade for her. some were worn later in life. her signature tile was radically different from this here. she would wear full gowns were many layers of ruffles. she was also known for her low neckline. that was not quite in fashion in america yet, about by she brought it to the forefront of
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attention because she was showing dwight eye bit of skin. it caught on, and all the ladies copied this fashion. they copied her hair and her jewelery and general fashion sense. we have a small dog that was created to look just like her -- we have a doll that was created to look just like her. she is wearing lots of tool and lace. in front of me is a beautiful rosewood mohagany bed that she had made to accommodate her uncle james buchanan. he was a tall man so she wanted to make sure he was comfortable. so this was something she commissioned with her beloved uncle in mind.
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>> sth was her portable writing desk. >> mary todd-lincoln did what she could to help them reach their goal. >> this is the home in illinois y helped build mar . >> this is where he became the president. >> he had a lot of goals in life, but those were enhanced en he met and married mary todd. she said she wanted to marry a man with a bright mind.
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she also said she was going to marry a man that was going to be president. there was something about abraham lincoln that she thought he would make it. the political parties they had they invited a lot of very important people. talking with the wives of those very important gentleman, she ielded a lot of power. >> this is the dining room. that is not something a polished high-society person would do. mary had grown up with a formal dining room, and she felt she needed to have one here, because she didn't want her children growing up without proper manners. in a lot of cases, mr. lincoln needed that polishing as well. so all of her boys needed some olishing and manners, so she
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created that dining room to have that formal fiss face for she and cher family, but also when they had guests over. there were a lot of people that came to visit mr. lincoln during the 1860 campaign and after he was elected president. there were four months between the election and the inauguration. there were a lot of visitors coming to their home. one ended up mr. lincoln's secretary of astate. mary being an excellent hostess, she would have had trays of something that reflected her amous white cake or the famous confectionary from downtown springfield. lots of hey bought those. this is the parlor. these are the two nices room in the house. there are marble top tables. there are valances at the
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window. there is a guildled candlestick. there is a bust of mr. lincoln. that was here in 1860. not everybody in the neighborhood could say that, that they had a bust of their husband in the living room. so this was a fancy place. this is where she wanted to showoff. mary would have held parties here where they would have discussed her husband's political aspirations. they started at the front door, met mr. lincoln here. he was probably standing in the archway, maybe went to the dining room, and met mary in the sitting room before going out the front door again. this is where mr. lincoln met with the republican national committee that told him he had been nominated to run for president. so this was the seat of power in this house. mary helped to basically showcase what cher husband had done, how far he had come from that one-room log cabin in the
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middle of kentucky to this beautiful house, very comfortable house, and kind of hinted at where they about headed, stating to the world that abraham lincoln had made it and he was ready to move on. >> this was the seasonal home for the lincoln family, and mary pushed for the move out here. she saw it as a place for her family to have more privacy than they had at the white house. we're in the mary lincoln room, which is not part of our typical experience at the cottage. but we call it the mary lincoln room, because when the lincolns were living here in the summer of 1863, mary lincoln is involved in a pretty serious carriage accident. some scholars believe that the carriage had been tampered with and this is really an early assassination attempt on lincoln. when mary lincoln suffered that carriage accident, and what happens, the driver's seat
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separates a little from the carriage, mary had to leap out of the carriage in order to save herself. she suffers a head injury. after the accident, she's treated, we believe, at the white house. and after she is treated, she comes to the home to make her recovery. we believe she did that in the mary lincoln room. not only is it the most isolated of the bedrooms, but it is the only one that has windows on three different walls, allowing for better cross breezes to make her recovery more comfortable. in 1862, there is also the imperative of having a more private place to mourn and to believe grieve after the death of their son willie. he passed away in february 1862, and mary lincoln was going about the traditional cultural and social expectations of a woman in mourning, and pelt felt she
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couldn't do this effectively at the white house, so for her there was a personal imperative to come out here to the soldiers home to have a place to grieve the loss of her son. one of the most documented events that took place at the soldiers home was a seance hosted here after the death of willie lincoln. noah brooks writes of that in his diary. mary lincoln felt at one occasion she might be taken advantage of and she might be subject to blackplale mail, and he asked for some of his colleagues and friends to check out the situation and see if they could figure out what this so-called medium was actually doing and figure out how she was able -- how he was able to make the noises he was able to make. so noah brooks is present here at the soldiers home and recounts the noises that they were all hearing, and then the fact that when the lights turned
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on, they had grabbed the person's hand and were able to prove he was a fraud. based on the historical record, it did not seem that mary was aware she was being defrauded in this way. and after it was revealed that this man was a fake, she is quite embarrassed by it. and there is anl attempt to con seast seal and cover it up. when she writes of this event to friends, she writes writes about how much she was looking forward to coming out here. i think she saw it as fulfilling her dream of what her family would experience here in washington, d.c. so even though it was still a place where death and the war were surrounding them, it also gave them a little respite from the chaos of downtown washington, d.c. >> the personal effects of eliza johnson allow a glimpse into the life of this rather private first lady. >> in this case we have artifacts relating to andrew
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johnson's presidency and beyond. we have one of eliza's necklaces. which is a plain black cross, which i think shows her simplistic taste. ooh another is her sewing in case. one ever her three favorite pass times were embroiderywork, readsing poetry, and scrap booking. on the broader sense, they did receive political gifts while in the white house, and they had an ivory basket which came from een imwood from the sandwich islands, which are now the awaiian islands. president johnson was the first to have an easter egg roll at the white house. he brought it back. some theories held that he hold it on the white house lawn so eliza could watch.
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being ill with tuberculosis, she wasn't able to get out much, so she ended up watching the easter gg role. from the white house. >> one of the most spectacular gifts she brought home with her from the white house was this pors lynn box. it had 50 pounds of chocolate bonbons in it. we have in the letter from some of her children saying they would go up to mom's room in the white house to get a treat from the bon-bon box. another item she brought back was in remembrance of the visit. that was ever charles dickins who in 1867 would come visit them at the white house. she returned and brought back one of his books. she was an avid reader. this gave him -- her a chance to
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remember his visit. charles dickens was one of the most prolific writers of that time. another gift was given to her from the people of ireland. it was 500 pieces of inlaid wood. they would roll it up and it looks like a regular table when planpen it, but the crafts -- but the craftsmanship was amazing. and this is another gift that eliza brought back home with her from the white house. >> julia grant was given a place to call home p >> home was a gift that 13 businessmen gave to the grant family in appreciation for his service during the war. julia mentioned cumenting up the hill and being presented with
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this lovely villa furnishished with everything good taste could offer. there was an entertaining part of the home. we all know julia was an avid entertainer. loved it. the family sfent spent quite a bit of time here in the parlor also. we know mrs. grant and her daughter played the piano. so imagine the family here. the boys listening to their sister and mother play some songs for them. being entertained in here. maybe played a little song for their guests. his head quarters were located in the downtown hotel. the day after the election, grant and julia opened up their home and the parlor here where people filed flu to congratulate both of them on his election in the next step of their lives. this is the general and mrs. grant's bedroom. the bedroom is the oldest peast piece we have in the house.
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this is the only bed thath they brought with them, putting down some roots. even through all their travels in the white house, this was always here for them when they came back. this had mrs. u.s. grant on here. she was either writing letters was important em to her. her grandfather was a method istomin center. so growing up it was important to her. she instilled that in the children. the pugh they used is still marked at the church, that it was the grant's family pew -- pugh. we have a bible that was given to mrs. grant by the methodist episcopal church in 1888. this is the room wherever -- where she would come in to get
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ready in the morning, get ready in the evening, and maybe just get a little solitude from everybody in the house. there are a lot of personal things in here that belonged to mrs. grant. we have her sewing kit that she probably would have used to mend some socks for the kids. we have some of her size 4 shoes that she wore. after his eight years in the white house, the grants came back here to golina forrest and relaxation. for a couple months. then they decided to go on a world tour. they were gone over two years and visited close to 40 countries. the grants were like american celebrities. they were treated like royalty in the countries that they went to. they received a lot of gifts on the tour. we're fortunate enough to have some of those still in the home. two of them are here on the mantle. these red vases were a gift from he king of bulgaria.
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after the world tour they came back for a couple months and then they went to mexico in cuba. the paintings on each side of the fire place, the landescape paintings, were given to the grants on that trip by the government of mexico. a popular artist in mexico did these landscape paintings for the grants. this is the dining room. this is, of course, where the family would have had their meals. julia maybe would have done some light entertaining here. this is not, you know, anything too elaborate in the home. some of the gifts that were given to the grant on that world tour. this piece was actually given to julia. this is a bronze urn on a teakwood table given to her from the citizens of yokohama, japan. this statue was given to her from the -- this vase was given to her from the emperor of
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japan. the l leaves here t. she actually framed it. the leaves were given to her. leaves he picked up from the holy city. she kept it, had it framed, and wrote the whole story on there. julia probably had a time of her life on this tour. she devoted almost a third of her memoirs talking about it. she developed friendships with queen victoria, and a good friendship with the emperor of japan. they stayed longer than expected because they developed such a nice close relationship with him. after grant passed away, the emperor of japan actually came to visit julia when she was there. they they kept that friendship and it had it for the rest of julia's life. this is a place the family could come back to. this was always vesming for them. not just this house, but go lifment na, too. she refers to it as her dear, dear golina.
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>> lucy hayes was known for her kindness and compassion. >> lucy was very dedicated to her family. her children were very important to her. she and her husband had eight children. five of them lived to adulthood. we know some diaries and letters that this was kind of their gathering state. so not only is this their bedroom, but this is where they spent a lot of time together. this room was important to lucy as a mother, because this is where her eighth child was born right here in this bed, manny forest hayes. he was the only one of the eight hayes children to be born here. tragically he was never a very healthy child. when he was about 18 months old, he actually contracted dysentery , and so he passed away. that was something very hard on the family. this was a sewing machine. this is what she took with her
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when her husband was in camp, an officer in the civil war. it was important to her that she be with him as often as was practical. so when he was in winter camp and that kind of thing, when he wasn't actually out on campaign when he was in western virginia, she would travel with him. she wrote in diaries and letters how important it was for her to be with him. she often wrote she was concerned about the welfare of the men that were in his regiment. so she took this with her, and she would actually do some sewing. lucy was a good seamstress. actually, when she was married in 1852, she made her own wedding dress, a beautiful and elegant dress. this is something that would have been important to her. one of the things that was interesting that occurred in this space, this is where they would have family christmases. they would write about these in the diaries. they would have breakfast. they would come in here and open the perez events. the whole family would gather in
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here. they would have simple presents. not a lot of presents. this is the space they would do that. a lot of traditions. a lot of family traditions happened here as well as day-to-day activities with the family. >> this is a water color painting of the president and lucy's bedroom at the white house. can you see there is some vibrant blues here. you can see that same color scheme reflected here. we know lucy liked the color blue. we know that by this painting here. also when we were reupholste. - reupholstering the furniture to take it back to the original, we found swatches of the original fabric embedded in the furniture. this is lucy's only not daughter. her name was fanny. she was named after the president's much beloved sister. this is a painting of fanny with
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her father. she was the ponl daughter. she was the president and lucy's only daughter. you can imagine a little girl growing up in a house like this with a lot of brothers. even though her farntse claim she was not the favorite, she had furniture made for her. she had one of the bigger bedrooms. she certainly was the darling to her mother and her father. two causes important to her were veterans and soldiers and also orphans, or children made orphans as a result of the civil war. this painting was made to hang in an orphanag. it kind of reflects those two issues important to her. when people would come and visit, they would sit in this formal parlor. heir home was host to a number
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of reunions of civil war veterans. 23rd oli. ms mckinley was a member of the 23rd o.v.i. he and his family were guests here. veterans were always welcome here. when they would gather on the grounds, when they would come and talk, they would sit in the formal parlor. this is where they would sit. they would have hosted a number of political figures here for dinner. including future presidents taft and mckinley. man was a guest here. she would served in that role as
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hostess, which would have been very import. james garfield had a great love of books and created a learning environment for the family. >> this is the bar lower. this is the way it looked during ames garfield's 1880 campaign. >> they spent a lot of time with their children. they lost two children in infancy. eliza and edward. mes and lecrtia's five children all had the benefit of having two very intelligent parents who strongly believed in education. they felt education was an emance pating factor and that that led to the key to success. their children also took dance lessons, piano lessons.
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on the other side of the room, we have molly's piano, which was a gift to her on her 13th birthday in 1880. she more than the boys practiced the piano. and that was a reward. here in the family parlor, like every room in the house, you see a lot of books. books were very important to james and lec refment tia, and their children loved to read as well. some of their favorite authors were dickens and some of his works are here. the family would cut sit by the fireplace and read to one another. oftentimes out loud. that was one of their favorite activities. in the center of the table is this very interesting art piece. it is called the arch of venus. it actually won an award at the centennial. mrs. garfield actually adored her time at the exhibition. she visited all the tents. the art tents, the science
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tents, the technology tents. she was specifically interested in the latest science and technology of the day. she would write pages and pages of what she saw at the site. so a lot of people think of mrs. garfield as an artistic lady. she is also very, very intelligent. loved the sciences. like most families, dinner time of the day,age time and a time for them to all get together and talk about what they were all doing. sometimes garfield would bring a book to the table. words often mispronounced or misspelled. tia made lecre everything an educational experience. >> she started to make her life and her family's life again here in this house and on this property. she started to make a lot of
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changes to the property eventually. for example, the downstairs summer bedroom, she stopped using that. -- turned it into other things. she converted the downstairs an open reception room and had the kitchen moved into the back part of the house. most significantly was the construction of the president memorial library in 1885 and 1886. she started to make a lot of changes to the property. i think shuft just as important as the changes she made to the property are the ones that she didn't make. i'm standing now in the rooms james a. garfield used in the office for the years he was alive living here. the ia called this general's office. t looks voach like it did when she found the room in the condition after he walked out to
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go be president. she did make a few changes. rium ee the words in memo carved in the wood. this has special meaning to her. in memory of games james garfield, but it was a double memorium" was also the name of their favorite poem. on december 1, 1853, their daughter named eliza who they lovingly nicknamed "trust" died. this was, of course, very tragic for them and brought them much closer together than they had been up to that point since they had been married. james garfield wrote this empassioned letter to his wife from washington, d.c. just about two weeks or so after their daughter's life, and he told his wife in the letter that he had en reading this poem "in
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memorium" from alfred lord tenn yson, and he hoped it would bring as much comfort to her as it brought to him. he sucked this become their poem. and it did. when lecretia had "in moriu" in the wood, it was a remembrance of not only him, and s. but at a young age also their daughter. when he was alive and living in the home, this was the kitchen. after his dearkts lecretia made major changes to the property. this was converted into an open reception room. the most significant change she made after his death was the construction of the nation's very first presidential memorial
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library. as we get to the lem memorial library, we come first to the moslem ram landing. ds here we find this portrait. this was done by a good friend of the garfields'. soldier in the a civil war. sfw she memorialized this to keep his memory alive for herself and for the country as well. all over the room you see books. these were all books that belonged to james garfield. this was a piece sent to mrs. garfield completely unsolicited by someone in italy. it is a beautiful memorial piece that has an image of james garfield in the middle, surrounded by flowers. it is all actually made by small stones pushed together. this is one of mrs. garfield's favorite -- this was one of mrs. garfield's favorite pieces.
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this was also sculpted by an italian sculptor about two years after her husband's death. this is the room she had constructed along with the library in which she stored her husband's official papers and documents. it was in this room she had his papers organized and catalogued and bound up and stored really o keep them for posterity. a lot of interesting items in here. most scand significantly is the wreethwreath up on the shelf del and the frame. that wreath was lying on garfield's casket why he -- while he was lying in state in the capitol building in washington, d.c. the wreath was sent to mrs. garfield via the british delegation from queen victoria along with a nicely handwritten note from the queen. the garfields used this room a lot. it wasn't one of those beautiful
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wrooms rooms you can't go into or touch. you see lecretia's writing desk. you see here she did use blackboardered stationary -- st. -- stationery. she used that afor the rest of her life, in mourning. harry garfield, the oldest garfield son and mary garfield, he only surviving garfield daughter, both celebrated their weddings here in the garfield library. >> the public's fascination with frances cleveland really extended to her clothes. she was a real fashion icon. women emulated her hairstyle and clothing. she popularized everything she had and did. this is a dress from the second
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administration. and in a way, this is a prized piece of art, because it is an inaugural gown. it sfade in her family and became the family wedding dress. the bottom of the dress is exactly the same, but the top has been remade. it originally had a satin top with large bows on the shoulders. the lace from that original dress was used to recreate a snu bodice to make it a more fashionable wedding dress. his was used by her daughters. let's look at some of her other clothes. even frances cleveland's other clothes were very stylish. a lot of these look like something you could wear now. the jacket.
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black with this beautiful purple blue velvet. this is a more evening appropriate piece. this is a bodice that had a atching skirt. certainly a moreor nature -- more ornate daytime set. you can wear this shirt with the skirt. so that is kind of the history of the first lady's collection. it is 100 years old now. and one of the earlier wedding dresses on display. and this dress was on display before even that. this is a reception dress mrs. cleveland would have worn during
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the second administration. 1889 is when sleeves become much . rger and the puffy shoulders huge large puff sleeves trimmed in lace, and butterflies. the description at the time talkeds -- talks about the butterflies looking as if they are alight. you can see the damage that light will do to the dresses. the velvet was originally this color and over the years it faded. frances cleveland is so popular, people were imitating her style. but they really want a piece of frances for themselves. so pictures of the first lady became extremely popular. you can purchase your own pictures of mrs. cleveland to
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have in your home. and based on the pictures, advertisers and manufacturers were giving away souvenirs that you can purchase and have mrs. cleveland around your house in your home. so you can purchase the small painted glass portrait. you can have plates of mrs. cleveland. mrs. cleveland can convince you to buy products. the first come together. zoo while we have all the clevelands running for president, we also have mrs. cleveland running for first lady. a set of playing cards where you have the president, vice president, and first lady. so for his second administration -- looks a little different now. not the young engenue.
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she's a young mother and confident maiden. this is a piece you can have in your home. so the keen has visited the world's fair, and you can have a souvenir from the world's fair that not only commemorates the air, it commemorates the clevelands. so obviously not currently on the floor, they can be used for full exhibition purposes for for other institutions. this is frances cleveland's wedding dress. she was a very popular bride. she married the president in a white house ceremony. the only white house ceremony for a first lady. bodice.
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filled in with a neckpiece. creates a softening set. reated a long sleeved dress. trimmed in lace. even the under side had this beautiful trim. the first lady's collection contains more than clothing. so for its clothing, we have public pieces and personal pieces. one of my favorite things is a cake box. each of the guests at the wedding were given a little to hold a ed box piece of wedding cake. for the wedding grover cleveland and frances actually found time to sign a card for every cake box. igned and wrapped in lace. "it has been a piece of cake."
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and this particular cake box was given to the minister who performed the wedding. his name was byron thunderman and he was from a church in washington, d.c. the public had fascination with he mrs. cleveland. the cleveland's wedding march, because it was not the wedding march played at the wedding. these are images. of popular ere part culture for the next 12 years. >> first lady caroline harris son wasitied in the painting of china dinner ware and was the first to conceive the idea of a white house collection. >> china pante painting became a national hobby.
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women all over the country once they heard the president's wife was a china painter wanted to do that, foo. myrrhissont caroline for creating the enthusiasm mong women for china painting. in this picture there were flowers. i guess that was her number one subject to paint flowers. and then on the bottom shelf, we had birds, and that was the other thing. she loved birds, loved nature. she created these beautiful bird plates. when she was in the white house, she did this frequently. one of the pieces was given to a servant who had retired. she wrote on the back of if thanking him for his service and
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his name and so forth. then we have a piece that the harrison's gave -- harrisons gave to the stanfords. when the museum opened stanford university sent it back to us. so we now hang it here in the dining room. >> when she came to the white house she was very interested in how the place worked. she came down here. it was the ground floor. it was considered to be the basement, but it was the laundry facility, the storage for food, and stableware and such. she came down and found it was rather delabdate, rather dirty. sort of ominous. she tried to spruce it up. she went through the cabinets and found old pieces of china and then asked servants if they could tell if anybody remembered how old this piece is. so she started the idea of trying to catalogue and create a sense of what the china is worth. she had a plan of putting
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display cases in the state dining room, but that never came to fruition. she was credited with being the initiative tpwhateateor of a permanent china collection at the white house. rs. harris son -- harrison thought they needed more china manufacturing in america. she decided to go ahead and let a french company make the blanks, but she would provide the design. so they went with the full service. she didn't try to order 12 or 15 pieces for place setting. it was designed with a shape that was pretty much the lincoln era shape. kind of simple. this is kind of a tea plate. this represents the great seal of the united states. one she specifically designed was a border. it was the combination of ears f corn and goldenrod which she
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felt represented american plants. so there were dinner plates and soup plates and breakfast plates made in the blue, and there were breakfast plates and tea plates made with the white border. so there weren't all the other shapes you might have in state service in bowls and cream cups and various and sundry things that went with it. >> we have caroline harrison's white house diary. this is something we don't have out very often because the diary -- you can see, it is very fragile. she has written in the front here, keeping the diary in the dates. 1889-1991 for this one. in the diary she mentions several different things. -- going to arlington cemetery and
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decorating the soldier's gravesites. she mentions visiting the soldiers home and hospital. something very near and dear to her. she continued to do some of that while she was in washington visiting the hospitals and what not there as well. she also mentions some of the other events and things going on in her diary with her artistic ability and her love of flowers. she mentioned making having the floral arrangements for several different banquets and dinners. one was the pan american conference. she mentions the decorations there for that as well. his is a dinner. you can see the table setting. quite a large group. .he had the president
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she also talks about the centenniel celebration for the centennial of george washington's inauguration. one of the parades was seven and a half hours long. she mentioned that in her diary. also personal things mentioned. she also mentioned how she is feeling, what the weather is like. one of the things she talked about is the chrisening of their young granddaughter, mary lodge. she said she used water from the river jordan that their sister had brought back from a trip over there. we tillly have some of that water today. here's our container here. actually sent some water in there as well. a bottle with a label in from the river jordan that her sister had brought back. and mary was chrisened in the blue room of the white house at a very -- in a very private
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ceremony at that time. she also mentioned a christmas at the white house, having put up a tree at the white house. having the first decorated christmas tree in the white house. she mentioned some of the gifts given to her at that time, including some opera glasses. we have actually her little opera glasses that were given to her on a trip which she mentions in the diary as well. >> even though she was in poor helt and suffered from epilepsy, to charity donated and presented gifts. >> inside it has a picture of william mckinley. this is something we see in a lot of her personal belong gs -- belongings. this is her sewing bag. this is one of her crochet
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needles. inside we have a picture of william mckinley. even when he was away from her, she would have something to remind her of him. d mr. -- mrs. mckinley was known for her crochet slippers. we think she made over a thousand pairs in her lifetime. these are unique for the leather soles on the bottom. she would make them in various sizes. we have a pair from obviously a child's size. they were usually made in a variation of blue, gray, or an ivory color. these represent the basic that she would use. since she was not well and not able to do other types of work as a first lady, this is one of the things she could contribute, one of the ways she could contribute. she would either donate these to a charity, to needy children and war veterans or she would donate
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them to the auctions to raise money for a charity. in order to see some of the more fradgeyile and important pieces from ida mckinley's white house to her homeve to go -- to a different area. this is where we keep white house dresses and some of our other white house artifacts. this dress is my favorite. in the middle of a cons confirmation process, and we can have these dresses repaired so they can be on a mannequin. my favorite because it is so heavily ornamented. you can see the bead work. it has silver beads. it also has tiny little mirrors. these little squares are little mirrors. this would have reflected light beautifully. this is typical of ida's style.
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the fashion in the late 1890's would have been a high collar. they also toned down a little bit. she has mostly ivory color, and she also has blue. she didn't have a lot in her life to be excited about. she was what we would call a semi-invalid, so fashion was important to her, as reflected by the gowns in her collection. >> our conveation about first ladies continues every monday night at 9:00 eastern. you can watch all the programs in our series at >> he was commissioned by c-span to -- chas fagan was for ssioned to do a painty
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"first ladies, influence & image." >> tell me about this painting and the women who are in it and how it came to be? >> this is dedicated, of course, to c-span for the program which is ongoing. idea was to create an impackageage which could be used for the program, that could be emblematic. so of course from history along with continuity. we at c-span decided on four figures. and they would be the first, first lady to the current first lady with a couple honorable faces in between. the first difficulty was they are standing together, which is tough to do in reality, which of course you can't. but also to have the progression of the eyesights. so the progression of the view goes from looking at you to
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looking to the right. looking off into the future kind of concept. not just the static image of our people looking at you. and just coincidentally some beautiful references of michelle think it me with -- i was mr. kennedy in terms of ideal references. so that's how they kind of got placed. >> how old, approximately, do you think these women are, and why did you choose these versions of these women? >> well, in my perspective, it was fairly easy, soy was relying on what would be the public memory. that can be refraste traced from current portraits. 2 they were done very soon after they were there, and then of course with michelle obama, that requires looking at old
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photographs. but i think they are representative of their time in the white house. >> how much research did you do on the floor as featured in this painting before you began? >> in terms of history, i went immediately to my collection of first lady portraits and things like that. so i saw what they would like to be seen and perhaps would like to be publicly seen. martha was, of course, a lot harder. for the others it was more on photography, lots of photography. with all that information, i pieced together images i thought were good and representative. >> what is the process you go through?
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how much work goes into the projects before you start? >> well, i first did all the research and background. for a normal portrait of someone, i really need to reprent somewhat life size and in 3-d. and in sculpting, too, figures. relatively small too, figures. portraits. a lot of the work is gathering images. but then, what i started with as a kid, mostly pencil work. i paint -- this is painted on forboard, to make it easier me. i draw it on the board with a pencil. i keep going, which takes a while, but i'd like it. getting the scale right and things and progressing from there. >> how long did you work on this painting, from research to be preening -- to the painting
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process? actually, every president i have the hardest time with. i work in bursts. put them away, actually put them in a closet. when i pulled him out i can be supremely critical. prefer not to pull them out later. i would get depressed. >> how do you main -- have you remain objective? >> i think it's pretty simple. especially if i'm doing a portrait of an individual, i need to know what the personality is like a mel watt the personal hope is i can
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relate to, and i go to that. >> what other paintings or sculptures have you done of first ladies? >> first ladies -- the most public one for me is a special portrait of barbara bush. --ually a favorite of mine the whole process was great. she was wonderful. very enjoyable. the end result i really liked. they put her kind of in shadows in the corner. all the details -- it was not grand, but it was very nice. i love it. in two dimensions without one. in three dimensions, i actually sculpted nancy reagan for the reagan library in california. long have you been
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working with c-span on history rogue rams and give me a little bit about that relationship? >> >> i'm a history buff. getting involved with these projects was not hard. the alexis de tocqueville project. , it wasually started supposed to be a painting and evolved into a sculpture, a small bust. c-span did not really know. so, i smile now. they pushed me toward sculpture without me really knowing it. that is how it started. also what was really fun was the presidents series. i got to think every president. the only tough part about that was the timeframe.
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do 44 men. i love that kind of challenge. also less serious, almost cartoony versions of american writers. if nothing else, that was a great education. great historical years i really had to research and have fun with. >> when we look at presidential and first lady portraits, obviously it is such a huge part of pop culture, history, recognizable to people as you mentioned. --ing your own portrayed of the it --portrait equation, what are some that you find exceptional? >> there are a couple. , i think many people
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the portrait of president kennedy where he is looking to the side. completely unorthodox. detached from him, but you feel like you are there with him. emotion of the presidency right there. i thought that was very powerful. there is "beyond the washington -- there is beyond washington, a great historical piece, and teddy roosevelt. he is turning -- i think it was a staircase. it is the kind of proud, serious stance. from my memory, i think that there was a struggle on trying to get the transition right and the artist was having a hard
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time dealing with the president. at some point he was walking down the stairs and ordered him to stop. that was the moment. that happens with portraits. you live with the person a little bit, trying to discover what they are like, and trying to find the post that will make the portrait done properly. specifically for the first ladies, what are some great portraits of them? love, one that i really one painting, i was surprised of the scale -- nancy reagan. there was a lot of buildup. end, it was a very sleek red dress, nothing truly extravagant or anything. at the lighting and the transition was fantastic. a dark setting where you see the light coming through the doorway, so there is a little bit of almost action in the painting.
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when you see it you have to step right up to it. the painting is small. i think that stands out for me. i think it is so unexpected area and -- i think that is so unexpected. concludeng you want to with? any future projects? ladies play and unique role. it is hard to put yourself in their shoes. they each developed their own themes and projects and personalities which we get to know as a public. i think that is an interesting thing to watch. and certainly doing a cursory wives the presidents' as you all and c-span are doing now, it isn't adjusting perspective on the white house. -- it is an interesting perspective on the white house. >> the media are an increasingly
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dominant influence on each first lady. they present the biographical, the human stories. whether it is the 19th century it showsth century -- how these people endure and prevail in the very rough world of politics. >> historians richard norton smith and edith mayo preview season two of the c-span original series "first ladies, influence and image." monday night at nine p.m. eastern. to season two of our series, first lady ladies influence and image, the museum um is focusing on how
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first ladies have drafted their image in the media. panelists include cokie roberts and historian richard norton smith. join us live next saturday at 2:30 p.m. eastern right here on c-span. coming up tonight on c-span, president obama's remarks from earlier today on syria. marcharticipants from the on washington discussed that day and the media's role in its coverage. then a discussion about developments in technology are influencing the quality of education. the most fun times i ever had was -- it was 2000 six. it looked like the democrats were going to take over the house and it would be bad for republicans. vice president cheney's office called and wondered if we could
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have breakfast with them. we went over to the vice president, had breakfast. -- itmet him before, but was unbelievable how much he knew about individuals. he has been to so many of these districts over the years. basically he was sort of asking this?" bad is yeah -- it saying, is pretty bad. but it is fun when you can see this on both sides and you get a glimpse of the inside players. than 30 years as a political analyst, charlie cook has covered trance while tracking every congressional race since 1984. to the rest of the interview sunday night at 8 p.m. on c- span. scene outsidee the white house earlier today , bothrotest taking place
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supporting and opposing intervention in syria. president obama delivered remarks from the white house rose garden. he said that military action against syria would have to come with the approval of congress. we will have full coverage of the president's remarks. jeering]
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>> he does not need the united nations to go forward, and for even thoughrtant -- he has the authority to carry task, he is waiting for congress -- [indiscernible] what does that mean? is not in session. congress can be brought back on an emergency basis, but he is not putting this on an emergency basis.
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>> good afternoon, everybody. 10 days ago, the world watched in horror as men, women, and children were massacred in syria in the worst chemical weapons attack of the 21st century. yesterday, the united states presented a powerful case that the syrian government was responsible for this attack on its own people. our intelligence shows the assad regime and its forces preparing to use chemical weapons, launching rockets in the highly populated suburbs of damascus, and acknowledging that a chemical weapons attack took place. all of this corporate's what the world can plainly see.-- all of this corroborates what the world can plainly see. hospitals overflowing with victims. terrible images of the dead. all told, well over 1000 people were murdered.
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several hundred of them were children. young girls and boys gassed to death by their own government. this attack is an assault on human dignity. it also presents a serious danger to our national security. it risks making a mockery of the global prohibition on the use of chemical weapons. it endangers our friends and our partners along syria's border including israel, turkey, lebanon, and could lead to an escalating use of chemical weapons or the proliferation for terrorist groups who would do a world many dangers, this menace must be confronted. after careful deliberation, i have decided that the unit states should take military action against syrian regime
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targets. this will not be an open-ended intervention. we would not put boots on the ground. and said, our action will be designed to be limited in duration and scope. but i'm confident we can hold the assad regime accountable for their use of chemical weapons, deter this kind of behavior, and degrade their capacity to carry it out. our military has assets in the region, the chairman of the joint chiefs of staff is informed me that we are prepared to strike whenever we choose. moreover, the chairman has indicated to me that our capacity to execute this mission is not time sensitive. it will be effective tomorrow or next week or one month from now. i am prepared to give that order. but having made my decision as commander in chief based on what i am convinced is our national security interests, i am also mindful that i'm the president of the world's oldest constitutional democracy.
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i have long believed that power is not rooted in our military might but in our example of a government of the people, by the people, and for the people. that is why i have made a second decision -- i will seek authorization for the use of force from the american people's representatives in congress. for the last several days, we have heard from members of the congress who want their voices to be heard. i absolutely agree. so this morning, i spoke with all congressional leaders, and they agreed to schedule a debate and then a vote as congress comes back into session. in the coming days, my administration stands ready to provide every member with of the information they need to understand what happened in syria and why it has such profound implications for america's national security. and all of us should be accountable as we move forward, and that can only be
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accomplished with a vote. i'm confident in the case our government has made without waiting for u.n. inspectors. i am comfortable going forward without the approval of a united nations security council that has so far been completely paralyzed and unwilling to hold assad accountable. as a consequence, many people have advised against taking this decision to congress. undoubtedly, they were impacted by what we saw happen in the united kingdom this week when the parliament of our closest ally failed to pass a resolution with a similar goal, even if the prime minister supported taking action. yet, while i believe i have the authority to carry out this military action without specific congressional authorization, i know that the country will be stronger if we take this course and our actions will be even more effective. we should have this debate. because
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the issues are too big for business as usual. this morning, john boehner, harry reid, nancy pelosi, and mitch mcconnell agreed that this is the right thing to do for our democracy. a country faces few decisions as grave as using military force. even when a force is limited. i respect the views of those who called for caution, particularly as our country emerges from a time of war that i was elected topart to handle.-- in part end.but if we really do want to turn away from taking appropriate action in the face of such an unspeakable outrage, then we must acknowledge the cost of doing nothing. here's my question for every member of congress and every member of the global community what message will we send if a dictator can gas hundreds of children to death in plain sight and pay no price? what is the purpose of the international system that we have built if the prohibition on the use of chemical weapons that has been agreed to by the governments of 98% of the world
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people, and approved overwhelmingly by the congress of the united states is not enforced? make no mistake -- this has implications beyond chemical warfare. if we won't enforce accountability in the face of this heinous act, what does it say about our resolve to stand up to others who flout fundamental international rules? to governments who would choose to build nuclear arms, to terrorists who would spread biological weapons, to armies who carry out genocide? we cannot raise our children where we will not follow through on the things we say, the accords we sign, the values that define us. so just as i will take this case to congress, i will also deliver this message to the world -- while the u.n. investigation has some time to report on its findings, we will insist that a an atrocity committed with chemical weapons will not only
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be investigated, it must be confronted. i do not expect every nation to agree with the decision we have made. privately, we have heard many expressions of support from our friends, but i would ask those who care about the writ of the international community to stand publicly behind our actions. let me say this to the american people -- i know well that we are weary of war. we have ended one war in iraq, we are ending another in afghanistan, and the american people have good sense to know we cannot resolve the underlying conflict in syria with our military. in that part of the world, there are ancient sectarian differences, and the hopes of arab spring have a lease changes that will take many years to resolve your that's why we are not contemplating on putting our troops in the middle of someone else's war. instead, we will continue to support the syrian people through our pressure on the assad regime, our commitment to the opposition, our care for the displaced, and our pursuit of a
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political resolution that achieves a government that respects the dignity of its people. but we are the united states of america. we cannot and must not turn a blind eye to what happened in damascus. world war, hes we built an international world order, and enforce the rules that give it meaning. we did so because we believe that the rights of individuals to live in peace and dignity depend on the responsibility of nations. we are not perfect, but this nation more than any other has been willing to meet those responsibilities. so to all members of congress, of both parties, i ask you to take this vote for our national security. i am looking forward to the debate. in doing so, i ask you, members of congress, to consider that some things are more important
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than partisan differences or politics of the moment. ultimately, this is not about who occupies this office at any given time. it is about who we are as a country. --believe that the peoples are the peoples representatives must be invested in what america does abroad. now with the time to show the world that america keeps our commitments. we do what we say. we lead with the belief that right makes might. not the other way around. we all know there are no easy options. i was not elected to avoid hard decisions, and neither were the members of the house and the senate. i have told you what i believe, that our security and demand cannot turn away from the massacre of civilians with chemical weapons. our democracy is stronger when the president and people represented stand together. -- i am ready act. to act in the face of this outrage. today i am asking congress to send a message to the world that
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we are ready to move forward together as one nation. thank you very much. >> will you support a strike of congress disapproves? >> in reaction to the president's remarks, the republicans released the following statement. under the constitution, the responsibility to declare war lies with congress -- that statement coming from speaker john boehner.
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you can see the house debate live on c-span and senate coverage on c-span 2. .> c-span we bring public affairs events from washington directly to you, putting you in the room at congressional hearings, white house events, and offering complete gavel-to-gavel coverage of the u.s. house. private industry where c-span, created by the cable industry 30 years ago and funded by your cable tv or satellite provider -- and now you can watch us in hd. theext, participants from march on washington speak. participants include john lewis, andrew young, and julian bond. they also talk about the role that the media played an coverage of its event.
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this discussion is a little more than an hour and 10 minutes. >> from the national press club in washington dc, this is the kalb.eport with marvin hello. welcome to another edition of the kalb report. program is entitled remembering a march, of movement, and the dream. 50 years ago on august 28, 1963, the civil rights movements that headlines and our
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begin to touch our national conscience -- and the i have a dream speech by dr. martin luther king. many featured that the march wasd turn violent, but it in fact amazingly peaceful. here in black and white, 250,000 march for in a moral jobs, equality, justice, and probably at that time it was the largest to menstruation on the washington mall ever. i was there to help cover this story. i was one of a small army of on thers. at i looked swelling crowd and thought this was more than just a news story. , youe mentioned before look good before the world, but
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this is a risk that you run. we talked openly and freely about the space shot. it is one of the tributes of democracy. it is right here. later, i am gray wiserhope the world is about these issues. for discussion of the movement and the dream, we are joined by toee civil rights leaders, journalists, and one college president. to my left, and john wilson, the residence of morehouse college, martin luther king's alma mater summit dedicated to the education of average american males. theseveral years, he was
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director of the white house initiative on historically black colleges and universities. to my far right, only geography aide tow young, a close martin luther king. young helped organize the march on washington. in addition he is a former congressman, a former mayor of atlanta, and warmer ambassador to the united nations. he is currently a professor at the andrew young center for policy studies at george washington university. full, co-moderator of the pbs news hour. viceas moderated two presidential debates and before , the newworked for nbc
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york times, the washington post, and in this business she is regarded as one of the best. bond, one ofjulian the leaders of the civil rights movement. while a student at morehouse college, he helped found the student nonviolence cord knitting committee. the chairman of the naacp, the national association for the advancement of colored people. he was also elected to the georgia house and senate. he has been a radio and television commentator and is ofrently the president american university and the university of virginia. described as the conscience of the u.s. congress, john lewis, a member of congress since 1986. at the age of 23, 1 of the first onspeak at the march washington.
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in fact he is the only surviving speaker. he took a leading role in the syrian demonstrations fighting jim crow laws, joining the freedom ride, getting arrested and severely beaten time and time again, trying to build community in america. to my immediate right, the former president of the national association of black journalists. after a number of jobs with black newspapers and magazines, she joined the washington post in 1961, the first black female journalist at a paper. she has been a fellow at the freedom forum in columbia, the institute of politics at harvard, and a fellow at george washington university school of media and public affairs. let me start with the memories of those who were actually among the leaders at the march on washington. muchessman lewis, after so
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, how did you come to feel that nonviolence was the way to go? as a student in the late 1950's and 1960's, we were taught the way of peace, of love, of nonviolence. students fromof tennessee state, vanderbilt university, american baptist the logical seminary -- we would come together and we would steal -- we would study the teaching of gandhi. what he accomplished in india. we would study civil disobedience. we studied the great religions of the world. with a wonderful teacher, a man by the name of jim lawson. and he confused us with the ways
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of nonviolence. many of us during those early days accepted nonviolence as a way of life and of living. not necessarily a tactic. that became the way of the movement. ambassador young, i think all of us throughout the march realized that we were experiencing something very special. i wonder what it is about the march that left you moved? out ofirst place, coming birmingham, we did not think much of the march. we thought the movement was in the streets, and we have 5000 students take over the city, collapse the economy, got an agreement from 100 businessmen to change the segregation laws of birmingham. we figured the fight was over for us. this was a sunday school picnic.
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the students in birmingham who got out of jail wanted to do a march on washington like gandhi's march to the city and they wanted to get out on highway 11 and just start marching. it was randolph who appealed to they sent someone down to talk sense into us. we were what you use to call back then "freedom high." in birminghamdy who was particularly enthusiastic about the march on washington. themain ideologist he hide march would not even calm. i would not come until after king said you and jean better get on a plane and get up here i'm a or you will be sorry. there was a kind of militant arrogance that infected us.
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itself -- march >> i was worried it wouldn't do anything. harmony. not a lot of the group was not that anxious about the march. the naacp and the urban league did not want the march for different reasons. it did not look like it was going to be fine until the people started. and the people -- i mean, i was out there on the lawn at 7:00 in the morning when the buses started coming in. and when they started coming in songs from just about every direction -- i mean, you couldn't hold back the tears. this was something special.
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took a southern black and emitted a global phenomenon. bond, you described yourselves as impatient for justice, and yet your leaders seem to be preaching patience, waiting for white america to catch up and get the message. i wonder if you your self felt at some point it wasn't going to happen, that you were frustrated? >> no, i have always been an optimistic person. i have always bleed the best can happen. usually, so far at least, it has happened. , people wereight suspicious of the march on washington. we thought it was a diversion from what we were doing.
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we were organizers. we went into the rural south into sharecropper shacks and helped have the courage to register to vote, and we thought the march on washington would take away from this. i had the same feeling that andy did. i got to be mall early in the morning, and i did not see people there. they came and the numbers grew and grew, and it became something greater than anything i had anticipated it would be. stark painted a very picture of civil rights america, segregated america. , nasty, racist, bigoted whites, the looks of hatred toward you and other blacks. thisondering, picking up mean we have already heard, did you feel the march would accomplish very much? >> i felt the march was really
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an important show of the determination of black america ,or something better, a new way a change that had to come. reasons thatf the quiet,were so -- such a focused grout, you know? there was not a lot of noise and shouter -- chatter. people were focused on the speeches, on the purpose. i really felt this march, especially in the chain of events of 1963, even as it and was, was crucial going to lead to something important. ifill, if i'm not
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mistaken, you were a young girl living in new york in relative security. >> buffalo, new york. >> what were your impressions of the march? >> my father was a black minister. so, all black ministers, they came to march with dr. martin luther king. [laughter] we were the kind of family that were sat in front of the television all the time and were made to watch history as it unfolded. probably why i am a journalist today. we saw us.e, we saw our expression. we were probably too young to understand fully what that meant, but we knew it was important. we knew somewhere out there dad was there. the interesting thing about the march is that it was 20 years in 50 years later
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we are still assessing whether the demands that were made were mass. because it was demands to rid it was not just a rally. it was not just a series of speeches. set of goals. things that are measurable. i talked to taylor branch today about the march. of coarse he is the historian who wrote the trilogy about the civil rights movement. he talked about how america had , fromin 50-year blinks james madison, to abraham .incoln, to woodrow wilson and then to the march. when you start looking at the ,ay we have evolved over time it's not just the march. it is that in 1963 and 1964, and part because the march change the way that people look to the
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movement, lyndon johnson was able to pass a civil rights bill within a year and a voting rights will the following year. mentioned, lewis kennedy's heart was changed. he was not feeling this at all. thingsu watch a quickly .volved, it is remarkable you look back and see how much happened in such a short time. changing hearts and minds as well as laws area -- as laws. >> it sounds like you are saying that the march had a profound effect with legislation within a year or two? >> people did not realize the scope of the issue because it did not affect them. now they could look and see the face and reference that. >> but dorothy had a very bleak vision of america because of her experiences.
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i wonder what was yours? >> our vision of america was we had to be better than everybody else. were immigrants. we were people who chose to be american. the idea of coming to this country to transplant and make your life better was great. but it did not come to you just like that. you had to work for it. you could not sit that and expect it. maybeu had to excel to get the same thing. and i learned many years later, it sometimes helps when you are underestimated. you could take advantage of that. >> when students think about the march on washington, do they think is about the dr. king's speech or the message of that day? abouthink they think both, but i need to tell my story, too. all right, i am a preacher's kid. [laughter]
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>> anybody here not? was five or six at the time of the march. my father, a minister, was there. my grandmother. my grandmother had written the shoulders of her mother to go see marcus garvey, and she showed up at the march on washington. i heard a lot about those, those stories. alivestories are still and well on the campus of morehouse college. inre is an investment justice and tradition at morehouse. i stand on the shoulders of the giants especially elijah james, who has so much to do with what we are talking about today and celebrating. >> this is probably an impossible question, and forgive me, but do you see another martin luther king among your students? hope so.
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we are trying to shape the morehouse undergraduate experience to have the martin luther king of chemistry, the martin luther king of biology, and a number of other fields and still have the martin luther king of peace and justice and nonviolence. >> excuse me. i'm sorry? we had the first president of south africa -- the first wife president of south africa after mandela four years ago. who totally immersed himself in everything, and it was obvious he was preparing himself to go back to africa. we have 10 students from zimbabwe. paid allbusinessmen their way. a black zimbabwe businessmen.
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he said he wants the next generation of leaders in his companies in africa to have an african-american experience. >> congressman lewis, on the day of the march, you had to edit your speech to tone down some more passionate demands, i gather, to satisfy some of your colleagues. as you look black -- as you look back on that now, and do you think you should have kept to your original demands? >> know, the speech -- and julian bond can tell you much and there were, copies of my speech available. it was a strong speech. kennedy -- in my dealnal text, i said the
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opposed by the president is too little and too late. of a reading a copy newspaper and i saw a group of black women in southern africa saying one man, one vote. something like "man -- one man, what one vote." the kennedy administration took the position that if a person they sixth-grade education should be considered literate and able to vote. were in thewho t community took the position that the only qualification for being able to vote was age and residence. speechrther down in the -- you tell us to wait.
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you tell us to be patient. we cannot wait. we cannot be patient. we want our freedom and we want it now. we had a speech that reflected the feeling and attitudes of the people we were working with, but also the people who made up the student nonviolent coordinating committee. at 1.i said, listen, mr. members, listen of congress -- you are trying to take this out of the street and put it in the courts. and i went on and on and on. dropwanted me to references to revolution. mr. randolph said there is nothing wrong with the use of the word "revolution." "i use my -- i use it myself sometimes." [laughter]
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party of jarvis, the liberal senator from new york, is the party of goldwater. where is our party? i want to know which side is the federal government on. at the end of the speech, what people really did not like -- [laughter] bishop of the washington archdiocese was supposed to give the invocation, and he threatened not to give it if i did not remove it. toaid, we may be forced march through the south the way that sherman did, nonviolently. they made me take that out as inflammatory. randolph, roy wilson, some other people came to me. [laughter] -- hers noble man.
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wonderful man. he said, john, can we change this? and dr. king came to me and said, john, this is not like you. and no toto randolph dr. king. these two individuals, i love them. i changed it. rather than making any reference to sherman marching through the south, i said if we do not see any meaningful progress here today, we will march through jackson, mississippi and several other places. >> julian, do you remember? >> several people supporting the march were asked to donate staff to the march and i was donated to the march on washington committee. got john's speech, the original speech -- that went to
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members of the press who were seated down below lincoln. i passed out the copies of john's speech. i pointed out to them that john would be the only speaker speaking that day to talk about black people instead of negroes or colored people. i thought and we thought this demonstration showed how different we were and superior we were to the other civil rights organizations. [laughter] >> what did you mean by militant? vix i meant aggressive. i did not mean anything harmful. i have always been upset by people who say "oh, you are so militant." it is not equate abu with violence. it just means someone aggressively in pursuit of his ideas. i thought we were more militant than the other groups gathered there. >> what was the magic of dr. king?
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martin luther king jr., more than any other leader of our times, had the capacity and the to define, but also get people to share the vision. today he spoke, he delivered the speech, and halfway through, he started preaching. it was a two-for-one. and he he got in there said, mr., i have a dream today. a dream deeply rooted in the american dream. he knew he was preaching. he turned on the steps of the lincoln memorial. -- and i haveh downloaded it here to show off -- [laughter] [applause]
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>> innocents a sense we have come to our nation's capital to cash a check. founders wrote the declaration of independence, they were signing a promise very notes -- a promissory note. thatwas a note that said all men, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed freedom and the pursuit of happiness. it is obvious that america has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as the citizens of color are concerned. america has given the negro of bad check. the check has come back marked insufficient funds." that was totally ignored by the press. message.was the that is still the message.
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take a minute now to remind our radio and television audiences that this is the kalb report. .'m marvin kalb we are remembering the march on washington with my guests. , you wanted to say something? >> i like that you take care of business. that's important. most peoplers, when think about the march on washington, they only think about the dream speech. they don't think about anything else that king said in that speech, and he said a lot more than anybody talks about. they do not know all the other things that happened that day, including the women who were on stage on purpose. i wonder -- there was an interesting story in the howington post this weekend
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people missed the dream part of the speech. they were so looking for the violence that they just did not see it. i wonder if they noticed how much the white press missed the story? issueant to address the of media coverage of the march on washington. i remember at the time the three major networks were there. cbs covered up. we were all very proud of the time. without commercial interruption. the satellite broadcast to europe. the washington post assigned more than 60 reporters to cover that story. so, it was really big news, ok? you once said the civil rights movement without the media would be like a bird without wings. what did you mean? well -- >> i know. without the media, especially
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in the american south, without reporters with a pencil and pen, without the photographer, without the cameras to bring the ,essage into the living rooms so people could see it. so people could feel it. intow did you get that your head, but that was the way to get the message out? >> we knew. andrew young and julian bond will tell you. we knew -- do it at the same news, the the evening on the 6:00, 6:30, 7:00, 10:00, 11:00. in was so disciplined. you had these well-dressed
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college students sitting there. orderly, orderly. just sitting there. reading a book. looking straight ahead. writing a paper. at well- dressed. and then you had the other and beat us, pour hot water on us. element. people saw the updraft. using dogs on young children. people could not take it. the american people could not take it. a were saying to the members of congress, saying to the president of the united states, you have to do something. you must do something. and that is what president kennedy call that meeting in june of 1963 and randolph spoke up in the meeting and said "mr. president, we are going to march on washington." and president kennedy started
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moving along in his chair. he did not like that idea. he said "there will be violence and chaos and disorder. we will never get a civil rights ill through -- bill through congress." he told him it would be an orderly, peaceful protest. we had a protective meeting with the dutch productive meeting with the president. a few days later, the six of us met in new york city at the roosevelt hotel. in that meeting we invited four major white religious leaders to join us to call for the march on washington. media, the movement would not have succeeded it. many youngage with reporters. >> julian bond -- >> i'm sorry?
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worked with the national council of churches and had a program on cbs in 1967. 60-secondme a 62nd -- introduction. the one thing that is hard for preacher to learn is to express something in 60 seconds. [laughter] i was not the press secretary, with --use i had worked i was always on the preacher's list. i said, if you are going to make it on the news, you have to make it short. i even told farrakhan that. i said, look, if it is a 10- will get noh, you coverage. if it is in our speech, no one will touch it. it is a hard lesson to learn. >> julian bond. >> i remember the number for the associated press in d.c.
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-- i forgot it again. [laughter] >> martin luther king seem to ofe a special appreciation the power of the media, and i'm wondering how he got it. , but i know what his genius was. he was able to talk to white and black southerners in the common language of evangelical christianity and understand both audiences would understand what he was saying, the references he was making, the things he was talking about. manyd the ability that people do not have to talk to these disparate groups of people and make them understand. the beauty of the march on washington and the speech is they were talking to a large number of people who had never seen a black person speak before. all of a sudden there is this
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articulate man who is explaining why we are marching, why we are protesting. this is why we are doing it. we do not like these things that are going on. he made it so clear. you could not help but say, gee, he is making a real argument here and i think he ought to be a sincere. was making much more use of the old testament and the new testament though. and the old testament rockets, when he really got to preaching, he was starting with isaiah and jeremiah and the jewish rabbis and congregations, and the whole narrative of freedom was we had been locked in the slavery of egypt. and we had wandered and the wilderness of segregation for 40 years and we were about to endure this promised land of created integration. that was not christianity. that was judaism. and the jewish community was
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bombed in the south just like we were. as they were in south africa. ecumenical movement in the best sense of the word. and the president's of -- the presence of abram henschel in he front lines, this universal, this made it a freedom -- a human rights struggle. and not just a black struggle. >> dorothy, you worked for the black press while covering a number of stories in the south. how in your experience was that different from working, for example, at "the washington post"? what would the difference be for a reporter? >> well, one of the major differences was the difference in resources. that we had at "the washington post." most of the smaller papers
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certainly had limited resources. but what they had, for example, i worked for a short time for the tristate defender in memphis. and that allowed me to go over and be a part of the coverage of little rock nine. and the editor of that paper was beaten while he was trying to cover that story. because they mistook him for appearance. so even though -- obviously when he got beaten i went to little rock. but we were the staff. and that's one of the major differences. but i think the important thing about the black press is that they told the stories before the daley press got there -- daily press got there. and once i arrived at "the washington post", very impressed by the resources. but one of the major things enough missing was
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diversity in the daily press to really help to tell the story of communities and to tell those stories well. >> one of the questions i've got for you and forgive me if it's a mean question, but you're talking about the resources of "the washington post." "the washington post" had more than 60 reporters covering the march on washington. and yet the following day, august 29, 1963, in the "the washington post," there was no mention of martin luther king nor of his speech. and i'm wondering, you were there, i know you were not covering that, you were there as a spectator, but what's your understanding, what was that all about? >> well, my understanding, trying to peace it together actually was first of all, the focus within the media was on the violence. when i talked to some of the reporters, the editors were giving battle plans of what to
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do in case of violence. how to look for bad guys. if any reporters got hurt, you know, how do we get together to get the reporters out? the whole focus was on violence. and there was no violence. >> but did he speak and it was a rather great speech. >> i'm coming to that. [laughter] and this has to be speculative because i wasn't there, but i believe, you see, if there had been, you know, more racial diversity, if there had been a black editor among the people making the decisions, and i'm not -- i don't want to knock my old paper because i love "the post" and the people who run there. but the fact is there were three black people on that whole staff. none of them decision makers. i was on maternity leave. the other two men i'm sure were part of the coverage. but when newspapers make decisions and people sit around a table and talk about what the
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news is, you know, what goes on page one, what goes inside, and i think if there had been more diversity around that table, where somebody could have spoken the importance of that speech, that would not -- >> that remains true today, too. >> that is the problem here. when you can talk about how terrible it was in 1963, but in fact news rooms are not that much more diverse now. especially when it comes to decision makers. people who have the sensitivity to see the story, no matter what the story is, as it unfolds in front of them. and that is also a loss. >> there was a decision made then as there are decisions made now about what is fit to print. and somebody made a decision in 1963 about whether that was fit to print. they said it wasn't worthy of the attention and "the post" recently apologized for that. >> part of the reason the
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decisions are made is because you need more people around the table. and the reason that's relevant, to pick up on your earlier point about the 50 years and about some of the things that dr. king was really demanding, such as an end to poverty, etc., at this moment, as our country gets browner, the media gets whiter. i mean, we are actually losing diversity within media. right now there are only about 12% of people of color in the press today. that includes asian americans, latinos, native americans and african-americans. >> let me read something about the preparations the city of washington, the kennedy administration made for the march and you'll see these racist notions of what black people will do if they gather together. >> it's not terribly long? >> not terribly long. trust me. [laughter]
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all elective surgery in the area's hospitals was canceled. 350 beds for riot-related emergencies. police officers worked overtime shifts. in the event of a riot, a policeman or national guardsman would be stationed on every street corner in washington's downtown business district to guard against a lotters. they deployed 200 scout cars, 20 jeeps, several police helicopters, 23 cranes to move brokendown or disabled buses. local judges were placed on round-the-clock stand bi. 350 inmates were evacuated from the district's jails. to provide space for disruptive protesters. 2,400 national guardsmen were sworn in as special officers and given temporary arrest powers. the guard made over 100 doctors and nurses available. government offices were shut down. liquor sales were banned for the first time since prohibition and there's more. >> baseball games were canceled. >> two baseball games cancelled. [laughter] this nokes of black people as
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trouble make -- notion of black people as trouble makers, you can't have 100 black people together and what a terrible thing that would be. >> andrew young. >> hang on. i want to ask you this question. [laughter] in 2004, on the 40th anniversary of the civil rights t of 1964, in lexington, connecticut, the newspaper "the herald leader" front page had the following. and i will quote. it has come to the editor's attention that the "herald leader" neglected to cover the civil right it's movement. we regret the omission. closed quote. ing that as a takeoff point, what was your judgment, you touched on it earlier, of the white coverage of the civil rights movement? because i remember that there was a very distinct difference
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between local television coverage and network coverage. that if you were in the south and you were watching the local news first and then the network news, you would see two different kinds of coverage. the local news was extremely sympathetic to the white end of the argument. and the networks began to pick up the message of the civil rights movement. but it was two things. and i'm wondering, from your experience, did you come upon this? >> all the time. >> often? >> all the time. one of the reasons why we didn't mind the fact that we were bugged is we wanted people to know actually what we were doing and saying. because a lot of the press, and clearly "the new york times" and "the washington post," a lot of them were getting their tips from the f.b.i. and the g.b.i. once we got a little past 1963 and 1964 and st. augustine,
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when the mob turned on the press, and in mississippi when people like paul good got fired by abc, because he would not cover -- he was -- abc was still running the story. forgive me. that these three civil rights workers were hiding to get attention. and paul knew that they had been killed. and he lost his job for that. and so i had to pull nelson benton out of a mob in st. augustine to keep him from being beaten up. a danish reporter got hit in the camera -- eye by a baseball bat and it knocked his eye sock et out. -- socket out. i mean, it was ruthless and brutal against the press. now, that was not the northern press. i mean, that was the national press. but the written press never
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quite believed what they saw. and when we -- walker used to have press conferences at 9:00 in the morning to tell us what we were going to do. and then the demonstrations would start about 10:30 and then at 1:00 we'd tell them what we did and why we did it and we'd answer questions and the news would be gone. but they'd still make up -- they still had -- they could not believe that martin luther king was as honest and decent and as much of a selfless man as he actually was. >> thank you on that. >> can i just make one point? in 1961, on may 20, 1961, when we arrived in montgomery, this was during the freedom riot at the greenhound bus station. the police department withdrew and they were someplace else, just didn't show up. and an angry mob met the bus
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and the first people to get near the bus were members of the press. and these reporters were just beaten. just bloody. cameras destroyed. i can remember the names of some of the individuals. and i got to know them very well. and then, after they meet the members of the press, they turn on us. then you conduct to -- come to selma in 1965, i don't want to call the name of the major newspaper, but they even apologized and they all feel sorry to people that are still around. they didn't cover the march from selma to montgomery and this major newspaper is located right in the heart of the south. the publisher and the editor said that was the worst mistake they ever made. as an editor and as a publisher. they didn't cover that. but it took "the new york
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times" and "newsweek" and cbs. t cbs they had a wonderful photographer, lawrence pierce. >> fearless. fearless. >> he kept a gun. >> he can't see. he can't see what's behind him. >> he carried a gun and he was shooting a great deal for walter con cite. >> that's shooting film. >> shooting film. [laughter] shooting film. and launched it on one occasion. s.o.b. if one of those . en touch my camera he's been with martin from the beginning almost. >> give us your judgment on how well did the american media do in the coverage of the civil rights movement? >> there's a great book by jean roberts called "the race beat" in which they tell a lot of these stories and they tell
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them well and they admit some of the things they missed. these were the big newspapers. and there's another book written by a guy a couple of years ago, jack nelson, who worked for the "los angeles times" for many years. he very honestly talks about how he didn't see it. he didn't see the story. and how he turned and how he began to realize, at first as a reporter, hey, this is a great story here. then as a person watching it unfold in front of him. there are a lot of mistakes made. but i really think that a lot of it wasn't willful blindness as much as it was lack of exposure among southerners and northerners. in southerners it was protecting what they had. among northerners it was, really, this is happening? is this important? and trying to get a sense of it. the genius of the civil rights movement is knowing then and now how to get our attention. and by staging sit-ins, by staging arrests, by doing what would get them on the evening news. then people couldn't look away. and that's when these events
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began to happen, when you saw with your own eyes the hoses turned on the children, then it's like watching young children who were victims of chemical weapons in syria. it changes hearts and minds and it certainly did in this country. >> but it also distribute images were also shown around the world. >> that's right. >> and that was also a major influence on this government. you know, when the little rock nine were integrating central high school and when my old editor was beaten, his picture was on the front page of a newspaper in russia. >> i'm told that president johnson and dr. king would discuss this matter of getting on the news and how if a demonstration, not through any fault of the demonstrators, turned violent, how you would take that incident and make
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sure that it got on the news. now, is that your understanding of what the two of them were talking about in part? >> i'm not so sure. andy may be in a much better position. it's my understanding, after dr. king received the nobel peace prize, he came back to america, had a meeting with president johnson, and said to the president, we need aing rights act and president johnson said -- we need a voting rights act and president johnson said, we don't have the votes in congress. he said in effect, you make me do it. you make me do it. and dr. king joined us in selma and that led -- >> actually coming out of the white house, we didn't get in the white house until 7:00 at night. he waited until all the press had gone home. [laughter] and we were coming out of there by 9:30 and the president's final words were that the president doesn't have as much power as you think he has.
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and he could not introduce civil rights -- voting rights legislation. when we walked down that little road out of the west wing, i said to dr. king,le well, what do you think? and he said, i think we got to figure out a way to get this president some power. [laughter] seriously. >> and was that going to be done through the media? >> no. he didn't know. , t it was a moral mandate that he didn't have the slightest idea. but about three or four days later, a lady by the name of amilia boynton came from selma and talked to him about the fact that they couldn't have an aacp -- i mean, emancipation date of service. it was the regular sunday emancipation day service. because jim clark wouldn't let them have mass meetings, wouldn't let them have political meetings in churches.
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>> he was very mean. he was just a vicious man. >> he wouldn't let the -- her bury her husband in a church because her husband had been too political. so dr. king said, this is -- this is where we're going. >> we are very rapidly running out of time and i do have a concluding question and i'd be most grateful for a quick answer from each of you and i'll start with dr. wilson. what is the most important thing that young people, and there are many young people in this audience, what is it that they ought to know and remember and hold dear to their heart about the march on washington? >> the real purpose of it was jobs and what was behind that i think, and what was a revelation for me, is how much there was a substrat umin
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everything that dr. king did. it was really all about education. it was really all about education. he was really locked in on that and in fact, when that small group went into the white house to talk with the president, president kennedy said, this is reported by taylor branch, that you really, with the kind of influence you have in the black community, you really ought to emphasize schools and getting your kids to do well in school. >> we have to move on. >> i'm struck mostly by how different things are now. the technology is such that you can get a flash mob to show up to dance in the middle of pennsylvania avenue if you want but in 1963, to get 260,000 people to get to the mall using bull horns and pulpits and labor union organizing, it was remarkable. and that to me is something which -- i'd like for young people to understand the enormity of what it took to do that. >> in a very short time, a group of people came together
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because they believed in something. and they put together the most unbelievable moment in american history. >> for the legacy of the march on washington to go forward, for the young people who want to be journalists, to really see that they have an obligation to cover poverty, to cover race, you know, go deeper and find the real story. we're missing the pbs video documentary on the march tonight because we'd rather be here. >> it will be online. [laughter] >> look at it and see the people who came to the march, these are ordinary men and women, they're dressed like they're going to church and they believed they were going to church. >> i think that the world came together around an idea that all men and we soon added women and children, gay lesbian, so,
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are created equal and we have to -- it created a human rights movement. >> i'm terribly sorry to say, but our time is up. and i want to say thanks to everyone in this packed auditorium. [applause] i want to say thanks to all of you on the internet, on radio and television. i want to say thanks to our splendid panelists. i want to say thanks to martin luther king. who wrote from a jail in birmingham, alabama, a little more than 50 years ago, words that applied then and apply with equal power today. injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. he wrote. we are caught in an inescapable network of mutualuality tied in a single garment of destiny. whatever affects one directly affects all indirectly. and of course he was right. when i covered the march 50
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years ago, i felt that i was involved in something much more , much larger, much more important than a news story and i was. it was a huge moment in american history. and that's it for now, ladies and gentlemen. i'm marvin kalb. many, many years ago as was said, good night and good luck. [applause] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] >> ladies and gentlemen, this is now your opportunity to ask our panelists a few questions. we've set aside 15 minutes for that purpose. there are microphones on both sides. if you have a question, i would appreciate it if you directed it to one of the panelists and make it a question and do it
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quickly and i will start with, if i can see somebody there, hello? no. nybody on either side? where? speak up. >> hi, i'm steve. i work here in the city. i'm a former student of mr. bond in charlottesville and a former colleague of gwen's at nbc. to the point of the movement, how is the movement being covered and taught in schools today? that's the first question. and again for all of you, if dr. king's legacy is reduced to the speech that he made on the 28th or could it echo in a letter from birmingham jail or riverside shirt speech, april, 1967? thanks. >> who would like to answer that? >> the southern poverty law enters, they found not
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surprisingly that if you look at the states with the biggest black population, they're most likely to each about civil rights. i don't know whether this is some sop to the black people in the states or they realize these people want to know about themselves and what they did. but since then, several other states have said, we've made a big mistake and mississippi, majority had done a better job than many, has now mandated that civil rights be taught in all the high schools in mississippi. a great step forward for the state of mississippi. which had to give way now, you know, north carolina has become the new mississippi now. [laughter] i'll let someone else answer the other question. that is one of my students and a bright young man. >> i will just say that the story itself, the tradition is alive and well at moorehouse college for sure. and we're going online with some things, we're converging the expertise, the brain power
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we need. we have one of our professors here at princeton now. so we think that a couple things have happened in this country recently. the monument here in washington, that was about $120 million. and then the king museum, civil rights museum in atlanta, and here's moorehouse college that built a chapel in 1979 with a statue out front and we think we need to converge more resources to really, really undergird this tradition this king tradition at moorehouse and that's what we're going to do. >> question on this side, please. >> hi. my name is jane and i have the honor of working with marvin at the brookings institution previously. my question came up earlier and i'm, gwen, i think you mentioned it regarding the women in the civil rights movement and their presence at the march. and i was just wondering if you could speak a little bit about
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that and the role of women in civil rights and other equality movements moving forward. thank you. >> we've kind -- it was kind of a travesty. it was not that there were no women working in the movement. and certainly not that there were no women working on the march. there were a lot. they are the foot soldiers. but in this case, i've asked several people in my course of reporting about the march, about where the women were that day because there were no women speakers. the only woman who was scheduled to speak was a woman who was late because of a transportation snafu and didn't get there. so result there was no one speaking. dorothy, you can see her in some of the spots, but she didn't speak. the closest a woman got to speaking was when martin said, tell her about the dream, matter be. -- martin. but women's places in 1963, as eleanor holmes norton told me, who was an organizer in the
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march, this was prefeminism. they were not seen to be part of the public eye. clearly, however, the march sparked other kinds of movements, including feminism, the feminist movement of the 1960's and 1970's and other movements as well. even though women weren't on the stage that day, they took center stage as it went on. the march d speak at -- dazey did speak at the march -- daisy did speak at the march. dorothy wouldn't leave. they converged a meeting of women the next day and some of the seeds of the feminist movement were sewed there. >> you also have to remember that it was a group of women that got behind rosa parks. the montgomery bus boycott was university women from tuskegee and alabama state university that had gone through several trials of bus boycotts that didn't work before rosa parks
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came in. i mentioned mrs. boynton. a went to selma in 1929 as 19-year-old sent there by george washington carver. she was there still in 1965 and by there dr. king. she's now 103 years old to 108 years old. he led a get--out-the-vote rally for barack obama in the last election in the back of her car. [applause] she was sitting in the back of a convertible. but she registered in 1932, the year i was born. but she is still alert and she's still sharp and nobody knows her name. and i cussed out her sorority sisters because they introduced her and gave her an honor for being a sorority member for 50 years and didn't know who she was. so, women -- it's your fault.
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[laughter] >> question here on the left. >> hi. >> i'd like to say another thing about women. i mean, if martin luther king and i had not married little country girls from kerry county , alabama, you probably never would have heard our names. all three came out of the blight belt of alabama and made andy, martin and ralph the men that we became. women have never, ever received the credit. and all across the south, all across america, even in cambridge, maryland, gloria richardson, in nashville, tennessee, a young woman by the name of diane nash. ella baker who called her first meeting to organize the student nonviolence coordinating
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committee. >> what about daisy baits. >> the little rock nine. >> and yet they still weren't onstage. >> and, andy, it was a woman by the name of joann robertson who was a professor at alabama state college. long before martin luther king jr. and others said anything about a boycott, she took a machine and made hundreds and thousands of copies of a leaflet and had students from her school to go out -- [inaudible] >> is there any discussion about the absence of women on the stage that day? > you know, the movement was dominated in the early days by ministers. black ministers. they were operating their own church. >> there's a new book about the march on washington just published.
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i can't think of the author's name. but it's in bookstores now and it traces the history of the women in the labor movement who did much of the work before the march on washington and making it possible. it's a wonderful read. got a bad review. >> william p. jones. >> william p. jones is the author. got a bad review in "the new york times" but don't believe. that let's move on to another question. yes, please, on the left. >> my name is mariam. it's an honor to be in the presence of such great leaders. my question has to do with the media and the current coverage of the black community. sometimes it seems as if there's a disregard for the problems that effect black people and consequently the leaders that are working to resolve some of those problems. but at the same time highlighting more of the negative aspects of our community so that the only narrative we have is a negative one. do you feel as if, compared to 50 years ago, there's a stagnation in terms of how the media covers black struggles or do you think we've progressed so that more of our problems
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are being highlighted and the solutions are -- -- or the steps we're using to solve them? >> i saw that barreling right toward me. [laughter] i will tackle the question but i would actually like dorothy to weigh in. dorothy, as the former president of the national association of black journalists, has given a lot of thought and put in a lot of muscle behind this very issue of our representation in the news media. i think we're better than we were. honestly. but i still see the idea that we have to be representatives in the news room, making the decisions. we have to see the stories in front of us because we all are crippled or hampered or expanded by whatever experiences we've had in life and unless you have a news room that has people with a variety of experiences, it's just -- there's not going to be that kind of coverage. i don't necessarily think there's only negativity coverage but i do think that, as we saw in the coverage of
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the march on washington, that when there's conflict, that the cameras are going to go there, where there's going to be a fight, where there's going to be heat, we're going to pay more attention and for longer periods of time. if it's a trial, we're going to cover that. that's our post-o.j. experience on cable television. but i still think that there are so many more platforms that exist out there other than newspapers which are fading, sadly, and television. in order for us to get information. i could click on six blogs right now which would tell me more about things that are happening in the african-american community than i could have ever found out five years ago. so to me, because of technology, there are lots more places to get the information. it's just not as broad, but it's deeper. >> i think there's still bias but there's also balance. al sharpton has his own show. [laughter] rachel madow just did her show -- >> that's not what we're going for. >> there's one.
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>> but that's not journalism. i think she's talking about journalism. not activism. which is different. to me. being in front of a camera doesn't make you a journalism of the -- journalist. >> there really is a difference between fox and msnbc and you really had the feeling with lter cronkite that there was a solid middle. even in the south. columns and rote probably 700 of them were about race relations. there's nobody doing that in depth, columnists in any journal that i know about right now. >> i think the responsibility for covering stories of race and poverty really continues. i understand the way media works, of course, and we follow what's not going right and what we think, when we think there's
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a problem. so especially in terms of poverty, when you have a katrina or, you know, some issue, there's a barrage of stories. but there are a lot of troubling trends that should be covered. i mean, look at the -- >> a good illustration for me. i'm from new orleans. new orleans was 70% black. what the majority of the bodies counted in the flood were white. but they covered it as a black problem. because the whites were living in the swamps around the city and the blacks got to the dome. but the bodies floating down he river were white. and it was really shallow reporting, that we all contributed to. and it made it a bad story. because it was a story of nobody caring about
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infrastructure development, of the american people in the mississippi valley and they made it a black story about poverty. >> well, just to build on that and i'll be really quick. i think the idea is that reporters of all stripes really have a responsibility to write about these issues. and i think part of the challenge is use creativity. and to realize that, you know, issues such as the expanding wealth gap, it's a big story. and it's effecting people's lives. and we keep hearing about it, but we don't hear many of the real human stories. and i think, specialy -- especially with young people now, who i think are more sensitive in many ways than the reporters en masse were 50 years ago, excluding those great people who covered the civil rights movement, but i hink, you know, we need each young person who is a journalist to be sensitized to what they can do -- i'm sorry?
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>> and curious. >> yes, exactly. and curious about the human story. and to realize that these are great stories to be told. and you can win yourself a pulitzer prize by telling them. >> i sort of remember all of this advice 50 and 60 years ago and it was the same advice. we're running out of time. that's a fact. i will have one more question here on the right. i apologize to the rest of you. >> hi. good evening, my name is ed. i'm the proud father of a morehouse man who also works for umuc, one of the show's sponsors. an outcome of the 1963 marches to -- on washington was significant legislation, significant civil rights legislation from a difficult congress. now as we come together, it's soon after devoting -- the voting rights act has been neutered, we had a wonderful march last friday, we'll probably have -- >> forgive me, but we must have a question.
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>> the question is, what do you think we can get out of this congress after the marches of this time? >> we've had one good congressman right here who will tell you. go ahead. [laughter] >> you must never give up. or give in. must be hopeful and optimistic. and i think we will get something, maybe not anything compared to the congress back in 1964 and 1965. but you cannot give up. dr. king would say you cannot get lost in a sea of despair. must be hopeful and optimistic. but you must do something. >> the thing is, i went to congress when 27 of us opposed water in vietnam. and within the next congress we stopped the funding. what i think is going to happen in 2014 is women are going to realize that the nonsense in the -- the extremes in both parties are canceling them out
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and you're going to have a gathering, an increase of women running in the middle and they'll be democrat and republican but they'll be different from what you got in the congress now. [applause] i think we're going to have a woman -- a white woman senator from georgia and maybe two more white women congressmen. and we already have five black congressmen from georgia. i think this repression is making people mad and getting them organized and that's going to help us in 2014. >> it also requires action from the white house and i'm glad you asked that question because it gives me a chance to plug that tomorrow, judy woodruff and i are interviewing the president and will be asking him that. [laughter] >> i think that's a good way of closing. i want to thank you all, every single panelist, that i have been honored to be on the panel with you and i thank you very much for being with us. all of you. thank you very much and good night. [applause] [captions copyright national
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cable satellite corp. 2013] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] >> earlier this week, homeland security secretary janet napolitano gave farewell remarks at the national press club in washington, d.c. the outgoing secretary announced in july she'd be stepping down as head of the homeland security department to be the next president of the university of karl. -- california. here's her remarks at that event. >> perhaps the best place for me to end my remarks today is by giving him or her some advice. a kind of open letter to my successor. in this letter, i will tell the new secretary that you will confront everything i've discussed today, the evolving threat of terrorism, devastating natural disasters and the need for strong border security and immigration enforcement. you'll need to forge strong relationships with all of our partners, including congress, to make sure d.h.s. has the resources it needs to meet our responsibilities to the
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american people. you will need to continue our work to move to a more risk-based, intelligence-driven security system. as we've done at our airports with programs like t.s.a. precheck and global entry. which expedite known travelers through security and customs. you'll need to support science and technology research, building on the more than $2.2 billion we've invested over the past 4 1/2 years to strengthen chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear security measures. you will need to continue to recapital the coast guard so it can meet its ever-growing mission. you'll need to continue to ensure the security of key government leaders and events of national significance. and you will face new challenges that we have begun to address but that need further attention. our country will, for example, at some point face a major
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cyberevent that will have a serious effect on our lives, our economy and the everyday functioning of our society. while we have built systems, protections and a framework to identify attacks and intrusions, share information with the private sector and across the government, and develop plans and capabilities to mitt dwate the damage -- to mitigate the damage, more must be done and must be done quickly. you will also have to prepare for the increasing likelihood of more weather-related events, of a more severe nature as a result of climate change. and continue to build the capacity to respond to potential disasters in far-flung regions of the country that could occur at the same time. and you must continue to integrate the department. what i've referred to as d.h.s. 3.0. and lead it into its next stage of development and operations. through challenging fiscal times, including the ongoing
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impact of the sequester. you will need a large bottle ofed a vill. [laughter] -- of advil. [laughter] now, some have said that being the secretary of d.h.s. is the most thankless job in washington. that is not true. no doubt it's a very big and complex job. it's literally a 24/7 job. yet as my successor will soon learn, it's also one of the most rewarding jobs there is. what you do here matters to the lives of people all across our great nation. and your decisions affect them in direct, tangible ways. you make sure their families are safe from terrorist threats, that their local first responders have equipment and training and funding and that when disaster strikes, people who have lost everything are given food and shelter and hope. and the thanks for that is not
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owed by any single individual or cabinet secretary but to the 240,000 d.h.s. employees, many of whom work in tough conditions around the clock to accomplish our shared and noble mission and that includes some who have made the ultimate sacrifice for our country. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] >> and we'll have all of secretary napolitano's farewell remarks for you to see sunday at 11:35 eastern here on c-span. >> the media is clearly a dominant, increasingly dominant criteria for every first lady. but in the end they're the endless, the biographical, the human stories which are not limited to the 19th century, the 20th century or media or anything else. 's how these people endure
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nd prevail and in a very rough world of politics. >> historians preview season two of c-span's original series "first ladies" tee furring 20 first ladies from the beginning of the 20th century to the present. looking at their private lives and public roles. monday night at 9:00 eastern on c-span, c-span radio and next, discovery communications john hendricks discuss how new developments in technology are contributing to the quality of education. also taking part in the discussion is education secretary arnie dawn can -- arne duncan. an international festival conceived by colorado governor back in 2010 when he was mayor of denver. from denver, colorado, this is n hour and 10 minutes.
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>> thanks for that kind introduction. and for offering me the opportunity to be with you tonight. i'm joined this last session after what has been an engaging four days of ideas, a festival of ideas and information of what has been been working for the americas, for the world, to improve the lives of millions of people. i'm very excited to be able to e the moderator of this panel, the reinventing education. especially because, as you know, probably most of you are educators, it's trurebl to shape our future. but especially because i'm leading a nonprofit ganization as mike mentioned that translates into little colombians. and what we have been doing shows positive results. we just basically engage for
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kids living in poor areas, in the outskirts of main cities in colombia, engage them in soccer programs, in sports programs, music, dance, reading and computer programs in order to keep them in the classrooms and off the streets. where most of the times, in those areas, they are exposed to gangs, crime, prostitution, drugs. so, so far the result has been wonderful. to reduce crime in many of the areas where we operate. and to fight not only schooldy certifications but to improve school grades in the school where these kids attend. we work with 4,600 kids in different areas of colombia and we have shown how education can be enriched with games,
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competition and fair play. in the soccer and in the baseball fields and in our computer rooms, because through our computer rooms we have created a kind of scavenger hunt games where we have our kids read online books and just find clues to take them to the next chapter and to the next piece of reading in order for them to improve reading comprehension. right now we are initiating a pilot, in my hometown in colombia, not only with our kids and our foundation but in . o public schools so i'm very excited about this because i think we've shown on the small scale that this will work and that this works for us
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and hopefully it will work also for a large scale. so, so far we know that if we play, kids engage. people, young people like to play. and that's what we've been doing to improve their school experience and to teach them life values. because what we want to achieve with these group of kids is to make them better human beings. so, so far we know we have to invest more in early education, in order to develop the brain of these kids, of these youngsters. in order to -- for them to aspire to get higher education, to get -- to do better at higher education. educators, for the political land the resources, we are also aware of the studies that show that the current education
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systems are not preparing our ids to be creative, sburs -- sprurs, innovators and critical thinkers. we were shown during lunchtime today some figures that show us that in some countries, more than half of graduate kids don't get a job, are unemployed. and that explains why we're seeing the power of young people connected through technology and fueled by no hope, by uncertainty about their economic future, take to the streets and overthrowing and replacing governments and shaking the status quo on that regions of the world. so many see technology as a way to transform education and also develop the skills to succeed in an advanced technology-oriented global market which requires less that drigsal -- traditional
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employees in labor and more risk-takers and problem solvers. can technology close the gap between the small percentage of the population that can afford a good education, quality education, and the millions not only in the united states but throughout the developing world , throughout the developing countries that cannot afford good education? what can be done to change the way we educate children and young people? well, those are the answers that we are expecting to get tonight. and we're going to hear from brilliant and very successful people. brilliant minds. they are pioneers in their fields, in their sectors, where education takes center stage. and they have done it in an innovative way. so my job here, my job here tonight is to pick their brains and in the process to learn a , t from them and energize you
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to invite to you start thinking outside of the box on how to reinvent education. so, allow me please to introduce our distinguished panelists tonight. and they are united states secretary of education, arne duncan. he has devoted his life to education. he was the c.e.o. of the chicago public schools for several years. secretary duncan also runs the aerial education initiative, a nonprofit focused on advancing educational opportunities in economically disadvantaged areas. he has served on the boards of many organizations and educational institutions. he graduated from harvard university. then we are going to be joined by john hendricks. he is the founder and the chairman of discovery communications. the world number one nonfiction media company. the network was created to provide high-quality
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documentary programming, enabling people to explore their world and satisfy their curiosity. with operations in over 220 countries and channels like animal planet and science channel, as well as leading educational services. among several distinctions, john has been honored with a primetime emmy award and the academy of television arts and science's highest honor. the national education association's friends of education award, for innovation in education and technology, ealso the chairman of the discovery channel, global communication partnership, a nonprofit organization dedicated to using the power of television to improve life in underserved areas around the world. he also serves in several more -- boards of directors. we're going to be also joined john graduated
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from history and he hold as doctorate from the university of alabama. we're going to be joined also color. ey she's the co-founder of a social sprurship company that works with -- entrepreneurship company that works with top universities. it has reached over four million students in over a year since its creation. she's a professor in the computer science department at stanford university. she is also the author of hundreds of punl publications. among many awards she received the presidential early career award for scientists and engineers. she graduated from the hebrew university in jerusalem.
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and the co-founder of netflix. he co-founded the d.v.d. rental by mail company in the late 1990's to transform it into the world's leading streaming subscription service for watching movies and television programs. he also founded a company that he sold. he's a member of the board of directors of facebook as well as several educational nonprofits. reed is an active educational philanthropist and served as president of the california state board of education from 2002 to 2004. he has a masters in artificial intelligence from stanford university. so, let's bring to the stage our panel and let's welcome them with a big round of pplause.
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[applause] thank you all. thank you all for being here and we are thrilled to have you and looking forward to hearing from you. ok, i'm going to start by asking each of you just to open, just do some short opening remarks so you can tell s what you think needs to be reinvented in education. what do you think needs to change, what are the problems and what needs to be done to find a solution and also i would love for you to talk about how your companies are involved in educational initiatives and if you could share some positive accounts of things that have worked for you. so, let's start with you, reed,
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and your opening remarks. as i told everybody, you are the c.e.o. of netflix. but we want to know how is it that you are involved so much in educational issues? >> i was a high school math teacher was my first job out of college. before i got into software and got successful in business. and we were talking backstage about our first love and, compared notes, and i'm sure it's true for most of you. your first love is so intense and then the heartbreak, you know, when it comes is just incredibly hard. for me, my first love and incredible heartbreak was your former governor, roy roamer. [laughter] is he an amazing political figure and instead of retiring
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to his ranch, he moved to california and tried to help out the largest school district in the west, l.a. unified school district. and i and many people rallied to his side in terms of funding and consulting and technology and he was great. i mean, bit by bit he figured out the politics and alliances and the technology and just to give you one example, he felt the whole literacy program with formative assessment, so it's kind of continual, gradual assessments of every kid so you could intervene early before a kid fell behind, especially in reading. so he did this amazing work in second and third grade. and he did things like that in algebra and he developed great district staff and it was so much momentum. and it takes -- it's a big school district. so it takes a long time to turn something around like that. and then there was the school
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board election and he no longer had seven votes. and he was gone. and of course i'm still in california and so i'm working with the school district and then every single thing that he put in place that was of value got torn apart, ripped apart, destroyed and moved to the side. and at first i thought, well, this is mack vellian. why did these people hate what he did? and they didn't. but they were elected to do something new. i mean, you don't win elections in lausd. it's big to win a school board race there and then say i'm going to help it get better. you don't win by doing. that you win by is a saying we're going to take a whole new approach. and that really hit for me because i realized, wow, is that the answer? is that why dish mean, we've all wanted great outcomes for children. children that are chariots and
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motivated and confident and knowledgeable for 100 years our society has wanted that for kids. that hasn't changed. but we haven't got it. and all the former generations of our education reformers have run up against the same problem. which is the school district gets a little bit better and then it gets worse. and the periods are so long, sometimes you can mistake five or seven years of progress that it's sustainable. but it doesn't get sustained. and i realized, it's all about the elected school board. we're the only nation in the world that has these local elected school boards. and there are good people that serve on them but when you win elections, you want to make a difference. in contrast, every other part of our society, nonprofit, you know, when you want a new board member, you bring one in, they might be a little different but they're consistent with the vision. that's how governance should work. for-profits work like that.
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unbelievable. even the military, you know, the general decides who to promote and they get to decide, you know, see essentially a self-perpetuating governance. churches, the cardinal picks the pope, the pope picks the cardinal. ok? you get this same form of self-perpetuating governance. all the other political parties, republicans pick the republican leaders and then they fight. so, politics, the military, churches, for-profit, nonprofits. they're all basically churches, for profits, nonprofits. they are basically self- perpetuating structures that .llow the vision to take hold the only way to get great teaching is to support your teachers with a consistent program. the fundamental problem with school districts is they are controlled by elected school turn over they
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internal dynamics constantly. because of that, -- you know, a person just got hired in the chaos, and this is why a lot of these problems are a big protection and all of this is because of the school board structure. what we do is we grow the charter school sex or are from 1 -- charter school sector from one percent to five percent to 70% to 90% to 100% of the students being served. charter schools are nonprofits. they operate like all the nonprofits you all are involved in and it is working. in denver, we will have 20% of kids in charter schools. ndc, we are almost at 50% of kids. in new orleans, we are at nine
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percent of kids in charter school. the result are fantastic. the key is not the people. it is not the program. it is the governments. we have found a solution that is politicallyable -- viable. bring in new technology, new practices, do all kinds of amazing things. ok? you have a wonderful story to tell us. you have taken this to the next level in a year. callse new york times move.he year of the how many of you know what that is? timenk this is the first that technology has really been tod in a fundamental way
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provide access to high-quality education for free to anyone who has an internet connection. this started in the fall of 2011 . we were building the courses we had done at stanford university for about five years. we took three courses in the cuter science, put them out for people to take for free. a matter of weeks, each of those courses has an enrollment of 100,000 from countries around the world. we are able to serve the a stanfordth quality, at least lecture cost perith a lower student. it is closer to zero dollars and one dollars. they are watching lectures from some of the world's best
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faculty. they are doing real homework for real grades. and if they passed the course, they get a credential. it is not the university credit, but for a lot of people it is a heck of a lot better than anything else they have access to. we realized that we needed to do something really big. in january of 2012, we decided schema that works with multiple universities around the world to provide material from their best instructors and provide it for free. everye students from single country around the world. we are offering over 400 courses across 300 disciplines. not just computer science. we have biology, chemistry,
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music, literature. science and medicine and business and everything that you want, the number of courses growing by the day. the average enrollment on any is of those courses is 30 -- 30,000 or 40,000 people. this is many years since we launched in april 2012. -- this has been a year since we launched in april 2012. [applause] >> yeah. >> thank you. i think this speaks to a number of things. the ability to put out there for everyone in the world to have access to something that they have only dreamed. it is an amazingly affordable cost and the highest quality.
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so, let me talk about what i consider to be the four biggest opportunities for this type of technology. of ourst is most students right now, i think for a variety of factors, are actually continuing education. these are people who have degrees. these are educated professionals . that is going to change as more and more people get access to the internet. we will get more and more people who are degree seeking. i would like you to think about the continuing education population. moving to constantly reskill and retool themselves to a new reality as it changes around them. the ability to go and learn something new is very limited. is a service being provided to a population that
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has been drastically underserved. i can, we have the use of technology that we can provide to our own students on our own campuses. if you look at a classroom in today's college and a classroom from 200 years ago, there is virtually no change. maybe you have whiteboards instead of blackboards. that is about it. students can learn material outside of class on their own time, when they are most alert. they can learn things like critical thinking, things that you can't teach. they are basically delivering content. that is opportunity to. -- we trackthree every single event in these courses. we know exactly what students are learning, when they are learning it, what they are
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watching, what questions they are doing. this is their opportunity to take the study of human learning and turn it from anecdotal science to date of science. if you think about the biology,ation -- medicine, think about how it is going to impact on the way we teach our children. and i think this is what i'm proudest of. currently 40% of our students are in the developing world. these are people -- [applause] these are people for whom it is not a question of a great or ation or a contribution less great education. it is a question of education versus no education at all. most of these people will never be able to attend quality
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institutions because it is just not there to be had. there is just not the capacity. outsideot create instructors from scratch just by putting more money into the problem. i think there is an opportunity here now to leapfrog that kind of education and to offer high- quality education to people who in any other way would never have that access. i think we have the opportunity to do what i think should be a dream we all share, to turn education into a basic human right. a [applause] >> great. >> wonderful. ok. john.n line, the amazing story of discovery. >> i'm going to take you little
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bit back in time. earlier,ntioned discovery is in 20 countries around the world. june 17 of 1985, i incorporated three years early and spent three torturous years spending the money, getting the content from suppliers around the world. we uplink to a satellite at 3 p.m. on june 17, 1985. the signal came through our little office building that we had with 19 employees, if you can believe it. we gathered around the tv set to watch the signal come through. we wondered if anyone was watching the discovery channel. within five minutes, the phone rang. it kept ringing and ringing. the receptionist was watching with us. she scampered out and she came in and she said, it is a teacher
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on the line from kansas and she wants to know if she can take which was our," very first show, and use it in her eighth grade science class. we have never forgotten that teacher. from that day, we started looking at how our content on discovery and animal planet and other video services could be used for education and we soon discovered that teachers could not use the full hour or half- hour. we started clearing the rights for our content. we constructed days so history teachers -- we started to deliver from 8:00 until 9:00 every weekday morning, on history for example, a show that was cleared for taping and use in the classroom. that has progressed today -- teachers cannot use it in linear real-time, so they have to
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capture. in the old days they would record on vhs and play it in the classroom. but with the great revolution that we have all witnessed going from analog to digital, we made this miracle of random access , weo available. so today have sought to acquire all the great educational content from around the world. if there is a biology teacher who wants to teach out a cell divides in biology class, we have so many components we can bring life to the classrooms from our discovery streaming service. the magic of random access, some 200,000 digital access today streaming just in the united states, over half of america's classrooms that teachers have on demand. that service is going around the world, probably for the developed world. we also have a digital textbook initiative.
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we have the sciences and social studies where we are working thata giant cloud server is platform neutral, whether .hey have ipad or tablet or pc they can access a digital textbook that is current, a living document a sickly. we are very proud of that. in the developing world, there are so many kids who have never seen tv. some do not even have a classroom. a partnership, a 501(c)(3) organization. asa-cola is a funder as well chevron and many other large corporations. the digitalto bring world into the developing world. we have all of these villages in africa where they did not have
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electricity, so we have had to bring in portable generators and dvd machines, connected to a tv a whole there it is village event. not only the kids have never seen television, but there are adults who are 50, 60 years old who have never seen television. we all think kids in nigeria have seen a cheetah. they haven't. they are not exposed to big game like western tourists are. it has been so empowering to see what can happen when we can spread the riches of the digital revolution all across the globe. ok. great. thank you, john. [applause] >> i am going to put you on the spot last, because i attended a and there was a professor from the university of oregon.
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he was saying that current education kills creativity and curiosity. but the current system just produces people who think the same, do the same, just to be employees, and do not respond to the actual needs of the global economy that we live in. is, can we to you change this? can the united states lead the way to do things differently? most of the world is looking at the united states when we talk about education. think the united states can help provide leadership, but this is not an area of competition. north america, south america, working across the globe together. we need a much better educated workforce. we need much more creativity. many come to education
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because they are worried about social does this. many of us are worried about the lack of social mobility. the only way to enter the middle class and have a good paying job is to high-quality education. the globeies across do not have that opportunity today. we have amazing schools i have visited that do a wonderful job of helping folks pursue their passions, pursue their interests. countries look at what we are doing -- are we doing it well enough at scale? absolutely not. we have many people working every single day not to perpetuate the status quo, but to challenge it. today we have so many children, color, belowren of the poverty line, who received an inferior education. when that happens, we perpetuate poverty and social failure
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rather than eliminate it. we need to make sure that every chance for ahas a world-class education. i think that is what brings us all here. and that is from your initial remarks. i was just wondering -- ofi feel attachment a sense urgency. i want to give a couple of facts. in terms of the access education,-quality today less than three in 10 four-year-olds have access. a desperate need is on mets -- is unmet. we have a dropout rate of about 25%. we are losing about one million kids each year.
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is not tooal graduate, but to go to some form of higher education. and the cost of college. it is on the rise. i think we have to make a massive investments. we have to think very differently about how to get great teachers do under- resourced communities. how we use technology. and the goal has to be not to graduate from high school, but some form of higher education. two-year community colleges, a four-year university, vocational training. we need to have greater social mobility. -- the only way we get there is through the classrooms. there so much emphasis on early education? >> because all the research
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shows and common sense is we have to stop playing catch up. we have far too many kids you start -- who start kindergarten at five years old. disadvantaged communities all my life. kids are smart, talented, courageous. they lacked opportunity. we have to fill in the opportunity gap. if we do that, we level the playing field. they will be very successful. if not, those are our future dropouts. we will perpetuate the problem. finally, i will say there is a time of academic research that shows a seven to one return on that investment. for every dollar we invest, we teenage less pregnancies, less dropouts, less crime.
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so, it is the ultimate long-term investment with so many children here in the united states lacking that opportunity. [applause] >> john, for example, do you have an example to share with us earlyiscovery to help students? >> we created a program blog called ready, set, learn. it was just for preschoolers. we focused mostly on multimedia. we have seen that kid -- and the tests have shown -- there is more retention. there is more engagement if all of the senses are engaged in learning.
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use is why we like to sight, sound, and motion to bring the world right there to the child. whether that is on a tablet, a computer, or a television screen. other piece is the programming for k-12. as they progress, there are moments in a child's education -- there is a time where you can engage the young girl or boy in the sciences, especially the is that critical eighth-grader, ninth grader. we have found the power of multimedia -- it is random access. it can be accessed from these cloud servers. one of the things i'm excited the commercial world and what we all enjoy with the -- with read's product, netflix, the spending power on the
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commercial side of storing and retrieving content that you want to watch. that scale economics worldwide will bring down the cost of the technology. is any kide dream whether they are in outlook turkey or africa will have broadband access, wireless access to these servers that are chock full of wonderful educational videos. making this affordable and eveloping countries -- >> can i interrupt and mix it up a little bit. if we do not get the job done consistently in low income communities, isn't it a fair comparisonsdrawing with the system that you know .ell, take charter schools that's about 100 40 high-
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performance charter schools across united states, nonprofit, lowest income committees in america. they started in middle school. so, they went from fifth to eighth grade. then they got into elementary school. what they are finding is it is incredible what is happening. now in l.a., that's second- is testing in math and reading at the fifth grade level. in other words, the level of the kids who were coming into the schools. nowaybe the 13 grades we do done right would be to replace the focus rather than reform the system that does not irk that well esther mark -- work that well? >> i think you would have to do all of it and you would have to do it at the same time. we have to dramatically improve k-12, no doubt about that. you talk about the 30 million --
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[applause] what chip does extraordinarily well is they play catch-up. out of theget k-12 catch of business. an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. we need to help our babies learn to speak, learn language, learn creativity, learn to play, learn socially. it is not just the academic skills. the noncognitive skills. the ability to self regulate, house of control, resilience. not every child has the benefit of learning that at home. frankly, i think the best investments we could make would be to simultaneously improve k- 12 and make college much more accessible and much more affordable on the backend. [applause] i wish there was one simple answer that we could just do. i
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think the world is much more complex than that. ok, i wonder where the resources go? sometimes we see in this country were is plenty of money, and spend twice the budget of whole countries in latin america. educators in k-12 are competing against to get the best of the money that is available? things.uick first of all, we need disruptive innovation. edt is not making a higher two percent cheaper. it is making higher at 95% cheaper. we need that kind of work, getting higher ed, catered 12 on the early learning side as well.
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we need to invest much more smartly. i will give you one concrete example. billion the between $7 and $9 billion each year on textbooks. i don't know why we are spending any money on textbooks today. [applause] the kids just need a device like you have. 24/7, anytime,rn anywhere, have access to this world of knowledge that did not exist a couple years ago -- we are not great at stopping doing certain things in education. now,2020, seven years from , 90% of kids will have a laptop or tablet with them. you think in that seven years?
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is clearly not the tipping point. this needs to move when it moves and when he moves it moves very quickly. many states, because textbooks are expensive, are on six or seven year textbook adoption stops. every six or seven years to buy the math book, the social studies book, the science book. that book, that book is out of date. we spend a huge amount of money on things that do not make any sense. again, if we could move in this area, we have a small number of districts that are breaking through doing this, showing much and i think this will move very quickly as more people look at examples of success. >> what is a school district in the u.s. you would point to?
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>> in north carolina there is a district they stopped buying textbooks two years ago rate -- two years ago. the graduation rates way up. great work with parents. teachers are much more engaged. that is an example. there are others. >> you are welcome to ask questions as well. that move made my job much easier. [laughter] i share the secretary's optimism. robust competition in the delivery infrastructure of the information age. i look back to 1996 when president clinton signed into law the telecommunications act which basically free the phone companies to provide cable service and the table companies
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to provide phone service. they released an incredible amount of spending to build this infrastructure that continues to go on. now we have so many materials on information side. the cable companies, the satellite companies, and others are bringing down the price. i believe that infrastructure deploy right to into america's classrooms and at home as well for educational or purses. i'm an optimist. i was an optimist about the ipad. 2020, you will have just an explosion of devices that children will have in the developed world and my hope is then we to the developing world. say 10% of the global population has access to light
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speed internet connections. so, we have a problem. houston, we have a problem. we can provide all of the content to share the service does, but we cannot download them. we need -- entertainment has adoption like television and internet. and it used -- and gets used for educational purposes like cours era. >> india has just completed building a broadband network. that's not every indian village. but in principle, people can come once a week and watch educational videos and do their homework and download things on their mobile devices and get their education.
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at the same time, the indian government has fostered the which isnt of a device not as cool as an ipad, but it functional it costs $40 to produce and $20 rose subsidy. -- posted subsidy. every indian school job will be able to watch the discovery channel video or do their homework on their tablet in their village. and get a refresher of new educational cheerio. suit.a is following i think it will start to wellate other places as because the need is a great. raise the bar for everyone. it helps perpetuate the haves and the have-nots.
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there is not equal access in the united states, whether it is inner-city urban or rural or the native american population. there are whole communities who do not have access. the private sector cannot do this by themselves. one thing the president has talked about is making significant investments to make sure people have high-speed broadband for every child across the country. professional development for teachers -- how can we make the educators work better and make the technology available to get them more engaged, more interactive to work with students? an issue with the technology. hopenk that there is there. >> i would like to speak to the issue of teacher training. i think it is one of the most
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important things we can do, is make sure we have teachers to train our children. one of the things that we did in the beginning of may was create a curriculum for teacher training. elements for organizations that speak directly to the developing world. use ise thing about this it does more than just teaching. by the internet. the teachers get to know each other. if one is stuck on a lesson plan or was to figure out how to teach something they have never taught before, they can make a connection. that person may be on the other side of the country or even the other side of the world. they can talk to each other about how to go about this. i think that is one of the beautiful things about technology.
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it does more than provide access to content. it also provides access to other people. >> help me with the future and higher ed. i do not follow that closely. if a student at the university takelorado -- will they courses on relativity from one or two people who are gifted in teaching it and they will just not take relativity? , if i haveguessing to guess, it will be a lot more than two, but a lot less than 1000. i think there will be 10 or 20 or 30 digital versions of a particular topic that is taught. there will be common spreads that a lot of people are going to take.
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at the same time -- just to add on to that -- the people taking those courses would have access to a local teacher who can embellish and data from their own experience and relate the contents to the issues they are facing and the class to help them work through the hard bits, so it will be an interplay, and this is a much more effective learning strategy. >> we have the same tension in k-12. characterize technology as like the cotton gin, like it will automate everything. others look at it as he nibbled to give a doctor and x-rays so .hey can sell what is going on
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i think both of those things can be very active in the labor aspect, the mechanization versus the creative extension of the tool. debate to shift the be the latter case and not the former? these are important conversation to have. research shows the best teaching is great teachers empowered by great technology. in northaces like -- carolina, i was there a month or two ago. the president has talked to these people. these teachers talk about their fear. they also talked about how much more effective they were in helping students learn today than they were in the past. the other conversation was not just on the other side. there is the native american remote. there is just avoid there.
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there is a lack of opportunity. i was in a business class where there was one teacher teaching students from six different schools at the same time. that takes it to an entirely different level. there are a lot of kids who do not have access to what they need. technology can provide that. >> if i can add on to that, i think technology offers a tremendous opportunity to students. currently if you talk about ap courses or any dual enrollment program, the children who benefit from that are the ones in a well invested school district. those are the ones where you happy teachers with a masters degree you can actually offer college-level contents. the ones in a poor school up nothing. the nice thing about the self- contained courses is it only requires a teacher who can facilitate the content delivery as opposed to prepare the
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content. so all of a sudden you can bring college-level content to kids who have never otherwise have access. boost in terms of what people can look at. humming from georgia, i have to ask you this question. -- coming from georgia, i have to ask you this question. how would you deal with cheating? that?uld you control when it is the job they are supposed to do -- >> [indiscernible] [laughter] >> i'm afraid, yes. >> i'm not even going to go there. [laughter] there is a technological
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problem that has a technological solution. we have a system that will allow exams to be proctored remotely with a webcam. ways it is more secure than 100 people in a room like this. they do not know if you are looking down at your iphone getting the answer. this is technology we have put in place. we have put in place other technologies. cool.pretty it turns out the keystrokes are very distinctive. that is, if i type a phrase and you type a phrase, it looks very different in terms of rhythm. and i can't imitate yours matters how hard i try, even if you help me. if there is a proctored final
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exam, it's a pretty solid mechanism. what we have found to his there is a third element that is important. great technology, again, i think it brings down timeost from the frozen in .extbooks we have to have the teacher training we discussed. we have found that teachers love the assessment, because we know , it this new technology improves results. and it is just self reinforcing, and mechanism that can hopefully break the cycle of this legacy system near having to deal with them politics -- we are having to deal with in politics. again, i think there are these grand bargain's. all of this in the free enterprise system where we love deregulation.
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careve to be able to take of the school wiring. along with the commercial infrastructure. and that is what happened to the cable industry, for example, as part of the deregulation act of 1996. issue i is another heard in that debate and it was failure. the failure of students. do we have to really define failure? when you do not have the passion. you need to move onto the next -- >> i can give you a couple different answers. this is a little counterintuitive. i think we need to encourage more failure. [applause] -- i think we need to encourage more failure. [applause] is to ask approach it
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your kids, what did you fail at today? multiple times in life. the question is, do you fold up your tent, or do you learn from that and take the next step? to eliminatee have the fear of failure. we have to create opportunities for kids to stretch themselves, to learn, to make mistakes, to keep doling. morehas got to become except a bold and not. that is one side. the second side is where you have kids who are really struggling and need help and support. this is where technology is not the magic answer, but having kids have access to a chance to if you have to parents at home and a household full of books, that is one thing. but if you're going to a home without books, you needed different set of opportunities.
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you need a different set of structures. kids need the best teachers, more time, the s talent, or technology. talent, the best technology. we have not been serious about what i call the opportunity gap. we have to behave in radically different ways. [applause] >> ok, we only have 12 minutes left. i want to move the panel to the next issue. the global market. we areve agreed preparing students for careers that probably will no longer exist or a career that does not exist yet. at my question to the panel is what are the skills we for thehave and nourish workers of tomorrow? for the innovators of tomorrow?
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these two gentlemen employ a lot of folks. >> we are looking for people who will take risk. your comment about training kids to think critically, but also be able to learn from mistakes. our ceo at discovery has implemented a new award and that award is biggest mistake of the year. [laughter] biggest mistake awards, and it turns out people love it. learn from those. it is a celebration of risk- taking. if we can get that down to be critical thinking skills at the school level, that is what we are looking for. a i worry about the humanities. i was a history major. [applause] -- that has is served me well in terms of being able to look at the trends. that is something we are looking
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at as well. people who can think broadly. have a sense of history, have a sense of culture, along with knowledge of a new technology. again, we are looking for well- rounded people to fill our ranks. very similar. ambitious. a lot of character attribute, ,kills, ambitious, risk integrity, confidence. those are major factors. it mostly comes from parent. only a little bit from school. there is unfortunate dynamic and education which is the talk about the job gap in the skills gap and all of those things, and you know, it is really not about that. it is how do we deliver on human attentional not only across our society, but the globe. most of the people in business do not think about it as, oh, i
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am contributing to education reform so i can hire better people. that is just not what they think. and yet there is this assistant dialogue about the job gap, the skills gap, and that is why we need you to work on education. that's not true. we need to work on education for the human beings in our society .nd the world in general there are all kinds of positives. it is not just to do a job skills. high school learning math, literature -- those are all excellent for almost any job. on online courses they can mine the specifics of java programming or whatever the specific skills are. >> there's another issue. the fact that sometimes the job offers are there but there's not -- as theyled people
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are not well-prepared. is there any way that the private sector can work with the government to get the next course paying for what the country needs. havexample, in jamaica, we a shortage in all of these jobs because the colleges are not training people for those jobs, you know? >> the real issue is the public private partnership is critically important on both sides. here we have many pockets of excellence where you have advanced manufacturing, health care, what ever it might be, working with four-year institutions and high schools as well. we have to take the skills and look at the pockets of excellence.
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for an example, i went to an amazing cool in new york city called the harvard school. there were all of these fantastic jobs on the river. but 90% of those jobs are going to people from overseas because there was not any one you had those skills. and they were working through all of those different things. there's a lot of these types of examples. we do not have the scale and we have not partnered well enough to a den of five that. sector, ishe private there enough opportunity for a student to do internship? we have learned the jobs they would like to take. is there an opportunity here and around the world? i was thinking with my nephews and nieces -- no, there's not enough of those. it is a struggle to get those internships.
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the program incentive, no? resources toe the train, to learn, to teach these young people to do internships. >> that's an important point. we need industry to help shape curriculum. i was in one community in iowa were the advanced manufacturing there -- it was a fantastic partnership. but the ceo there said -- because the young people did not come from that community college it cost them about $90,000 to train them. from theey came community college, a cost them about $10,000. it was a huge win/win. he is helping to create a curriculum. for aasically a guarantee gateway to highly skilled jobs in their community.
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>> what about having an executive to teach lasses in the classroom -- tend tonions do not like that. the school unions do not tend to like that. >> i think that would be an interesting process, to bring the predecessor to the classroom and just -- is, youension there would say in the hospital, would you want people to learn and work? probably not, right? we have to do that with education. anybody can just jump in and do it? were that hasms happened, the results of not been that compelling. you want a set of professionals to control the destiny and are excited about doing the job. what is hard to do is give them a management environment and a support system that is stable over the long term so they can build excellence.
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you really do not need all of these outside influence is. -- outside influences. [applause] >> we have four minutes left. i think we have time for a question for each of you. i don't know how many countries are well ribs -- well represented. anyone not born and raised in the united states? how many? i hope we have a more diverse representation when we do this event next time. to southake this down
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america. or central america. anyway. your bestst give advice. you can just offer them your best lessons of what should be done to improve education. on the internet. i was down in costa rica a few years ago and i was amazed at how good the dsl was. you know dsl is only high speed two megabits for about two miles. i couldn't figure it out. i had to walk on the telephone mine. there any middle of the jungle was a device or the telephone line goes in and fiber comes out. and i asked them. they said, oh, yeah, the government prioritized fiber- optic lines over aping the road. that is absolutely the way to go. [applause]
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>> then they can download the netflix movies. [laughter] >> spread the word. we have people spread the word about the have,g resources we anything that is out there. education market is 2.5% of internet users. we are nowhere close to that. just tell people there is a whole world of education out there. >> my advice would be not to underestimate the power of the story. i have had the great fortune to inin africa and tanzania --
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africa and tanzania with one of the last hunter gatherer tribes. will tell the story and it is a powerful teaching method. that is how we pass information from one generation to another. whatleads me to support speed.s talking about, at those linear stories. >> i know that very well, being a journalist. this countryout and let america and south america about the lack of economic opportunity. the only way i can create a more many morety is it children have access to high- quality education. we need to work together to partnered to challenge the status quo, to get better faster. i think we have been far too complacent. we have got to do
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much better than we have in the past. [applause] you summarized it. there are no answers. there are many issues being debated. we will have to collaborate between all the stakeholders. thank you so much for being here. thank you all. >> on this weekend's use makers -- newsmakers, tom donahue talks about immigration, the health- care law, and here is a brief look. some of the people on the far right of the republican party that isated an agenda detrimental to republicans who are trying to make this economy stronger and help the business community get economic growth over three percent, 3.5% so we can start to hire people. interview ine that its entirety sunday at 10 a.m.
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and again at 6 p.m. eastern on c-span. >> i just give a talk in san francisco to a bunch of people creating material for kids, mostly stuff for young kids. parents will say they want products that will keep their kids smart and educated. -- they want to keep it safe. no parent has ever use the features our program. if you just take the data and just act on the data, you will be in trouble. people lie and people do not know what they want until they see it. you can ask them a million questions. there were no focus groups or data in the building of the ipad. it was all in here. >> what will the future bring?
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the digital revolution is one of our programs on labor day on c- span. future ofon of the presidential debates. one:at one call him 30 -- 30, a look at the digital revolution. and then from the international festival of arts and ideas, a look at race in america 2050. >> on this labor day weekend, a look at the contributions of working men and women are the subject of weekly addresses i president obama and republican congressman mike fitzpatrick. as wes labor day weekend gather with family and friends, we will come together as a nation to honor some of our own, the working men and women of america who built this country up and helped make us who we are today. on monday, we will celebrate that proud history. we will pay tribute to the values working americans and
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body. harcourt, responsibility, sacrifice, looking out for one another. and we will commit ourselves to their cause, securing her them a fair bargain so everyone who works hard in america has a get the last four years we have fought our way back from the worst session in our lives. and thanks to the grid and resilience of the american people we have laid a foundation that is stronger and more durable for economic growth. but we are not yet where we can be. for over a decade working americans have seen their wages and incomes stagnate even as corporate profits soar. for even longer than that, the journey of upward mobility has become harder and in too many communities, the shadow of ourrty casts a pall over system. reversing that trend needs to be washington's highest rorty and
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it sure is mine. that is why we are traveling all across america, laying out my ideas on how to layout the cornerstones for being middle class, ways to get a good wage, a good education, a home of your own, health care, a secure retirement even if you are not rich, and a chance for folks to earn their way into the middle class as long as they are willing to work for. is, if we take a few bold steps and if washington is able to him together with common purpose and common resolve, we will get there. our economy will keep getting stronger and more americans will be able to join the ranks of the middle class. you areor day while grilling in your backyard or taking your final trip of the summer, i hope you take a moment to reflect on the many contributions of our working men and women. for generations, it was the
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great american middle generatiot american middle class that made our economy the envy of the world. as long as i am president i will keep fighting to make sure that this happens again. thank you, and have a great weekend. >> i am michael fitzpatrick, serving the eighth district of pennsylvania. it is an honor to speak to you as we celebrate the ingenuity of america's workers. we are a nation that builds things, from skyscrapers to apps. anyone can pursue the american dream. but as i have gone through my district and visited 100 businesses to meet with workers and business owners, it is easy to see that workers are frustrated. five years into the obama presidency, the workers who drive the economy see nothing but roadblocks coming out of washington. president obama's health care law comes to mind.


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