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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  August 11, 2015 10:53pm-12:01am EDT

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. the nuclearbout weapons given up for the territory and sovereignty. when you hear the officials speak, they regret that action. nuclear deterrence is out there. was happened in that case the press and other parts of the world. pressmber the japanese questioning about extended deterrent. terrible: i have vision. men by going to call the their jackets.
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a question for you. thank you for the lecture on politics. from a russian perspective, as mostnow, russia is vulnerable when decentralized. the breakup of the soviet union obviously represented significant decentralization. i assume that you include ofrgia in it your assessment looking through the russian eyes and i see you to put the spectacles on about the thoughts relating to the baltic states. ofi am not in the brain vladimir putin. it is clear. are facingay that we
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traditional conflict and we are trying to send the right message article five of nato is serious and we are taking it seriously. the baltic states are members of the alliance. we are implementing the defense of the budget states if there are teams. it is what we are doing. we have poland and we are taking oft in air surveillance clear signals. fighting signals.
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there is nothing worse than not knowing what you are going to do. so, we have to be clear to russia that we will stick to article five. i think that is the message. moderator: we have time for one more brief question. i know a german ambassador is in the room. i do not know if he wants to way intothe debate -- weigh debate.e you raise:t
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the view of american congress. they are elected by the american public who understand so little of how the government works and has figured out that -- and alan toa has figured out that write for the american public, you have to write at the 11-year-old level. how do we explain to the american public how this works? the rest of america is in code. voters need to understand how to vote. moderator: how'd you make europe relevant? >> we talk about the ambassadors and the engagement with the .egislative ranch matters something i am personally
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concerned about is my academic background in european affairs. declinean area on the and it is a video call by which we can re-energize. way that i would move the agenda forward. moderator: thank you ambassadors. thank you for this conversation. thank you for joining. of course, there are more panels on russia and the ukraine. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2015] bush talksp, jeb
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about his foreign-policy plan. mccarthy on gas emission standards and the colorado toxic spill. >> the outgoing chief of staff discusses his time and his future with the army. there is a discussion on it and naval aviation. live on c-span three. bush outlines his agenda and he challenged clinton
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as secretary of state and called for the administration to with draw from iraq. this is 40 minutes. bush: thank you all. thank you very much. thank you so much. thank you so much. it isn honor to be here great seeing you. i have fond memories of campaigning -- not so much campaigning against the reagan family. campaigning with was an honor.
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it is an honor for me to be here and it is good to be with you. i appreciate the hospitality of the ronald reagan presidential library. i bring greetings from the person who is proud to have when his vice president. competition turned into friendship. to knower he got reagan, the more he admired and loved him. reagan --all to mr. mrs. reagan to let her know that many love her very much. it is amazing. ways, the name and the islities of brings to mind still the standard.
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idle words.is not it was reagan who read else the strength and moved the world towards peace. strategically and morally, he believed that the cold war could be one and not just an leslie managed. justuld be won and not endlessly managed. is what ron reagan left behind and that was the legacy of a good man. in our time, it is strength, will, and clarity of purpose when america engages with friends and allies and resolves threats.ith
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this is tocritical security. when it counts the most, they are missing. we have to look at the policies that have gone wrong in the war on terror. , apite the elaborate efforts threat we faced today comes from islamic terrorists who are by thed -- possessed same violent ideology that gave us 9/11. they are on the offensive and gaining ground. it is not true. it was wishful thinking to think that though war is receding.
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it has been spreading like a pandemic. west, theyons of the find recruits in europe and the united states. caliphatewaited theory.n the it is a place that occupies a stretch of land bigger than indiana. isis controls parts of two countries and obama's administration has no who strategy -- has no strategy to stop it. there is incremental as relation -- incremental escalation
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without any strategic results. the worst of both worlds. the half measures have made little difference. the ineffective effort against them has only emboldened the terrorists and left them unchecked. cities that american and allied liberate isdying to under the black flag. those who do not conferred -- convert face this fate. we aremiddle east, witnessing a mass persecution and exodus of followers of jesus christ. there is no allowance for the adherents of islam who filled
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the mass graves with innocent muslims. recruits can even follow it on social media. it is a time when the mass murderers have twitter handles and facebook and instagram. we need to work with the owners of these companies to give thoughts. called a strong horse that is the glorious cleanser of islam. the pandemic and the thousands from europe and from america. g terrorists with passports.
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they need a vague strike. thate facing the ideology focuses on evil. no leader or policy maker is involved. experience of military setbacks, one moment stands out as the turning point we were diplomatic, the operations that turned the events towards victory. it was a success that was millions and costly. this nation will never forget the courage and sacrifice that made it possible. [applause]
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why was the success of the surge followed by a withdrawal of iraq? that premature would stroll was the fatal error, creating a void that isis moved into phil and and -- moved in to fill iran did, as well. where was clinton? she had opposed the surge and then joined in the credit. by stood by as the victory american and allied forces was thrown away. in her travels, she stopped by iraq exactly once. that we are safer
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than when the team of rivals took office, eager to be history makers and failing to be peacemakers. [applause] it was a case of blind at least tragicout and call the consequences somebody else costs problem -- somebody else's problem. all of that is in the past and cannot be undone. calculationible unfolding is a different story of the obama-clinton-carry obama-clinton-kerry policy. these are evil dictators causing nothing but instability. [applause]
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bad things happen in the middle yemen.rom israel to the influence of the mullahs is scene.m the they threaten to destroy israel and have been threatening to develop nuclear weapons, routinely committing human rights violations, responsible for the that's of hundreds of deaths of-- the hundreds of americans, and is unlawfully detaining american citizens. the sectarian militias have fueled conflict in iran and iraq and has given rise to conflict. they confront the problems and do not prevent iran from gaining nuclear weapons capability. in fact, this prepares the way for that with lifting the of
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sanctions to free up $100 billion for the security services to use as they wish. primary investors in a radical middle east have just received a new round of funding from the united states of america and united nations. this is a obama's idea of a diplomatic triumph. wow. it is unwise in the extreme with a regime that is untrustworthy in the extreme. it should be rejected by the congress of the united states of america. [applause] if congress does not reject the deal, the damage must be undone by the next president.
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i will begin the process immediately. knowing what has gone wrong is not the same as knowing how to set it right. the global threat of islamic state requires all of the canngth that leadership provide. i will be unyielding in this thee if i am elected president of united states of america. we will pursue the objectives of pushing back the barbarians. reacting, we will use every advantage that we have to
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take the offensive. in all of this, the united states must engage with allies and lead in this vital region. egypt and saudi arabia, the most populist and wealthiest countries in the middle east, are the partners. ath countries are the key to better coordinated effort with terrorism -- against terrorism. we need to work with them. we have capable partners who are willing and able to take this fight to the extremes. we have an hour i in the democratic government and a fragile democracy in lebanon with nations under a salt why radical terrorists.
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responsible governments do not need persuading of what the moment requires, action, and .merican leadership iraq and syria is where isis has territory. let's start with the broad actions i would take to remove the threat in that country. the forces that have the will to win and not the means. reconstitutings services and we need to expedite the security sector to break free of the iranian influence. it should involve greater engagement with tribes that fight side-by-side with
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americans to defeat al qaeda and were disbanded by the government. we must give police forces the advantage of american air power with fierce this precision. skill and accuracy would severely hinder the freedom of movement and would greatly improve the aircraft to provide close support to local ground forces. fighters try blending into the landscape. spotters on the ground enable us to hit the ground and rarely miss. we must make a better use of limited forces and give them a range of actions. 3500 soldiers and marines and more may be needed.
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we do not need and our friends do not ask for combat forces. we do need to convey that we are serious and are determined to take back the country. we know it is not enough to dispense advice to local forces and then send them on the line. the troops are embedded to a good effect. soldiers and marines need to go ahead to do that to outthink and outmaneuver the enemy. we should provide more support to the kurds. [applause] it will give them power against isis. havee kurdish region, we loyal friends and skilled fighters. if i am a commander in chief, we will make certain the kurds have everything they need to win.
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finally, the stranger in iraq has to restart diplomatic efforts. we will decide if we can share power and resources to assure the survival of the country. that partners have to know we are there in earnest. .hat has been a problem nobody believes we are serious. we do not have a commitment that friends have friends. they will come through for their country and they have to know that we have their back. the andn is different the one in iraq. we do not have a large or forced
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to work with and we have seen follows.that 11 million syrians have been displaced or have left the country altogether. imagine that. 2000 have been killed in the mayhem. the regime uses every ruthless mean to stay in power. isis,nder assault from the moderates want to fight against both. picture, whenful you think back on how it could have been avoided. we heard words that hung in the middle east when obama declared that it was time for a side to step aside. three years ago, another pronouncement that a usage of
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chemical weapons would be a redline that invited consequences for the regime. if the choice is between silence and grandiose words, it would be better to say nothing at all. what followed is the weapons used again and again and there were no serious consequences. having lost credibility on an epic scale, it is hard to get it back. the longer we do nothing, the more dangerous the situation becomes and the more directly our friends and interests are threatened. defeat isis and achieve stability in the country requires defeating aside and making sure his regime is not
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replaced with something worse. the last thing we need is a repeat. the dictatorship was only the beginning. there was the death of americans in benghazi. we will need a stable government and it will to attend on moderate forces we help to unite. to that end, my strategy would be to bring this to bear in important areas. effort is essential to give the moderate forces the upper hand. there has been support of fighting groups in syria that are not always working to common purpose. if there is anything they cannot
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afford right now, it is confusion. under my strategy, the aim would be to drive for the moderates together and back the force of formhe way through to help a stable and moderate government when the isis is defeated. situation,plicated more so than iraq. how it calls away from strategic forces and we have to support local forces and stay true to our word. second, we have to vastly improve the recruitment and training of forces. too many say that the recruiting and training has come to you and
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we have been half $1 billion on a program that has gotten us 54 recruits. when that happens, you know the plan is not working out really well. ofm tempted to be reminded health care.gov -- healthcare.gov. just saying. the reality is that the recruitment effort has been noting because we are respected as a reliable actor in the region. we have to change that with an action that everyone can expect. establish multiple save zones in syria. we created a small isis-free zone in the northern part of the country and we need to go be on that to establish protection
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from a side. we and our partners should workre a no-fly zone and to a span that. we should enforce that and stop the bombing raids that kill helpless citizens. flying and iranian cut off a side and counter iranian influence and keep the pressure on for settlement to prevent more needless deaths in a country that sees so much of it. we talk about the precision airstrikes in iraq and all of this assumes the power is there when we need it. of its willhtedness leave at a cost and we are in
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the seventh year of the dismantling of the military in inverse proportion. the day i am elected, i will and we areround going to rebuild the armed forces of the united six of america. a winning strategy against depends on the military strength that underwrites american influence. let that slip away and what would america be in world affairs, other than a well-intentioned voice at the united nations. depends ontrategy
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maintaining strength and we can never take it for granted. with ourudes strength military and civilians. no men or women. no group of men and women receive so little credit for doing so much to track and keep us safe. can be sure of this. if i become the commander in chief, i will make sure they receive the gratitude and the support they deserve. a good many people who serve in the military and intelligence agencies are at the end of their career and their calling has something to do with coming of age during the reagan years. any nostalgia for that time
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recalls a all in wall and a collapsing evil empire and the tension and challenges that could have played out very differently. from the distance of decades, tensions of foreign policy can look inevitable. nothing has to happen as it did. came a formidable figure who would not accept it. who has done that -- we can know is used more of the reagan spirit. that the the idea spread of danger and violence is inevitable. it is not.
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american-led alliances and credibility deterred aggression. this is the way forward. led by a president who is resolute to face radical islamic terrorism wherever it appears. we can protect our people and put the adversaries in retreat to get people moving our way and win back the momentum for the cause. this, in fighting evil, we are doing good. in destroying the violence, we are destroying the innocence.
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iss is the work that america in the world to do. let us meet that with confidence, faith, and resolved. thank you very much and god bless the united dates of america. thank you. thank you. thank you. questioner: a few questions. i want to assure you that i am no megyn kelly.
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bush: i noticed. i can tell. keen observation. christian committees that have been around for more than 1000 years are virtually extinct. unitestion is, "does the states have a more responsibility to intervene to stop is kind of genocide?" bush: but for us, who? who will stand up for the persecuted? i have a personal connection to this. -- existed this are before. my daughter-in-law is canadian spectacular,ul, brilliant beyond believe, and gave me two beautiful granddaughters. her parents are iraqi
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christians. i have been sensitized to the problems. given.l, mass was today, it is not. they will persecute and kill christians and they are fleeing all over the region. not just iraq. challenges in lebanon, which used to be a peaceful christian nation. inc. about the isis inspired .errorists in eastern libya beingabout the christians slaughtered all around the world. the christian girls in northern nigeria. this is our challenge. if not for us, who? we have a challenge and the skills to do this. against has fought wars
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forces that were evil, just as evil as this with greater military might. we can take these guys on. we have special forces that are the best in the world. military capabilities that exceed anybody else. i reject the idea that this is not important. this would send a signal that the u.s. is supportive of people who through no fault of their own, believing in their faith, are being killed and persecuted. we need to stand up to this. [applause] subject, you were critical of the president's deal with iran. up againstyou do -- this threat? mr. bush: if you are going to negotiate a deal with iran, you
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should have kept with the objective was from the beginning. to obtainllow iran the capabilities to build a nuclear bomb. that was the beginning of the effort. we have gone from that to have trust and verify inspections. now, anytime and anywhere, secret agreements signed with an agency of the united nations where our members of congress cannot even read them. this is the wrong approach. i hope congress votes this down. i hope it is with a two thirds majority. if it is, let the president go back and negotiate a deal in our security interests. if that does not happen, on day one we will have a strategy to deal with the multitude of iran threats. it isn't just bring the threat of being a nuclear threshold country that would provide the
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possibilities of nuclear proliferation. they are also the largest sponsor of terrorism. not just, by the way, in the region but latin america and other places. they support hezbollah which is active in our hemisphere as well. we have to push them back in that regard. made harder because they will have at least $100 billion of fresh capital. we have to deal with the capabilities they will get when conventional weapons sanctions are relieved which is relatively shortly. ballistic missile capabilities. conventional weapons capabilities second to none. the strategy needs to be to engage with the region of course, the countries that feel most directly threatened, but we
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have to lead this. we cannot lead from a, all this new language that is the antithesis of american leadership. develop a lead and strategy to push iran back in terms of its efforts to destabilize the regime. make sure they never have the capability for a nuclear weapon. [applause] my last question, you mentioned some of the mistakes secretary clinton made with respect to iraq. can you talk to us about what herthink of here tenure -- tenure and some of the differences you have? mr. bush: i will say the obama clinton policy will be rumored as a foreign-policy aced on grandiose talk and little action. it will be based on wonderful speeches and grandiose things
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like red lines. power, 30a regional crimea.er, they invade varsity and junior then they announced they are going to put their flag on the white house. this is the language of the administration. their inability to back it up has created dangers. they believe in soft power. with't have a problem soft power as long as there is no hard power behind it. when there is no hard power, you cannot skip over that part. you can't just skip over that. we are not part of the trinity of nations. we cannot lead from behind. the way you create a more peaceful world, there is not
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enough evidence, he havingood certainty created piece. of combathe chance troops being necessary. we need to restore that foreign-policy and make it more bipartisan. this last week, the president -- i have not heard what hillary on this, ifew is you see her, why don't you ask a -- he says for those who oppose the iranian deal, there are solid and legitimate reasons to oppose the deal. [applause] mr. bush: the president had the gall to say those that oppose this deal were in cahoots with the death to america crowd in iran. the death to america crowd and iran is the group he negotiated the deal with.
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this is the problem. we need to restore a bipartisan consensus on foreign-policy. you can't keep pushing down people who disagree with you, ascribing horrible motives, calling them warmongers, and this illustrious intelligent view that no one in their right mind would not embrace it to read you will never get the kind of consensus we need unless you start with the principal that people disagree with you on principle, for crying out loud. this is wrong. [applause] mr. bush: across the spectrum of foreign policy, we see this. mrs. clinton was the implementer of the foreign policy. the experience she has is real.
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she was secretary of state for four years, but it is a failed record. the reset, libya, benghazi, the fight against terror. it is based on not backing up your word where american no longer has any credibility in the world. i would conclude by saying, name a country where our relationship is better than the day barack obama was inaugurated and hillary clinton sworn in. cuba and iran. relationships where they are worse. it starts with canada and it is a long list. the next president needs to restore these relationships because it is important to keeping the peace. thank you guys. >> hold on just a second. [applause]
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>> governor, thank you for those inspiring remarks. by the response from the people in the audience, you can tell you have every single one of them on your side. mr. bush: can you almost to iowa? -- can you all moved to iowa? [laughter] on behalf of everyone in the reagan library, and i bet everyone in this room, we have a gift. it is an american flag that flew over the library today and we would like to give it to you. mr. bush: thank you. thank you all. [applause] >> republican presidential
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candidate tumbled -- donald beforepoke to the press his remarks at a lincoln day dinner in michigan. campaign polls, women's health issues, and immigration policy. this is 15 minutes. trump: good evening. yes ma'am? >> [indiscernible] trump: i think the republican party is going to do well. you have another party that has problems. i just saw it coming over, the e-mail situation for a larry is a big problem. if they judge it fairly, she has a big problem. no, not at all.
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i have been proven right. i have absolutely been proven right. [indiscernible] mr. trump: i don't think so at all. the polls, 32%. that is the highest for anybody yet. i can only go by the polls. with,ople we are dealing it is what it is. you look at the results. iowa came out a little while ago. leading in iowa and new hampshire, north carolina, south carolina. nevada. leading everywhere. that is all i can go by. excuse me? that is the best question. china. china. i think you have to do something to rein in china. the d value to their currency and are making it impossible for
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the u.s. to compete. china has no respect for president obama whatsoever. you have to take strong actions. how can we compete? devalue theirsly currency. they have been doing this for years. this was the largest devaluation two decades. in they are making it impossible for our businesses to compete. run by a bunchre of idiots. what is going on with china is unbelievable. in twogest devaluation decades. a great question. it is a disgrace. major, fantastic. i watched you with president obama two weeks ago. he was not thrilled. i'm sure i will be more thrilled. [indiscernible]
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>> how would you grade his leadership -- very fair question. rebuildd have let it itself, go bankrupt. a lot of people think that is the way it should have gone. i could have done it either way. i think you would have ended up ultimately in the same place. yes ma'am? race relations are at an all-time high or low? that, certainly. [indiscernible] jobs, spirit. there is not your it.
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-- and knows. . certainly, i would. ddressms of how to a -- they are doing poorly, you look at what is going on in every place. you have powder cakes. you need spirit and you need jobs. we need to take jobs back from china and other countries that have taken our jobs. that is why when the question was asked about china, it is terrible. more jobs are going to go. yes, ma'am? [indiscernible] mr. trump: i think we are going to do well with a lot of voters. the hispanic vote. the women vote. if you look in nevada, they did the poll. i am leading the hispanic vote because i create jobs. creating tremendous
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numbers of jobs. women's health issues, i am for that. i watched jeb bush give the worst answer the other day. that is going to be his 47%. romney possibly lost the elections for many reasons, but one reason was 47%. answer onb's women's health issues the other day was a disaster for him. he said he misspoke. how do you misspoke? i will be great on women's health issues. i cherish women. i will be great on women's health issues, believe me. oh, hello, david. >> you have said you are going to be great on women, china, isis. mr. trump: hopefully everything. >> we have not heard a lot of particulars.
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you going to tell us what you will replace obamacare with, how you will fix china? mr. trump colleague did not bring up isis. trump: you did not bring up isis. >> where is the plan? mr. trump: when you are coming up with a plan, you have to be flexible. something int miami, everybody wanted it. if i had said, here is a 12 point plan, i did not do that. i went in and punched in beat the hell out of people and i ended up getting it. all the smart money wanted it. the old post office. everybody wanted it. i got it. in the obama administration, i got it which is shocking. i got it.
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it because i know how to get things done. you cannot sit down and say, well, i'm going to come up with a 19 point plan to get the old post office and turn it into a great hotel. the most sought after property in the history of the general administration. trump got it. i am not an obama person. you have to have flex ability. >> you are asking people to trust you. trump: there has to be a trust. if you do not trust, you will not do well. [indiscernible] mr. trump: jeb bush does not have -- he will not be able to negotiate against china. he will not be able to negotiate against mexico. jeb bush with mexico said people come in, it it is an act of love. of love. an act
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we need a wall. you see what is happening with illegal immigration. if it were not for me, they would not even be talking about illegal immigration. you see what happened in san francisco, yesterday in was horrible.ich the whole situation with jeb bush, his act of love, it is not working. i took a lot of heat and then people realized i was right and apologized to me. announcingg to be numbers and specifics, knowing that what i just said is right. you have to be flexible on jobs and everything else. i will be speaking about it later. we will be taking jobs away from china, away from all these countries stealing from us. our base,tealing money, manufacturing. we will bring them back to the u.s. example, isan
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building a $2.5 billion plant in mexico. how does that help us? i went to the wharton school of finance. if they are spending $2.5 billion to build a car plant in mexico. are going all over the u.s., but they are coming into the u.s., no tax. how does that help us except they are closing plants in michigan. we are talking about bringing back jobs to the u.s. yes, sir? [indiscernible] trump: 10 years ago, everybody wanted the wall. they could not get it. you know one of the reasons? environmental impact statements. there were toads. we are going to get the wall built. right.oing to be built
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mexico is going to pay for the wall. in mexico is making a fortune off the u.s. mexico is going to pay for the wall and they are going to be happy about it. the wall is peanuts compared to the kind of money they are making. mexico is becoming the new china. i have a great love for mexico. i have a love for the mexican people. i have thousands of mexican people over the years that have worked for me. thousands. they are fantastic people. but there politicians and leaders are smarter and sharper and more cunning. they are more cunning than our leaders. they will pay for the wall, they will be happy about it, they will continue to do well but not as well as they are doing right now. they are taking too many of our jobs.
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[indiscernible] mr. trump: third-party. that could happen. you know, that could happen. in the debate, it came out on one of the networks today. there should have been 2 million people watching. that has been sort of standard. there are 24 million people. it is going to go to 28-29 or 30. o you think they are watching, jeb bush? i don't think so. i hope not. i want to run as a republican to read that is what i am doing and i am leading in every poll. the local and national polls and by substantial martin's. -- margins. i hope i will be the republican nominee because that is the best way to win.
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door open if i'm not treated fairly. the word is fairly, not well. if i'm not treated fairly, we will see what happens. i want the establishment -- i was part of the establishment. let me explain. i was the establishment two months ago. fair-haired boy, a big giver. once i decided to run, i am semi-antiestablishment. now leading in the polls, they are treating me well. there are people have been terrific. and they are dealing with my people. we have a great relationship. i want to run as a republican, i don't want to run as a third party or independent. as long as i am treated fairly, that is going to be the case. is an instinct. i want fair is coming you know what fair is.
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i know what fair is. i think that is happening. , i'm not, or draw saying i have win. if i win the nomination, i guarantee you i will not run a third-party candidate. one more question? yes. i would never give up my microphone. i thought that was disgusting. that showed such a weakness. the way he was taken away by two young women, they just took the whole place over. dhe audience, which like saying, how could that happen? that will never happen with me. i felt badly for him. it showed he is weak. you know what? he is getting the biggest crowds
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and i'm getting the biggest crowds. but believe me, that is not going to happen to trump. guess? -- yes? you could win it. you are way out in front. i agree. [indiscernible] mr. trump: you want to be vice president? he had great credibility until he said that. one more. 100%, mark it down. ladies and gentlemen, thank you. we will go make a speak and then you go home. have a good time. thank you very much. >> coming up on c-span, epa
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administrator gina mccarthy. aspenen parts of the institute security forum. nationalion on security threats. and then a look at special ops. and then the spanish ambassadors to the u.s. discusses threats to europe. on the next washington journal, a look at the donald trump campaign and his positions on policies. the director of young s talks about issues impacting millennial's. washington journal, live every morning at 7:00 a.m. eastern.
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you can join the conversation with your calls and comments. wednesday, the bipartisan policy center looks at immigration policy and the positions of the 2016 candidates. it is life at 10:30 a.m. eastern. senate in its august break, we will feature book tv programming. starting at 8:00 p.m. eastern. at the end of the summer, look for two special programs. we are live from our nations capital for the 15th annual national book festival followed by a program with second lady lynne cheney. .ook tv on c-span 2 televisions for serious readers.
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next, the head of the epa, gina mccarthy, on the obama first-everion's standards for reducing greenhouse gases. remarksts with responding to the colorado toxic in mind spill. -- mine spill. ladies and gentlemen, welcome to resources for the future. i am the codirector. today, we are honored to the presence of epa administrator gina mccarthy. i believe this is the first public appearance since the white house ceremony one week ago. thank you for attending. a few quick words. you know us quite well but there may be some that
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are not familiar. we are an organization based on high-quality research with the objective of focusing that on energy and natural resources and environmental policy and as many of you know, we are not an advocacy organization. we are also not cheerleaders for any particular policy or point of view. our goal really is to provide the best scholarly research to the policy community so it can develop the most efficient, efficacious, affordable and best public policy as possible. we have been doing that for a little more than 60 years now. so we have a little history. with respect to climate change, we have quite a long history with climate change. for the last two decades or a little bit longer than that, at the federal level, we have investigated every possible regulatory program for greenhouse gas emissions.
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at the state level, where a lot of the book of our work has been undertaken, we have played major roles. we spent a lot of time with california. we work at the state levels are nd internationally, we have been heavily involved with the european union as they develop their cap and trade program. currently involved in china with the regional cap and trade programs. and we are working with mexico as they undertake their major energy reforms, putting in place substantial and innovative policies in mexico. importantly, for the last four years, maybe longer than that, we have been studying greenhouse gas regulation under the clean air act. one of the things that at least
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i draw a conclusion from that and most of the staff that works on the clean air act is that the clean power plan in its current form is likely the most significant development in u.s. history with respect to climate change. i don't think any of us believe otherwise. it is a tremendously substantial rule and one that will have significant impact. as an economist, as many of us are, we kind of take some pleasure in the fact that there is flexibility built into the rule. as we reread the rule, we find it based on economic principles. we see those beneficial aspects of the rule. getting to the point -- it took a lot of hard work by many people inside and outside of government. and it took an awful lot of leadership. gina mccarthy was ready and willing to take that leadership

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