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tv   Tuskegee Airmen  CSPAN  January 3, 2015 2:48pm-3:34pm EST

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fords, how do we help them do their thing by helping with regulation conversations. how do we help with jobs? we need all americans included. one of my favorite things is is the work we are doing with the nsc. we need americans -- why are americans not being trained for supply and demand? not only for the benefit of our country and companies but all the opportunities. these are fun jobs. their collaborative and engaging and incredibly high paid. we need more people in them. there has been a fabulous innovation in boot camps coding classes. how do we get them into our community colleges and help with people who are in companies were not making the jump to the next wave and make sure they have the
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leadership and talent. if it is in computer science the new kinds of languages and technologies, cloud-based things they might need to love too. the policy side of that, whether it is making sure that trend -- to bring all americans into that. >> training for the jobs of the future. presidential candidates have been talking about that for 20 years. >> people are seeing 80% to 90% pickup -- >> general assembly, think that that? >> things like that. the end a. they're not millions of people that there are beginning to be hundreds. it is like taking a semester long class. in some
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cases it is people upgrading the skills into a more modern set of product. i was just with the cofounder of square. they place 1000 people in miami into new jobs. he created meet up. people came twice a week and did online courses together. they had communities and were placed into jobs. >> there is some minor backlash. for example, they want said that everyone ought to be able to repair car engines. but they are not going to be critically well-paying jobs. basic coding is like knowing how to repair car engine. what do you make of that argument? >> you begin somewhere. in the beginning of computers
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we did not have these degrees. we just started. a lot of young people, if they get hold of the pewter, they begin that way. an apprentice model can work very well. helping our schools have more opportunities for young people to have experiences. we are happy to teach people reading and writing. you start with basic abc's until you write short term paper in high school. in the stem fields, we have canceled a loss of the classes in our schools. lots of facts and math but not in context. you do not have art, home mac shop, we can have the specialty classes, can we adopt more active learning and science of it is more discovery-based? i was lucky that science fair was mandatory in my high school
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in inner-city buffalo. yesterday, we had the incredible middle school winners from the competition. the ability to practice and experience it, if you ask any technical person, they can drop back to that moment. it is the moment where they realize that science and technology is not to mount everest but it begins with a few steps. the only is it fun and interesting and you do not know the answers, he get the confidence that you can do it. it is important whether it is with our kids or any americans. these are lucrative important fun, interesting sectors of our economy and they are not all programming. some of it is marketing and user design. they are growing sectors. federalist faculty member at berkeley did some -- a fabulous faculty member at berkeley did
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some research. high growth cities like austan and boston, they are generating five more jobs on average. two white collars and five blue-collars. carpenter, doctors, they are better paid. we need to tax money. -- attract money. we need people to be literate in this field. in vietnam, you learn from second grade. that is happening in china and the u.k. is living there. coding, a friend of mine said that second graders and third-graders have learned to read and it is the perfect time to learn to code. they can learn instructions in any way. >> are you going to make that happen? >> people are working on that
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across the country. the best leadership is coming out of a group called code.org. i encourage everyone. if you do not know who ada lovelace is, read that new book. all americans are encouraged to do an hour of code. take one hour this year and go to code.org and do some of the activities and it will start to demystify this. it is an important skill. it is a 21st century skill to be able to make as much is right. >> you were a woman in technology before the conversation about why they're are not more women in technology. there were probably more when you started than there are now.
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i wonder, with the think things are getting better? is the public discourse around it more effective? >> i think none of us crated these problems. in general, dissemination, unconscious bias, we do not create them. as they become part of our consciousness, we need to fix them. i think the tech industry is at that moment where it is starting to wake up. engineering, most fields have a continuous increase of women getting much more balanced but computer science goes off a cliff in the 80's and dropped from 40% to 15%, 20%. there is a fabulous npr piece that goes into researching that that people should look at. we culturally decided as the personal computer came and that it was for the boys. you even talk to some of the women who are in computer science who had to get the key from their brother to get into
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his rim to be able to go and use the family computer that was basically his. but shall he park -- bletchley park was almost half women. they saved half a million lives using code during world war ii. when people go to visit, it is 25 21 boy visitors over girl visitors. it turns out the duchess of cambridge's grandmother was a code cracker. we need the u.k. parents and two u.s. parents opt girls in. the sooner we can get this into classes, elementary school, middle school, high school mandatory, the more kids
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can realize they can all do this and are capable. >> thank you for taking the time. >> it was great to be here. >> our final portion of the washington ideas form teachers female executives from the world of sports. lisa kennedy is the pfister of nascar -- this is about 20 minutes. >> hello. >> this is a real treat for me. more interesting than what i do day-to-day on the white house briefing room.
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the side of this miss and community development side of sports. but first, i have got to start with women and sports. rita, come by and tell us what it is like to be a boss of the 350 pound office of -- offensive lineman. >> i'm older now. i'm in a family business. when i started, a lot of people who worked for us now, i was a kid. i was eight years old when i grandfather bought the team. some of them know me as a child but for the players are younger than me. i think of them more as a cousin relationship. they are big eyes and larger-than-life. they have big carts and they do a lot in the community. i am very blessed to be around all these guys. >> you have a different approach.
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dan schneider, jerry jones, what is your -- jerry jones you see him out there in the owner's box living and breathing every play as micromanaging the team. >> the beauty of all the leagues is that they are combination of all the teams and particularly the team owners and their personalities. i most affectionate with the nfl because i have been with them the longest. jerry was ensure mental in pushing the league in marketing level. i've to the structure but -- ipc the structure but we can adapt to what herour fans want. people see the competition and jerry is competitive. he cares about picking the
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players. for me and my family, i feel that it is the general manager's decisions. the collaboration thatthe collaboration that happens on the league level is so important. it is the strength of the league . we discuss it, we argue, we fight for our beliefs, and yet we all know we are moving forward in the same direction. >> nascar, one of the fastest-growing sports we think of it as a male-dominated area. how important women are is the bottom line of nascar. >> sometimes it is thought of as a traditionally male-dominated sport. i started in the 80's with
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nascar, it was a family business. i have seen genetic changes not just on the track. everyone has seen anna kilpatrick. she has given nascar a whole different face. there are up-and-coming stars that are female, making a positive impact. it is not just on the track we are more familiar with, it is what is going on behind the scenes, what is going on in the board room. nascar officials are out on the road and really participating in hands-on sports. dramatic changes. we have a very strong female fan base. you >> it was a great year in
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front of ratings and for the bottom line. certainly on the public relations front. are we looking for leadership in the nfl? >> if there are more women involved in the conversation than that strengthens every conversation. i think it is important we have a rule we can mentor and still love others. because everything is so focused on the men that play the game the usual people don't understand there are a lot of women on the sub level where you are having the face-to-face interaction with our fans and players and community. i appreciate those feminine traits. you can't go through katrina and turn a negative into a positive. this is an important time to discuss social issues. women tend to be more collaborative and share more.
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embracing tough issues but keeping them within the family and dealing with those issues and improving society as a whole, i think we will see more women involved. >> obviously in the sports and entertainment. how important is that role model function for kids? not just kids but look up to your players and drivers and see them more than just some of it competing on any given day. >> i would like to go back to what we are all about. you it a full day of activities. not just for the mayoral -- the mail but the female fan and family sports. you are trying to provide greater value all day long.
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i think when we have women on the business side of it we can discuss what is important to the fan from our perspective and what is going to bring that family in and attract that family and spend all day with you. just touch on the youth programs it is also the pelicans. one of the things we are very proud of is it used to be they are most interested in the player. when i had the super bowl -- it was amazing how kids came up to me. i can say --
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i can be a part of the overall business and the plan of that. it just takes speaking to them and talking and having an interest. it is amazing they can idolize those players and may aspire to be athletes. the vast percentage of us are not going to be an elite athlete. it is very important for us that these kids have fun but also have realistic expectations. she is an african american female from new orleans. >> we were talking earlier about how we can use our sport and business to deal -- business to educate.
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we have programs. we had a chance to talk about it earlier. it was fun for each other. >> in nascar they use the car and in the king center we use the football example. it is the technology in that and the leap and showing what the players can do. sports is such a unifying element. clearly we all watch it. it is expanding your program so the touch comes home. because you are focused on the
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game sometimes it is a masculine thing in terms of competition and winning. whereas females and feminine traits tend to be more collaborative. >> but you want to win. >> i want to win. there are a lot of people who win and you have to be happy with the experience. is>> what is the balance? >> it is really more sports. we have the opportunity to expand on our facilities. daytona, we are putting $400 million into renovating the facilities. we are not just thinking about raising anymore but whether -- what other events could be great business for the fans and drive economic impact for our
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community? we had such a positive reaction. the plans are so exciting and we will be able to open up the concert. all kinds of charitable event's. we will continue to expand even more with operations. >> you start the kansas speedway. this is something that required a lot of public funding upfront and i imagine there may have been some questions about that. is what is the -- what is the economic impact of a region that is depressed? >> we learned we had a great partner with the state of kansas we got together and figured out there was a blighted area. it was going rapidly backwards.
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there was nothing there whatsoever. after we have built the race track and all of the developments that sprung up around it we now have a casino we are getting ready to go to a hotel. there is a whole village area right around the race track. 12 million visitors come to a place where nobody visited before. we went from $265,000 annually to $65 million in taxes today. not just for nascar and our business but for what the community has done, how they have embraced this. it is a story of how you can be successful. >> there are some commonalities.
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one of the most commonalities was katrina. we watched as katrina hit years ago. what was the state of your team come of your stadium? how to chew lead that come back? >> it was insanely traumatic. even though i am not watching it i can still hear it and i will choke up. it was very emotional. i was canceled that i was counseled you would have increased instances -- they never have collectively dumb that. a everyone was dramatically pulled through their homes. you couldn't talk about -- you knew what you hoped to do and accomplished.
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you could only to what was possible. one of the things we were very fortunate is our governor has a vision that the superdome has become a symbol of destruction and pain. if we put that together, that it would be a testament to what our community could accomplish together. we had a promise and commitment of a lot of people. we had investment from the nfl owners. it was a constant process. i know it is long-winded but it is so much time and effort. our community succeeded when the cames -- when the game started. we had a lot of milestones as a community. pretty much everyone involved with that game says that was the most impactful experience they have had.
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that was the step to get it back on our feet and talk about what we can do. it was adjacent to the superdome about three years after katrina was emptied. rather than having a direct government subsidy, the state was going to invest $110 million building to collectively bring back state agencies together. instead of doing that we invested our dollars and they gave us a long-term lease agreement in that office space. that was an integral key to our long-term agreement. iswe attract a mercedes-benz to be the sponsor of our facility. those another milestone of
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authentication. emmett brings back to those discussions that the city was devastated, the superdome was the symbol that it had become. was there any said we should have moved for an entirely different location? for my bottom line didn't make sense? >> it was a very difficult media conversation to have daily. i was being asked by people, why are you back? you had to send messages to all the people you worked with. everyone of socioeconomic background was forced to leave or had to go away. we all need a financial commitment to go and be there. it was not easy. we had to have people.
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you had to set the schedule for the nfl. knowing people were there, we didn't have nielsen ratings. not just there will but they have employees as their customers. it was the one fact that they can say 72,000 people are planning to be there. we were a catalyst. we did everything we could to be ambassadors for our community. we are happy we are where we are. they didn't own the team at the time. we acquire the team in 2012 of july. there are some familiar faces in that room.
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both have a different evolutionary phase. we are consistently committed and determined to help support new orleans. it is a great cultural city. >> it is one of the great stories. looking forward to see what happens there. really a pleasure to talk to both of you. i hope to see you at a game. thank you very much. >> thank you so much. >> we have a party gift real quick. all of our drivers -- >> that is awesome. >> now you have to visit. thank you. >> the c-span cities to her takes book tv and american history tv on the road
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traveling to many cities. we are in austin, texas. , we are in the private suite of lyndon and lady bird johnson. this is not part of a tour that's offered to the public. this has never been open to the public. you are seeing it because of c-span's special access. vips come into the space just as they did in lyndon johnson stay. they are not open to our visitors on a daily basis. the remarkable thing about this space is it is a living reading artifact. it has not changed at all since president johnson died in january 1973. there is a document in the corner of this room signed by the then archivist of the united states and lady bird johnson
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telling predecessors and successors like myself that this room cannot change. >> just down the block is the colorado river. this is an important site in the city's history. waterloo consisted of a cluster of cabins that were occupied by four or five families, including the family of j carroll. i am standing at the spot where the herald cabin was. this is where he and the rest of the men got wind of this big buffalo herd. they jumped on their horses. congress avenue was just a muddy ravine that led to the north. the men galloped on their horses and rode into the mists of buffalo, firing and shouting.
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from there he went to the top of the hill where the capitalism told everybody that is should be the see -- the seat of the future empire. >> watch all our events throughout austin on book tv and that to eastern on c-span three -- and at 2:00 eastern on c-span3. >> we will see the swearing in of members and the election for house speaker. you can watch that live on c-span and the senate on c-span2. in 2006 c-span aired a documentary called the capital. we also took a tour of the house chamber to learn about some of the famous symbols in the room. >> there is cornucopia next to the clock, a traditional american symbol of abundance.
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there is stars. we always think of stars & stripes in america. all these little rods were bound together in ancient rome. little rock that individually could snap. it is the symbol of the roman republic, the republican government. those are there too. you raise your eyes up see this wonderful silhouette of the eagle with its wings spread. it is up in the sky and it is rather like a skylight. it is covered from behind, not open to the heavens. the thing i love most about it is the sense that it is
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spreading its wings over the day-to-day work of congress. for most of one of them is the american bald eagle. when congress is in session the mace is also there. i love seeing the mace. it is a bundle of ebony rods topped by a terrific silver globe with an equal standing on top of it. -- an eagle standing on top of it. >> i think traditions are important. he forget about the flavor of this place. every time i see the speaker of the british house of commons i accuse him because in 1814, when the british burned the capital down, they stole our mace.
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when this place got rowdy or people got out of hand or there was a white on the floor, you had to present the mace. -- a fight on the floor, you had to present the mace. it is the power of people getting together and getting things done. >> when the new congress begins tuesday the house will have the largest majority since the 1928 elections. there are 247 house republican members compared to 188 democrats. michael graham of new york says he will resign effective january 5 after pleading guilty to tax evasion. the senate will remain in ambient republican control with 54 republicans, 44 democrats and two independence. there will be 102 members who have been in the military. 81 will be in the house and 21 in the seventh.
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a total of 26 members will have served in the most recent wars in iraq and afghanistan, with 23 in the house and three in the senate. asthe event included a conversation with airmen from the to escape the -- from the tuskegee aviation unit. this is 45 minutes. >> good morning, ladies and gentlemen. my name is nicole cable, aspiring aviator. this morning i have the honor of introducing veterans of the first african american unit, the tuskegee airmen. we have the pleasure of hearing from jim pride, former radio operator of the tuskegee airmen. major anderson, former ground support serviceman of the tuskegee airmen.
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bill fauntroy, former pilot, cadet. and finally, steven mccoy. chairman of the speaker's bureau. please help me in welcoming these brave men of the tuskegee airmen. \[applause] >> good morning, everyone. how are we this morning? excellent. excellent. first i'd like to thank the wonderful production the general gave us and give her a round of applause again. thank you. i'd also like to thank cadet cable for her wonderful introduction of us. the tuskegee airmen seated here and i will like to welcome you
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to this panel discussion about the history and legacy of the tuskegee airmen. we wish to thank the american veteran center for allowing us to speak this morning in this wonderful venue. we wish to express our special thanks to our contact within the american veterans center, wes smith. please feel free to chat with our donors at the completion of our panel this morning. i'd like to start off with a brief introduction. seated before you you have ivan ware, bill fauntroy and major anderson. this morning, they are here to represent the 16 to 19,000 men and women who are part of the tuskegee airmen story. during world war ii, it is often referred to as the tuskegee experience. this morning, i'd like to start with the definition of a tuskegee airman. a tuskegee airman is any person,
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man or woman, military or civilian, black or white, who served at tuskegee army airfield or at any of the other locations that supported programs stemming from the tuskegee experience between 1941 through 1949. all these individuals are considered tuskegee airmen. the tuskegee experience that we will be discussing was a unique and important development in race relations in the history of our country for black citizens and the nation as a whole. it established, in 1941, through political and legal maneuverings, america's ability to be enlightened and to be challenged. to appreciate the significance of the tuskegee experience, it is necessary for it to be viewed through the content of the american racial climate and the timing that it was executed. the impetus of establishing a flying program for blacks began
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at the beginning of world war ii as a consequence of black discontent resulting from decades of maltreatment as second class citizens and specifically the denial of opportunities serve our country in the military in jobs other than service or labor. in the face of strong resistance from the military establishment and most officials in the war department, a relentless effort was carried on by a number of black organizations and a sympathetic white minority to persuade the government to accept blacks for military aviation training in the army air corps. after considerable debate on the subject, the government agreed to establish a program in which blacks would be trained in all aspects of military operation.
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morton field, tuskegee, alabama, was selected to conduct the flight training for pilots. the first class, designated 42-c, began with 13 trainees, 12 cadets and one military officer. their training started on july 19, 1941. up to 13 students that began that initial training, five graduated from the final training and received their wings. on march 7, 1942. the first five graduates were benjamin -- excuse me, captain benjamin o. davis jr., future commander of the 19th and 332nd fighter groups and first black air force general. second lieutenant lemieux curtis, second lieutenant charles debeaux, second lieutenant george s. roberts and second lieutenant mack ross. one of the key evolutions to
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getting to this point was in 1941, first lady eleanor roosevelt, at the urgings of her close friend and social activist moved to help expand the pilot training program at tuskegee alabama. in march of that year, eleanor roosevelt not only visited the tuskegee institute's field but incredibly and against the advice of her secret service detail, she asked the chief flight instructor, charles a. chief anderson, to take her on a flight. this single act of flying the first lady for more than an hour had great symbolic value to the advocates of black military aviation. it brought a visibility to tuskegee's pilot training program. this, in turn, helped open the
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door for the deployment of black military aviation units to the european theater. unfortunately, they still were in segregated units. in a total, there were 2,483 pilot trainee that is entered training in tuskegee, alabama, of which 992 graduated, earning their wings as pilots, from 1942 through 1946. there were 352 pilots that deployed to the european theater of operations. they flew the p-39, p-40, p-47 and finally the p-51 mustang with the 99th and 332nd fighter groups. the technical training of the ground crews was connected at chanute army airfield in illinois. at chanute, the enlisted personnel were quartered together in world war i era
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barracks separated from the main base. a portion of the barracks was divided to provide a separate space for the trainees to eat, sleep and study. at the onset, the tuskegee army airfield was under the direction of a white command staff and flight instructors. after a couple of false starts the army air corps made an excellent selection of a base commander in the person of colonel, later brigadier general noel f. parish. colonel parish applied his broad knowledge and understanding of racial problems and concerns during his command of the base. he devoted his heart and soul to providing a fair opportunity for military aviation in the cadet trainees.
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colonel parish's job was extremely difficult. he had to comply with the war department's regulations requiring segregation. he also had to maintain some level of segregation on the twice keep the base's white complement contented, as well as the racially intolerant population of alabama that surrounded the base. meanwhile, along with the racial pressures, the cadets of tuskegee were subjected to the standard rigid military training and discipline similar to that experienced by cadets at military academies. the mental and physical stresses that were prevalent throughout the air corps was specifically designed to test each cadet's respect for authority, commitment to the duty, and honor. it also prepared them for the rigors that they would experience later in their
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military careers while in combat. over the period of a year, colonel parish was able to remove the first doubts about black performance in the air corps. it was a resounding success. blacks could be taught, trained to fly, fight and maintain aircraft to the same standards that the air corps was applying to all of its aviation units. that moved on to their combat record. the airmen's combat achievements included the instruction of enemy aircraft, ammunition depots as well as the destruction of one destroyer by machine-gun fire. the outstanding performance of the ground crews, armorers ordnance and other technician as
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well as the administration staff was critical to the success of these pilots in combat. to give you an idea how effective they were, while operating with the 12th air force, they flew 6,381 combat sorties. from june 1943 through may 1944, they flew 9,152 combat sorties in support of the 15th air force from june 1944 through may 1945. they flew 179 escort missions or bomber escort. the key to remember with this is during that era, the loss of a single bomber was 10 men lost. the united states at that time could put together aircraft quickly. the loss of highly trained individuals to man those aircraft and to operate those aircraft in combat was a real loss and the tuskegee airmen

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