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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  August 14, 2015 2:00pm-4:01pm EDT

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>> [inaudible] ms. clinton: let me have someone talk with you after this. to get more information. we will look at your website. i can't comment -- the laws may need to be changed. i can't comment on legal matters without knowing. you give us information.
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we will have -- you got it. you are well prepared. i can tell. you are an excellent member of the united states navy. thank you. we will follow up with you. [applause] we will follow up and i will make sure that we have good information with -- from you and to discuss with you. thank you. >> [inaudible] [laughter] [applause] ms. clinton: you know -- i just knew that there was something i saw in you when you stood up. we'll get it done. thank you very much. my goodness. wow. that was great. thank you. yes, ma'am, right here. >> i hear a challenge and i think that is wonderful. you look great, by the way. my question is for undocumented children who graduate from high school, go to -- accepted at college but then they don't have any -- they are not capable of
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getting any kind of aid. do you know anything about this? ms. clinton: yes, this is a problem that we have got around the country. some states are beginning to deal with it. they are beginning to offer in-state tuition to undocumented high school graduates who want to go on to college. some states are also working to provide financial aid. i want to encourage more of that. i think that is important. because i want comprehensive immigration reform which will give us a very -- [applause] i want to make a slightly different argument. it goes back to my point about china. one of our advantages, and people don't always recognize this, is that immigrants start more businesses. by a very big proportion. i want more americans to start more businesses, but immigrants start more businesses now. we have more young people who
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are immigrants, both legal and undocumented. that is one of our economic advantages. it is also an advantage for older people because we have to keep replenishing our revenues for social security and medicare so the more people we get legally into the workplace, the better it will be for our economy, for our programs like medicare and social security and it will give us an advantage in competing against countries that are actually now starting to age faster. i think we have got some real opportunities here. so thank you for asking that. yes, this young woman right there. yes. here it comes. >> hi. this summer we have seen a lot of violence in charleston, chattanooga and lafayette. we no longer feel safe in our schools, our churches, our movie theaters, and despite the fact
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that most americans feel that we need to change our gun laws, our leaders have not taken any steps to protect our communities. what would you do to help us feel safer and address the gun violence that is killing 88 americans a day? [applause] thank you. ms. clinton: well, i will be fighting with you right by your side to do what we can to try to prevent these terrible killings and you just mentioned a few of them, as you say 88 people killed by guns every day in america. now, from everything i have ever seen, a majority of americans and a majority of gun owners support universal background checks. and part of the challenge is to overcome a very entrenched
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special interest that does not represent, as i say, the majority of americans or the majority of gun owners to get, number one, a background check that actually worked and we have too many glitches in it right now. that's how the young man who massacred the nine people in charleston at their bible study, he should never have gotten a gun. they didn't get all the information in and there is a three-day limit and he got the gun, and we know how he used it. i feel very strongly about this. you know, i just don't think there is the kind of contradiction that some on the other side try to argue on behalf of the second amendment with sensible gun violence prevention measures and protecting people's rights to bear arms. i will take that on.
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look, i know that it is politically challenging. [applause] but at some point, this -- you know, we have to regain our senses. our country lasted for a really long time and in fact, it was only relatively recently that , you know, the supreme court decisions began to reinterpret the second amendment. what about the rest? what about the young mom with her two kids who was in a supermarket and some guy gets to come in with an ak-47 over his back because he got a new permit that permits him to walk around and threaten and intimidate and scare the heck out of that young mother and her children? i don't get it. [applause] ms. clinton: so we have work to do. we still have a lot of work to do.
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it is good work. it is important work. oh, my goodness. there are just so many hands. ok. yes, sir. >> do you have any suggestions as to how to get the overpaid and too numerous administrators at universities out of the way so the faculty can do their work? [applause] ms. clinton: well, can i say that i hope with my compact, the idea behind the compact is that we will provide incentives for states to do more to be able to cut the costs so that young people can afford a public college or university, and among the lists of things i would like to see done is de-emphasizing layers upon layers of administration and reemphasizing teaching. [applause]
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and part of the problem here -- i -- i have been meeting a number of young people. phd's, in areas of scarcity, who'll not -- they are not being hired. they are not being put on a tenure track because the university says well, we don't have any space for you. and they are making $22,000, $24,000 a year. barely enough. well, they certainly can't pay off their debts and they are having a very hard time supporting their families. so i just think somehow our values and priorities got out of whack. you know, i can't speak to any particular college or university, but i have heard enough stories to believe that we could do a better job streamlining the top, saving money and putting money into faculty, particularly young
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faculty because it is the young faculty that are being most disadvantaged by either not being hired or not being paid adequately so that they can't really do the job that they have dreamed of doing. i'm with you on that. we have to see how we can make that work. [applause] ms. clinton: ok. any man with three stickers including one on his forehead! >> hello. thank you so much for being a champion for children here at home and also globally as well. i believe as regardless of where you are born, you should have -- every child should grow up to have the opportunity to reach their full potential. when we create partnerships that will invest in these kids, then
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we can build independent people. an independent nation. if elected, will you bring these countries and the private sector together to show that we have universal access to education -- to quality early education for the poorest children? -- for the children in the poorest countries? [applause] ms. clinton: thank you. thank you so much. you know, i do think that we have a stake in trying to improve education around the world to try to create conditions for people, people's economic fortunes to improve. to create middle classes around the world, which is tied to education. that is good for us. that is good for our economy. that is good for our democracy. so i want to make sure we do what we can and it will have to be a partnership because it is a partnership between governments, the private sector, academic institutions, charities,
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faith-based groups and a lot of other really important partners. i'll tell you a little story that your question kind of prompted in me. you know, i've been -- when i was secretary of state, i went to 112 countries for you. and there were a lot of places that -- [applause] you know, that were still developing, that were very poor. one of the reasons why i worked hard to create an opening to burma, now called myanmar is because it is very strategically located, but also had been so isolated for so long. it was apparent,under military it was apparent, under military dictatorship, the very top -- sounds very familiar -- the very top had done very well. there was no middle class. and then there was just different degrees of poverty.
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and when you see that, and you realize how vulnerable people are to disease and to other, you know, both health and educational problems, you know, it really does give you a great perspective on how blessed and fortunate we are and we have to keep investing in the our own people and we have to keep doing better because we have so much to be grateful for and we have to offer it to our next generation. and i think when you look at the world from that perspective, i didn't go anywhere in the world that people didn't want to know what was happening in america. and even those who would publicly criticize us were really interested in how we were solving problems and given the fact that president obama became president and he asked me to become secretary of state in the midst of the terrible economic crisis, there was a lot of anxiety about the united states economy because it still is the basic driver of what happens in the world.
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and i could just see people saying it is so important for the united states to get it right. you have to get it right. you have to keep holding up the banner of freedom and opportunity and equality for everybody because without you, we're really going to be lost. i think that is true. i just have to tell you. you know, people who say those -- the years for american leadership are behind us, i think they are wrong. but secondly, the alternative to american leadership is not somebody else's leadership. it is nobody's leadership. that would be a very dangerous development in the world where you don't have the values, the interest, the ability to bring people together to solve problems that we have basically led for the last century and need to do again.
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so your question, what can we do about kids living far away is connected to how well we take care of our kids right here today, because we can only be as strong as our economy is, our people's dreams and aspirations are and that's why in this campaign, what i'm trying to argue for is to build on what makes america great and make it even greater so that our best days are ahead of us, not behind us. but that causes us to have to ask ourselves hard questions about what we're going to do and how we're going to do it. i think we're up to it. i wouldn't be running for president if i didn't think we were up to it. [applause] ms. clinton: thanks for the hair compliment before. i didn't stop and thank you. [laughter] no, i'm calling on another lady, but i didn't thank you for the hair compliment.
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you know, since who knows what my hair will look like from day-to-day. any day that it is good, i appreciate you noticing it, thank you. >> hillary, i thought you might like my t-shirt, and i have a bit of good news for you, which is that my daughter survived stage 4 kidney cancer. [applause] she is 4 years old and you took time out at your 2014 reunion to speak to us, and i really appreciate that. so, thank you. ms. clinton: thank you for the update. thank you so much. >> she is doing fine. the thing is she is black and unarmed black people keep getting shot. and black lives matter and -- [applause]
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>> you know, she survived stage 4 kidney cancer. i need her to graduate into a world that is more just and fair. [applause] ms. clinton: oh, bless you! bless you! [applause] ms. clinton: i'm thrilled to hear how she is doing and please give her a big hug. give her another big hug from me, please. the last month, many months now, we just had the anniversary at ferguson and another incident occurred, someone else being shot. we don't know the circumstances, but e facts are, across the board, concerning we have deep unaddressed systemic race and justice issues and it is important that -- [applause]
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that we honestly talk about them and try to bring the country together around dealing with this. it is not enough just to, you know, say we're concerned. we have to take the next step and say we're so concerned. here is what we are willing to do. from my perspective, there are a number of proposals that i have been talking about from the very beginning of my campaign. one is we have to take a hard look at mass incarceration because it has been -- [applause] it has, unfortunately, been one of the root reasons why so many families, particularly african-american families are torn apart, undermined, never formed and there is no doubt -- there is just no doubt. nobody wants to return to lack
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of safety or rising crime. so let's just posit that. nobody wants that. but the evidence is clear that if you're an african-american man of whatever age, teenager and up, you are more likely to be arrested, to be convicted, to be imprisoned for doing exactly the same thing as a white man who will not be. [applause] and that is not -- you know that is not something that anybody wrote down in a law. that is just something that has grown up over time where people make those decisions. and we have to do a better job working with law enforcement, working with the entire criminal justice system so that the system and individual police
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officers respect the communities they serve and the communities they serve respect them. and there is a lot of work we're going to have to do. some of what i proposed, body cameras, that is a way of at least holding people accountable, but there needs to be more training, more awareness of people's own individual feelings or maybe biases. we have a lot of work to do. i think that these terrible incidents of the past year, they go way back, but certainly in the headlines of the past year really call on everybody in every community just to say hey, we need to do a very clear assessment about where we stand. now let's rid ourselves of bias and prejudice and discrimination and make sure our police officers are well prepared for the difficult jobs we ask them to do.
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let's try to work with communities so that they can provide more support and opportunities for young people, particularly young men. we have a lot of work to do. but we can't do that work if we don't admit we have a problem. and i think we have a problem and we're going to have to do it and yes, of course black lives matter. there is no doubt about it. [applause] ms. clinton: thank you. i have got time for one more question. anybody on college? i'll talk about anything but i want to make sure since people came to talk about college, i want to make sure we get a college question. ok. why don't you ask? >> hi, hillary. i wanted to be able to make sure that people going forward will be able to afford college better. my family, we're a family of four kids. my dad worked all of his life. we all had to take out private loans. me, my sister and soon my younger brother will be living
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at home paying off huge amounts of debt. when i graduated i had about $140,000 in debt. when i hear that the average is $30,000, i really want to know where they are getting that number from. [laughter] because -- and in graduate school. with graduate i'm at $250,000. yeah. and i have loans that when i applied for them said i would be at 8%. they knocked them up to 12%. ms. clinton: first of all, i'm really sorry that that happened to you. that is just wrong. i don't know the details but i will say without fear of contradiction, that is wrong. no financial aid, all of its loans, with the variable rate interest that they kicked up on you. well, you are going to be helped by my plan. i can tell you that. because we are going to be able to refinance all of your debt to
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bring it down to where the interest rate is right now. who did you borrow from? were those government loans or private loans? >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: so you have government loans plus three private ones. well, all of them can be refinanced. we have taken into account, when we did the numbers on this, the way we will pay for it is by closing the loopholes and the deductions for people at the top and we will go and in one instance, we will go back to where it was when president reagan was in office. which, you know, i think the republicans should love and embrace. [laughter] and we will take the money that we save from closing those and then we will use it to do exactly what i said. to refinance loans. 40 million people. you're one of them. who have those loans that desperately need refinancing. you're a good looking young man. you ought to be out in the world making your way and i hope you can be.
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i know how challenging it is for you have to have those kinds of debts and be back at home after you have finished your education. so we want to refinance the loans and then we want to make it more affordable on the front end so people don't ends up -- end up where you are. i also want to put a limit on the number of years. because at some point it is just counterproductive for you to keep working to pay off debt instead of working to build a business, to build a family, to buy a home, to help the economy in other ways. [applause] so we're going to help. thank you. thank you all very much! thank you! [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2015] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] ♪ >> [indiscernible] [laughter]
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ms. clinton: okey-doke. welcome to exeter. before i begin, i want to say once again that my thoughts are with the people of ferguson as they mark this painful anniversary and in light of the continuing violence we saw last night, you know, violence has no place in our streets and we should all be working for peace and justice there and everywhere in our country. i would like to make two quick points and then take your questions. first, in announcing my plans to make college within reach for everyone, the new college compact, i'm emphasizing the two parts of this college compact. no family and no student should have to borrow to pay tuition at a public college or university. and everyone who has student debt should be able to refinance it at lower rates.
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costs won't be a barrier and debt won't hold you back under my plan. i wanted to make this announcement in new hampshire because students carry one of the highest debt burdens in the country, and obviously much more , as we heard from the last young man that i called on. and the cost of community college here is nearly twice what is paid next door in maine. governor hassan is working to decline the cost of education that has shifted onto students and families, but that is only the beginning of what needs to be done, and certainly the federal government has to be a partner in moving this compact forward. i'm looking forward to discussing this further tomorrow, and then next week in iowa and elsewhere. second, i want to add my voice to all those who have expressed outrage and disappointment in
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the decision last week by the executive council to cut off funding for planned parenthood in new hampshire. it is appalling that three men sitting in the chambers of the executive council would deny women across the state the health care they need and deserve. it shows yet again why we need more leaders like governor hassan and senator shaheen who are willing to stand up for women and just how out of touch and out of date republican leaders are. that is what we saw at the debate on thursday night. none of the candidates had solutions for how to make college affordable or raise incomes for hard working families. they don't even talk about the real pressures facing american families. and while what donald trump said about megyn kelly is outrageous, what the rest of the republicans are saying about all women is also outrageous.
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they brag about slashing health care for women. they say they would force women who have been raped to carry their rapist's child and we don't hear any of them raising the minimum wage, paid leave for parents, access to quality childcare, equal pay for women -- paid leave for new parents, access to quality childcare, equal pay for women or anything else. megyn kelly is a strong woman and more than capable of defending herself against donald trump. i'm worried about what republican policies would do to the rest of america's women. and i will continue to speak out and speak up about that today and through the rest of this campaign and in the white house. with that -- >> [indiscernible] ms. clinton: i'm good. how are you? >> [indiscernible]
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ms. clinton: you know, i'm looking forward to debating. first, my colleagues on the democratic side, and then finally having a chance to debate the republicans about whatever their nominee has to say. i will show up for the debates as they are scheduled and i look forward to having a robust, good opportunity to exchange views with my fellow candidates. >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: i'm not going to get into scheduling. i will just show up when i'm told to show up and i'm looking forward to it. >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: you know, i'm just going to leave my comments where they are.
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-- >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: you know, i'm just going to leave my comments where they are. i thought what he said was offensive and i certainly think it deserves the kind of reaction it is getting from so many others. but i think if we focus on that, we are making a mistake. what a lot of the men on that stage in that debate said was offensive. i want people to understand that if you just focus on maybe the biggest showman on the stage, you lose the thread. the thread is the republicans are putting forward some very radical and offensive positions when it comes to women's lives, women's reproductive health, women's employment, women's opportunities. i think we will let the republicans go back and forth with each other, but i want to
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point out there is really not much difference in the policies they are proposing when it comes to american women. >> [inaudible] do you think he should apologize? >> [indiscernible] ms. clinton: i consider him a friend. we were colleagues in the senate. i have the highest regard and affection for him. i spoke to him at his son's funeral. i think we should all just let the vice president be with his family and make whatever decision he believes is right for him. and i will respect whatever that decision is. >> [inaudible]
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ms. clinton: the republicans get to choose their nominee. they will have to make the that decision. i respectfully disagree with you. when one of their major candidates, a much younger man, the senator from florida, says there should be no exceptions for rape and incest -- in fact, that is as offensive and troubling a comment as you can hear from a major candidate running for the presidency. the language may be more colorful and more offensive, but the thinking, the attitude toward women is very much the same. it is just delivered in a different package. i don't want people to be confused here about the outrageous comments by one and just say we are focused on this
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and we are going to let the fact that there should be no exceptions for rape or incest go unnoticed or unmentioned. i will not let that happen. >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: now, andrea, i said it was offensive and outrageous. i stand by that. i think more people should say the same. they should be going after him. the republican party will have to deal with him. but i just want to remind us that what they say about women, not one woman who is perfectly capable and incredibly impressive and able to take care
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of herself, but all of these women that i have fought for, worked for, stood up for, advocated for, and want to be president for, and who may lose the right to exercise choice if the republicans were to be successful, i don't want that forgotten. i know it makes great tv. i think the guy went way overboard -- outrageous, offensive, pick your adjectives. what marco rubio said had as much impact about where the republican party is today as anyone else on that stage. it is equally troubling, and it should be to the press, not just to those of us who have been doing this work for so long. >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: [laughs] look, it is entertainment.
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it is all entertainment. i think he is having the time of his life being up on that stage , saying what he wants to say, getting people excited both for and against him. >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: i didn't know him that well. i mean, i knew him, but -- and i happen to be planning to go to florida and i said that i would go to his wedding because he was always entertaining. now that he is running for president, it is a little more troubling. >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: not at all. i was proud to be endorsed by the american federation of teachers. i have been proud to work with nurses for many, many years on health care and better treatment
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for nurses. i'm a strong advocate for nurses and i look forward to working with them when i'm president. >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: nick is the man. i'm sorry, he is the man. i've got to let nick do what he does. that is his job. ok, guys. [laughs] >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: oh, really? what does donald trump have to say about college affordability? i really wonder. >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: yes, yes. >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: right. >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: first of all, that is why you have a campaign. it will be at the center of my campaign. i hope people running for
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congress, both the house and the senate, will latch onto it because i want to get more democrats elected. that would be a big help in dealing with the issues you are raising. i also want to make it clear that what i'm advocating, just as what president obama advocated, goes back to what president reagan, what the status was under president reagan. i want them to have to answer to the american people why they don't want to make college more affordable and why they don't want to refinance college debt. this has to be a choice. then i will be looking to see what their response is and then let's have an election about it. let's have an election about real choices that will actually affect people's lives. that will be interesting. and once i get to the white house, i will do as i've always done when i worked across the aisle as a senator, when i worked with republicans when i was secretary of state and first
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lady, i will work to get the votes together that are needed to try to get this passed. i think there will be a huge constituency for it. >> [inaudible] ms. clinton: well, we are in the middle of an election. i don't know that we will hear that yet. but i will say this, some of what the republicans in the senate are trying to do is very connected to my plan. if you look at what editor lamar alexander has been advocating, i have been advocating for republicans as well as democrats. -- i have been looking for ideas for republicans as well as democrats. that is where i get a lot of thoughts about college accountability and risksharing. if you are getting people that are not employable, then you have to pay a price for that. i think senator alexander and i, i have known him since he was a
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governor and i think he and i would have a good conversation about that. he has to do what he has to do between now and the election, but i think there is an opportunity to work together to move forward and i look forward to it. thank you all. >> our road to the white house coverage included earlier today jeb bush at the iowa state fair. he is offering himself to gop voters as a sober adult campaigning in a summer of anger. you can watch that tonight as part of our prime time programming in any time at c-span.org. donald trump will be in new hampshire participating in a town hall style meeting. 10r live coverage begins at 7: eastern here on c-span. also today, secretary of state john kerry traveled to cuba to reopen the u.s. embassy in havana. the headline -- kerry strikes delicate balance in havana trip for embassy flag raising. remarking --ry
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secretary kerry remarking that lifting the embargo would require congressional action. from havana, earlier today, this is half an hour.
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>> ladies and gentlemen, the secretary of state accompanied by the shards the fair -- charée of the united states embassy of havana and the assistant secretary of state. [applause]
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>> please be seated. good morning. it is my great honor to welcome everyone to the embassy of the united states in havana. [applause] [speaking spanish] thank you, secretary kerry, coast guard commandant, assistant secretary jacobson, and all other executive ranch officials, as well as members of congress for being here today. i would like to welcome the and ial cuban delegation
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would like to give special recognition to the marine detachment to the embassy of havana, 1961. [applause] and marine security detachment to the embassy of havana, 2015. [applause] you worked very hard to make this they happen and i think all of you for coming, from near and far. and how far we have come. in the few short months since our president's announcement in december, the united states and
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cuba have already established diplomatic relations and an important foundation for the future. and of course, there is the added addition of the new sign on this building. i began my own foreign service career in 19 anyone in this building when it was called something else. at that time, i never imagined -- in 1991 in this building when it was called something else. at that time, i never imagined we would see our flag raised. [applause] it is a long, complex road to travel, but it is the right road. in many ways, no one has traveled greater distance to be blanco.n poet richard has written an original poem to mark the special occasion.
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the fifth presidential inaugural poet in u.s. history. 'sesent obama has said "blanco contributions to poetry and the arts have already paved the path forward for future generations of writers." today's about the future. please join me in welcoming richard blanco. [applause] richard: for the people of both our countries who believe not even the seating keep us from one another -- not even the sea can keep us from one another. matters of the sea. [speaking spanish] a doesn't matter.
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what matters is this. we all belong to the sea between us. , once and still the same child marvels over starfish, listens to hollow shells, scopes dreams into impossible castles lovers, holding hands, either of our shores, our footprints vanish in waves berth orot know their care on which country they break they break they bless us and return to the sea home to all of our silent wishes is the other to the other to the sea
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whether on island or vast continent, remember our grandfathers there are hands dug deep into the red or brown earth, planting maple or mango trees that outlived them our grandmothers counting years while dusting photos of their wedding days those brittle family faces still alive on our dressers now our mothers teaching us how to read in spanish or english how to tie our shoes fall's colors our fathers warmed by the weight of cloud plotting into factories or cutting sugarcane to earn a new life for us scoutings and i now
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the same stars palmsskyscrapers or waiting for time to stop and begin again rain washes away through rivers or streams back to the sea no matter what anthem we sing we have all walked barefoot and bare-soled and dive of the seagulls cries our lips anointed by the same spray of salt laden wind we have fingered memories and regrets like stones in our hands that we just can't toss yet held seashells
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up to our ears listened again to the echo the sea is still telling us the end to all of our doubts and fears is to gaze into the illicit blue of our shared horizons two brief, together -- to breathe, together to heal, together. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, please rise for the national anthem of the republic of cuba. ♪
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[applause] >> thank you, richard blanco,
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for such inspirational remarks. it is now my very great honor to introduce the secretary of state of the united states john kerry. [applause] please bekerry: seated, everybody. thank you very, very much. [speaking spanish] i'm sorry we are a little late today. what a you to full ride. leaving my for future transportation out here and back of me. [laughter] disney wishedy: members of the cuban delegation, thank you for your leadership and all of the work of your -- distinguished members of the cuban delegation, thank you for all of your leadership and all of the work of your delegation. my colleagues, past and present, ambassador de la renta's --
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delaurentis, all of the embassy staff, those watching around the world -- this you for joining us at very historic moment as we prepare to raise the united states flag here our industry in havana, symbolizing the reestablishment of diplomatic relations after 54 years. this is also the first time that he united states secretary of sincehas been to cuba 1945. [applause] morning, i feel very much at home here and i am grateful to those who have come to share in the ceremony, standing out around our facilities. i feel at home here because this is truly a memorable occasion. a day for pushing aside old barriers and exploring new
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possibilities. that iis in that spirit say on behalf of of my country -- [speaking spanish]
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my friends, we are gathered here today because our leaders -- president obama and president castro -- made a courageous decision to stopping the prisoners of history, and to focus on the opportunities of today and tomorrow. this doesn't mean that we should or will forget the past. how could we after all? at least for my generation, the images are indelible. 1959, fidel castro came to the united states and was greeted by enthusiastic crowds. returning the next year for the un's general assembly, he was embraced by then soviet premier nikita khrushchev.
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in 1961, the bay of pigs tragedy unfolded, with president kennedy accepting responsibility. then in october 1962, the arose, 13 days that pushed us to the very threshold of nuclear war. i was a student then, and i can still remember the faces of our leaders, the grim maps showing the opposing ships, the approaching deadline, and that peculiar word -- quarantine. we were unsettled and uncertain about the future because we did not know when closing our eyes at night what we would find when we woke up. in that frozen environment, diplomatic ties between washington and this capital city were strained, then stretched then, then severed. in late 1960, the u.s. ambassador left havana.
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early the following january, the demanded a big cut in size of our diplomatic mission, and president eisenhower decided he had no choice but to shut the embassy down. most u.s. staff departed quickly, but if you stayed behind to hand the keys over to our swiss colleagues, who would serve diligently and honorably as are protecting power for more than 50 years. i just met with the foreign we are grateful to switzerland always for their service and their help. [applause] among those remaining at the embassy were three marine guards .- larry, mike, and jim as they stepped outside, they were confronted by a large crowd
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standing between them and the flagpole. tensions were high. no one felt safe. but the marines had a mission to accomplish. the crowd just parted in front of them as they made their way to the flag pole, lowered old glory, folded it, and return to the building. they had done their jobs, but they had also made a bold promise, that one day, they would return to havana and raise the flag again. [applause] at the time, no one could have imagined how distant that day would be. for more than half a century, u.s. cuban relations have been suspended in the amber of cold war politics. in the antrim, a whole generation of americans and cubans have grown up and grown old. the united states has had 10 new
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presidents. a united germany. the berlin wall is a fading memory. struggles,soviet central europe is home again to democracy. and last week i was in hanoi to mark the 20th anniversary of normalization between the united states and vietnam. think about that. a long and terrible war that onlicted indelible scars body and mind, followed by two decades of mutual healing, followed by another two decades of diplomatic and commercial engagement. , evolved from a country torn apart by violence into a growing economy. throughhat time, reconciliation, through normalization, cuban-american relations remained locked in the
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past. meanwhile, new technologies enable people everywhere to benefit from shared projects across vast stretches of ocean and land. my friends, it does not take a gps to realize the road of mutual isil is a and and estrangement the united states and kubo were traveling is -- andal isolation estrangement the united states and kubo were traveling is not the right one. in the united states, it means recognizing that u.s. policy is cuba's angle on which future will be forged. intentions good aside, the policies of the past have not led to a democratic transition in cuba. it would the equally unrealistic to expect normalizing relations thatve, in the short term,
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impact. cuba's future is for cubans to shape. accountability rests, as it should, not with any outside entity, but solely within citizens of this country. but the leaders in havana and the cuban people should also havana and the cuban people should also know that the united states will also remain a champion of democratic principles and reforms. ine many other governments and outside this hemisphere, we will continue to urge the cuban government to fulfill its obligations shared by every other country in the americas. that itemain convinced would be best served by genuine democracy where people are free to choose their leaders, express their faith with economic and social justice where
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institutions are answerable for those that have served and where civil society is independent. let me be clear. the establishment of normal diplomatic relations is not something that one government does as a favor to another. it is something's two countries do together when the citizens will both benefit. in this case, the reopening of embassies is important on two levels. people to people, government to government. it is helpful for the people of our nations to learn more about each other. to need each other. travel from the u.s. to cuba has increased and 5% -- 35% since january and continues to grow. it will create opportunities for
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the rising number of entrepreneurs. we are encouraged that cliff stearns are interested in helping. and that the government here recently pledged to create dozens of new and more affordable wi-fi hotspots. we also want to at knowledge the special role of the cuban-american community is playing in establishing a new relationship between our countries. of we have representative that community. with strong ties of culture and contribute toan the spirit of bilateral cooperation that we are seeking to create. contributed tove their adopted land. the restoration of diplomatic ties will make it easier for
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governments to engage. after all, we are neighbors. we will always have much to discuss. protecting marine environment and more complex issues. it makes it easier for us to talk. and deepen understanding when we know we will not see i tie on everything. notwithstanding president obama's new policy, the overall u.s. embargo remains in place. they can only be listed by congressional action. a step that we strongly favor. for now, the president has taken steps to ease restrictions on
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exports and imports to help cuban entrepreneurs on taliban -- telecommunications and family travel. of all of these changes is to help cubans connect to the world. and to improve their lives. we urge the cuban government to make it less difficult to their citizens to start businesses and engage in trade, access information online. embargo has always been something of a two-way street. before closing, i want to sincerely thank leaders throughout the americas who have long urged the united states and cuba to restore normal ties. father, popeoly francis, and the vatican for
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starting relations between our countries. i think it is not accidental. i applaud president obama and president castro both for having the courage to bring us together in the face of considerable opposition. i'm grateful to roberta jacobson and her team and our counterparts with the cuban foreign ministry. and all of the hard work that is led up to this day. i say, if you think you have been busy this past month, hold onto your seatbelt. but above all, i want to pay tribute to the people of cuba.
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everything that divides men is a sin against humanity. ,learly, the events of the past the harsh words, the provocative ever tell you torry and. the human tragedies have all been a source of deep division that has diminished our common humanity. too many days of sacrifice and sorrow. too many decades of suspicion and fear. that is why i have been heartened by many on both sides. for somethinge more productive. we have begun to move down that path without any illusions about how difficult it may be. in theeach confident
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contacts we have made and pleased in the friendships we have forged. to onee to reach out another as people who are no longer enemies or rivals, but neighbors. time to unfurl our flags and raise them up and let the world know that we wish each other well. spanish]
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that flying that you lowered on that january day long ago. on behalf of president obama and the american people, to be raised by members of our current military attachment. this is your cue to deliver on words that would make any diplomat proud. a promise made, promise cap. [drum roll]
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[united states national anthem] ♪
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[applause] ladies and gentlemen, please remain in place while the official delegation departs. ♪
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♪ house coverage coming up with donald trump taking questions from voters in a town hall style meeting in hampton, new hampshire. it begins at 7:10 p.m. eastern. made 16 stopsas in new hampshire according to the candidate tracker. nbc reports this is far fewer than candidates like new jersey
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governor chris christie that has 68 stops in the granite state. stops. 61 jeb bush has more. but today,co rubio spoke about national security. this is about 45 minutes. >> my name is chris griffin and i am the executive director of the foreign-policy initiative. pleasure to welcome you this morning to our event. restoring american leadership, a conversation with senator marco
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rubio. make sure your cell phones are turned off and muted. the foreign-policy initiative was established in 2009 as a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization committed to educating policymakers and the public about the importance of continued american engagement and leadership and world affairs. the importance of standing up for our democratic allies. standing up against regime's that threaten promoting human rights for those oppressed by their government and maintaining a strong defense and welcome economy. it is an honor to be joined by senator rubio for a conversation about these ideas and how to effectively promote them. before we get started, i want to take a moment and think the many members of our leadership network. these are the alumni.
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[applause] alumni of the professional development programs in washington dc and new york. if you want to learn more, chat with me or any member of that network and any number of our staff. museum, we1 at the will be continuing this type of conversation with other national security leaders. isator marco rubio well-known to this audience. elected in 2010 to represent the state of florida in the u.s. senate. before we use the election and 2009,nate, from 2005 to
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was the speaker. we will hold a conversation before moderating questions before him. that you write any questions you may have, that you would be kind enough to put a one word or two word topic to make sure we can get those assorted and get to those as efficiently as possible. foxnews national security analyst. she is also the anchor of devcon three. government and spanned across three administrations and was awarded award fore department
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the service in the reagan administration. i ask all of you to please join me in welcoming senator rubio. senator rubio: thank you for the opportunity to speak to you today. there are historic events in progress. the first is the arrival of secretary of state john kerry in cuba. second is obama's continue campaign to secure congressional approval for his deal with iran. i would like to focus my remarks on these. it has driven president obama's
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foreign-policy. ofsuch, they are emblematic those around the world. this deal demonstrates with during clarity how this administration has failed to anticipate an impending crisis. ignore the realities of the economy, and fought to make america liked rather than respected. and political legacy before leadership. they have confused weakness with restraint, concessions with compromise, and wrong from right. [applause] to fully understand what we are dealing with, we have to understand who we are dealing with.
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and iran, we are facing a radical shia cleric that hopes to one day unite the world under islam. their version of islam. and that it will only happen with a cataclysmic showdown with the west. leaders would be directly responsible for the deaths of hundreds of americans who continue to lead chance of death to america every week. and seek to kill americans and wipe israel off the map. in cuba, we face a proudly anti-american leadership that continues to work with nations like russia and china to spy on people. and who stand in opposition to nearly every value our nation holds by violating the basic human rights of their own people. by depriving their nation's economy of freedom and opportunity. has missed an american president that speaks honestly about the world in which we
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live. obama ands of barack hillary clinton, the cuban people are suffering because not enough american tourist visit that country. areruth, the cuban people suffering because they live under a tyrannical dictatorship. [applause] it is ironic that the same president that visited a u.s. prison to talk about and in our own criminal justice system is silent about the fact that minor offenses in iran in cuba are punishable by indefinite detention, torture, or even death. and that these offenses include nothing more than speaking out with the wrong political opinion. focusing criticism on these governments, the president has chosen to attack opponents of his policies at home. going so far as to demonize the iran deal as
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lobbyists with money and warmongers. against cuba as practitioners of ethnic politics. this is shameful and her auditory rhetoric that has no place in our democracy. especially from our president. [applause] centuries of global affairs tell us that the best way to affect an outcome through volatile leaders is through strength and example. yet weakness and concession are the preferred tools of this administration. president obama has not only permitted iran to retain its infrastructure, he has endorsed a construction of a full-scale industrial sized nuclear program. he has conceded a vast enrichment capacity. facilities and failed to secure the anytime,
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anywhere inspection. becomes aranteed iran regional power with long-range missiles capable of hitting the u.s. homeland. them $100o hand billion in sanctions relief that will be used, in part, to fund how mas and hezbollah -- hamas up hezbollah and prop bashir al-assad in syria. without any commitment that iran will end its support for terrorism and accept israel's right to exist or return a single american hostage. deal with iran is not a deal at all. it is a string of concessions to a sworn adversary of the united states. and the negotiations with cuba are proven equally one-sided. president obama has rewarded the its persistentor
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operation to american. he has given up on a century of policies that was agreed upon by presidents of both parties. he has ensured the regime will receive international legitimacy. its progression -- it has only increased since the policy was announced. this is whathift, it has turned out to be. at the new u.s. embassy in havana. human dissidents have fought for decades. it has ensured it will be little more than a propaganda rally.
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, i symbol of our solidarity will invite cuban dissidents, iranian dissidents, and freedom fighters from around the world to be honored guests at my inauguration. [applause] our current president has made no such effort to stand on the side of freedom. he has been quick to deal with the oppressors. slow to deal with the oppressed. the argument that if the embargo has not worked, let's try something new. my hasn't he made a similar argument to the castro regime? for 50 years, they have tried here any in communism. have a standard of every other nation in the
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hemisphere. claim thatade the people of cuba do not have access to 21st-century technology because of the u.s. embargo. they don't have access because the castro regime has made this technology illegal. freedom of speech and freedom of information. the very government denying than these rights implead section. danger -- and us.endanger [applause] here is how. the deal with cuba threatens our moral standing. an ally of china and russia sits 90 miles from our shores.
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if the effort fails, the threat posed will truly be historic. and it their arms race will likely overtake the middle east. it will become higher than those of any election since the end of the cold war. they have an instrumental role bringing them to fruition. if the president won't, i will. [applause] beginning on day one, i will undertake a three-part land to roll back president obama's deal with iran and repair the damage done to america's standing in the middle east. i will reimpose sanctions on iran. it are you have an economy or you have a nuclear enrichment program, but you cannot have both.
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i will ask congress to pass crushing new measures that targets human rights abusers and those involved in financing and overseeing the sponsorship to terrorism. i will ensure the forces in the will restore a credible military option. this will be bolstered by my administration's effort to rebuild military right ending defense sequestration once and for all. [applause] third, after imposing crippling sanctions on iran, i will talk to iran's broader conduct of human rights abuses to support terrorism and threats against israel. i will insist a deal must terminate the nuclear program. iran will never be allowed to build a nuclear weapon if i become president. not now, and not decades from now.
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that would be my policy for iran. there would be no room for equivocation. no room for manipulation. iran may not return to the table immediately. but it will return when its national interests require it to do so. and the concessions to the castro regime. give, on day one, i will castro a choice. either continue oppressing your people and lose the benefits provided by president obama, or begin to carry out meaningful human rights reforms and receive increased u.s. trade investment and support.
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and it will stop supporting terrorist organizations. fugitives from american justice. and i will do everything in our power to provide support, both direct and more. and deprive the castro regime of the funding for its oppressive security state. [applause] these are the actions required to restore the safety and security president obama has cost us. when it comes to the challenges posed, our task is straightforward. we must prevent iran from gaining a nuclear weapon and we must guarantee the united states stands on the side of the cuban people.
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we also know that the straightforward is not a synonym for easy. confronting these challenges will require what has always been required. based on strategy and security. not politics or legacy. that's what i intend to offer our nation and the world. i look forward to answering your questions. [applause] >> i am the mother and grandmother of five. i will give senator rubio his
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water. thank you. now the hard part. you have talked very eloquently about what you would do now. we have already established relations with the american flag flying over havana and you have said you would roll back the relationship. how realistic is that? 18 months from now, the u.s. will have business interest, contracts, major american companies that will have already started building hotels and tourist trade and investments. how do you undo all that? >> i don't think that is what's going to happen. there is no such thing as the cuban economy. talk about the economy, we talk about our own. sa.re is the gae
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it is run by the cuban military. telecommunications, rent cars, gas stations. every major industry is owned or operated by a company held within this larger company. open up to the cuban economy, you open up to this holding company run by raul castro's son-in-law. government saya that we will let you flag a hotel under your name but it belongs to us. the workers work for us and you have no real ownership stake other than 20%. and there are no contract second the enforced anywhere. i don't think it will be as quick as people think. the initial bump his travel and remittances. some minor investments but not major investments. in favor of any policy that brings about change in cuba.
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that whatl you today the president had done had been in exchange for concrete promises by the cuban government. we will begin to do this and that. i would be uncomfortable with elements of the deal but it would be harder to argue against. understand this arrangement. we are going to do all these things with cuba. we will open up all these things we're willing to do with cuba. cuba says, thank you very much. we still want you to pay reparations and we're not going to change a single thing. they have said that to their own people. they have rounded up over 90 dissidents, somewhere in barack obama masks. if they want to continue down this path, there had better be some action on the part of the cuban government.
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now we have given them the diplomatic recognition. >> the only time we have ever come close to having a nuclear war was over the cuban missile crisis and the soviet union trying to put nuclear missiles in cuba. how are you going to prevent the chinese that are interested in the region, and the russians with the castro government and using those ports where they --ld put their own military rubio: it is as simple as that. >> even secretary kerry said the monroe doctrine is dead. rubio: secretary kerry will not be my secretary of state. [applause]
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that is not going to happen. posed,f all, the threat they particularly target the southern command. dozens of fugitives of american justice. including dozens. there are also high military officials indicted for the unarmed civilian americans. back in 1996. these are the sort of things that is the threat they cuba poses. aey help north korea even u.n. sanctions. there was no punishment for it.
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these of the kinds of threats they cuba legitimately faces. not unless they ramp up spending. they act it as a case of operations -- a base of operations. presence.d russian he said you would support a pro-democracy movement. i assume that means covert activities. rubio: i would were quickly to transition tv off of broadcasting. access to the internet. they not just join social media and not john candy crushed.
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the blackout that exists is extraordinary. idea.ave no they don't get cnn or fox news or msnbc. -- their loss, right? all the information they get in cuba is from cuban government sources. breaking that will be part of the government transition. have democracy programs now. we will fund those and try to give them a stronger standing. and show that we are firmly on the side of those looking for positive change.
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people capable of functioning in a democratic society when that day comes. >> let's move to iran. as you have predicted, let's assume the presidency chose -- vetoes the a ran deal and it is not overridden. you are going to unwind a lot about. they don't care about this. opportunityeconomic they are not going to walk away from. the russians want to sell weapons. how effective with u.s. sanctions the? let's take out the chinese and russians because they are of never cooperated to begin with. anything we are for, vladimir putin has decided he is against.
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the chinese have their own agenda. they have never been a critical linchpin of our efforts. they don't realize they need to be. the other countries, when our sanctions are reimposed, the banking sector in germany. they have access to the u.s. economy through which 50% of global capital flows happen. have accessose to to the iranian economy. that they will choose the u.s. economy. , these companies are going to choose the american economy. we don't have to think hard to imagine what is going to be in place for about 10 years. north korea today possesses multiple nuclear warheads. the good news is, they are not very good at aiming.
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we don't know if they will hit san francisco or san diego. the bad news is they can hit something. we don't have an incredible threat of force. the cost of it will be an attack on seoul, tokyo, guam, hawaii. they will have rapidly expanded capabilities. would result in an attack on paris, london, washington, new york. again, that's why it's important. combination of two things. crippling sanctions on their economy and on individuals which
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is what force them to the negotiating table to begin with. they go around now saying we put these sanctions in place and forced iran to the table. as long as you are enriching uranium, we will hit your facilities with a credible threat of military force. it is the only thing that reigns in the protest. >> ha if they can't buy american --pons, european ribbons
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weapons. that actually answers my question. the enforcement of this mechanism. i still think and i believe that ultimately, the economy has impacted by u.s. sanctions. , neither onetself having access. it won't prevent it from being able to do any congress. >> you talked about a joint air
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force. a sunni arab air force. it has not materialized. rubio: it requires american leadership to convene it. elements would be nationstates like egypt and jordan and many of the gulf kingdoms. saudi arabia. it would involve empowering local forces in iraq. the sunni tribes involves kurds as well. we're asking for the ability to defend themselves. it is a combination of all these things. it would require u.s. leadership to bring it together. technical, logistical, intelligent support. i do think ultimately, this is not just because we don't want to be in the fight directly but
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i believe the fastest and most endearing way is for sunnis themselves to defeat it. it has to happen that way. otherwise, the elements that made it possible are still in place. it's one of the reasons why isis was greeted as the liberator initially. there was the view of many in the sunni community. they now see the reality of this group. it is critical they play a linchpin role in defeating this radical sunni movement. he would not have cooperation with the shiite militias? are basically extensions of the iranian government. they are part of this web of surrogates used to further their influence in the world. they are involved not for the purposes of defeating isis but
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for decreasing the influence and leverage on iraq. they want to become the dominant power. the regularted army. >> you previewed the middle east christians. seemsama administration to not put that front and center. rubio: i think it is critical to talk about it. not enough has been set out set of groups like this about it happening. ofs was the ritual slaughter thousands of people of any other denomination and i think there peoplee an outrage driven from ancestral homelands, there are not masses being celebrated. it is important these communities be empowered.
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i also believe that they need the ability to defend themselves. argue that we have no capability of defending ourselves. the mercy of kurds and the sunni tribes. we count on others to provide for our defense. the government is not a huge fan of this notion. in the case of christians, they deserve the right to self-defense. i believe that is the key part of it. i think they reserve the right toreserve -- to return historic cities that hosted them for thousands of years. it should be part of any effort to ensure that any successor government is one that respects the society with christians and and those that live side in some level of unity government. it has to be part of the long-term strategic lands.
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we will be right back in three or four years. iran havingd about nuclear weapons and north korea. it is a bunch of nuclear proliferation. , other is a threat countries have said that they will, too. another ofce with countries -- prevent iran from having it and then you face a cascade. manye had quarrels with domestically and around the world. but put yourself in their position. they view themselves of allies of the united dates and as a strategic ally of the united states. nationew themselves as a in conflict with the ambitions of a persian shia government in tehran that wants to become the regional power.
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themselves being encircled with yemen and bahrain. they turned to the u.s. and the u.s. is cutting a deal with saudi arabia's rival in the region. it ensures they will have an industrial capacity nuclear program. it will continue to develop long-range rockets. we know who you are dealing with and we know what these guys are going to do. you, if, i promise there is a shia bomb, there will be a sunni bomb. arabia has already taken steps or will soon begin to take steps to match anything iran has. if, in 15 years, iran possesses a nuclear weapons capability, they will not be alone in the region. at least saudi arabia will have the same capability. what we seel have between india and pakistan but in a much more unstable part of
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the world where you can have three or four nuclear armed nations. >> one of the first thing you would do is increase defense spending. how would you deal with missile-defense? rubio: it is a critical component because one of the to be able to access his intercontinental missiles. although the designs are widely available. north korea basically has no economy. governed by a criminal syndicate and is capable of producing nuclear weapons. missiles are even easier to acquire. you could easily foresee a situation in the next tender 15 years where 12 or 15 countries and produce -- produce intercontinental capabilities or other potential threats.
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missile-defense becomes a critical part of our notion. europe and the east and west coast of the united states. that lookcommission at all of this and said the bus -- the baseline funding anticipated all of these threats. that is why i believe we must return to the baseline number. the number one obligation of the federal government is to provide for national security. there are things the national government wants to do -- [applause] there are lots of other things the federal government wants to do or has decided to do but national security is the one thing the federal government must do. for anythingy else, fully funded defense and pay for anything else with the money that remains. we are treating it the same as every other program. longtime u.s. ally and a more dangerous
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neighborhood. there is some loss, hezbollah -- hamas, hezbollah, and radical extremists. how would you repair relations with israel? , they are using libya as a base of operations. from the libyan port city, they are just across the mediterranean right into europe. it is a great transit point for that sort of activity. don't take your eyes off of isis and afghanistan. to fill thatning void. i think this is the most significant erosion we have seen since the founding of the jewish state. they basically asked to primary things. they have operations in their place.
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use our veto power at the security council to prevent international sanctions for actions against israel. they run out of weapons, bullets, or rockets. for the first time in a long there are significant problems about both of these things. hasobama administration telegraphed a threat. or the condemnation of israel. ify are intimating that israel does anything against iran now, they will be an international pariah. agowe saw a year and a half , the administration hesitated for a significant time because they were concerned about the way israel was conducting operations. president, they don't
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have to worry about either one. it u.s. will do whatever takes to ensure the only pro-american free enterprise democracy in the middle east. >> we have several audience questions about china. with our you deal maritime presence in the region and china's expansion? first, we have have the capability. i saw it myself when i was there in january and february a couple years ago. we didn't have a carrier presence. i agree with a pivot to asia but we need to have something to
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give it with. -- to pivot with. the japanese are willing to do more. they have allowed the opportunity to provide self-defense. , they arese military a critical part of our effort in that region as well. in the claims the china makes around them, we need to challenge them. we need to send ships to the south china sea without asking for permission. these exclusive air zones, we should continue to challenge them repeatedly. to make sure we can back that up. when we talk about the capability, china does not want
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a direct war with the u.s.. they will not build 12 aircraft carriers, they will build a lot of cheaper rockets that will destroy expensive aircraft carriers. gets further away from the area of operation. they can turn to countries and say, you've got these american security agreements you're relying on, but they can't really live up to it anymore. you might as well full than under the order we have created. it is almost like a reverse monroe doctrine. the chinese version of the monroe doctrine and they must be the dominant military. and we can't be around. our economy is deeply dependent and in no way should we seek ground on that to china or any nation.
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[applause] that you havees identified as a threat, they have one thing in common which you alluded to. they don't let their people have access to the world wide web or have access to social media. proactive foreign-policy initiatives would you have? look all over the world. the problems are being created by totalitarian states. not a single free enterprise democracy on the planet threatening people and creating instability and violating the rules. ways, there are fundamental truths that are always there. the battle between liberty, freedom, tyranny, and oppression. we need to firmly be on the side of those.
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my first statement isn't going to be that i'm not going to interfere in the sovereignty of iran. we stand in solidarity and support. we're protesting against them. it is why i helped pass human rights violations policy in venezuela. we need to be firmly on the side of those seeking political change in china, russia, iran, everywhere in the world where tyranny is being confronted by people standing up for it. other way on human rights and the pro-democracy movement. and when you do that, you demoralize the movement. the moral authority should not be underestimated. in providing the moral sustenance and
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international attention. we can play the same role now. had we break the cyber blockade? large countries like russia and china but i can tell you how we don't allow it to accelerate. turning the internet over to the world government organization that now regulates the internet and finds that these practices are legitimate. [applause] >> you have compared with your optimism and america's future with mainstream media and a lot of polls have said americans think the future is going to be less good than the past has been. you have talked a number of times about restoring america's leadership role and america's sense of self. it is a shining city on a hill to borrow ronald reagan's phrase. i am optimistic about
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america because, despite our challenges, i wake up every morning with a believe that i would not trade places with any other country in the world. [applause] i encourage everyone here to ask yourself the same question. who would you rather be? russia? china? i don't think anybody would, and neither would i. every generation faces challenges. some are domestic, some international, some both. we have always faced great challenge. we always will. whether wen is not face challenges, it's whether we solve them and move on. i have an extra ordinary promise. economically, we live in a world where hundreds of millions of people by the things we make and the services we offer. we never had a global economy where so many people buy things.
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invest in things. i'm area optimistic about that. i'm optimistic about the fact that all of the world a growing of people aspired to liberty and freedom. while the internet poses challenges, for example the ability to radicalize americans, it also poses extraordinary opportunity, the ability to collaborate and spread information quicker than ever. do we harness our choices and lead or are we overwhelmed by

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