tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN January 23, 2015 8:00pm-10:01pm EST
candidates rick perry, scott walker, chris christie, mike huckabee, donald trump, and sarah palin. the iowa freedom summit this saturday on c-span, c-span radio, and c-span.org. next, secretary of state john kerry and french president talk about the world economic forum. then, former ambassador arc ginsburg. secretary of state john kerry told leaders at the world economic forum that there has to be a long-term amendment defining against care groups and the global community cannot shy away from extremist attacks. he outlines ways nations can contribute to the local fight anti-played tribute -- pay tribute to king abdulla died on thursday.
we spoke about the peace dividend. there was a lot of optimism. the world was at the don of a new era -- dawn of a new era and the end of the cold war. now, we meet again and it looks like we are at the start of a world with many geopolitical issues. the last session has shown us the foremost issues we have to confront. so mr. secretary, you were here last year and if i just take one year, when you came last time, ukraine was just beginning.
now, in a warlike situation. of course, the united states plays a very crucial role as the world's most -- foremost power. ladies and gentlemen, we are particularly pleased to have the secretary of state john kerry this evening with us to enlighten us how he sees the world situation. mr. secretary. [applause] >> good afternoon, everybody.
klaus, thank you very, very much. thank you for your extraordinary leadership here for so many years. i have enjoyed taking part in coming here for a great one-stop shop and i thank you for this institution. before i begin i want to take a moment to say how i think all of us were saddened to hear the news that king abdulla of saudi arabia had died. i am here today to talk about countering violent extremism and king abdullah had a long history of being a great partner with us and the world in his work not just in counterterrorism but of interfaith understanding. i remember as a young senator meeting with ken and listening to and ending encouraged by his commitment to putting together an interfaith conference and
efforts to bring people together to create better understanding. he saw that as a tool against extremism and recently through his very strong endorsements of the anti-coalition in jeddah which has been a key to building a broad coalition we have today. he has made a special contribution. i was privileged to spend many hours with the gang as if -- the king as the senator particularly over the last deed of years. i thought and a few months ago and he was not well but he had a great sense of humor amidst all of the crises. people of the kingdom of saudi arabia and we will miss his wisdom, partnership, and his friendship. i also listened carefully to the introduction by klaus and he
indicated to me privately in the room before we can out here that there is much on all of your minds. it is a moment of turmoil. a moment of a people. the world in transition -- a moment of upheaval. i, nevertheless remain very optimistic about the possibilities. i will share a few thoughts about that today. we have to understand what we are facing. six weeks ago, a 14-year-old nigerian girl was discovered in a crowded marketplace in ghana. she had explosives strapped to her body but unlike her companions, she had refused to pull the tab, saving herself and others. two weeks later, a teenaged boy approached a shiite mosque in baghdad and unbuttoning his
jacket, he told the guards come i am wearing a suicide vest but i do not want to blow myself up. last november, a young man defected from house about -- al-shabaab because a bunch of heavily armed, as he put it sociopathic militants promised him money and paradise. instead, he said he had no life, no family, no future. ladies and gentlemen those three examples represent just about the basic -- most basic choice there is between death and life, between destroying and building. it ought to be an easy choice. yet, in nigeria last month, a boko haram run video showed
facts shooting defenseless people on the ground with the narrator saying, from now on, killing, slaughtering, destruction and bombings will be our religious duty. on december 16, in pakistan authorities intercepted a radio message between a gunman and his boss. " we have killed all of the children in the auditorium. what do we do next? " the answer -- " wait for the army to arrive, kill them, then blow yourself up." a few weeks earlier, before pulling out of a town in somalia come al-shabaab there he do young woman up to her neck and they smashed her head with rocks. in syria and iraq, little girls are sworn into slavery.
everyday, i am asked by people what makes someone decide to do these things? what if someone decide to join a group like this? why would anyone leave their home, loved ones to fight such a collection of monsters? there are a lot of explanations. some say it is because of long-held cultural grievances, a sensitive persons greed is under attack -- creed is under attack or have been treated unjustly. many to the point of the inclination to see the world in black and white terms and they alone possess the truth. others are learned by basic material consideration, the promise of regular meals, a paycheck, the task to plunder and loot. then there are the monday and and personal choices to escape boredom, go where -- the m
undane and personal choices to escape order go where the action is. in many cases, it is almost certainly a combination of these inputs. but one thing is clear. if we are going to successfully combat violent extremism we. because cannot change minds without knowing what is in them. we have to do so mindful of the fact that understanding and acceptance are not the same. when i was in pakistan last week, and i had intended to go out to this cool to attribute to those kids and their families but we were unable to fly because of the weather pakistani officials showed me
time stamped photos of the sequence of the military schools assembly hall before and after the december 16 assault. at first, i looked and saw this picture of an auditorium of the schoolkids dressed in their uniforms, sitting there, attentive, their faces filled with the joy of listening and watching and minutes later, the scene changed horribly from a learning center to a killing chamber. there was blood everywhere, scattered textbooks, torn jackets, small lifeless bodies. on that day, the schools principal, having already been escorted to safety, returned to try and save her students. when she was challenged by the assassins, she pointed to the children saying, i am their mother. her last words.
so let me be clear -- there are no grounds of history, religion, ideology grievance psychology, politics, economic disadvantage, or personal ambition that will ever justify the murder of children, the kidnapping and rape of teenage girls, is water of unarmed civilians. none. no matter the input -- [applause]
this kind of atrocity cannot ever be really rationalized. these actions can never be excused and they have to be opposed with every fiber of our being, they have to be stopped. there are many international priorities that the net our attention. i never imagined a number of simultaneous crises we might be able to face, which we are able to manage it far more effectively. but we cannot shy away from this reality. the terror networks in some places are operating with near impunity. imminent danger in others and the threat everywhere. a few of these networks are attempting to govern land.
that is a first-time event in this transition for these terror groups. there are looking to expand. greatly adding to the risk of the so-called lone wolves and copycats. it seems that terrorists are now competing with each other for recruits and perpetrating evermore macabre crimes. and need i remind you the 20th century was defined by the civilized world's struggle to develop the role of law as an alternative to chaos, disorder and dictatorship. today, we are with -- to say nothing more than minimal -- criminal anarchy which a claims ideological and religious foundation. we are increasingly organizing and fighting back against this enemy. in doing so, we have to keep our
heads. the biggest air we could make would be to blame muslims -- error we can make it be to blame muslims. crime that the overwhelming majority of muslims oppose, crimes their faith utterly rejects. muslim leaders themselves have the greatest ability to address. religions do not require adherence to raise villages and blow up people. it is individuals with a distorted and an even ignorant interpretation of religion who would do that. embedded by networks of individuals have a different agenda and who incite and finance those actions. we will certainly not the feet are foes by vilifying -- defeat are foes by, unless we direct
our energies and the right direction. we may very well fueled the fires we want to put out. what should we do? the first step is to make clear that the civilized world will not cower in the face of this violence violent extremism has claimed lies at every corner of the globe we are each threatened regardless of faith, ethnicity, homeland or tried. there is no room or secretary of division, anti-semitism or islamaphobia, and no way forward but do demonstrate of a terrorists they strengthen our resolve. we must act as one. the place to begin is quite
simply by depleting -- defeating dash. there are better armed, better trained, better funded and they have been more able to hold off the territory than any other terrorist a group in history. they directly threaten the peace and stability not of one group in iraq but of every single country in the region. because they have further overtly threatened to take their threat around the globe and are working to do so. this is a threat to the entire structure that we have worked so hard to put in place since the end of world war ii. i threat the nation state as a threat to rule of law. freeing iraq from his ruthless occupiers is the critical, crucial first turning point. just four months ago dash was trumpeting plans to seize
baghdad. to many, they seemed unstoppable. some media reports frantically predicting that iraq might fall. dash was about to jog the entire middle east back into the dark ages. then, two things happened and not by accident. in iraq, the new government was assembled that is intent on reform. iraqis can together determined to move to a different future, determined during the confidence of their citizens. you just heard from prime minister abadi. second, we forged together an international coalition. 60 plus members strong with a mandate to the feet -- defeat da sh. we acted in partnership every step of the way with our arab
friends, european allies, and others from across the globe. since september, our coalition has pursued a carefully crafted comprehensive strategy to weaken dash on multiple fronts. we have launched 2000 air strikes, disrupted dashes command structure, undermined its propaganda, squeezed its financing, damaged supply networks, dispersed personnel forced them to change tactics. today in much of iraq, it is dissipated. with coalition support, iraqi forces have retaken most dams territory. and in syria dash has seen its oil infrastructure damaged and its siege of the bonnie blocked -- kobani blocked.
no unit can move aggressively without worrying what is coming down from these guys. progress continues in the political arena -- from these skies. reform efforts have been launched in the digest all -- in the judicial and other sectors. baghdad and the kurdish region have finally reached an agreement. the iraqi army is becoming more inclusive than professional. iraq is strengthening ties. yet another warning sign for dash. and we are. even while changes are taking place in iraq, they are not your reversible. there is much yet to be done.
even though we have slowed momentum and pushed it back in some areas, we are not satisfied. we are starting training in a matter of days that three additional sites and we are already changing -- training and it is making a difference. to succeed, the iraqi government must enhance and expedite its outreach to sunni communities. the coalition must remain united and the world must see dash for what it is. the area under its control are languishing. in many places, there are shortages of clean, low supplies of food and medicine. militants have seen their pay
slashed by 70%. fighters trying to do blood have been executed. children are forced to witness and participate in the torture of prisoners. teenagers have been crucified. all of which emphasizes the degree to which dash is guilty of shamelessly deceptive advertising. the advertising about his path to paradise like that promise by al qaeda, al-shabaab and similar groups is in fact a road to nowhere. but our challenge, the one i went to doc about today, is in fact bigger than just dash. i went to doc about it with this audience because all of you are opinion leaders and you need the help to make choices. in three weeks to come, we have to not only continue to move ahead with the to eliminate dash as a threat, but we also have to
drag in somalia, intensify our efforts to defend nigeria. and the strike at the tentacles of al qaeda and yemen. there is nowhere you can leave as an ungoverned space with this crowd. believe me, there is nothing to negotiate. these are the frontline battles i just listed. they require we not waver in our solidarity or courage, limiting the terrorists -- illuminating the terrorists only solves part of the problem. we have to do more. we have to transform the very environment from which these movements emerge. that is why we are committed to enlarging our strategy in ways
that respond respectively to the underlying qualities as well as the symptoms of pilot extremism. that is -- violent extremism. we have an approach that extends beyond the short-term and cannot be limited to the middle east. we need all of us to take these steps so that a decade or two in the future when the economic forum meets leaders are not standing up here responding to a new list of acronyms to the same concept but different layers -- players. we cannot have our successors, back to face the same questions. the terror groups may have as different acronyms in the future. a new targeting different countries but if we do not do what is required now, then i guarantee the fundamental conflict will stay the same or get worse. as my counterparts in the gulf states and north africa have told me over and over again in
anecdotes -- by the way, in south-central asia and elsewhere , they tell me that the terrorist leaders are planning for the long-term. they tell me about how they grabbed these young kids, pay them a little bit, get into their heads, then they do not have to pay them. then they become acolytes and they go out because they are brainwashing their very own. they are creating networks looks the ball enough to survive even after commanders are eliminated and operational senators. they see themselves as ready to fight to the death. let me tell you, in response, we need a commitment for the long-term. we have to take more risks. we have to invest more resources. we need a global partnership that legitimately implemented this broader strategy. that is why president obama is hosting a summit in washington
at the white house on the 18th of february in order to exchange ideas and galvanized the port -- galvanized support. there will be a military component to the strategy. the last to be ready to defend yourself and take the fight to those who give no quarter. as president obama emphasized last week, we must and we will work constantly to improve the counterterrorism capabilities of our local partners. ultimately, we have -- this spike will not be decided on the battlefield. the outcome will be determined in classrooms, workplaces, houses of worship, community centers, urban street corners in the perceptions and thoughts of individuals, and the ways in which those perceptions are
created. it'll be determined by our success in creating prosperity that is widely shared. measures of growing gdp will only matter if they translated the greater opportunity for those currently denied a fair chance. just go back and look at the story about a fruit vendor who started what happened indonesia when he got slapped around by the police and rebelled against corruption and felt he had nowhere to go. this future will be determined by accountable and accessible political and justice systems. so people everywhere so they can be protected by the government not fear it and they can express themselves and have their voices heard. in short, we have to do a better job of creating alternatives to violent extremism. alternatives credible and visible and empowering and
broadly available as we can make them. start with basic issue of governance. obviously, not the most exciting topic. no one will spend millions of dollars to make the movie about the delivery of social services or tax policy or judicial reform and the effectiveness of parliament. excited or not, we have learned the hard way that ungoverned or barely governed spaces on the world map are an open door to chaos and disorder that breeds terrorism will stop chaos in afghanistan created an opening for the telegraph, which divided a home to al qaeda. in somalia, energy provided a vacuum that aisles about try to fill. in nigeria, boko haram. in syria, dash -- would would not
exist if the president was respected instead of reviled. if he was not attracting terrorists for the purpose of his removal. an essential african republic government was do we could prevent violence between christians and muslim games. in yemen governance has been challenged by an al qaeda affiliated terrorist organization that has launched attacks inside and outside the country by a secessionist movement in the south and most recently by a rebel group and the north that has now spread across the country and challenge the sovereignty of the entire state. to understand better how this vicious cycle is perpetuated let me offer an illustration. a few weeks ago, one of my assistant secretaries shared with me a conversation that he had with members of a minority
group in a country that has been hard hit by terror. the diplomat asked their opinion of the extremist and they all expressed disgust. they all wanted them gone. when asked whether they reported terrorist accreted to the police, everyone said no because they were afraid the terrorist would bribe his way out of prison and come back and kill them. they worried they would be arrested and also forced to pay bribes. for them silence seemed the only choice. for us, it should be obvious. that circle of paralysis is destructive and dangerous. the hard truth is, too many people in too many places see themselves as trapped in a world where as little my assistant secretary, " the terrorist bullies, the police rob s, the government ignores us, and the
west does not see us or wants to kill us. " whether or not these perceptions are accurate, they exist and that is a challenge for all of us. despite the huge investments that we have made in fighting terrorism militarily and through law enforcement, we need to do more to prevent the list of embattled countries and growing. we should begin by identifying the zones of greatest vulnerability, the places have that yet not descended into chaos. these may be near current hotspots the area around lake chad come in certain parts of the greater middle east --there are plenty of places to identify. we need to tailor our efforts to
meet the needs we have identified. for example, minority groups and being taught in their own language. prevent radicalization inside prisons. encourage police to treat people fairly. address the feelings of alienation and exclusion. give them the scope of the challenge a few modest programs here and there will not get the job done by themselves. frankly, government resources alone will not the enough. -- be enough. we know that massive private funding goes to the extremist groups. one of our significant lines of effort, we have about nine major lines of effort that we are working on in our coalition strategy. one of them is a stopping the financing. what is stopping foreign fighters.
one is the military effort, the other is humanitarian. one is to do the work of countering these extremist groups in listing -- enlisting people around the world to come together. dash is an order of satan. that is what we need to work at. we need to put resources into helping to build the enterprises that can counter these extremists. using money at the same mechanisms that we used to deal now with global challenges like disease and famine, ebola, aids, poverty, we need to throw more to the fight against violent extremism and the organizations leading this effort. the bottom line is we need everyone involved.
governments, foundations philanthropists, corporations, faith leaders, private sectors. that is what we'll talk abou on t and the white house on february 18. through selective -- collective security we will bring the stability that allows our economies to grow and flourish. that allows innovation to take place in education to take place. what we have to do is recognize we have to bring this together into a holistic strategy and it depends on all of us stepping up to deal with it. no one is divorced from this. let me tell you historically, this is important. when we have believed we needed to do something, we found the money.
we found the result, and they think happened. almost -- made things happen. i'm a 75 years ago, the united states and our allies made stopping fascism a priority. we found the $3.6 trillion to pay for it. in a decade since we went to war in iraq, we found the several trillion dollars to pay for it. imagine the difference it would have made incident -- instead of spending money on a word we do not have to fight, we spend it on a war we do have to. the central bank plans to purchase more than $1 trillion worth of private-sector bonds. they need to combat inflation and stagnation. they found the money. leader after leader and country after country has said that fighting the scourge of violent extremism is a global priority.
let's prove it. we have to get serious about investing in the things that really make a difference. make no mistake, if we do not make those investments today, we will pay far more for it on the road. as extremists assert their reign of terror wider, broader, more violently, remember the states i . the taliban attacked more than 1000 schools in recent years. denying people education -- is that the future? are we content to allow that to happen somewhere? does that make a difference to all of us or doesn't it? boko haram's principal tactics are to better teachers, kill boys and kidnap girls and all of the areas under its patrol. dash has shut down classrooms, entire societies have been disrupted. calais opportunities lost for young men and women deserve the
chance to pursue their dreams. just imagine what the threat will be at what life would be like if we do not choose what to do is required of us now. pakistan's malala says her most ardent wish is for the children of her attackers, boys and girls, to get a real education. one of the major sources of hope in afghanistan today is that millions of girls who once were denied schooling and 2001 when we went in, there are less than one million schools in afghanistan. none of them girls. today, there are more than 7 million. 45% of them are girls. still there exists a large and growing gap between the multiple of people entering the workforce and availability of jobs in key regions. already the global youth
unemployment is raised on a record level above all percent on average. much higher in developing land near failing states. some countries, including in europe as many as 60% of young people are both out of school and without regular jobs. each one of these men and women is a story that will end in frustration or opportunity. the outcome of the race between hope denied and hope fulfilled will be one of the most significant factors that will shape the world we live in. we need to do much more to the areas of vocational education, training and modern technology ensuring the workforce participation of women and minorities. no one can tell me people living on one dollar a day, they are not schools to be built hospitals to be developed and children to be educated.
there is an amazing amount of money to be made and work to be down in the doing of that enterprise. economists tell us a 50% cut in youth unemployment would increase global economic output by $3 trillion. it would sharply reduce the pressure on young people to pursue socially destructive options, including terrorism. it has now been more than 20 years since the first world trade center bombing. more than $.13 9/11. -- more than 13 years since 9/11. we have responded with determination and guts. thousands of military personnel and police from dozens of countries have made the ultimate sacrifice already in this confrontation.
intelligence and security officials work around the clock to keep us safe. the battle of ideas, president obama, the late king abdulla pope francis secretary-general ban ki-moon, many others have tried to point the way, working with international partners. we have already taken some important steps. we upgraded a global counterterrorism forum and established a fund on community engagement to develop local solutions. in our but i become a there is an international center for countering violent extremism. it is engaged in training a dialogue and research. there are many other initiatives. we have yet to fully ample met all of the tools available to us to win this battle. at the beginning of my remarks i mentioned two 14-year-olds,
children who what face to face with the starkest twice -- choice imaginable. they chose life. we they choices of our own everyday. we can continue along a road that we have been traveling or shift gears down to a path that will demand more from us politically, economically, and socially. we can sit back and assure ourselves that somehow, it may not touch us. you, wherever you are, the threat of violent extremism is somehow oakley containable. you can think that if you want. or we can go forward with a truly comprehensive and long-term strategy to destroy its very roots. in doing so, make life far better for far more people in far more places than we are prepared today. so making this choice, we might
reflect on the claim in recent years, especially due to events and the middle east, that the entire international system is somehow unraveling. my own view, my friends, is very different. of course, that in the course of my travels, i do not see unraveling. i see just the opposite. i see nations working together to negotiate new and far-reaching trade pacts, to bring an end to the ebola epidemic, defeated the threat posed by iran's nuclear program, to restore he's -- peace. to reach an ambitious, global agreement to address climate change with the recent agreement between china and the united states that begins to set the targets to try to make the paris negotiations this year a success.
with efforts to curb his drive that plagues the central african republic, columbia, and the democratic republic of congo and other places. icy countries sharing ideas about the post 2013 -- i see countries sharing ideas and daring to move beyond begins we have made already. we are making progress in reducing extreme poverty. we have learned a lot of tools that do not work. we are expanding process -- access to primary education fighting back against aids improving maternal health, aiding child nutrition, and growing the middle class in countries that have three history, never enjoyed even a glimmer of prosperity. while i have focused purposely today on the very real threats that violent extremism poses to us, the truth of the matter is we have faced even more significant threats in the past. we have prevailed.
statistics show that even though these increased ask of terror come in smaller percentage of people are dying violent deaths than at any point in modern history. but one of the principal reasons we are achieving this progress is because we had never been content to settle for the saddest quote -- status quo. we are who we are because we are builders. we are descendents of invaders and doers who survived slavery, plagues, global conflict depression, totalitarianism, and the holocaust. we are the inheritors of an activist tradition that is utterly unafraid of great challenges and in fact, is most effective when we are put to the test. now, it is our turn. the rise of violent extremism the talent of the nation, state and global rule of law.
it forces that contribute to it and the dangers that flowed from it compel us to prepare and plan, to unite, and insist that our collective future will be uncompromised by the primitive ideas of terrorists. instead, it will be built by the universal values of decency and civility and knowledge and reason and law. that is what we stand for, that is where we stand. and with the images of paris fresh in our hearts, no one should doubt that we are going to stand together. thank you all very, very much. [applause]
>> french president addressed the world economic forum, urging the international community to take all steps against terrorism. his remarks came weeks after terror attacks in paris and the unity march attended by world leaders. later this or, there is always an international meeting on climate change. this is about 40 minutes.
>> translator: it is a huge honor for me to welcome you to davos today. i would like, mr. president, to tell you just how deeply affected all parties had been here and the great solidarity they feel towards fred and this exceptionally difficult time following the tragedy in january in paris. like many, i was incredibly impressed by the exemplary response of the french people and the dignity. and further, by the accounts of solidarity and support that came from the entire world to france.
france, mr. president, is a unique country that is recognized throughout the world and creating the force as the number of your strategic counsel for attracting investment. i have been struck to the approach of combining the traditions with innovation and openness to the world. at a time where france is having to face many different economic challenges, europe needs a strong confidence in order to be able to find the power to grow. growth which needs to be open to
opportunities for all. one of the lessons of the judge today is that we can not forget the weakest and youngest. they can easily fall prey to those who seek to spread a discourse of hatred. finally, the world needs a france that will continue to defend a message of freedom and peace throughout the world as it has always done. and it is in this spirit that i am welcome to see france's active role in the international negotiations on climate with a major summit due in paris at the end of this year. we are proud to be able to contribute the best answer to the extremists is to build a
better world and not to sink into distress. ladies and gentlemen, it's a great honor for me to give the floor to the president of the french republic, mr. francois hollande. [applause] >> translator: ladies and gentlemen, allow me to thank professor schwab for inviting me to this forum. i would like to echo his words of condolence and the tribute he paid to the saudi people. i am grateful to professor schwab for having reminded us
all of the circumstances under which it is speaking today on behalf of my country. france has been struck by a terrorist attack. for three days, we've had to face with dignity, with unity, with effectiveness, the extreme challenges that was facing. it benefited from exceptional international solidarity with their heads in state government coming from around the world. particularly from europe, which fully understood what was at stake. because it is not just france which is affected, it is freedom, it is democracy, it is the ability to live together the very foundation of our
societies, which have found themselves under attack. and i need to say, in frankness and sincerity today, with all countries wherever they are in the world are vulnerable to terrorism. many have been gravely affected. many fear being heard. every country needs to prepare because our main duty is that of clarity, clear mindedness. we need to recognize the sources of terrorism. it has sources such as radical islam, murderous ideology of al qaeda, but around and all those who act in their name. terrorism has battlegrounds that
has means of operating which takes strength from iraq, syria, crisis in yemen. terrorism also has powerful means of action. it feels -- fuels itself from all kinds of illicit trafficking, drugs, human it draws from finance, money laundering, international crime. it uses all the technologies available, including those, if used properly, can promote prosperity to the exchange of information and ideas -- i'm talking about the internet -- which terrorism is using as a west end of manipulation, a
weapon of confusion. terrorism has links within their own societies. it recruits in our country is what we've come to call the foreign fighters. of the 40,000 terrorists that have been mobilized by isis, one quarter come from outside the middle east. so we need to find an answer. and when a country is headed as we found at the national level france has reacted and has taken appropriate measures. but there also needs to be a global, international response. it needs to be international and it needs to be shared. shared between the state to have to bear responsibility on the front lines, but also by business, particularly the
largest corporations who can also act. and then first of all the responsibility in particular france. we have to find solutions that conflict that has been going on for too long. syria, political transition has to be found. it is something we waited too long for. i'm thinking of iraq, where france is participating in a broad coalition to support those who are in the front line against the side of the terrorism of isis. africa on the ground will continue to be so more than ever. they will be present to help those countries who are having to deal with terrorism. there are situations in nigeria cameron, chad, who are attacked.
france cannot do everything. france cannot act alone. but whenever i can, it will. to lead by example. but the international community needs to provide answers as well. each time we let a conflict last, terrorism benefits. if you look at what is happening in libya, following an intervention that wasn't followed up, this country, the country's unity fell apart and terrorist groups became attacked. france will be present, always present. france has an international position. but it's made up of principles, values, the idea of freedom, which we don't want to keep for ourselves and we want to share
with the entire world. france will be on the front line when it has to be. we have been in africa. so france has once again called on the international community to rise to the challenges to face the threat that we face. now if we succeed, we need to fight all kind of traffic circulation weapons, financial firms. again, we need to do more. europe has to take important decisions to strengthen border controls, identify terrorists, to follow their movements and identified the presence of danger that they can represent. we need to establish a major program that needs to be put
into place. with a view to protecting our freedoms. at the european level and at the national level we need to ensure the internet is not used for hatred and violence. we need to improve our intelligence, invest everything that france will do it is doing for itself, for its own security but it will be acting for europe and the world. it is an investment. yes, it is expensive at a time when my country, like others is having to reduce its deficits, manage its expenditure, carry out reforms, but i believe that this investment is an investment
that france has to make for itself, for europe, and the world. we cannot claim to be a great nation if we are not capable of giving the world what it expects from us. and then their efforts we have to make in our own countries against those who promote terrorism, fundamentals -- fundamentalist, sectarian phenomena and the issue of urban segregation. here again we can carry out measures that are important for solidarity. we will put measures into place and that is why it is important to have a policy to create jobs to promote training and
education so that young people have confidence in their future. the economy will answer against despair and poverty. one answer in the face of insecurity and instability. when we talk about the economy in dallas -- davos, we talk about growth and innovation. we speak up out our confidence in the economy but we also need to share and contribute to solidarity security. so the lifeblood of the economic world, the heads of major corporations, i would ask you to be watchful. i would ask you to be involved.
i turned toward the major digital corporations so they can identify their role, make it inaccessible, and establish clear rules because you're also stakeholders in the process of regulation. i call on the financial system to ensure that the terrorists sources of finance are dried up that we fight money-laundering. all these measures are within, or are in our common interest. do not leave it too late. i will call more broadly on [inaudible] to make a contribution to the most fragile states.
but also in the name of security. i call on you also to counter another threat which is one that looms over the future of our world. we need to fight global warming. professor, you remind us that france will be hosting a conference on climate change the end of this year. it is not just to welcome heads of state or government to paris. we are doing this not just to state our principles and to deliver a forum on the state of the world. we are not just coming for a meeting. it needs to result in a binding global agreement that will map out an effective fight against
climate change. that is the major challenge of the 21st century. time is past where humankind thought it could selfishly draw on inexhaustible resources. we know now the world is not a commodity, it is not a source of revenue. it is a common good, it is our heritage. the consequences of climate change are fully known now. we're not talking about theories anymore. we're talking about certainties. if nothing is done, then we are talking about increasing temperatures four degrees by the end of the century. a need to stay below the threshold of two degrees. we are also fully aware of the consequences. it would mean we would certainly
see the disappearance of many island states in the indian ocean and the pacific, and huge damage to the coastlines of all continents. the 25 cities that in 2015 had more than 10 million inhabitants , 19 are located on the coastline. a huge number of individuals are directly threatened by the consequences of global warming. you can imagine the huge consequences that that could have on the world. we are already familiar with refugees in crisis. i mentioned syria only a moment ago. more than 20 million.
so here again we are faced with a moral responsibility political responsibility. because a botched a solution to a crisis might result in exacerbating the consequences of climate change. but allow me to present a more confident aspect of our future. energy transition the sense opportunities filled with hope of growth. we are in a rapidly changing world. a model that is on its way out that which is powered by. you will -- that which is powered by fossil fuels. we are moving to a post-carbon world. we are a huge effect caused by technological changes which is
happening in many areas -- transport, construction, energy, health, food, technology. our whole economy will be transformed if only we show the will to step up the pace of change, step up the pace of our decision-making. the fight against climate change is also a matter of solidarity. the countries who are most affected are those who are already the most vulnerable. it is ironic that those places are already burdened by a shortage of revenue while those having to face the hardest effects of climate change. if we do not respond with an approach that encompasses solidarity, there will not be an effective answer to paris. there can only be a true solution if those countries have
not exhausted the resources of the world so far can be reassured that their economic development -- that is why i will make a personal commitment along with the heads of state and government who wish to join me, and i am sure there will be many of them. achieving an outcome for the financing of the paris agreement , i'm talking about the green fund, which would gather capital to ensure the transition of developing countries, 10 billion euros already collected, and more than 100 are necessary for us to be able to realistically believe an agreement is possible . we need to be able to find multimillion euros by june.
where are they going to come from? of course, from individual states. that is part of their responsibility. financial institutions, yes. they can participate. but also, major corporations. major financial companies. in any governing that understands that by contributing -- and any government that understands that by educating to this fun -- contributing to this fun, they are creating better investment opportunities for the future. again here, everybody has to recognize their own response ability. the states have a responsibility to come to an agreement. the countries then have to sign a very specific agreement to limit the emission of greenhouse gases, but also, society as a whole has a responsibility. i'm talking about what you could call the agenda of solutions alongside the green fund that
needs to be created. the responsibility of states enshrined in an agreement. there is a broad social commitment to the necessary changes, and france, in the run-up to the conference, wants to ensure that france can play a major role. there will be many events organized. we want to see businesses innovate, research, and prepared with us and with organizations and civil society, prepare label groundwork -- labor groundwork for tomorrow's society, tomorrow's economy. it is absolutely essential that the lifeblood of the world's economy is fully involved in developing a response to climate
change. it is what i call the paris alliance for the climate. i have come here to urge you to participate in this alliance. we need huge investments of capital in the green economy. today, if you look at the traditional investment portfolios, less than 1% is invested in the green economy. we need to create a new market a market of financial products a market of green bonds that would operate at the global level. on the one hand, you need to create demand, capital ready to be invested. on the other hand, the opportunities, which would be part of this new green economy.
we also recognize the right to send the right message to the market, and carbon prices are essential if businesses are going to be able to plan their investments ahead. if this theory -- in this period, one of our greatest challenges is uncertainty. we see it everywhere -- in the exchange rates, in the private commodities, in the world geopolitical situation. and when there is instability, uncertainty, volatility, there isn't any investment. so i have come here to advocate a clear vision of how the world will be in a few years. to foster a determination to
fight against risk and the understanding of how we will get there. carbon pricing is one element of that clear vision. now, you might see the drop in the oil price might be an impediment to the understanding of the gradual phasing out of fossil fuels from the energy next. but if you ask me, i think the opposite is the case. the drop in the oil price -- we don't know how far it will drop. we understand we will have to have some kind of limits. but the drop in the oil price creates an opportunity for investment because when we can
do now with this margin that has been created is make the investments that are absolutely essential in the energy transition. we have the capacity. you as key players in the economy have the capacity to invest in this change. i come here on behalf of france to say that we are ready. we are looking as the conditions will enable france to keep its position in the international context and in the context of technology and industry. we recognize today that growth has been too weak. it is not the same level throughout the world. particularly in the euro zone. we know that what underlines the potential for growth today is doubt relating to geopolitical tensions. i raise the issue of the middle east, but also, ukraine.
this creates worries not only at the humanitarian level, where we are seeing people dying every day on europe's very frontiers but also the major risks of instability. sanctions, embargos, which in turn create difficulty beyond ukraine itself, and also financial instability. the world needs to respond. the g 20 has taken good steps in advocating stronger growth
better coordination of economic policies, better regulation of financial -- an effective combat against tax evasion, tax havens. and i welcome these efforts, and indeed, the results from them, because it shows that the world is capable of improving its regulation. now, there are still problems. there is capital movements that are not well-regulated enough. there is shadow economy, there are countries which seek to attract people who are looking for a way out of taxation. but there is progress as well. i think the biggest risk of -- at the global level is that of inequality. inequality between countries and the incredible frustrations that that can create, and inequality within our countries. and the tension that that can also create. the world needs to recognize that it has a responsibility in this regard, and the fight against inequality can also a growth factor. how can we achieve positive
results from education, through improving skills, through training? that is why i would call for major investments. digital technology can help us here and it needs to help us everywhere and all our countries , especially the most vulnerable. europe has come a long way as well. it has come through the sovereign debt crisis, it has established a banking union, each means in the case of a banking failure it is no longer the taxpayer that has to suffer. that is why i would call for major investment, digital technology can help us here and it needs to happen everywhere in all of our countries especially in those that are most vulnerable. europe has come along way as well. it has come through the sovereign debt crisis, it has established a banking union, each means in the case of a banking failure it is no longer
the taxpayer that has to suffer. but our priority has to be growth and the structural reforms need to be carried out in the name of competitiveness productivity, innovation, and here again, francis taking important decisions -- france is taking important decisions to move along this path, and europe has to come along as well. i welcome the decision of the european commission to lunch -- to launch a major program of more than 350 million euros which states as well would be able to contribute to. i would also like to underscore, while recognizing the phenomenal principle of independence, the actions of the european central bank, because it is very important step that as been taken to inject liquidity. the ecb has been able to take this step because it has achieved its objective in terms
of limiting inflation. with inflation close to zero, it certainly can make more liquidity available to the economy without worrying about deregulation and at the same time promoting growth. and the effect of this decision -- i'm not talking about the market's reaction here, i'm talking about the effect on the real economy -- is that of making investment in the economy more attractive, drawing savings away from government funds towards the financing of business. -- away from government bonds towards the financing of business. this is an important decision
because it has been made by europe, a determination to look towards the future. we have restructured our banking system, even if there is still work to do. we are looking towards the future, and this decision of the european central-bank shall be welcomed. but it should not stop us from the continuing along the path of reform, especially in france. quite the opposite, i think the decision taken by the ecb compels us to be more daring on growth and job creation. france will take a three-pronged approach. firstly, promoting competitiveness. the agreement which i presented one year ago for business represents a drop of 40 billion
euros in the financial burden of business and makes very important civilizations to the regulations at work in the economy. it is an important statement being sent to the stakeholders and investors. thirdly, we have seen other reforms in france to ensure more funds could be directed towards the unemployed. we seeing all of the labor market advance, which should serve to bring our economy into line with reality, while at the same time protecting workers. we are promoting apprenticeships and we have undertaken a new form which is currently under discussion in parliament, which will provide greater flexibly at work, reducing the time period within the labor market, and giving incentives to competition.
cooking how men france knows what its advantages are. i'm not going to go through them all with you because i'm sure you are aware of them. but we are also aware of our limitations and we have to act to improve our position if we're going to stay in this position. france as undertaken efforts to attract talent from all over the world in the same process of promoting innovation. we have is alleged -- we have established innovation tax credits in france to ensure greater levels of r&d. favoring three-minute -- three major areas of industry, energy transition and the
digital economy -- and we also promoted efforts to increase our investments in these areas. france has seen these efforts bear fruit. the other high-strength countries for -- we are the high-strength countries for startups. but we are also aware that we need to increase our attractiveness, alongside promoting exports. we need to increase our exports. what that means is we need to be more productive. 2 million french people work in those companies. we wanted to make efforts --
want to guarantee the security of investments and we welcome all of those who have decided to show interest in france by investing there. it france is very clear about the decisions it needs to make and how committed it is to those choices. we do not want to allow any retroactive taxation. we have introduced rules which guarantee that all investors will have predictable taxation. we have created business to attract more business. this is all entrepreneurs who
wish to locate in france. so we are investing in bringing investments to france but we also want to continue investing abroad. we want to return to being a major exporting nation. we need to direct our business attention to the global market. you expect a great deal from france and you are right. it needs to make the right choices in the area of security, it needs to participate and risk prevention countering [indiscernible] you have seen the french people come together and i'm sure that you were deeply struck by the
dignity of all those who protested, who came to say that they were not afraid, that they believed in their country and they were prouder of who they are. in france, every religion has its place. we cannot accept anti-semitic acts, we cannot accept that jews are killed because it -- they are jews. we cannot expect anti-muslim acts and we have made all possible efforts to ensure full protection of our compatriots. you have seen in france the mobilization -- the mobilization because that represents to us a sacred place, knowledge and rules to be part.
you have expressed your solidarity with france and i am touched by that. there is no greater pride than to see the world turn towards france. i was greatly touched to say so many heads of state and government in france who came to the demonstration. surely it is only in france were we would see some many people come out to the streets and cheer, 4 million people who came to see and not protest against but demonstrate in favor of france remaining as it is. by being capable of
participating fully in the pursuit of peace and security in the world. at the same time france needs to be a major economic power. they can be no political power without economic power. it is economic strength that enables that independence, the recognition of these values. i would strongly advocate recognizing the economy being a key factor in security so please think hard about this. there cannot be prosperity without security. and so we share our interests we have shared interests everybody needs to recognize that and through that, take
responsibility. it is not just for the creation of wealth but the distribution of wealth as well. it needs to bring growth and hope. >> that is what you have to do. we have to facilitate trade. at the same time, we have to ensure that we can move ahead take a long-term view with investments that might not be profitable today. we will find the foundation for profitability tomorrow. i am thinking about the energy transition. that is the message i would never to doug ose. -- davos. there are times in history where we are faced with a choice between best and worst, between good and bad.
you are faced with a moment where things can all thing or another. we will fight against terrorism, global warming, and reduction of inequality. a huge amount will depend on individual states. also upon you. the major players in the economy. what is needed from you, and what you require of yourself and from your governments is a daring approach, and vicious approach, a long-term approach with the clarity of vision. the time is come, ladies and gentlemen, we share in solidarity, and our responsibilities. we need to recognize our responsibility and choose to innovate, and best, and at the same time, be capable of resolving the major global issues. with the goal of security,
development, and solidarity. we have a single mission, to protect and hand on the planet to the next generation. thank you very much. [applause] >> at the white house press briefing, josh earnest was asked about benjamin netanyahu's upcoming visitor washington, d.c. john boehner invited the prime minister to speak to congress about negotiations with iran. here is his response.
>> there has been a lot of discussion this week about the president's relationship with primus netanyahu after that indication from the speaker. on a scale of one to 10, how irritated is the white house? >> jim let's unpack this a couple of different ways. the first thing -- let me restate the thing i said before. it is consistent with long-standing practice for the leader of a foreign government in a plan to this of the united states to conduct an courtney that visited with the leader of the united states. the invitation that was extended and acceptance of that invitation to represent a departure from protocol. ultimately, it is the responsibility of the speaker of
the house to make decisions about the floor schedule, the house of representatives. if we have the opportunity to weigh in on that schedule, we would welcome the opportunity and make a variety of changes. the other thing that we have made clear jim, is that the president at this point does not plan to meet with president -- prime minister netanyahu in this visits scheduled for march. the reason for that is that prime minister netanyahu's this it comes to weeks before the israeli elections. this administration goes to great lengths to ensure that we don't give even the appearance of interfering or attempting to influence the outcome of a democratically health election in another country. for that reason, the president will not be meeting with prime minister netanyahu when he visits the united states in march. but, as all of you have noted on a number of occasions, the president has spent more time
talking to prime minister netanyahu than any other world leader. the reason for that is simply that the united states and this president recognize that we have a clear national security interest within our alliance with israel. that is -- it's that kind of commitment. it transcends partisan politics. it is something that despite the differences of opinion that we have with the current israeli prime minister, doesn't undermine our commitment to israel's security. our differences of opinion about the strategy we should pursue to resolve the international community's concerns about iran's nuclear program are out outstanding. we are talking about this for years now. since 2011, while president obama has been in the office the united states have provided israel with more than $1 billion for the iron dome system.
including last summer, when is really supplies were running low while they were being shot by extremists in gaza. this president has not allowed the disagreement over how are iran approach to in any way shake the commitment of the united states to the national security of israel. >> u.s. efforts to combat global terrorism, the conversation from today's washington journal. this is 45 minutes. host: the president quits, the country could split apart, this is about yemen. marc ginsberg is a former ambassador to morocco, former mideast advisor to president carter. ambassador ginsberg, what is happening in yemen, and how does that affect the u.s.? guest: oh, that's a long
question to answer, but let's see if i can take a stab at it. yemen has been subjected to an enormous amount of internal strife. the combustible mixture includes a group of shiite rebels. they hail from the northwest corner of the country. remember, yemen used to be two countries, north yemen and south yemen, and they're part of that old part of yemen which was known as north yemen. they have been on the march. they had received an enormous amount of support, although they deny it, from iran, and they've now seized virtually the entire capital of yemen, and add to that the fact that they now, for all intents and purposes conducted a coup d'etat against the american-supported president and his government, which apparently has resigned, leaving the country rudderless and in the hands of these rebels, and at the same time, al qaeda, in
the arabian peninsula has had its stronghold in yemen, and it has been probably ground zero in the arabian peninsula for american counterterrorism initiatives against the most virulent and most dangerous franchise of al qaeda that has tried many number of times to attack the homeland against the united states. everywhere, everything from the underwear bomber to the inspiration of lieutenant general high dodd -- hadad, who had attacked fort hood, the tsarnaev brothers were inspired by the assassinated cleric american-born cleric, the leader of al qaeda. and he his followers have been more or less the most dangerous franchise of al qaeda in the world. host: so, ambassador ginsberg,
does the u.s. have any contact with the group? do we have any interactions at this point? guest: no, they are adversaries to the united states. they are as virulently extremist in their views as the al qaeda folks are themselves. i doubt that we have had any major contact with them. their major patron saint in the region are the iranians. and what has happened in yemen is a travesty and a tragedy for american policy in the peninsula. host: what about the president prior to him, is it president salah? guest: yeah, president salah who was the long-term dictator of yemen, was forced out of office in what essentially was a democratic uprising against his dictatorial rule. in fact, he was the subject of a
almost successful assassination attempt. it took months and months of careful american diplomacy along with saudi diplomacy to get him out of office. where did he go? he essentially rejoined, for all intents and purposes adversaries against the government that succeeded him. so he has been tied to the group. he joined forces with them, and indeed, just a couple of weeks ago, the united nations security council of all bodies sanctioned him, sanctioned former president salah for interfering in a democratic transition inside yemen. so if you're going start pointing fingers, you point fingers not only at the houti, but as former president salah, who, where he got his support from remains to be seen, but he's also been involved in this cabal against the
american-supported government of the president, which is now been overthrown. host: we're going put the numbers up on the screen. we're talking in this segment about efforts against global terrorism. we're also talking about the situation in yemen and the middle east in general. so if you have some questions for ambassador marc ginsberg you can go ahead and dial in or tweet your questions, and we'll begin taking those in just a minute. now, ambassador, the death of the saudi king, the role saudi -- of saudi arabia in yemen. guest: king abdullah was first and foremost a champion of stability on the arabian peninsula, and saudi arabia, as we know, has been engaged in a regional proxy war against its number one adversary in the region, and that's the shiite-dominated government of the ayatollahs in iran. so throughout the area, whether , it's been in syria, whether it's been in iraq, whether it's been in yemen, saudi forces have
been supporting, for example sunni tribesmen against the hootie -- houti rebels. now, there are allegations that saudi funding has also supported al qaeda in the arabian peninsula, but i'm sure that the saudi government, which is fighting its own battle against al qaeda in the arabian peninsula, has been secretly and quietly supporting and working with the united states to try to prevent the rebels from seizing control, but, unfortunately, the yemeni army, which along with anything else inside yemen is tribal in nature, fragmented and splintered, and the only effective military force that was left against the rebels were the special security forces that have been fighting alongside the united states, and i'm sure along saudi counterterrorism forces against al qaeda in the arabian peninsula.
so saudi arabia now has another major problem. it has a shiite adversarial iran-supported force that has now taken control over the capital city of yemen, and i'm sure that the heir to king abdullah, now king salman, has a major security threat to deal with, which i'm sure he and the saudi allies were not counting on having to deal with. host: want to get your reaction to this "washington post" editorial this morning, the yemen mess. this is how they conclude it. the yemen mess reveals the weaknesses of mr. obama's partner strategy, which has been too narrowly focused on drone strikes and training of specialized units and not enough on providing security for the population institution-building, and support for moderate political forces. unfortunately, the president's cursory and formulaic
description of his counterterrorism policies this week, following a year in which jihadist forces and terrorist attacks expanded across the world, suggested that he remains uninterested in correcting his mistakes. guest: it's a bit harsh, but i think it is a fair statement to say that from secretary, former secretary of defense, leon panetta, who served honorably in the obama administration to the book that was written by hillary clinton explaining her dissatisfaction over president obama's policies in syria, the administration has not had a the -- strategy in the middle east. he has had a tactical series of evolving footsteps as crises breakout. as a result, we have seen the spread of isis. we have seen. deteriorate into chaos. we have seen yemen deteriorate into chaos.
we are engaged in a constant name of catch-up. the fact of the matter is what we look at what happened in paris, why so much focus has been on isis in the region, the real threat to the homeland has been al qaeda. it has been a drone war with some counterterrorism forces. it has not resulted in the type of durable support that is needed to maintain security of a nascent democratic government in yemen. we can say the same thing about libya. libya has descended into utter chaos. the administration gave it self a great many pats on the back for helping to overthrow criminal qadhafi then for all and since a purposes, it walked away. now they have infiltrated stronger he -- strongly into
livery. -- letlibya. we have, in effect, a series of cancers popping up in the region. they not only affect us, but our allies as well. host: how do syria fit into all of this? guest: syria is also a ground zero for another al qaeda franchise. again, it represents either -- another chapter in the centuries old conflict. we see this happening once again in yemen. we basically thought we were struggling against al qaeda's ideology after 9/11. there is very little that we can do to combat the centuries of
-- old hatred that drives these groups to fight each other. now we see this happening again in yemen. we have seen this in the iraq and syria. now, we see a full line to send -- to send down into yemen. there is a direct connection between the proxy war that is being waged by iran on behalf of the shiite domination of the middle east -- whether it is support for hezbollah or hamas whether it is support for the assad regime. now being confronted by our strongest adversaries in the region that are being strengthened on the back of sunnis who are afraid of the shiite ascendancy. that is al qaeda in the middle east. host: let's take some calls. we will begin with dennis in arkansas on our democrats line.
police go ahead with your question or comment for mark innsbruck. caller: you know, they say that you cannot go to war with g5 -- jihad unless god tells you to or you are not a muslim at all. that kind of eliminates an awful lot of these guys. those three tribes have been fighting for a long time -- centuries -- trying to get a leg up on the other guy. isis is being run out of yemen and libya primarily. firsthand knowledge from people who have escaped there is different from the political point of view. are we going to be the police force for the entire world?
well obama kind of said -- i'm going to get us out of the war those are campaign promises. he is a man of his word. he is good at adapting. he also killed osama bin laden. you can say bush did it -- host: host: there is a lot better. -- there is a lot there. a lot of connections being made by dennis. guest: it is so complicated and confusing to americans. all of this is terribly difficult. i always tell the folks that if you do not understand the difference between a sunni and a shiite, it is hard for anyone to understand what is going on in the middle east. the fact of the matter is yes, the president should be given a great deal of credit for taking out osama bin laden. the fact of the matter is that the united states has been engaged in these
counterterrorism struggles. i am not merely pointing out the fact that we should be the world's policeman when it cons to the middle east. it really is a dilemma for the american people. al qaeda in the arabian peninsula is far more of a threat to the homeland than isis. and yet all of our efforts and forces have been thrown into this fight against isis. there is a calculation. that is to try and preserve iraq's integrity and prevent isis from overrunning iraq itself. it was on the verge of doing that a few months ago. that would have been a disaster for american policy and our interest in the middle east. the fact of the matter is -- we need to create a structure of containment which is up to most , of our arab allies to wage their battles.
we cannot, the united states and the cannot tamp down all of the crises in the middle east by ourselves. it is not our duty or responsibility. we need to do what we can to protect us against al qaeda. the suffering of the syrian people. the strife that is taking place in iraq. the terrible calamity in yemen. the situation in syria. this is something that the arab world will have to deal with. there are not enough americans and something that frankly the united states should not be engaged in -- trying to be these maker throughout the middle east. host: rick in texas, republican line. caller: i just had a question that has been begging to be answered for the past few days
with all the gitmo detainees that have been released. yemen was one of the countries where i believe many detainees were going to be held for some period of time. with the collapse of the government, what is the outcome of this? ddo you think these people will end up back on the battlefield? guest: the fact is, yemen was the initial homeland for osama bin laden. it was his initial base of operations, where his family raised them initially. there are an enormous number of people from yemen who have supported al qaeda in the last decades. indeed, one of the reasons why american policy has taken a hit here with the overthrow of the president is because he has been a strong supporter against al qaeda. what happens to these al qaeda
terrorists who have been held in jails in yemen, yes, it is a big danger. host: ambassador ginsberg, we have a map of the region there. when you look at it, saudi arabia seems to be in the middle. yemen on its southern border. with the death of the king, is there a chance of greater unrest? guest: the saudi's have been dealing with their own internal unrest because they have a small shiite minority. it is relatively insignificant but there have been problems in the kingdom and efforts by the shiite to in effect protest there. i think it is very important for us to understand that al qaeda has been attacking the institutions of saudi stability for decades.
there have been bombs and attacks. an american and canadian have been killed at a gas station just a few months ago in saudi arabia. there have been attacks on foreigners. al qaeda in the arabian financial has called on saudi citizens to attack americans and canadians and other westerners inside saudi arabia. these attacks have largely occurred outside the headlines of the average americans. al qaeda and its supporters have proved to be resilient inside the kingdom. while the government has -- the saudi government has done a great job in counterterrorism -- these attacks have continued. host: tim from massachusetts. caller: i just have a couple of questions. i'm seeing this is really
complex. and i'm wondering -- i notice that there is a lot of media that we get that is speaking to the choir. it is good for u.s. consumption. what are we doing for the shiites and their consumption? it seems to me like they view us as the enemy and we have not done a very good job of turning things around. holding hang up and wait for your comment. -- i will hang up and wait for your comment. guest: that's like saying how do christians wind up empowering the minority shiites in the middle east to feel they have been subjugated by the sunnis for centuries. that is a tall order. iran is the dominant shiite country in the region. it is not an arab country, it is a persian country.
the shiite government of the ayatollahs has been supporting terrorist organizations throughout the region to in effect engage in war against the sunnis. they have been the primary supporter of former prime minister maliki. the former iraqi prime minister who wound up being an absolute disaster for u.s. foreign policy in iraq and to help to instigate the rise of isis. because of sunni anger and animosity against the shiite dominated government. yes, it is confusing. yes, this century-old conflict between sunnis and shiites -- it goes back -- i have given lectures around the world on how this sunni-shiite divide arose.
to the average american, i can only explain it in a way that makes it understandable. when the prophet mohammed died he failed to name a successor. his disciples formed a party known as the sunni. they followed the koran's interpretation. the sunni wound up in effect dominating the more or less legacy of the prophet mohammed. but it was the family of the prophet mohammed that felt like they were the rightful heirs to the prophet's legacies. they formed a party known as the shiite party. so, this battle has been going
over who is the rightful heir to the prophet mohammed. there are theological splits between sunni and shiite, which have now dominated the middle east and broke out into the first conflict in centuries. guest: homer is in louisiana. police go ahead with your question or comment. -- policeplease go ahead with your question or comment. caller: i am a vietnam veteran. what behooves me is why we have got to play world police and decide what goes on in the rest of the world. many really don't know why they are even in war. thank you. host: ambassador ginsberg. guest: listen, the issue over the role of the united states in the world and the fact that the president was able to withdraw forces from afghanistan, and we
are now back in iraq in a more subtle way -- the fact of the matter is that al qaeda represents the greatest threat to the united states. not a nexus to enjoy threat, -- not an existential threat, not a threat to the existence of the united states, but the terrorism. when i roll off the number of plots that al qaeda has inflected on the united states the underwear bomber, the attack on the delta christmas flight that was supposed to arrive in detroit, the list goes on and on. and if we had to do with one major problem, i would highly recommend that we vanquish the number one franchise of al qaeda, which is currently trying -- constantly trying to not only attack the homeland, but also has been the inspiration for most of the self radicalized americans who have either
radicalized because of these sermons of the dead american born cleric who became head of al qaeda in the arabian peninsula, but also because of the constant threats and exporting of terrorism against the united states. that is important for us to do in order to protect the american people right now. host: you referred to the al qaeda branches as franchise. guest: indeed. you have after the assassination of osama bin laden, the residual command-and-control center of al qaeda in pakistan. that is more or less left in the hands of his number two -- the evil doctor, who is still alive, we presume somewhere in pakistan. and