tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN December 3, 2013 2:00am-4:01am EST
they want to offer this year. hey, you want to use kinetic its standard tests, you can use those. the protocol,e use that. oso make a choice.make they are ready for it. school boards are ready for it. that doesn't believe you are not afraid. it means you have more dialogue and work on it closely together. far better a caret than a stick. nationally has -- >> they have commended the new haven teacher agreement.
at the state level, how does layoutyout question -- -- play out? >> one of the alternatives was he new haven school district. them a roadmap. they are all invited act to the school, and they are given a roadmap, and some of them are advancing back to class level. that was a decision made by teachers. they have been very active in the point getting to where there is a higher degree
of engagement. it does not mean there are not a lot of people worried about change. they are there. you are seeing more people embracing that change. d about it a little bit. it was adopted by the states. 68% of adults have never heard of this thing, but we have seen an explosion of concern. of concerns have you heard in the state of connecticut, and how are you trying to address those? >> there are those who try to make a political argument. the political argument runs that those people in washington have happen, and we
should resist as well as we can implementation of common core. it runs in the face of reality. of them got together and decided in a worldwide competition we were not doing very well, and we were not educating our children to the level we needed to remain competitive. it had almost nothing to do with the federal government at the outset. up rockas been a tactic of barack obama himself adopting this common core. a survey in connecticut, 72% of teachers, we are talking about literacy --e, embrace it.
only two percent or three percent inc. it will lead to lower or worse results. others are not taking up position. when you have that embracing of a concept and teachers and administrators have had the time to look at what people want to inhasize, they are moving the right direction. we have seen no movement to abandon our common core. we need to hold ourselves accountable for success. >> it you think about the common core? what are the key strengths? about thenything implementation you are nervous about? >> there are fewer things but deeper. the ability to use those things we are learning successfully. whether it is in support of or inal thinking
mathematics being able to answer promptly, i think that is the real strength. i think one-size-fits-all has not been working particularly well. we do it in the hopes that they will devote the rest of their to the education system. that was not working as well as it needed to on an international the united states. we decided to go deeper on the emphasis on critical thinking. >> what are the keys going to be ofmake sure the vision instruction is delivered upon? >> there are a couple of things.
we have schools and school districts that don't have the technology to deliver it as well as they could. that is why we stepped forward and announced $24 million in dditional upgrades. at the same time it was recognized those school districts are some of their own investments as well. have done, fore the first time we are budgeting state dollars for continuing people to as we urge change their approach to continuing education. you come to the auditorium and make everyone here the same realre, the chance for a discussion between teachers and those leading the discussion. trying to change that as
well to be supportive of the broader and larger change we want to see made across the state. >> how much per pupil are you spending these days? >> it varies widely from district to district. it is one of the largest state grantms in the allocation. no district has lost any money since i have become governor. of additionality dollars goes to those most in need. that is a break from the past. intoously if you put money the fund, it would be distributed as it had in the past. it doesn't make sense to do that when you realize you have much bigger problems in a much smaller number of districts that you have to find a way to turn around, and focusing on that is
important. every dollar has been spent wisely. we have to be accountable for how we spend those dollars going forward. i have around numbers. depending on how you read it, we are spending in excess of $12,000 across the board. some districts are spending substantially more than that. others are spending less than you look at the average, there are two different ways to measure it. we are spending a lot of money on education in connecticut. >> do you think that number ought to be higher across the board? >> i think it ought to be higher
in a lot of leases. different districts face effort problems. -- different problems. if you have a non-english learner population you have to ring a long, don't be surprised classrooms will be helpful, and smaller classrooms cost more money. a different model might not work better. if you are dealing with issues , and poverty as we know is concentrated in our society in certain district. some of those are rural. many are urban. surprised if different models need to be used, and in some cases those are expensive. we have to hold everyone accountable for how they and every dollar. they spend every dollar
and to make sure the dollars are being spent wisely. districts,k at the in every district it was one that performed across the board. we found those models were not being replicated in all the chools in that same district. you don't have as much money. that cost money or we cannot do it, or you could argue that is not a model that will work system wide. school days work. that is why connecticut is in partnership on extending hours of operation. we have three school district actively engaged in adding to .he curriculum every year i have been to two schools in the district, a great success. numbers rising much more rapidly
than anywhere else, by and large. on an average basis, better than anywhere else. test scores sought increases. ashave to replicate it opposed to our failures. >> as you mentioned, one concern what works. in colorado a month ago there was a billion-dollar proposed levy by the state senator. it went down to a 2-1 defeat. that speaks to public appetite for additional dollars at this point? is that relevant? governor forn three years. if we hadn't done the things we
did to support education, we would have lost thousands of teachers in the state of connecticut. >> by doing the things to support education you mean? >> driving a reform agenda. doing both. like to a school system new haven or bridgeport or new london or new britain and taking teachers out of the building and not replacing them is not a way you are going to drive higher teachers, so we came up with a different model, and that was to concentrate where we are going ,o spend an additional dollars with higher proven need. i think that is a big break with the past that isn't fully understood what the long-term implications are. >> one of the proposals you put forward is the expansion of pre- k. this has been a talking points nationally.
curious what vision you have. >> i have been with pre-k a long time. when i was mayor at stanford i chose to move stanford in the direction of the inning in a position to guarantee all four- -- of being inen the direction to guarantee all four-year-old children. we weren't going to be the enteringof every child prekindergarten exactly the same way. we actually turn to a not-for- profit agency that has overseen childcare services in the community and said, we want you to run a program. we took an old doping and retrofitted it so it could house 300 four-year-olds. we went into the community and got folks signed up. everyone
had to have some skin in the game. money into have some the pocket, but we made sure it was scaled to their income. services.d additional we provide medical services. we fed the kids. low and behold, it works. longer school days, starting earlier. having a larger vocabulary when they walk into kindergarten leads to an additional success. it's less time spent catching up. aused to explain it following. imagine you are a first-year teacher, and you go into a and half the kids have had a prekindergarten learning experience of quality. they know their letters and colors. skills,w their literacy
and the other half don't. then when you ask that teacher what are you going to spend more time on, and the reality is we shouldn't ask the question. we know it works. gigantic -- that is one way to close the achievement gap at the end of 13 years i closing it at the beginning. >> how did you find resources for this? >> we changed the model so we can provide the experience to more children at less cost. when you think of most programs they are expensive models. it is the reason we have not expanded to school district. it was too expensive. it is seen as a luxury. we require kindergarten through
12. we did not require pre-k. we would like to change the model. >> what are some suggestions to make it more if? it is simple biology. they are not going to learn for eight hours straight. the day has to be broken up. fair amount of the day is spent supporting learning but not necessarily in instruction. io is running the classroom think is an effective and important issue. find a way to supervise those to be supportive of then you'd get a lot more done. >> this means more adults who are not necessarily trained
roles. but supporting >> that is part of it. it also gives deadly ability. -- scheduling ability. everyone as a certified teacher for all the programs may not make sense. >> one last question, and then let's open it up. i am curious if there are any from your time as mayor. >> we have to find a way to make educational spending more effective. when they became the mayor of stanford we had an i.t. department for the city. we had an i.t. department for the board of education. we had computers aging out before they were installed.
effortsed to put the together and to work together, and we worked at technology integration. we lifted the education standards in a short amount of time. when i became mayor, if you talk about communities, the single largest investment almost every community across the country has has been in schools. it has a lot of stuff in the building, but if you scratch the realized thedid, i guy overseeing maintenance of
buildings had a doctorate. there was not a single engineer who actually work for the system at that time. to find a way to save money in by plowing more into education, and we did that as well. >> let's open it up. be kind enough to identify your self by name and affiliation. 15 seconds and if i don't see your question i will move to someone else. >> i remember when you were mayor and we visited stanford. question goes back to the relationship between schools and general purpose. of the pioneers in
pushing the kind of relationship you just discussed. relates to this philosophy, particularly in .ight of the changes have you been able to take the initiatives at the state level, bringing juvenile justice and breaking down isolation of schools from general-purpose? >> yes and no. affect it is you have to structural change. i will go back to early childhood education. we took operations out of four different departments and put them in one office at the department of education, but now we have one at the department of education.
they have it all together. that is going to allow us to deliveryore efficient system. there is this dynamic between general government and education. people to to lift where they are actually working together is very difficult to do. i am finding it more difficult than i would have thought. having said that, i think we are making progress. onhink what is really going is we are very dependent on property taxes. beyond the cost sharing dollars, everything else is robert e
taxes. those are not growing anymore. they are forced to find ways to save money and to work together. i think the folks who believe this are looking at how do you support education? it is going to drive education. >> as far as funding in education, doesn't look like it is going to be flat, down, up? >> it's a little early to tell. this has been the slowest recovery from a recession in the post-world war ii era. to folks in washington seem put the brakes on the economy every six months or so, so they are not helpful with respect to real growth in the economy.
attending. that is a solution. >> inc. you, governor. i am a senior adviser to the education foundation. you imply we know what works, at there seems to be consensus that the weakest link seems to be our secondary schools. the president announced a grant program. many people believe we are no longer meeting the needs of people. >> we have a number of initiatives doing that,
including allowing high school atdents to take courses college. in one case: locating schools on college campuses, or inviting them to have courses in the school. think we failed most of the kids in the early years. we just a bigger price in the later years. a child not doing well in third grade, the chances are low through middle school and high school. we have to do a better job there. we have to think about
education differently. i think we have a lot of kids who are under challenge and a lot of kids who are over didn'tged because they get the exposure they needed to get. i think building into schools the ability to respond to those things i think is going to be an important in the future. i think driving advanced courses is going to be important. college completion rates have been garnering a lot of attention. i am curious if you have had a chance to tackle it. >> we are working on it. as there is less money coming in an door we require additional contributions by students or parents.
loandea that the student program in the united states is designed to make money, 48 ilion dollars a year, does not make sense at the time when we are talking about how much debt students are carried. 48 ilion dollars in profits in my opinion is hard to -- 48 d dollars inlion profits is hard to justify. up,thing as tuition goes of a very high percentage our in-state students are getting some degree of aid and they are getting real value is extremely important, and making sure we
are offering the right course work that is going to give a young person the skills of a slightly older person. trip, and i a road go to a community college in infield, connecticut. they had been offering an education program for 12 years to 100% placement rate. we have 12 community colleges. it makes no sense in a state int is number two per capita and construction. high-valueof it is added as opposed to lower value
added. we were not reshaping our schools to produce the human capital. >> did you find out why not? >> yes, it was outside the box. that at community colleges. that model is being used to rebuild the high schools, which the state runs. yes, we are changing. >> thank you, i really appreciate it. i want to thank you for all the school safety measures. rick alluded to secretary duncan's piece. governmenteral become irrelevant to the work you are doing, or is there a
role the federal government can play that complements your role? theomplements the role state and local government can play? >> even if you don't get one of it is a learning changence and is driving in school district after school district. relevantuncan is very in driving the conversation. schools are run at the local level. few schools,s a technical schools, but they really run at a local level. who is going to lead the discussion? who is going to hold a mirror to people's face and say, are you really as successful as you
think you are, and can you refer to yourself as successful if you properly 40%cate of your children? someone has to ask the question. career.long political i was not a supporter of no child left behind as it was originally drafted. to give bush and kennedy some credit. they finally held up the mirror and said, look at these results. how can you continue to have the way you are supplying this government service? help leadshington can discussions. this was one area where i think they had an impact of late.
>> when you were working on the 2012 legislation you went out across the state and really took it on the chin time and time again and had to work with the reluctant legislature and again in 2013. when you talk about using your office to pull along the constituents to a final resolution? >> i got to do this. inheriting a state with the largest per capita deficit representing 17% of total revenue, and i had to go in a different direction. actually realizing our gap was too big to cut our way out of it. i went on the road and got heat up. someone had to go on -- got beat up. someone had to go on the road. mad atere a lot of evil
me. a lot of folks spending a lot of money to try to defeat the organized effort at school reform, even though they supported certain aspect of it. they might carve out a corner they like, but it was a total picture. someone has to have the discussion. someone has to bring the discussion to the community. demonstrate you mean business. we want to work with them, but we need to change direction. -- failing to properly educate the kids. those are some of the largest school district. you cannot succeed when you are doing that. when you look at connecticut demographically as one of the more rapidly aging states, you are throwing away your opportunities. someone had to say that. i felt that was my job as
governor. the lieutenant governor was by my side during those times. someone had to make it ok to get the job done, and i was happy to do it. i had to do a third time of gun safety post sandy hook. the proposals were languishing, and i stepped forward and outlined what i thought was common sense legislation. at by a lot of gun someone has tot have the discussion. that is part of leadership. i would never shy away from it. >> when you talk to your colleagues seeking to push different legislative packages, are there particular takeaways from your experiences on safety, the education package that might
useful to folks in other contexts. >> i think some things are harder to do as a democrat, and some things are harder as a republican. education reform has been hard to do. that was the real test in connecticut. massachusetts was really getting into reform far earlier than we did. a test of different parties. i had to bring everybody along. my predecessors have been fairly inactive in the past. i had to fly in the face of what many would consider traditional constituencies, which also meant we have to bring those folks on.
do top-down. it is not going to work. it has got to be a combination of leadership, getting implementation going, and staying at it year after year. 12 would have gotten it passed, and some tried to undo the funding for the package in the last legislative session. i wouldn't let that happen. i would veto whatever it was attached to, and we would be back irking on a new budget. on a new budget. it is about leadership. it is about trying to do the hurtinging without other people's rights. the gigantics for the united states. not that there hadn't previously
been shootings in schools, but we hadn't seen a mass casualty situation where 20 children lost their lives and teachers and other professionals. interesting thing about connecticut, we have a state heroin and a state hero. they were both teachers. if you look at some of the finest and most courageous acts wasitted on december 14, it the principal and education professional who tried to stop thoseanza from killing children and other adults. teachers are good, hard-working people. they just need support. we need to get everyone pushing in the same direction. that is what i tried to do. i probably used the wrong
language more than once. it's not because i don't appreciate what teachers do. i grew up with a severe learning disability. i wouldn't be here today but for the intervention of educators, and motor dyslexia control difficulties is why i am here today. i have this appreciation. i come from a family of teachers as well. when things are not working, and they work for black kids and brown kids and poor kids in our you have tom, then change direction. it's not about opportunity. it's not about saying if all the for the kids than you have done your job, it is not about that. it's about holding ourselves to higher standards where we measure ourselves by successes
as opposed to our desires. so much for joining us today. next think you. -- >> thank you. [applause] up, the administrator gina mccarthy talks about with china on climate control issues, and then discussing u.s. trade policy. then he lay next egg and on the workings of the court and justice clarence thomas on adjusting to -- then elena kagan on the workings of the court and justice and clarence thomas on adjusting to the supreme court. we talk about the deal with iran on the nuclear program.
that is discussed along with the volcker rule. washington journal, every morning at 7 a.m. eastern. >> we look at the u.s. response to typhoon haiyan in the philippines. >> if you are a middle or high video student, c-span competition wants to know what is the most important issue congress should address next year. make a video and be sure to include c-span programming for the $5,000 to win grand prize with $100,000 in general prices. >> saturday with the deadline set by the administration to fix the healthcare.gov website. at a press briefing the spokesman took questions about
the site. you can see the briefing on c- span.org. here is a look. >> there were reports over the weekend on this that this of the website. basically, they said the problems are over but there are other problems. thethey comfortable with level they have been operating at. >> the president to leave the site has been significantly believes the site has been significantly improved. the teams have worked for weeks now to make those improvements, including significant improvements over the weekend, but a work is not done. said for some time, there have been issues we need to address and will continue to do that. with the improvements made over
the weekend, we believe the website is and will function effectively for the vast majority of users, and each day we will continue to take steps to make further improvements to is enhanced for users every day. >> teachers are saying there is a problem on the back end where , --s are able to and role for folks able to enroll the information they are getting is unusable. can the administration and sure people who have been able to enroll that they will have coverage beginning on january 1? asked thatd you have question. there are a couple of things i want to say. first we bear in mind that consumers who want coverage starting in january are able to get it. we are reaching out directly to consumers who have already selected a plan to pay their first ring me him and ensure
coverage kicks in and to know they are working hard to make sure their customers are covered as well, so there is a joint effort to reach out to those who sure theyled to make take the necessary steps to make sure that kicks in. furthermore they are having daily conversations with issuers to give -- to get feedback. we have implemented a number of thes to these forms, vehicle by which information is transmitted to issuers, and we believe the majority of fixes included significant ones made over the weekend. we expected to be vastly improved, but we are going to continue to work with issuers to make sure whatever remaining problems are addressed and fixed
. >> you can ensure folks they will definitely have coverage beginning on january 1? >> what i would say is cmf is reaching out to those who have enrolled to make sure they know to steps they need to take make sure coverage kicks in. if they make the first raiment on the date set by the insurer, they are covered beginning january 1. if consumers are not sure if they are enrolled, they should call our call center to make sure they are covered by january . this is high priority making sure those who are enrolled are aware of the steps they need to take, including paying the premiums on time. who areaking sure those enrolled know this information, and we are telling consumers if they are not sure they are
enrolled, they should call the call center or their insurer directly. >> the environmental protection coordinator spoke about climate change. and how the u.s. and china are working together on this issue. this is an hour. >> good morning, everyone. i am the president of the center for progress. i would like to welcome gina .ccarthy we are honored and thrilled to have the administrator here to speak about this important effort ahead of her trip to china next week.
we recognize cooperation is critical to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, carbon pollution for our country and the world. we are particularly excited to have her here. this is the first time administrator mccarthy has spoken here at cap, and we are excited to have her here. president obama released the climate action plan. we at cap applaud the effort and recognize its critical goals. it is critical for the u.s. and the world that we embark on this effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to prepare the united states for the impacts of climate change, and to lead this international effort to combat climate change. we believe these efforts will ensure the u.s. grows economically, will create jobs, and will also meet the important challenge of reducing -- reduction in greenhouse gas
admissions by 17% by 2020. we hope this event today highlights the importance of china as a key partner. combating global climate change is not something that the u.s. should tackle on its own. that is why we are excited about this u.s.-china engagement. we have been able to see firsthand that the epa is doing amazing work there on environmental production and climate change. many americans do not recognize the critical role that is already playing. everyone in china faces pollution challenges. the newspapers have shown the challenges that that country is facing. challenges we faced in the past and have taken on, and it is critical that china does as well. but the headlines do not always reveal, as the epa has workers
working in the nation, working with chinese ngos, to advance the challenge. i believe these efforts will come more to light as we begin the trip. it is my honor to welcome administrator mccarthy. she has led an impressive career in service, holding numerous positions in government, previously the administrator for the epa office of pollution. she has also served as a deputy secretary for the massachusetts office of commonwealth development and undersecretary of environmental affairs. there could not be anyone better to take on this critical mission. afterwards there will be a q&a with carol browner, a distinguished fellow, and who also held the same position in the clinton administration. we look forward to those remarks. [applause] >> good morning, everyone. it is great to be here.
thank you for the introduction. also, thank you to my friend carol browner for taking care of the easy things and leaving me with a more complicated work. thank you for your years of service. you do tremendous work at epa. first, i want to congratulate everyone at cap. i understand you are 10 years old. congratulations on the anniversary. it is an incredible achievement to be the place where the best minds come to work and look at opportunities or how we can get together and take action on opportunities to strengthen our country. it is great to be here. i cannot thank all of you enough
for the work you are doing on issues like climate change that go to the heart of asking ourselves the question of what kind of a country, and what kind of a world, do we want to leave to our children and grandchildren? these are big issues, and i am glad to be here to talk about them. certainly, i want to get to the answers and to some discussions with carol. let me keep my remarks brief. i have dedicated my life to protecting the environment. i see no greater issue and no greater urgency to public health and climate change. climate change is not just a public health and safety issue. i consider it to be one of the greatest economic challenges of our time as well, which is why i am really looking forward to the trip, and why i was very excited in the summer when president obama spoke so eloquently and so comprehensively about the urgency to act on climate change, when he spoke at georgetown university. it was a speech that i had been hoping for, a president for many years, and i was so proud that it was our president.
he showed enormous courage and enormous strength, as well as, he challenged us all to not just acknowledge the science of climate change, to understand that it is real and happening, but to also charge the cabinet to take immediate action. call me biased, but i believe it was his best speeches so far, although he is not done yet, i'm quite sure. he walked through his climate action plan as well, which outlined some common sense, pragmatic steps that the epa and other agencies across the administration are now taking to cut carbon pollution, invest in clean energy, to help our cities and towns build in more resilient ways so that they can add depth to a changing climate and keep our communities safe, but also to prepare to be a broader and more vocal leader on the issue of climate change in international discussions. as you know, in september, epa proposed urban pollution standards for new power plants using our authority that congress gave us under the clean
air act. those power plant labor relations regulations are proposals that would impact new facilities being constructed. this would ensure any new facilities from this point forward would use modern technologies that are available to reduce carbon pollution. epa will also next june be proposing new standards that will also provide significant
flexibility to the state that will effectively protect public health from carbon pollution from the existing power plants. that will be an opportunity to reduce the current levels of carbon pollution emitted by power plants and put us on a path for domestic energy, clean energy generation, and innovation. throughout the process of both looking at those new power plants, and most importantly, at the existing plants, we have conducted what i think is the most vigorous outreach and most comprehensive outreach program that you can imagine, well in advance of putting any pen and paper down in terms of a proposal, which is not due until next june. we held 11 public listening sessions, have been meeting with anyone who wants to talk about this. i welcome continued dialogue, which you can send into the epa.
the most important thing, we got 3,000 people who came to us, speaking their mind, and also speaking from their heart. it was a great experience for them and from the great folks at epa, who worked tirelessly on this issue and got to see firsthand and relish in the democratic process, listening to people. i want to thank the folks at epa each day. let's move on to what is next. we are going to continue to take the lead in implementing the president climate action plan. we have authority to do it, we are charged with responsibility to do it, and we will meet that challenge to address the action item in the report and the plan, as well as continue to engage our international partners. it is all about reducing carbon pollution, adapting to a changing climate, and it is all about the united states playing
a leadership role in international discussion. climate change is a global issue, we need global action. we will do our part and launch further discussions. i am really excited to be going back to china. the u.s. and china represent the world's largest economies, the world largest energy consumers, and the world's largest emitters of carbon pollution. i would rather not be the largest energy consumer or the largest emitter of carbon pollution, but since we are, we are going to get together and talk. we know there is economic competition between the two nations. that is healthy. but we do share the same climate and the same level of concern about a changing climate. i think we are well positioned to begin work together in a more concerted effort to move forward, to build on what i think of as 30 years of significant cooperation and partnership between our countries already. let me highlight the fact that one of the opportunities when i
go to china is to build on the fact that epa and the ministry of environmental protection in china have had a deep and strong relationship. they know they are facing significant air quality challenges. they have known that for some time. we know that as well. for the past 15 years, we have been working with them in depth on working to address their air quality challenges. it is now very clear to china and the u.s. that action must happen, and it must happen quickly in china. this is not just about china. it is also about air quality in the united states and other countries. we know pollution is emanating from china and heading into our west coast. we know mercury emitted in china goes up into the atmosphere and is redeposited in our rivers and streams, where we rely on food and recreate.
we also know public outcry in the 1960s and 1950s led to significant change in the united states. we know that it led to significant laws being enacted. we know that it led to a significant increase in the infrastructure in government from local to state to national levels that allowed us to address that public outcry, and to deliver significant protections through the great works of many administrators before me, including carol browner. china also is facing significant
public outcry. they have significant challenges that they need to address. but the good news is, we have been there before. the u.s. has faced these challenges. we have faced them well. we have faced them over time. we know the technologies are available. we know what planning can do. we know there are many ways, if you chew can engage your states, and in china's case, provinces, to bring a state of urgency to this issue. we will be working with them to work on these air quality challenges, moving forward. they have established some very ambitious goals. not only for air quality, but also for climate. we believe they can learn from the lessons of the united states and to leapfrog and look at ways to address their air quality challenges, which are of paramount importance to them now, and do it in a way that they can continue to build a clean energy economy. they do not have to think
singularly about air pollution and climate. they can rather think about those issues together and develop plans that will accomplish both. our goal in making this trip to china is to continue to support them in their meeting their air pollution challenges. we have established, strong working relationships. we have established access already on the ground looking at technologies. we are going to be meeting not only with the mep, but also with the folks in china who deal with climate change. we are going to try to bridge that gap. just as we are a bureaucracy, they have theirs. i really want them to learn our lesson and to think about how they can address both challenges apprehensively and creatively, in a way that continues to build a clean energy economy. not just for them, but working in concert with the u.s. and rest of the world. there are good things that we
can do together and i remain very old. i will end by saying one of the reasons i am so hopeful is because i know what we have been able to accomplish in the united states. >> i know the types of technology that u.s. companies produce, that i am going to be looking at in china, but they are now using to monitor air quality in beijing, to give people in beijing real-time information about their air quality. that is success moving forward. that is success for the u.s. and eight a link block for china that will get them moving forward in leaps and bounds, which is frankly what needs to be done quickly. . do remain hopeful i know that in the united states for every dollar we have invested in the clean air act we have recouped for $28 in economic