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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  April 9, 2015 11:35pm-2:01am EDT

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who these women were, their lives, ambitions and unique partnerships with their presidential spouses. the book touches on the lives of 45 american women, provides lively stories of these fascinating women who survived that scrutiny of the white house, sometimes at great personal cost while surviving their families and him as husbands, and even changed history. c-span's "first ladies" is an illuminating and inspiring read and is available through your favorite bookstore or online bookseller for the cover price of just $28.99. >> on friday, c-span's congressional freshmen profile concludes with montana republican ryan zinke you. -- ryan zinke. representative zinke: i kind of laugh sometimes that being a
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congressman is sometimes more difficult in the -- than being a seal. as a seal, you can watch things get done. you can engage and have a terrific team around you. normally, you have the resources to win and you can watch the progress made. on the hill, under the current polarization, there is progress the inmate and it is fixable. but progress is not as rapid as what you would like. you have got to make sure you exercise patience. and some is just political rhetoric. some people do not want the facts could they do not care about the facts. what they care about is an agenda. i never looked at life through a red or a blue lens. it has always been red, white, and blue. as a former navy seal commander,
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i never asked the political affiliation of the folks around me. what i cared about was how good they were. were they skilled, were they committed? did they have the right training? and did they have the right gut to do what was necessary? >> on friday, c-span's congressional freshmen profile concludes with montana republican ryan zinke. >> here are some of our featured programs for this weekend on the c-span networks. on c-span 2's book-tv, president of americans for tax reform grover norquist says that americans are tired of the irs and our tax system. sunday at 8:00 author susan butler on president franklin roosevelt and soviet leader joseph stalin, allies during
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world war ii and their unexpected partnership. saturday night on american history tv on c-span 3 university of virginia's professor jennifer murray on how civil war reunions have changed from these -- the reconstruction era to present. and then american history tv is live from appomattox courthouse historical park, commemorating the anniversary of the confederate surrender and the end of the civil war. >> during this month, c-span is pleased to present the winning entries in this years student cam video documentary system -- competition. it is an annual competition that encourages middle and high school students to think critically about issues that affect the nation. students were asked to complete -- to complete their video on the same "the three branches and you."
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matthew eastmo, travis mills and ashley peterson from st. thomas more high school in rapid city, south dakota, are one of our second prize winners. they're focused on the keystone xl pipeline. >> we owe transcanada absolutely nothing. [applause] for the sake of all america, i ask you respectfully, president obama, deny permit. >> keystone xl will impact the entire nation. the people that call the great plains region home will be the ones to experience the risks and rewards to their full extent. it will be an underground pipe that will lead crude oil from alberta through the u.s. states of montana, south dakota nebraska, kansas, and oklahoma
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to oil refineries in texas. unfortunately, many people from our region fear its environmental impact. >> i do not believe the people would understand or comprehend how devastating it would be to the aquifer if it was contaminated by the keystone xl pipeline. >> we field our legitimate concerns about the sandhills and our great aquifer have gone unrecognized. >> we are going to do everything within our powers to protect our homeland from people and that affects our children and grandchildren. most of all, people do not understand that the aquifer is the second-biggest water aquifer in the world. >> this is genocide for first nations people.
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the american people should not have to choose between jobs and wrecking the environment. >> contrary to these views that the pipe will have a detrimental impact on the environment, dave emory, president and ceo of black hills court, things it will have a minimal impact. >> putting in a pipeline, the way that they do it today, the lines are relatively small. when they construct the lines they are very picky about how they build those lines. they inspect every single well to make sure they do not have any stress fractures around the well. when you strike a welding rod on a piece of pipe, it causes some spider cracks microscopic ones. if they know it is on an x-ray, they will cut out that piece of pipe and re-weld it. they are very careful so that it
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cannot be corroded from the outside. and then they put protection on the pipe itself. if the pipe goes through a wet area and starts to corrode, it can form an electrical current for the groundwater and cause it to corrode faster. it is kind of hard to explain, but there is a chemical reaction which induces an electrical current. it could actually put a current in the pipe while it is operating to prevent that from happening. >> the keystone pipeline is the safest way of transporting the oil. it is safer than rail or truck. it is important to remember that canada will be extracting and transporting its oil regardless. the only question, madam president, is whether we want it to come here, to the united states, along with the thousands of jobs it would create, and whether we want to let canada
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ship that oil overseas. >> advocates of the pipeline seem to have legitimate answers to environmental concerns. legal issues of eminent domain and native american treaty territories have created other obstacles. >> eminent domain is the taking of private property for public use. with just compensation. >> eminent domain was created to make sure that an individual was not able to stop something that was for the greater public good. whether it is a highway for a power line, a pipeline, if it is deemed in the public's best interest, as long as you compensate the individual fairly for the taking, you can do that. transcanada is no different than anybody else. it is a last resort to go to the
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court and ask to condemn such property. >> we have our own constitution and our own laws that do not pertain to outsiders. out of the state of south dakota. >> it could not have been through south dakota. multiple tribes that make up this nation. >> seven tribes. >> we do not want this pipeline in our territory. the treaty that was ratified by the united congress is a legal, binding international document of law. >> the whole state of south dakota, we have got to realize we are treaty tribes. this is our land. >> we did not give higher consent for transcanada to bring this pipeline through our beloved mother earth and our area of this country.
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>> the south dakota supreme court can rule on the reservation boundaries. the tribes obviously do not agree with that. but the courts have spoken and basically said that anything inside the continuous -- the contiguous borders of the reservation is jurisdiction of the reservation. anything outside that is not the >> despite environmental concerns, the keystone xl pipeline will have a mostly positive impact on the great plains region and the people who live there. we believe the executive branch should pass this bro -- this bill. >> to watch all of the winning videos and learn more about our competition, go to c-span.org. also, tell us what you think about the issue these students addressed in their documentary
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on facebook and twitter. >> on monday, the u.n. security council considered ways to protect 18,000 palestinian refugees and syrian civilians on the outskirts of damascus. on thursday, u.n. secretary-general ban ki-moon updated reporters on the ongoing violence in yemen and syria after saudi-led airstrikes. this is 20 minutes. secretary-general ban ki-moon -- >> good afternoon. the secretary-general will make some opening remarks and and we will have some questions. secretary-general ban ki-moon: good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. it is a great pleasure to see you pete as you know, i will be leaving this afternoon for the
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summit of the americas in panama. thereafter, i will be visiting dohar, qatar, to participate in the united nations congress on crime prevention and criminal justice. before i depart, i wanted to say a few words about the rapidly deteriorating situations in yemen and syria. countless civilians are being abandoned to misery. even before the latest prices -- crisis it was a scale similar to the nine countries combined. yemen has almost double number of people classified as severely insecure.
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the crisis has magnified in recent days. ordinary yemeni families are struggling for the basics. hundreds of civilians have been killed. hospitals and schools are shutting down. some are direct targets of the fighting. as i have repeatedly said, attempts to take territory by force and undermine the authority of the government are in clear violation of the security council resolutions and their commitment in the u.n.-facilitated political process. since initial advances, the situation has greatly escalated through the air of coalition military operation.
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the coalition and the engineering attempts to expand their power have caused an internal -- have turned an internal political crisis into a violent conflict. the last thing this region needs is more of the chaos and crimes we have seen in libya and syria. the best chance to help get the transition back on track and preserve the country's unity and territorial integrity. for over two months, my special envoy has facilitated more
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inclusive negotiations. more agreements remain on critical issues. many of those have been resolved. there needs to be a return to political negotiations. both parties must participate in good faith. there is no other solution. as the fighting rages on, all parties to the conflict must adhere to their obligations under international humanitarian law. i call on all of them to protect civilians and humanitarian workers and to administer life-saving assistance whenever it is needed. i expect member states to do everything possible to make this happen and get the parties back to the peace table without conditions and without delay. ladies and gentlemen of the
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media words to describe the mayhem. the yarmouk refugee camp, after more than two years of merciless siege, 18,000 palestine refugees and syrians are now being held hostage by extremist militants. the refugee camp is beginning to resemble a death cap. -- camp. the residence of yarmouk including 3500 children, face a double-edged sword inside the camp and government forces outside. we are hearing reports of a
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massive assault on the camp and all civilians in it. this would be yet one more outrageous war crime. those responsible must be held accountable. we need to stabilize the situation in the camp. i joined the security council in demanding an end to hostilities, access to provide humanitarian assistance, and safe passage for civilians who wish to escape to safety. i call on all member states with influence on the government and all parties on the ground to take more steps necessary to send a clear message -- civilians must be spared. civilians must be protected at all times. i will continue to press this
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unequivocal message in my meetings with world leaders. the humanitarian catastrophe in yarmouk represent a test for the international community's resolved. we can all agree that what is unfolding in yarmouk is unacceptable. surely we can all act to end the suffering. surely we can refuse to tolerate the intolerant. it is time to save lives and restore a measure of humanity. we simply cannot stand by and watch a massacre unfolded the people of yarmouk must not be abandoned. thank you. >> secretary-general, on yarmouk, what you said today does not sound much different
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from what you have been saying for the past four years. there will be many people internationally who will listen to those words and regard them perhaps as platitudes. can you be more specific about what members pay -- states have to do? can you be more specific about ways to resolve that situation peacefully? it is dangerous that -- the danger is that your words will fall on deaf years. secretary-general ban ki-moon: i know that i have been repeating what i have said the last four years. i may continue to repeat with more emphasis that this cannot continue this way. the international community must have full political responsibility. there has been clear divisions of all the members. member states in the region and
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within the united nations, particularly in the security council did the people of syria they are, themselves, divided. that is the reason it has been very difficult. even to deliver humanitarian assistance. what i am asking the international community is, even though it is a small area of the yarmouk refugee camp, we have 18,000 people. 20,000 people have been killed. 20 million people have been affected, directly or indirectly. there is no time to lose. i have asked them to focus much more to relaunch the political process. i need the full support. there is no military solution. only a political solution,
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dialogue, can be an answer to this. i need the support for all the international community. particularly the member states of the united nations. >> thank you, secretary-general. you just said that the only solution is dialogue. can you tell me if it is possible -- are you willing to -- is the united nations security council willing to have a direct or indirect talks in order to stop the killing? in syria, iraq, yemen, and the middle east. secretary-general ban ki-moon: they have committed unspeakable crimes against humanity. including beheadings. the level of brutality is just
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unspeakable. i cannot just described it enough. my anger. they must stop. whatever grievances they may have, all of this should be resolved through dialogue. not through killing people in such a horrific, brutal way. i strongly condemn again, that they must give up their arms and discuss all of this through peaceful means. this is not what human beings are to do. it is not acceptable for us to do. >> on yarmouk, who is talking so that you would have the safe passage that you have been
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calling for? who do you have in mind when you say there is a massive assault that you are already calling a war crime? on yemen, there are iranian warships -- are you worried this is going to ignite a larger conflict? what do you want to say to iran at this point and other players around yemen? thank you. secretary-general ban ki-moon: as you may remember, the last month, when there was a white house summit on countering violent extremism, i expressed my position that this terrorism and extremism should be addressed at the roots. why this extremism and terrorism has happened and is happening this way.
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one easy answer would be that failed leadership -- just the continuing crisis in syria for five years and other areas have provided a perfect breeding ground for all this extremism in our society. we have to address all these issues. sometimes it is necessary to take physical action through a coalition of forces. that is what we are now seeing. but this can be effective and helpful, but that is not all the answers. what is more important is how we address all of these issues in a harmonious way, addressing all
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the concerns and grievances of the people all around. then, i think unfortunately the international community has sort of let these things fester. now on yemen -- court on the syria, can you -- >> on the syria, can you tell me if you have been contact isis? ban ki-moon: have been contacting leaders to see if they can exercise influence. i have only begun to speaking yesterday and even today. i am trying to find out the
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leaders people that can exercise influence over these people. and i am not talking directly with them, it is not possible. tournament, that on yemen -- on the yemen, we had of the meeting upstairs. what i am concerned with as secretary-general is that my special advisor has been tirelessly working to facilitate this political dialogue through a national dialogue, a national unity government. she was able to address many issues. but this military takeover presents left the situation like this were at this time, i still believe this political
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negotiation is the answer. we hope that parties concerned will return to the negotiating table as soon as possible. >> the question was about the naval movement by iran. ban ki-moon: all of the countries in the region should overcome beyond their national positions and help the yemeni people so that they are able to enjoy and live in peace and security. >> mr. secretary-general, you say that political dialogue is what is necessary and direct military means are not what will accomplish with isis. but we have seen it with the situation that military force stopped isis and assumed
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numerous people in so doing. why border do call for some kind of strategic -- wouldn't you call for some kind of strategic military exercise by a coalition of member states or participants as you are talking to participants working out a surgical way to address the crisis at hand and then deal with things in a peaceful way? and the moon: i am not -- ban ki-moon: i am not here to discuss military strategy, the idea of surgical or whatever. sometimes it may be necessary when it is absolutely necessary. that is why i have been asking the countries that have the capacities and means, the influence, to defeat isis and
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extremism and terrorism full-time at the same time we should look at addressing the issue at the roots. and establish a society and engage in a dialogue with the people. that is the way all of these issues will be addressed. that is why the general assembly and myself, in cooperation with the land is civilization, are going to hold the high level debates from september 21 and 22nd, inviting leaders and religious leaders from the world. i believe that when we take all possible means to keep the terrorism and extremism, there is clearly a role for religious
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leaders and the educators of the world to teach followers to teach young people the correct meaning of tolerance, of culture and tradition and was mutual respect, this is what i am expecting. thank you very much. >> thank you, goodbye. >> on the next "washington journal," marc morial discusses the south carolina shooting of an unarmed black man by a police officer. whit ayers discusses his book on how republicans can elect a president. post we will take your phone calls and tweets. -- plus we will take your phone calls and tweets.
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>> virginia governor terry mcauliffe is at the center for american progress on friday to speak about the importance of investing in early childhood education. following the remarks a panel of leaders will discuss how we childhood programs are impacting their communities. you can watch that live at 10:00 a.m. eastern on c-span. >> vice president joe biden spoke thursday about u.s. policy in iraq. efforts to combat the islamic state. the vice president deliberately remarks at the national defense university in washington, d.c. -- delivered the remarks at the national defense university in the -- washington, d.c. vice president biden: it is genuinely an honor to be before such an incredibly distinguished audience. ambassador nesbitt, thank you.
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she is a senior vice president. i am just a vice president. [laughter] vice president biden: these days, i don't like the word senior associated with my name. [laughter] vice president bylund -- vice president biden: provost yegor. and finally i would like to say to the ambassador, iraq's ambassador to the united states, it is an honor to have you here today. military officers men and women, and brian -- how are you doing brian? brian does not want to tell people he was in the defense department now but he worked for me to get out of the university of notre dame and that was 400 and 25 years ago. anyway, -- 425 years ago. anyway, good to see you. next week, the prime minister of
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iraq will make his first visit to washington, d.c. this provides us with an opportunity to take stock of where things stand right now. that is going to be the focus of my remarks today. critics have made a number of claims regarding our policy in iraq and the state of affairs in iraq today. they say that iraq's fight against isil, under the command of the american international coalition has been stalemated. they say that isil remains in a commanding position inside iraq. that iran and its proxies are leading the fight and that they are dominating iraq. and iraq itself is likely to be a thing of the past, doomed to split apart because of violence. -- sectarian violence. there is just one problem with these critiques. the claims do not reflect the circumstances on the ground.
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the claims do not respect and represent the circumstances on the ground. they do not reflect iraq's progress against isil -- incomplete but growing. iraq's unity against the crisis, many predicted it would split them apart or resolve to uphold their sovereignty and independence even as they look to their neighbors in all directions for assistance. the jury is still out. that is the truth. it is not over yet. but the momentum is in the right direction. i would like to speak about that for a few moments today. it is true that once isil took mosul last summer, we saw the collapse of the iraqi army. we saw it melt away. the horrific slaughter of civilians, and the enslavement of women.
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ethnic cleansing of minority groups including christians who had lived there for thousands of years. isil gained significant amounts of money is from the banks that they robbed, significant sophisticated military equipment left behind by iraqi forces. and manpower from brutal construction and foreign fighters. and maybe most dangerously, a sense of momentum, even a sense of inevitability which seemed to attract more foreign fighters. that is why when mosul fell the president responded. within hours, he took steps with all of you, the military, to make sure that all of our people in our embassy were secure. within days, we put special forces in the field temporarily to better understand the battle space.
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we surged intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. and we set up a joint operations center in baghdad and erbil. this was all to prepare to help the iraqis fight back. we knew the first order of business was to make sure that iraq had a functioning inclusive government. for all the years i spent in dealing with iraqi public officials and the iraqi government, we knew for certain without a united iraqi government, there was no possibility -- none -- of defeating isil. when mosul fell, iraq had just held their national election. 14 million, roughly 14 million iraqis showed up at the polls. but now, they had to form a government in the middle of this chaos. and having been deeply, deeply involved as brian mcewan will tell you because he was with me trying to help form the first
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government, and being engaged we knew this could be extremely difficult. it was likely to be difficult. during the term of the last government distrust had deepened so profoundly between sunni, shiite, and -- sunni shia, and kurds, creating serious obstacles to a unified effort against isil and the willingness of staying together. but the irony, the irony of all ironies is that iraq was actually helped to form its government because of isil. isil, the various outfit -- very same outfit that intended to tear iraq apart. and establish a caliphate. it actually united iraqis. the sunnis realize they preferred a united, federal iraq
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under a new government to being at the mercy, the mercy of isil or dependent upon the other sunni states. the kurds realized withdrawing from iraq was not a viable option and they did not want the terrorist state on their doorstep. i don't know how many conversations i had relating to this. and the see it -- the fiat, they realized -- the shia, they realized they did not need to undertake isil alone. consequently, each concluded they were better off if they are in this together. to quote a famous american politician in an early war of ours, we either hang together or hang separately. the iraqis themselves recognize how badly the trust had been broken. among them. nothing less than a
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comprehensive change could deliver a united iraqi government that code -- that could take on isil. many iraqis later believed that the only way to do this was a wholesale change in leadership. that every interest in iraq had to find different leaders this time to occupy the seats of power. i remember speaking with a proud son ofmosul mosul who had been the speaker of the iraqi parliament and in deciding in order to make way for a new wave of leaders, it was important he would have to step down as speaker. there was a need from the speaker to the prime minister to be president to find new
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leaders. the result was another widely-respected sunni. he became the new parliamentary speaker. and iraq chose a well-respected kurdish senior statement to be the new president. and he stuck to his convictions under enormous pressure. because you know how the process works. eight, the president, is the one who then turned to one of the factions to form a government. it was an enormous amount of pressure. but he stuck to his guns and the -- and he named the prime minister, a shia leader who had built the majority, supported the shia national alliance. which won the majority of the votes. there was a consensus among these leaders that iraq would need a much greater measure of functioning federalism, which is called for in the constitution. they all agreed to that.
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that common understanding that -- backed genuine acts of statementship has led to significant progress and the chance of a long-term, unity government. in just eight months, the prime minister and other iraqi leaders have performed -- have formed an inclusive government. in record time, they arrived at a national budget with equitable revenue sharing, forged an oil deal between baghdad. and erbil. i do not know how many times brian and i sat there after the 23 visits into iraq being told there was an oil deal on the horizon. it never occurred. but in the face of the crisis, they pulled it together. they built a consensus began to , mobilize thousands of sunni fighters to fight against isil. and just this past week, the
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prime minister visited erbil to discuss cooperation with peshmerga forces and a plan to coordinate a budget in part to help liberate mosul. yesterday, he was in anwar province, announcing the delivery of over 1000 weapons to sunni tribes for the liberation as part of his commitment he made to sunni leaders. more efforts to organize, arm, and integrate the sunnis willing to fight isil will be needed in months i had deliberate -- i had to liberate -- ahead to liberate anwar and mosul. he is visiting kuwait.
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saudi arabia has agreed to open an embassy in baghdad at the invitation of a shia-iraqi president. obviously, a great deal of work these are only initialed but -- these are only initialed but these are very promising promising steps. obviously, a great deal of work remains, including moving forward in the national guard legislation. legislation designed to advanced national reconciliation, including the application. -- the -- deep application. continuing to mobilize integrate, arm, take sunni forces, further integrate the national iraqi security force, bringing volunteer forces. empowering local governments and planning for reconstruction and liberated areas. consistent with the notion of
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federalism. all of which, all of which we will be discussing with the prime minister abadi, not that we have not discussed it a lot. we have probably spent more time on the phone then i have with my wife. [laughter] vice president biden: the entire region, the entire world but the entire region is watching us closely. and iraqi leaders cannot afford to lose that sense of political urgency that brought them to this point. and much hinges on the prime minister, but not him alone. this is about all iraqi leaders pulling together and they must continue to compromise. and it is hard. it is hard. thousands of bodies have been strewn and lost. in the interim. but they are doing it -- we knew that -- in addition to forming a united iraqi government, the next challenge would be to help them put that together and
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-- together and ability -- together an ability to be able to position itself to succeed on the battlefield. that started with helping iraqis reorganize their security forces. for years, in the face of terrorism and insurgency, many fought bravely and gave their lives. thousands gave their lives in the fight against isil. that would challenge any army. but as we saw last summer, some units including those in mosul had been hollowed out with corruption and questionable leadership appointments, lack of discipline, sectarian infighting, and the collapse helped make the fall of mosul possible. we would begin to help leaders rebuild their forces with hires based on confidence, not on ethnicity.
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abadi relieved a number of former military officers and appointed new one. the appointed a sunni as -- he appointed a sunni as defense minister, replaced 36 commanders, and continues to reform iraqis military leadership. we sent our special forces to assess which units can be salvaged. and under the leadership of general austin, we began working with iraqi military to reconstitute their divisions. we are now training and continue to train iraqi forces at four different sites across the country. 6000 have already graduated, thousands more in the pipeline. and we are supplying weapons and critical equipment. since the fall of 2014, the u.s. has delivered over 100 million rounds of ammunition, 62,000 small arms systems, 1700 hellfire missiles. 250 ambush protected vehicles
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were delivered in december that are now protecting iraqi forces and peshmerga forces from mines and homemade bombs. 50 additional m-wraps. at the air force base many of you served in and were part of securing, we are training, advising assistant iraqi army forces who are training sunni fighters. iraqi national security forces training sunni tribesmen. we are also bringing iraqi pilots to the united states who are in advanced stages of flight training in arizona to enhance their capacity to defend their country in the air. and we are not doing it alone. we led and mobilize a national coalition of over 60 nato partners, arab nations and many others to help take on isil.
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it is not just a military coalition, it is a global effort to weaken isil across the board. from undercutting messaging to fracking foreign fighters. -- fracking foreign fighters. -- tracking foreign fighters. in several nations, they are providing significant support in iraq. eight coalition partners have launched over 500 airstrikes in iraq. they have provided trainers inside iraq, others are working with us to train and resupply the kurdish, who have reclaimed a significant portion of the territory initially gained by isil. several countries, including japan, saudi arabia, have made significant, nonmilitary contributions in areas such as development assistance to humanitarian aid. a majority within each of the iraqi constituencies and communities supports this u.s. effort and these coalition efforts. leaders from across the iraqi
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political spectrum have publicly asked for our help. and our continued help. we are providing that help in a smarter way. small numbers of advisers backed by a coalition. and this large coalition is backed up by the most capable air force in the world. we are pounding isil from the sky. nearly 1300 air force attacks so far. thus far thankfully, we have not lost, knock on wood a single solitary u.s. servicemen to enemy fire. but, this is a dangerous dangerous, dangerous place. with our systems, iraqis admit -- our assistance, iraqis have made significant progress on the battlefield. eight months ago, isil was on the offenses everywhere in iraq. -- offensive everywhere in iraq.
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today in iraq, isil has lost large areas they used to dominate. isil has been defeated at mosul dam. mount sinjar and now tikrit. thousands of isil fighters have been removed from the battlefield. their ability to mass and maneuver has been greatly degraded. leaders have been eliminated supply lines have been severed. weapons, checkpoints, fighting positions, ied factories, safe houses have been destroyed. reports of demoralization within the ranks are rising. some fighters refusing to fight. foreign fighters being killed by isil because they want to return home. there is still a long fight ahead. i don't want to paint an overly rosy picture.
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but, they have been pierced and that is important. let me give you an example where iraqi military capability was tested as well as quite frankly its political leadership. three weeks ago, in every newspaper in the west and here in the united states, the speculation was the u.s. coalition to iraqui elected leaders had been sidelined on the fight against isil particularly in tikrit. military forces backed primarily by iran were running the show. you saw pictures. and they made it clear that everyone saw we were there, the implication being we now own iraq. then, something changed. the attacks stalled.
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prime minister abadi stepped up. he courageously stepped in making it clear that the iraqi government, him as commander-in-chief, was in charge of this operation. when i spoke with him, he made it clear to me that he wanted the united states and the coalition to engage all over iraq. was his phrase. and explicitly, he wanted us to engaged and requested support in tikrit. his call was joined by that of sunni leaders and the most senior religious leader in the country who declared the iraqi government had to be in the lead that the units had to be directly under the command -- all units under the command of the iraqi government.
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and that sunnis had to be included in the liberation of their own communities. and we made clear, general alston, that we are prepared to help in the battle with volunteers both shia and sunni fighting alongside iraqi fighters but only if all elements in the fight operated strictly under the chain of command of the iraqi military. because that is the only way we can ensure the safety of those on the ground and minimize the risk of friendly fire. today, iraq's national flag, not isil's, hangs over tikrit. but success brings new challenges. holding liberated areas. policing them with forces that are trusted by the community. in the community. that they are returning home to.
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transiting governing authority back to local officials, as envisioned in the federal system. restoring vital public services. and in the face of reports that there was mass looting and burning of homes, the prime minister stepped up and took swift action. he condemned the abuses, ordered the militia out, ensuring regular forces are patrolling and frankly acknowledged the degree of loss that had occurred. hiding nothing. once inside tikrit, forces uncovered execution grounds where isil murdered 7000 young men. and as i speak, mass graves are
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still being found, a stark reminder of the brutality of isil and the need for defeat. world's battle continues inside of iraq, -- while this battle continues in side of iraq, we are also taking the fight to isil in syria. international coalition has now launched airstrikes. bombed refineries that have been taken over by isil. the oil, refined and recruitment, -- refined and crude. being used to fund their operations, eliminating it as a source of revenue. we embarked on a training program to take on isil and protect syrian communities. in kobani killing thousands of fighters in the proving they can be defeated inside of syria as well. however, the regional challenge for iraq extends beyond syria.
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for years now, iraq has risked being pulled apart by a wide range of sectarian competition internally and externally. but the reality is that iraqis do not want to be drawn into regional conflict. they don't want to be owned by anybody. everybody forgets there was a war not a decade before where 100,000 were killed. a war with iran, their neighbor. they don't want to be puppets dangling on a string of anyone's puppeteering in the region. don't underestimate the power of iraqi national pride independence, sovereignty. it is only natural iraq will have relations with all of its neighbors, including iran. the history is too long, the
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border is too long, and it is a difficult neighborhood. but iraq must be free to make it own sovereign choice is the best choices under -- sovereign choices under the authority of elected representatives. we want what iraqis want -- a united, federal, and democratic iraq as defined by its own constitution, where power is shared among all iraqi communities, where a sovereign government exercises command and control of the forces in the field. and that is overwhelmingly what the iraqis want. so i go back to the focus, mr. ambassador, on the iraqi government. when the three major constituencies -- sunni, shia, kurd -- are united in wanting a whole and prosperous iraq. the likelihood of being pulled into the orbit of any single
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nation in the region is diminished exponentially because this would represent the only , the only government in the region that actually is not based on sectarian dominance. this is going to be a long haul. dealing with success or failure is in the hands of the iraqis. but as they stand up and together, this administration, this country is committed to standing with them. i need not tell this audience since 2003, more than 1.5 million american women and men including my son, have spent significant amounts of time on iraqi soil. every single morning since i
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have been vice president and before as chairman of the committee, we contacted the defense department and i ask the same question. “give me the exact number of americans who have given their lives on iraqi soil and afghan soil. give me the exact number, not a generalization. the exact number of those who have been wounded and/or lost in afghanistan." because no audience knows more than this, every one of those lives, brave women and men represent a community, represent a family and a larger family. only 1% of all americans have waged these fights for us but
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99% of all america owes them support and recognition. 4,481 americans have given their lives on iraqi soil, including many who served alongside the people in this room. i bet every one of you in uniform knows somebody who has been lost or wounded. and although our mission is significantly different today you may ask why am i focusing on this. although our mission is significantly different today than it was during that period, there are still men and women in uniform in iraq making sacrifices as i speak, from protecting our embassy, to training iraqis. two flying sort days -- to flyoi
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ing sorties. every other family, neighbor thinks everything is fine. dad or mom is not home for the birthday. they are missing that graduation. they're not there for christmas. or to make a thanksgiving toast. we have an obligation. we have an obligation. and just because we no longer have 160,000 troops there. it is an obligation that is as intense and real as it was when we had 160,000 troops there. they warrant our support. and their families warrant our deep gratitude. and so folks, as a country our one shared obligation is to give them what they need on the
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battlefield and care for them when they come home. their blood and toil helped to give iraq another chance. our mission that was to help the iraqis make the most of this. -- our mission now is to help you iraqis make the most of this. they do for listening and thank you for your service. may god bless the united states of america and made god bless our troops. thank you. [applause] >> virginia governor terry mcauliffe is at the center for
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american progress on friday to speak about the importance of early childhood education. following the speaker panel will talk about how it is affecting the community. you can watch live at 10:00 a.m. eastern on c-span. >> on friday at the cato institute, a look at the challenges and implications of tax reform and broadening of the tax base. speakers will discuss the tax reforms put forward by candidates. >> kentucky senator and presidential candidate rand paul outlined his foreign-policy position thursday in south carolina. the addressed -- he addressed presidential war power and authority in mount pleasant south carolina. this is about 20 minute.
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rand paul: it is great to be in south carolina. you know what i like most about south carolina? you feel free enough and confident enough to cheer. that doesn't happen everywhere in the country could -- country. it still happens in south carolina, kentucky, and a lot of this country. i think there is no greater responsibility for any legislature -- latest the -- legislature or later than when we go to war. the consequences are ominous. that responsibility should never be given to any individual who previously or cavalierly calls for war. war brings with it great obligations. these obligations do not in when our brave young men and women come home. it's just the beginning. one thing i know is true, we go a debt of gratitude to our men
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and women who have taught and continued to fight for our bill of rights. we of the next generation the wisdom to know when war is necessary and when war is not necessary. i promise you this i will never forget our veterans. i will never forget our soldiers in the field. and i've got to judge questions of war with a solemn and profound deliberation. i will never take the country to war without just cause and without constitutional approval of congress. [applause]
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as commander in chief, the world will know our objective is peace. the world will not mistake our desire for peace for passivity. the world should not mistake our reluctance for war for inaction. if war should prevent avoidable america will fight with overwhelming force and we will not relent until victory is ours. [applause] behind me is the uss yorktown the shipment on the original yorktown -- that ship men on the original yorktown were silent as they watched it seemed to the depths of the pacific during the battle of midway. there was no conversation, no hysteria. these men were brave and proud lawyers.
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over 100 sailors died that day. is it any wonder that the people who have served in combat are usually more circumspect than those who have never fought? the men of the uss yorktown were on the front lines. they knew better than anyone in washington the sacrifice necessary to protect liberty. they did not talk about strength and courage. they lived in. they did not seek or -- seek war , but with a were there when called fight. i believe that the men and women protecting our liberty deserve leaders who are accountable to the american people. the crew of the uss yorktown understood that our freedom and prosperity must be defended against those who would attack us. they learned the terrible lesson that war is not a game and should not be used for political advantage. too many lawmakers in washington
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have not learned that lesson. in 1964, ronald reagan warned of the dangers, the dangers of seating our freedom to a little intellectual elite and a far distant capital who think they can plan our lives for us better than we can for ourselves. freedom nurtured our country from a rebellious group of colonies into the world's greatest nation. when tierney threaten the world america led the way to rid the world of nazis. we stood decade after decade against communism. the engine of capitalism finally winning out against the sputtering, incompetent engine of socialism. we won the cold war. american and freedom are so intertwined that people are literally dying to come to our country. the freedom we have fostered in america has unleashed genius and
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advancement like never before in the history of man. our great nation still needs new ideas, new answers to old problems. if america is to lead again. today, we set atop a powder cake , a troubling $18 trillion deficit. our debt threatens our national security. our debt equals our entire economy. and special interests continue to hold the government hostage. together we will take our country back from the special interests that use washington as their personal piggy bank. the special interests -- 2[applause] -- these special interests seem to be more concerned with their own welfare than with the general welfare. the washington machine that gobbles up our freedoms and invades every note and cranny of our lives must be stopped. [applause]
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when i first ran for office, nobody thought i could win including my wife. [laughter] nobody thought i could win. they said why are you running. i said the same answer now as then. i have a vision for america. i want to be a part of a return to prosperity and an economic boom that lists all americans return to government restrained by the constitution, return to privacy, opportunity liberty -- [applause] -- too often when republicans have won, we have squandered our victory by becoming part of the machine. the republicans win and then we become part of the washington machine. that is not who i am. that is not why iran for office.
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the truth is i love my life as a small-town doctor. i have been fortunate enough to enjoy the american dream. i worry though that that opportunity and hope is slipping away from our sons and daughters. as i watched -- watched our once great economy collapse under debt and spending, i think what kind of america will our grandchildren see? it seems to me that both parties and the entire political system have let us down. big government and that doubled under republicans, and now it is tripling under democrats. president obama will add more debt than all of the previous presidents combined. [boos] we borrow a million dollars every minute. this fasting stimulation of debt threatens not just our economy but our security. we need to wake up now and do the right thing. we need to >> spending money that we don't have.
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-- we need to quit spending money that we don't have. [applause] liberty is for all walks of life. the message of liberty, opportunity, and justice should not let the liberals take the word justice to it we need to be the party of justice. we need to be for all americans whether you wear a suit, overalls, uniform, white, or black gate we need to be the party of all americans. -- white or black. we need to be the party of all americans. [applause] we need to go boldly forth under a banner of liberty that clutches the constitution in one hand and the bill of rights and the other. [applause] we need to be boldly for what we
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are for. washington is horribly broken. i fear it can't be fixed from within. we need your help and we the people must rise up and demand action. congress will never balance the budget. i have been there. i have met these folks. they will never ever balance the budget. not unless you force them to do it. [applause] congress has an abysmal record at balancing anything. our only recourse is to force them to balance the budget with the constitutional amendment. [applause] i have been to washington. let me tell you, there is no monopoly of knowledge in washington. i ran for office because i
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thought we had too many career politicians. i believe that now more than after we need -- limit the president to two terms, why don't we limit all of congress? [applause] and while we are at that, we need more commonsense rules in washington, the place is crazy topsy-turvy, upside down, common sense is a rarity. that is why i have introduced something truly extraordinary a, the bills act. [applause] the bills are thousands of pages long often put on her desk with a couple of hours to reach. we actually have rules that they can give them to us without 48 hours to reach them. i got one bill last year, on my desk for four hours, 1000 pages
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long, you what they did? they voted to override their own rules for there is a disrespect in washington for the role of laws. the freedom we have fostered in america is something extraordinary. it has on leash genius and advancement like never before. yet our great nation still needs new ideas, and new answers. i have a vision for america where everyone who wants to work will have a job. many americans though are left behind. the report of work seems to be beyond their grasp. under the watch of both parties the poor seem to get poor, and the rich seem to get richer. trillion dollar government stimulus packages have only widened the income gap. politically connected cronies get hundreds of millions of dollars -- think solyndra. one of the richest guys and our
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country got a 105 million dollar loan. what is up with that? i have a different vision. i have an ambitious vision that will offer opportunity to all americans. my plan includes economic freedom zones to allow impoverished areas like detroit columbia, eastern kentucky -- allow them to prosper by leaving more money in their hands and sending less money to washington. [applause] in my vision for america, we will bring back manufacturing jobs that pay well. how will we do this? we will dramatically lower the tax on american profit overseas and encourage it to come home. [applause] more than $2 trillion of american profit is overseas and
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we can bring it home and create jobs here at home. in my vision for america, new highways and bridges will be built across the country, not by raising your taxes, but by lowering the taxes and encouraging this american profit to come home. [applause] liberal policies have failed our inter-cities. our schools are not equal and the poverty get continues to widen. martin luther king spoke of two americas. he described them as two starkly different experiences that exist side-by-side. in one america people experience the opportunity of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. but in the other america, people experience the daily ugliness, dashing hopes, leaving only the fatigue and despair. although i was born into the america that experiences and believes in opportunities, my
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trips to detroit chicago have revealed what i consider to be an undercurrent of unease. it is time for a new way, always predicated on justice, opportunity, and freedom. [applause] i want all our children to have the same opportunities that i had. we need to stop limiting kids in poor neighborhoods to failing public schools and offer school choice, not just for the privilege, but for everyone. [applause] currently some $3 trillion comes in in taxes. couldn't the country just survive in $3 trillion? i propose we do something
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extraordinary. why don't we only spend what comes in? [applause] in my vision for america freedom and prosperity at home can only be achieved if we defend against enemies who are dead set on attacking america. without question, we must defend ourselves. we must defend american interests from our enemies. until we name the enemy though we cannot win the war. the enemy is a barbarous aberration, radical islam. [applause] and not only will i name the enemy, i would do everything in my power, everything it takes, to defend america from these haters of mankind. [applause] we need a national defense
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robust a not to defend against all attacks, moderate enough to deter all enemies, and nimble enough to defend our vital interests, but we also need a foreign policy that protects american interests and encourages stability, not chaos. [applause] at home, conservatives understand that the government is the problem, not the solution. conservatives though should not succumb to the notion that a government in a fit home will somehow succeed in building nations abroad. [applause] i envision an america with a national defense unparalleled, undefeatable, and unencumbered by overseas nations building. [applause]
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i envision a national defense that promotes as reagan put it, he's through strength. -- peace through strength. [applause] we must realize that we cannot project strength by barring money from china to send it to pakistan. [applause] -- by borrowing money from china to send it to pakistan. >> president paul. president paul. president paul. rand paul: let's >> building bridges in foreign countries and use that money at home. [applause] it angers me to see mobs burning
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our flag and chanting death to america in countries that received millions of dollars of our aid. i say -- [applause] -- i say it must in. i say not one penny more. [applause] -- i say it must end. i say not one penny more. >> president paul. president paul. president paul. rand paul: to defend our country, we knew need to gather intelligence on the enemy, but when the intelligence director is not punished for lying under oath how are we to trust our government agencies? warrantless searches of americans phone records and computer records are un-american and a threat to our civil liberties. [applause]
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i say to your phone records are yours. the phone records of law-abiding citizens are none of their dam business. [applause] the president created this vast dragnet by executive order. as president on day one, i will immediately end this unconstitutional surveillance. [applause] i believe we can have liberty and security. i will not compromise your liberty for a false sense of security, not now, not ever. [applause]
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we must defend ourselves but we must never give up on who we are as a people in the process. we must never diminish the bill of rights as we fight this long war against evil. we must believe in our founding documents. we must protect economic and personal liberties. america has much greatness left in her. we are still exceptional. we are still a beacon for the world. we will thrive when we believe in ourselves again. i see in america, strong enough to deter foreign aggression, yet wise enough to avoid unnecessary intervention. [applause] i see an america where criminal justice is applied equally. i see in america -- [applause] -- i see an america with a
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restrained irs that cannot target or harass american citizens for the political or religious beliefs. [applause] i see our big cities once again shining and beckoning. with american companies offering american jobs. i have a vision for america beyond partisan squabbling beyond petty divisions. with your help, this message will ring from coast to coast. in message of liberty, justice personal responsibility. today begins the journey to take america back. to rescue a great country now adrift. join me, as together we seek a new vision for america. i am in south carolina today to announce, with god's help, with
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help of liberty lovers everywhere, and i -- that i am putting myself or as a candidate for the presidency of the united states. [applause] ♪ [applause] ♪
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♪ >> our road to the white house covers can -- white house coverage continues in miami on monday with senator marco rubio's announcement about his rate -- is run for the presidency. he is expected to be the third candidate elected republican field. -- third candidate to enter the republican field.
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coming up, c-span svs congressional -- c-span congressional interviews continues with representative norma torres of california. as followed by indian serotypes and sports and then u.n. secretary-general ban ki-moon. >> this sunday on "wq&a", senior editor on his writing career and what voters are looking for in a candidate. >> they want somebody who looks like he has stood up for them. i am amazed of the degree to which primary voters on both sides are motivated by resentment. the sense of being put upon. those people really don't understand us. here is a guy that does
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understand us and he is going to stick it to him. that happens with both sides. i don't think that was actually true 30 years ago. resentment has always been part of politics but the degree to which it is almost exclusively the motivating factor in truly committed public and the democrats. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern and pacific on c-span's "q&a". >> c-span profiles of new members of congress continue with representative norma torres of california. she came to the u.s. at the age of five from guatemala. she worked as a time as a police dispatcher and served in the california state assembly before being elected to congress. this interview is 25 minutes.
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>> what is the different between serving here and serving in the state senate? representative torres: the biggest difference i think is our inability to work across the aisle. in california we certainly did a better job with that. >> how do you fix it? rep. torres: i think members have to commit to working together. we have to commit personal time getting to know each other traveling in each other's districts and learning about the issues that are important and respecting those issues.
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>> i would suspect another big difference is the amount of money it takes to run for congress and to get reelected. what has that been like for you? rep. torres: it is incredibly hard to get here. the money involved in politics makes it almost impossible for someone like me, and average mom, a 911 dispatcher by trade it's incredible that i made it this far, but here i am. >> why did you decide to seek elected office? rep. torres: i answered a call as a dispatcher of an 11-year-old girl who died at the hands of her uncle. it really pushed me into a political world that i frankly did not know existed. i was the average mom, raising my children, all i had to do was go to work, come home, and pay my bills. over that issue, it was a very difficult time for the city of los angeles and the state of
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california. we were facing proposition 187 at the time, and i was asking for changes to help the primarily spanish-speaking community in los angeles to hire more bilinguals and to be more responsive to their needs. >> let me go back to that story because you have talked about it but let me take it one step further. what happened? you get the call. she is with her uncle, she is 11 years old. tell us this story. rep. torres: it was a very hot summer night. there were only three dispatchers that spoke spanish at that time. and this person called for help. the call started very early with her uncle taking his live-in girlfriend into -- he put a gun to her head and dragged her
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next-door where the little girl lived. it took 20 minutes for me to answer her call. by the time i answered it, all i could hear was screaming. later i learned that their horrific sounds i was hearing was her head being bashed against the wall. she was shot five times point-blank. the person who shot her fled. our officers were there within 20 seconds of me advising them that there was a crime in progress. i really felt that we could have done more. so i did more. i began a process of trying to get my department to be more sensitive, to recruit bilingual dispatchers, not only in spanish, but in other languages. then i had to go before the public safety committee in los angeles.
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many times i had to testify against my own department. that is not easy to do. >> did they apprehend the suspect? rep. torres: they did. eventually he turned himself in. he served, i believe four years or six years in jail for that crime. i spent many months waiting to go to trial. i was her only witness. it was the call that captured the shooting, the screams, her last words, which i really did not know what they were until i went to the process of translating the tape for the officers. her last words were, uncle please don't kill me.
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in many ways she changed my entire life. >> what does that tell you about our criminal justice system that he only served six years? rep. torres: it was very disappointing, disappointing that his family was well-off and they were able to convince the jury that he, by dredging one beer -- by drinking one beer was intoxicated and therefore he , did not know what he was doing. and that it was a crime of passion. >> what was the girl's name? did you talk to her family over the years? rep. torres: yahira. i have not. >> that was the starting point for your political career? rep. torres: that was my starting point. i often say that i hate politics, not really what i want to do. it's the work that i have to do to do what i love to do, and that is serve my community. public service has been my life.
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>> you were born in what the -- in guatemala. you came to the united states when? rep. torres: i came to the united states in 1970. i was sent here by my parents to live with my father's oldest brother. he lived in whittier california. his youngest brother was here, but was serving in the u.s. navy at the time. my mother was very, very ill. guatemala was a war torn country at that time. there was a lot of violence. my father felt that they could not take care of me because they were so busy with my mother's illness. he thought it was better for me to come to the u.s. i was told i was coming on vacation, but in many ways i think i own this country -- owe this country a great deal. i have had a wonderful life
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here. >> did you speak any english? rep. torres: i did not. back then, we did not have esl programs. i went to school in a classroom with other kids. i learned english fairly quickly because of a child, you don't have a lot of things on your mind other than that i want to be able to play with other kids and communicate with them. >> what do you remember about your mom? she has since passed away. rep. torres: i don't remember a great deal. i think that is unfortunate. >> and your dad? rep. torres: my dad is remarried and lives very close to where i live. he came to the u.s. about five years later. i moved back in with him within eight years of me leaving guatemala. i ended up back with my dad in my teenage years. which are difficult for a girl
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not having her mom. for any child. >> brothers, sisters, cousins? rep. torres: i have two older sisters, seven years apart. i was the baby. they still treat me like that. >> why? rep. torres: i think they have always tried to protect me. they have always thought since i was the youngest that they needed to protect me. >> your first elected office was in city hall, correct? rep. torres: yes, iran for city council in 2000. i was a member of, ask me. at that time president mcintyre challenged the membership to run for elected office. he said, i don't care what you run for, county commissioner whatever it is, put your name on the ballot and run. america needs their workers to
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have a voice at the table. america needs their workers to be at the negotiating table. i took that to heart. after being through what i went through in the city of los angeles, i felt that if they can do it, why can't i? i love my community. i want to help my community. i have a lot to offer. i won by 75 votes. i broke my ankle five weeks before the election and rented a wheelchair and kept on going. i defeated an incumbent who had been in office for 11 years. he had switched parties. because the area that we represented was very conservative, republican, and i defeated him with his own constituency. >> how did you break your ankle? rep. torres: walking on a broken sidewalk. i continued to walk for a block.
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i had no idea that it was broken . when i got home, my sister was there, and she's a nurse. as soon as i took off my tennis shoes, my foot blew up. she took me to the hospital. >> would you ever have imagined that today you would in the house of representatives? rep. torres: absolutely not. back then, people said that she is a union member, she only cares about certain things. there was an issue with the l.a. county fair that i had taken on. they were proposing an expansion project. they had done and eir, and there were 67 issues that needed to be negotiated and i was involved in all of that. gaining the respect of my community and the trust of my
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community was really important but i never thought that i would ever make it this far. >> let me ask you about union membership because as you know it is on the decline across the country. why is that? from your past experiences, is there a way that you could change that curve? rep. torres: i think that in many ways labor has gotten away from doing what we used to do really good before. that is our outreach effort. i think we need to do more of that, engaging the membership at their level. on things that are important to them, like childcare. prior to me being elected to city council, i was very involved in state and national lobbying efforts.
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because of childcare. i worked the graveyard shift because i could not afford to hire a babysitter. those were the things that many of my colleagues had to do. their children went to the local library. that was childcare for them. single moms, i'm grateful that i'm not a single mom. still, two income family raising three sons was very hard. in a neighborhood like pomona, i have to be there for my kids to make sure that they are on the right path. >> you have three boys, names? ages? rep. torres: robert is 29. christer, a veteran of the air force, is 25. my baby matthew is 22. >> what do they think of their mom being in congress? rep. torres: they think it is an incredible challenge for them.
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we have a very competitive household. their biggest complaint is how are we going to be able to compete with mom. what do i have to do to be better than congress? i think they are now realizing that. it is not a title that makes me who i am. it's my involvement in my community. >> is there a budding politician in your family? rep. torres: maybe. my oldest son, robert, ran for local office, but did not win. he stayed very well-connected and continue to get involved with community issues. >> how did you and your husband meet? rep. torres: we met at a baptism. some friends were having a baptism party, a barbecue, backyard barbecue, and that's how we met. i always said that i did not
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really like him, but i fell in love with him. he is my best friend. eventually we started dating and we have been married this year 29 years. >> what about your routine here in washington? how often you get home? what is your schedule like? rep. torres: i go home every week. i have to. otherwise i would not see my family. my husband thinks that his mission in life is to keep me grounded. if he was to come to washington, d.c., he said it would be harder for me to get california. travel is hard. it's hard because unfortunately there are no direct flights to the airport that is 10 minutes away from my home. to enjoy sunday afternoons with
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my family, i have to fly out of lax, which means i have to leave at 5:30 a.m. for an 8:20 a.m. flight. going home, it's a little bit harder. i either go through texas or phoenix to get to the airport. >> how do you maximize your time on the airplane? rep. torres: i try to sleep, because when i get home, i have to hear about everything that has happened while i been gone not only at home, but in the community. then i try to catch up on reading. >> let me ask you about immigration, because you are an example of the immigration system in this country, the debate that is front and center. what recommendations would you give democrats, and more importantly republicans, as this debate continues? rep. torres: more so to my republican colleagues, i am a perfect example of immigration
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gone right. when i immigrated -- when my family immigrated to the united states, it was a lot easier. there was a process that did not take 30 years. you can petition for family members, and we did all that. it was a good process. it allowed me to participate in this country, not just as a taxpayer, but as a voter and community activists, and eventually run for office. i think exactly that is the american dream that we want every person who comes to this country to be able to reach. their full potential to participate in making this great country what it is. >> where in guatemala is your family from and have you been back there? rep. torres: i have been back twice, once as mayor.
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and three years ago, i went as a state assembly member. i was invited by the government the second time around. it's very difficult for me to travel to guatemala. i am very popular. i had no idea that they have been following my political life. in these central american countries, this is an issue that i've been trying to address, the governments are very corrupt. the people saw me as an example of someone who works the graveyard shift and still serves the community. i think that is what they want to see out of their government. >> rg the highest-ranking guatemalan in our government today? rep. torres: i am.
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that is a very difficult position to be in. not only do i have my district to represent, but we get calls from all over the u.s. it's quite an honor that the people from that congressional district had given me. >> back in november, you another -- you and other freshman representatives came to washington as representatives elect and went through the orientation process. you told the l.a. times that is like drinking water from a fire hose. what is it like? rep. torres: we had just won an election, so everybody was tired. i think we got one week off, but i was not really off because i was a state senator. i had to shut down my senate office. when i came here, there was so much information given to us. in many ways, i think it is the way congress can say that we gave you that information, now
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you're on your own. >> there is a picture behind you, and i think there is a story with that photograph. can you explain? rep. torres: the office lottery. it was a lot of fun actually. we got to choose numbers and it was done by alphabetical order so torres, i was one of the last members to choose a number. but i think i pulled in the mid-30's, 37, and that was the face that i was making. i did not think i would have a great chance to get a nice office. >> you also learned about d.c. weather, did you not? rep. torres: i was not prepared, still not prepared. congresswoman napolitano who was
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, my member of my congress a -- congress prior to the redistricting, offered me a pair of boots. she said you need to have boots that are snowboots. those california but still work -- california boots don't work here. >> you have moved up from city hall to the state assembly to the state senate to congress. what is next? rep. torres: this is where i am going to be for a while, i think. there is a lot of work to do here. there are a lot of relationships to mend. there is a constituency that feels that government isn't working for them and they don't see themselves here. i think it's a great opportunity for me to say, look, i came from four floors underground, working the graveyard shift, the mom next door, the soccer mom next i should say. here i am. if i can do it, you can do it too. but more importantly, we need
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your involvement. it's too easy to forget where you come from when you come to washington, d.c. >> you have heroes, role models, people who have influenced you along the way? rep. torres: i have had a lot of people who have helped in one way or another, either through constructive criticism or holding my hand during that mayoral election, where i won by 250 votes. it was a very difficult time in my life. i have lost my home to a fire. -- i had lost my home to a fire. congresswoman napolitano sitting in the living room of a temporary house that we manage to rent. every time a precinct reported she squeezed my hand. we won by a landslide that election, but i have had people
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like that who have truly cared about me. >> talk for a moment about the house fire. rep. torres: i was in the middle of running for mayor and it was -- i had taken a leave of absence from my job as a 911 dispatcher. i was helping my union on to ballot initiatives. i had just left my home good i -- i just left my home and i was on the phone with a constituent because we were planning a demonstration the next day for these rooming houses for sex offenders who are being sent to my hometown. my husband's phone drinks -- phone rings and he is driving
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and he puts it on speaker phone and it's the kids, the house is on fire. i'm thinking it is the hill that is on fire. you never think that this is something that could happen to you. we drove home, we were 10 minutes away. we had to run the last four blocks because there were so many emergency vehicles. it was devastating. i went from driving a mercedes to driving a kia, but we managed. we survived all of that. >> what was the cause? rep. torres: the cause was electrical. we moved into a home that was built in the 1920's, and the electrical had not been upgraded, so here we are, a family with three computers, a tv in every room, and some of the bedrooms have two tvs because you have to watch football not just on one
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channel, but two different channels. it was quite a devastating experience. i lived in five different places in 14 months. homelessness, i think that's why i'm so passionate about homelessness. i think it is america's black eye. you never know, it could happen to you. it happened to me. had it not been for a credit card with a zero balance, i would have been living in my car. we had no place to go. because of that credit card, i was able to check into a hotel and the hotel was my home for the first three weeks. eventually, i worked with my insurance company and we found a temporary house to rent. i can't tell you how frustrating and how difficult it is for a family with young boys, a dog
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and a cat to find a place to live. even though i was a councilmember, even though i was on the ballot to be the mayor, somehow it's very difficult. people don't want folks who come with that baggage. i don't see it as baggage. my kids and my pets help to drive my politics. eventually, we found a temporary place. but then we had to move again to a hotel, when they found a more stable tenant. so we lived between hotels and this temporary house for 14 months. >> thank you for your time and thank you for sharing your story with us. we appreciate it. rep. torres: thank you.
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>> on friday, c-span spring -- c-span's congressional profiles finish up with representative ryan zinke from montana. >> i have to laugh sometimes being a congressman is sometimes more difficult than being a seal in that, as a seal, you can watch things get done. you can engage. you have a terrific team around you. and normally you have the resources to win and you can watch progress be made. on the hill, under the current polarization, there is progress being made, it is fixable, but progress is not as rapid as what you would like. you have to make sure you
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exercise some patients. in some is just political rhetoric. some people don't want the facts. they care about an agenda. i never look through life through a red or a blue lens. it has always been red white and blue. as a former seal commander, i never asked the political affiliation of the folks around me. all i cared about was how good they were. where a skilled, where they committed? did they have the right got -- the right gut and grit to do what was necessary. >> on friday, c-span congressional profiles concludes with montana republican ryan zinke.
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on friday at the cato institute a look at the challenges and implications of tax code reform and broadening the tax base. speakers will also discuss various reform plans put forward various 2016 presidential candidates. live at noon eastern time here on c-span. >> here are some of our featured programs for this weekend on the c-span networks. on c-span twos book tv, saturday at 10 p.m. eastern on afterwards president of americans for tax reform grover norquist says americans are tired of the irs and our tax system. sunday night at eight author susan butler on president franklin roosevelt and soviet leader joseph stalin, allies during world war ii, and their unexpected partnership beyond the war. saturday night at eight eastern on american history tv on c-span3 on lectures in history diversity of virginia college at wise professor jennifer murray on how civil war veterans
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reunions have changed from the reconstruction era to present. sunday afternoon at one, american history tv is live from appomattox court court house -- appomattox courthouse to memory the lender 50 -- i've messed courthouse commemorating the 150th anniversary of the confederate surrender. >> next, a discussion of native americans stereotypes in sports and other parts of society. they include the lead plaintiff in the lawsuit against the washington redskins and this two hours. [applause] thank you very much for hosting >> us tonight. kevin gover: it is good to be
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back in the valley. i was expecting different weather than we have got but we all know rain is always a blessing in the desert. it is very good to be here at the museum. it is one of our important partners nationally and works with armies and to help us sharpen ideas and share information and objects quite often. it is always good to be here. for those of you who have not seen it, i hope you will check out the exhibition on native americans in sports. i think you will be surprised. one of the things that many people are surprised by our the range of things that native americans have achieved excellence in. this is one of those areas. we all know about jim thorpe. there were many other native athletes of whom you should be
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aware, one of whom we will hear from. let me jump into it. i will have to turn my site do you from time to time so i can see which slide we are on. i am at the national museum of the american indian. one of the things that interest us greatly is the persistence of stereotypes. our visitors don't come as blank slates, they come with a preconceived set of ideas, not uninformed but misinformed. as you can see, just a couple of years ago at the vatican. this is a man there at the vatican celebrating as she understands native american culture. this is one of those examples where we can hardly alter at fault. she does not know any better
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because this is what she has been taught. this entire notion of cultural appropriation and taking from native people of their authority to define who they are emerged at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. this is part of the imagery that laid the groundwork for what would later become this business of using indians as mascots. really, abusing our history in more significant ways. this is the end of the trail them in, a famous one. it indicates defeat but also the disappearance of native americans. in fact, the very object of a government policy at this time was the disappearance of native american tribes. what they did not want was for
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people to act like indians and be part of indian tribes. that is when the mascot business began. this mascot was adopted in the 1930's by a particularly vicious racist. the owner of a team that at the time was in boston. the team was initially called the boston braves, the same as one of the baseball teams. but, later, in order to distinguish the team from the baseball team, the owner chose this particular name. there's a lot of mythology around the name. they each have an origin myth for their mascot. they are very elaborate and fantastically untrue. a fellow who went by the name of lone star gates, there were a
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couple of problems. first, the owner himself not time is quoted in the newspapers saying that is not why we named it that. it is kind of a name like red sox. except, it is this. that is alive. the other lie is that one star gates himself was an indian. he was convicted of fraud for pretending to be an indian because he was trying to dodge the draft. yet, the team maintains on its website that is the origin of the name. similarly, this team has an origin myth. they say it was a fellow named henry who was a baseball player for the team. they say they named their team and order to honor him. if you really begin to dig into that history, what we find is henry was treated incredibly
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badly by the fans. second, he was not that good. he was not the kind of guy you would name your team for. he was not bad, but he was not that good. he was not a very nice guy. all of this sort of suggests that they made that up. this is part of what goes on when dealing with indians and the public discourse. things get made up and indians become very malleable and they are formed in order to fill whatever particular role the institution or entity or state or country needs them to fill. this is the logo for the chicago hockey team. there actually was a man named black hawk.
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he turned the team into the blackhawks is a little strange. the team has made efforts to reach out to the chicago indian community. if you really wanted to honor black hawk, why isn't it and everyone of her game programs? why isn't there a biography of backtalk? a description of the war and how he was betrayed? this is a retired mascot. this of course is the former mascot of the university of illinois. this involved a fairytale about an incident that took place in this part of the country where the illinois indians died very noble yet terribly tragic
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demise. the ending was their leader. it did not happen. once again, they made up things in order to suit their need for a mascot for their sports teams. this fellow is particularly outrageous. he is the mascot for the florida state football team. there are too many things wrong with this picture to describe them all. i am fairly certain that the seminoles who were very formidable fighters did not fight on horses and did not carry flaming lances. who would do such a thing? yet, before every game, this guide will write out to the center of the field, throw a flaming lance into the ground as if this is some sort of accurate
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portrayal of a real and formidable seminole leader. this business of playing indian goes way back. it is something that has been done from the very beginning. back in the early 1800s, they formed societies, for example in new york city. you may have heard of them because they were central to the corruption in the 1920's. it ended up with a lot of of people going to jail. the tammany hall scandal. this chief was a real person who dried is very best to form stable relationships with the surrounding non-indian community. he tammany society was created to honor him.
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they did the strangest inks. they would have secret meetings where they would dress up again the ends -- just up like indians, assign each other indian names, beat drums and carry out rituals in order to channel the spirits. when the nation came to new york to negotiate the treaty of new york with george washington, they were greeted by the tammany society in full regalia. the tammany society paraded them down the streets of new york to the capital where george washington awaited. imagine what those leaders must have thought when these guys showed up. playing indian is something that has gone on. you may recall the numbers in philadelphia. that was another offshoot of the type where they would just up like indians. there is this weird kind of need
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in some way to establish yourself as an american by connecting an pretending to be a native american. this is the result. i don't know what this guy is but, it is a real thing at the washington football stadium. this is a well-known figure in washington. one of the problems with the mascots is that even if we educate the supporters of a team to be a themselves and express themselves in a respectful manner that does suggest there
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out to honor the native american heritage of the country or their community, what do can really do is control the conduct of the opposing team. back when north dakota might very well in good faith claim they're honoring the souix people by having the mascot. "scalp the souix" from the other teams. this is a philadelphia fan expressing his appreciation for washington's football team. these fellows showed up at the last time cleveland baseball team managed to make the playoffs. that is the sort of conduct that does notion of a disappearing native american to be replaced
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by mascots leads us to. what has happened is indians have been made imaginary. the indians that most washingtonians are mostly minor with are not the kind of indians that are in the room tonight. it is this imaginary indian they have constructed. he is noble, brave, strong. we keep having to remind them that he is imaginary. that is not a real person. to put us on the side of a football helmet is no particular honor, thank you very much. to refer to us by that name is the exact opposite of an honor. yet, they have a hard time accepting that. we have even heard them say that this is their tradition. what, mocking indians is your
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tradition? there are very serious about that. this is our tradition. this is how we express ourselves. this is our team. breaking through that and getting them to consider how a native american person might experience that sort of conduct has been very difficult. the ultimate rebuttal to my mind is to say if being made into a mascot is such an honor, why is it that our african-american and asian-american and latino american people have not been similarly honored anyplace in the country. surely we are not the only ones worthy of that honor. the answer is very simple. it is simply that there are so few indians and a few of the folks in that part of the country have had direct experience with them that it never occurs to them that this is generally -- destructive conduct.
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we are dealing with people whose information about indians has come primarily from two sources. first is our formal education system, which is billing rather dramatically in teaching history in general and teaching history involving native americans particularly badly. the second place they get their information is from the popular culture, including this sports mascots coulter. when they come to us -- culture. when they come to us to learn something, they don't come through the door without already reformed ideas about what indians are. you would be surprised how many people come in and look at this array of different tribal cultures presented and say yeah, but where are the indians? because their notion of what an indian is supposed to look like is that guy on the set of the football helmet.
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we don't happen to have any indians like that on display in the museum so they are puzzled and they don't realize indians are everywhere. and that one indian tribe can be as different from another as china is from france. it would never occur to them that indians are many different things. in fact, there is no such thing as an indian. indian is a something that was made up. yet, when we see the imagery associated with the mascots, they all tend to look alike. that in itself tells us people are being misled. we begin a series of exhibitions at the museum. patient was guest curated by suzanne harjo. part of this is that we simply want people to gain a simple understanding of history. we don't want them to think of it as strictly native american
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history, it is american history. in many respects, world history. it is just history. not american indian history. when we teach about a situation like this, that is the point where trying to make. this is everybody's inheritance. it's not just an indian thing. we talk about the treaties of c anandaigua. the central figure of a house is on either side of it. the figures represent the mohawk nation as the keepers of the eastern and western doors. then, the 13 figures associated
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with that represented the 13 colonies. a belt like this was commissioned by none other than george washington to mark the entry of the united states into this treaty relationship with the tribes. this was no small matter. this is not a trinket, not jewelry. this is a diplomatic exchange. this was protocol. this is how one nation entered into an agreement with the tribes of that part of the world. we go into the removal policy and focus specifically. most people have heard of the trail of tears. we come back to that. a lot of people don't know that
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the policy was quite thorough going. it extended to the great lakes and ohio valley and it was intended to remove all indians east of the mississippi to west of the mississippi. we tell them about this removal journey referred to as the trail of death. we then go into the civilization regulations. the creation of boarding schools. this is a class of indian students at carlisle, about 100 miles from washington dc. they would take these children from all over the country, remove them to carlisle, pennsylvania, and many of them would never see their parents again. that was the objective. they were not to return home. they were to be educated and released into society. we then say after this narrative arc, first there was real diplomacy, then there was a betrayal. then, a restoration.
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and, a resumption of a more respectable relationship between the tribes and the united states. but it did not come simply from the largess of the united states. it was something many people fought for. that is the only reason it happened. these are great lakes fishermen challenging state regulation of their treaty fishing rights. the great lakes nations also won supreme court litigation. now, we see policy made in a much different way than it was when progress was basically -- congress was busily telling the end and this is the way you should be. there was an effort at the beginning of it want your century to eradicate native american culture, to eradicate native americans, to break up the family, the tribe, the
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reservations with a very specific objective of having no tribes remain. they suppressed tribal religions. they prohibited some tribal dancing. they prohibited these children the use of their language in the boarding schools. they suppressed the tribal government. basically anything that made them indians, the government tried to make them stop doing. they failed because of course they were going to fail. but they really thought that was something they could do. policy was being made, the united states was saying, we know what is best for you so here is how we will do this. i included this picture to show that that is no longer how policy is made. while it would be a stretch to say that we resumed a treaty
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relationship between the drives and united states, it is certainly moving in that direction and much of the business done now is on a negotiated basis where both sides consent and agree on how things should move forward. we basically say now we are on the right track. since this policy was resumed, this policy of bilateral negotiated, friendly arrangements was resumed, indian country has begun to drive again and the results are indisputable that indian country has recovered during this time. one of the great myths of our formal education, of our popular culture is that the americas were wilderness prior to the arrival of the europeans.
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new research shows the americas were a happening place in 1491. there were literally hundreds, thousands of different cultures that were operating in the two continental the western hemisphere. there was no part of this continent's -- this continent that was unknown to the indigenous people at the time. there were 2000 different languages being spoken, all neutrally unintelligible to the others. that suggests a long time in which they were evolving separately. the latest research has some of the scientists believing there were as many people in the americas in 1492 than there were in europe. that overturns the notion of an american wilderness.
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there was no wilderness in 1492. the americas were fully occupied, they were owned. every part of these continents was owned by somebody. it is important to the american origin story to refer to the americas as being wilderness at that time because that makes it ok. that others tame and displays the people already there because those -- but displaced the people already there. this is the depiction of a city which was near current day st. louis. this city in 1100 was larger than london. london was the largest city in england. there were cities throughout the western hemisphere that rivaled in size of their european
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counterparts. there were people here, a great many people here, perhaps as many as 40 million on the two continents. have many of you have been to peru? in the end is, the current estimates are there were 10 million people living in that part of the world. they were self-sufficient. they were growing a variety of food. hunger was unknown in the inca empire. we want people to know that. we are working on some exhibitions that will bring forward this genuine history of the americas. this is cahokia. this is a smaller empire.
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several hundred years before the emergence of the incas, they were building a vast civilization throughout mesoamerica. the aztecs as well. this is a city on the lake. this culture in the american southwest was elaborate. the park ranger in ms. ever day -- mesa verde said there were more people living in the area then there are now. this is my favorite slide. we have to return to basics in

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