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tv   Washington Journal  CSPAN  September 1, 2015 7:00am-10:01am EDT

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china's economy has on the united states stock market. robotics in about u.s. manufacturing. host: more democrats have come out in support of a nuclear deal with iran. murphy, also endorsing the deal. the state department has posted 7000 pages of e-mail from hillary clinton's private e-mail server. 150 were partially or totally redacted because the state department decided they contained classified material. there is a new poll from the university that has responded
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there is a way things are going today in the united states. were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied if you are asked the same question, how would you respond? we want to hear from you. if you are satisfied from with the way the country is going, tell us. if not, tell us why. (202) 748-8000 for democrats. (202) 748-8001 for republicans. and for independents, (202) 748-8002. 250 people so far post and on our facebook page. if you want to send an e-mail, go to journal@c-span.org. some of the respondents on the pole, asked about satisfaction with the way the nation's today.
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only 2% of respondents said they are very satisfied with the direction of the country. 26% said they were somewhat satisfied. were somewhat dissatisfied, and 41% responded very dissatisfied. 1% ofitical party, republicans very satisfied as opposed to 3% of democrats. 61% of republicans said they were very dissatisfied and 15% of democrats registered. they asked independents as well, around 2% saying they were very satisfied and iraq 15% of independents said they were very dissatisfied. joining us on the phone is peter brown. the assistant poll director.
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guest: we usually ask this question. we do it seven or eight times a year. are not unusual for what has been going on in the last year or two. dissatisfaction is 10 points lower than the least satisfied time since we have been taking this poll. 2008.as in november of that was the week after barack obama was elected president of the united states. it is obviously showing the unhappiness in mr. obama's election.
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the time when americans were the 11, satisfied, was december 2001. almost three months after 9/11. only 29% said they were dissatisfied. that probably reflects the sense of national purpose that gripped the country after 9/11. host: as the snapshot of this figure is put out, did respondents get a chance to elaborate? was there a sense of what they were telling the pollsters? polls are very good about asking what and where, but not why. instance, the satisfaction
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50%2% total or hot -- was total or higher. it is up the worst it has been, but it is nowhere near the lowest. nothows a country that is very happy with the way things are going. host: as far as other parts, do you ask about specifics that might drive their satisfaction or dissatisfaction? the state of the economy or other things? sometimes, we will ask how they view the economy but not every time. host: one of the questions you put out there was about trust, especially in members of the government. you asked about who would you trust more, 44% saying they would trust the president, and
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44% equally saying they would trust the republicans. 11% saying they did not know or the information was not available. >> -- guest: we ask that question occasionally, not every time. the president's job approval has been steadily underwater for a couple of years. meeting higher disapproval than approval. it is not at its lowest, but it is not doing well these days. that is part of it. part of it is the general sense about the economy. but it is clearly there. this is not unusual. this poll encrypted not exist at the end of the second reagan term but there was a time when president reagan was not viewed
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all that well in the public opinion polls at the time at the end of his second term. his image has got much better over time. it is not terribly unusual at the end of the presidency that people are unhappy. that is peter brown. he has been talking about is registering some sort of dissatisfaction with people about the way the country is going. thank you for coming on and talking to us about this. guest: have a good day. host: you heard some of his thoughts about how people responded and now is your chance to respond as well. republicans, (202) 748-8001. democrats (202) 748-8000. and independents, (202)
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748-8002. if you are satisfied or dissatisfied, tell us why. let's start with dorothy in baltimore, maryland. you are first up. caller: thank you, pedro. i am calling because i am dissatisfied because of congress. i say that for a few reasons. the want to build the wall on the southern border but they don't want to do infrastructure. are still talking about building the wall when congress could easily pass the wall to do it. they want to keep republicans upset so they just keep talking about it but never do it. -- number two is citizens united. there is no way congress should
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not vote to get rid of citizens united. keep everybody angry and upset about things. especially immigration, but they are not doing anything about it. they can clear up the law, stop donald trump from talking foolishness by just doing it. look at the infrastructure bill. they want the wall, we want our and for structure fixed. host: dorothy from baltimore, maryland. jim from chicago, illinois on the independent line. caller: i am very disappointed. america is on life support. the economy is about to tank again. there is not leadership including the idiot in the white house. congress don't care. the lack of morals. the crime rate is increasing and anyone under 40 years old does not have a future. just people in general who have their head in the fan, or feel
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there is nothing to do. these politicians, democrat or republican, seem like they do not care. host: james from new jersey -- atlantic city. democrats line. caller: good morning, i have one question for c-span and him and like to get my point out about the direction of the country. compared to when republicans were in charge, everything is going great. who would want to get republicans back in charge after they trunk drove the economy off a cliff. wherestion for c-span, can i go to find out what hillary clinton is saying on the campaign trail as president? when i watch c-span, i know what her e-mails are doing. sometimes they have a segment on her e-mails and a segment after that, a republican will talk entirely about her e-mails. you just had a segment earlier about her e-mail. when will you have a segment
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when she talks about what she will do as president of the united states? you know where i have to go to get information? i have to read the huffington post because i will not get it from the news stations or c-span. host: i would argue that we do plenty on all of the candidates, including hillary clinton. if you want the video library to show everything that she has said, i would direct you to our website at c-span.org. the video library or you can type in the name of the candidate of your choice and find out everything on this program and all other avenues of the network. the color brought up the story about the e-mail. 7000 pages worth. rejected totally or partially because they were deemed ossified. -- classified. the secretary of state wrote russia,e call done with
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that dealt not only with iran but the stark treaty. it talks about e-mails exchanged with sidney blumenthal. be one of hero most loyal correspondence. he passed along tidbits about news articles. covers the 2010 academy awards and the supreme court justice john paul stevens impassioned dissent in the citizens united political money's case. -- monies case. here is bill. we are asking about satisfaction if you are satisfied with the way the company is going. i would like to make a point greed think it is all the at the top killing this country. bernie sanders is a socialist -- this country started out with socialism.
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neighborsnot help our we would not make it anywhere. i think it is all about money. host: when it comes to your principal dissatisfaction, it is about money issues? caller: well, there are other factors of course, but it is mostly the money. they put the money before our health, the money before our safety. that is all i have to say. beach,isa from west palm florida. caller: i am so disheartened listening to the callers this morning. i am completely dissatisfied with the way the country has gone the last seven years. there is a good reason. we have to lame -- blame the
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leader -- barack obama. we have 92 million americans unemployed. 50 million people on food stamps. there are no jobs. the gdp sucks. this is a funk. this is a disaster. we need to turn the country around. i am hoping everybody will vote for donald trump so we can get this nation turned around and get some jobs. people are best off because we -- pissed off because we have a divider in chief sitting in the white house. host: what is it about donald trump that you think could change satisfaction with the country? caller: the man has like a 40 year career of being successful, an extremely successful businessman. you have to take that into account. i know some people do not like the over-the-top language, and feelings are getting hurt -- we
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have to stop with the nonsense. we need a strong man who is tough and smart. who can turn the nation around. we need a businessman. barack obama did not have the qualifications to run the mcdonald's franchise. that is why we are in the mess we are in today. for: (202) 748-8000 democrats. republicans.1 for for independents, (202) 748-8002. we are asking about your satisfaction with the direction of the country. we are basing that off figures from a poll. if you are very satisfied or dissatisfied, be sure to tell us that. the viewer brought up donald trump. donald trump mentioning two stories today. particularly with how republicans are taking a look at his tax and other policies and showing concern. this is a headline from reuters.
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some republicans fear lasting damage from trump's did. -- bid. with a dozen countries around the pacific rim. every gop candidate promises to secure the nation's southern border. some are expressing an openness to -- to reducing levels of legal immigration. longmarket economists have argued that trade and immigration are critical to u.s. economic growth. topper publicans have frequently adopted those beliefs -- top republicans have frequent they adopted those beliefs. to the satisfaction of the country, and your thoughts, lewis in long beach, california. caller: i would like to say that
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i find the question somewhat ambiguous, in the sense that it asks the question of the direction of the country, but it doesn't allow you to pinpoint why you think it is. i might feel that america is headed in the wrong direction, but i might feel that way because the republicans in the house are causing it to go in the right direction. i feel the president has done some good things. i have other feelings about it that other things are not going right. be, thatption seems to if the country is on the wrong course, it is the president's fault. everybody is saying he is the leader, but that is not exactly the way this is set up. we have equal branches of government, and no one branch is supposed to trump the other. -- i couldn't hear
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you. but: i didn't say anything, you talked a little bit about it as far as pinpointing concerns, if you were asked, your satisfaction level -- why would you pinpoint that? would it be just because of congress or are there other factors as well? mix. that is the whole thing. one of my points is, how do we know? when someone says they are dissatisfied, whether they mean the democrats or the republicans itif they say it is mixed, could be because they think there are good things on the republican and democrat side. without pinpointing the questions more specifically, about why people feel is to blame for the wrong direction, i feel that would help answer
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these questions. this thing about people talking about trump being a businessman and all of that, and how that would help the country along, why has he filed somebody bankruptcies? bankruptcy,e files a bunch of smaller people are losing out. all of this stuff -- the government is not a business and should not be run like a business. host: that is lewis from california. if you want to pinpoint reasons why you are satisfied or dissatisfied, this is the format we chose to let you do that. you are on. withr: i am very satisfied the way this country is run. said -- theyn
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would want to keep them at one term. everything he brings up to do for the country, they shut him down. blame the republicans. all of you. stop talking about sending immigrants back. we are all immigrants. they took this country from the american indians. if they rise up and say -- get out of my country, what will they say then? backing theemocrats president on a nuclear deal with iran. highlights -- gregory -- video velasquez, gregory meeks and yvette clarke of new york. mr. murphy's decision is the most surprising. he had been written off as he
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vowed to lean against the accord. from indiana, pennsylvania here is jo. inler: i am calling conjunction with the phone call from the gentleman from california. he is right. it is a mixed bag. ands a divided government, it was set up that way by the founding fathers. everyone needs to take responsibility. unsatisfied with the direction of the country that we need to look at how many people do not vote or participate. i also think the president has of sellingellent job that could've been better than that great depression. he moved a set of war and iraq.
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i think we all need to take a deep breath. we need to move forward. we need to have some direction in that we all need to work together and the position in this country is appalling. some of the comments i am hearing is appalling. looking at mr. trump and his something -- better than anything i have heard in a long time. -- for those who think that is telling it like it is -- if we wanted all of our elected officials to have some sort of tourette's syndrome, i think we would all and up with nothing but babel in washington -- babble in washington. jersey, hi, al. host: go ahead, you are on.
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caller: i feel that the country is absolutely going in the wrong direction and has been going in the wrong direction for seven years. absolutely due to the policies of our supposedly president -- supposed president. i say supposed, because i wonder what direction he wants the country to go. the debt is out of this world. statistics show that we are in a bad place and a far worse place than seven years ago. for example, the number of people out of work or the number of people on the credit line. we have not had a good leader, and we need a good one. i feel that one would certainly
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be donald trump. i think that his experience as a businessman would help him as compared to barack obama, who had very little experience in anything worthwhile. host: here is milton from topeka, kansas. go ahead. it is very natural to me that people would have dis-trust in our elected officials because they lie all the time. i personally have a solution for that. we put shock collars on them and set it to go off every time they tell a lie. every time their blood pressure goes up -- host: jay, from las vegas, nevada. go ahead. caller: i am happy with how the system is treating everybody. it seems fair. i am biased in a sense.
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americans in general have to look to the future. think about how the world is going. it is kind of the way the world is headed. a lot of you don't like the idea -- a lot of people don't like the idea. host: you think the united states is not prepared for that? caller: the mentality of the american people is not. the government knows how it does. the eu system is a big test market. the-year-old and the currency -- -- the euro, the currency. you have to look 20 years down the road. to gethave to realize out of what has been created, environmentally, socially, poverty and overpopulation. you really have to start thinking about how we internet
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-- interact with a global, international system. there is no way out of it if it is a global -- unless it is a global issue to fix it. there will be a lot of people thinking about a global fixed because people will get scared. currentw you think the ministration is responding to what you said? capturesa line that the ideas you are thinking about? trump, i think -- like he has international business experience, and some of the things he has -- like taking 12 million ill -- immigrants and they have to go -- it is a radical change, but in the global sense, some of the things he says bring true where a radical change has to happen.
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more than anybody else, he has still with people internationally, and some of his ideas that he talks about our simple. simple, but radical. some of therun, things he says makes sense that way. fix and somelobal candidates touch on it a bit. epidemic -- the rich people that they say control the world, but they are thinking about a global answer. think it isople, i something to come. host: that is jay from nevada. mentioning donald trump. pollniversity put out a asking.
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leased,op, tied it 23% ben carson leading that list followed by donald trump. followed by carly fiorina, scott walker and jeb bush. likely for those who would cast votes in the upcoming iowa caucus. these are residents of iowa, who identify as republican. paula and north carolina. republican line. are you satisfied with the direction of the country? >> i am not very happy. let's start with obama. he has been dividing this country. there is too much happening and nobody is controlling it. we have hate groups out there andblack lives that matter they should be arrested. we have a congress that is a mess and they don't care what is
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happening to america. everybody is looking out for themselves. we have illegal immigrants allowed to stay here instead of being deported and bringing in all the people that have rightfully waited to come to this country. nobody should be here. they ought to swap out every illegal immigrant for every person that has fallen by our laws there it people need to learn if they are going to come to america, this is america. we don't have to learn anybody's language. we don't have to give you special treatment. we don't want to provide social programs for you. if you come over here, come over the right way. that is how i feel about everything going on. host: corey from sykesville, maryland. go ahead. dissatisfiedreally with the country.
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i think there is too much money in politics. ofyou have to spend hundreds millions of dollars to be elected by the president there is something really wrong with the system. in dealing with the new trade deals, they are all pushing their agenda and all it does is pass the buck to the people at the lower end of the scale down to the poor to subsidize health care or the program for people that can't afford health insurance or even basic food. totally missede the point as we are fighting amongst each other, about immigrants and religion. we are being bamboozled by our own government. they are taking money out of our pockets. they are making the rules and we have to sit idly by while this happens.
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watching sports teams or not paying attention to what goes on when they are doing the free trade and stuff like that, stacking the cards against us to the point where we might not have a say. we might get money out of policies and start redirecting the country in the right direction. the country is like a large ship and it takes a long time to turn the ship around. right now, nobody has taken the wheel and turned. we are headed on the wrong course and this is what we are doing. until we get into office and start doing the right thing and start looking at everything putting caps on spending at the the $100el there is million anymore to elect the president the average person can become were of a say in politics and the rules are dictating our
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everyday lives. 2% ofremember that only those who responded said they were very satisfied. 26% saying somewhat satisfied. 30% saying somewhat dissatisfied. and then it breaks it down. republicans, democrats and independents whiting in as well. about 50% said they were very dissatisfied. wesley, sacramento, california. democrats line. satisfied.m somewhat one of the things i like to -- one of the first things to happen was people calling the president an idiot. they are kind of biased. i think a lot of it has to do
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with the fact that he is black. i am 75 years old. i spent 20 years in the marine corps. the way this country is going now, there is nothing but hatred. it is a divided country. everyonetion is that takes a deep breath and think about where we were eight years ago. thank you very much. host: ted from virginia, republican line. caller: i am satisfied with the direction of the country. for the past 25 years we have been going up and down and up and down. we are at the bottom now and i think once we get rid of this democrat regime we have in the that finallyow people will be able to get back on their feet. it will be slow but steady but i am satisfied with the direction.
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whether donald trump -- i am a ben carson fan. i think he is a guy that can take us to that direction. thank you. host: here is john from mississippi. caller: it is nice to get on here. feel of the get the pulse of the people. movetoammend.org. tv,n't watch corporate news any of them, other than to learn what their slant is. responsibility to their investors to make a profit. you need to make the critical judgment to help guide our government and young people whose government is the
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representation of the people who vote. not our enemy.is what i want to do is take a look at history. they were overthrowing the democratically elected government for the oil company which is today named british petroleum. money side -- wall street, when you take their money away from them and put them in jail, like ronald reagan debacle in hisan presidency, then things change. back. glass-steagall put the corporations are not paying and if jimmynts
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carter tried to push the clean energy agenda, if you would have followed that course, the discoveries that would've been made -- we can't even imagine to date, they- to this would have been in enormous. we might even have propulsion systems that would allow us to get a great distances quickly, or by low weight energy opportunities. let's not fight each other. when you are listening to a program and they say it is your fault or someone else's fault to blame someone else -- let's not do that. host: thomas from fort worth, texas. independent line. caller: good morning. basicallyry is
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--trolled by big business the immigration deal, you basically need to make the people pay that are -- i work with hispanics and mexicans. there are legal and they will follow the laws but they need to buy their own medical insurance and pay their taxes and you need to quit letting big business control this country. donald trump is right. this country has been brainwashed and our citizens are cowards. that is the way it is going. we will hear next from jerry asking about the satisfaction you have from the direction -- with the direction of the country. caller: good morning, pedro. thank god for c-span.
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what the last caller was saying about the corporate media -- there are six companies that own all the media in the country, and they are all republican based. we are only left with c-span and free speech tv. that is it. a country is when going i am so dissatisfied. remember all of the destruction that bush 43 did to this country and obama has been trying -- it is so amazing what obama has accomplished. people seem to forget that the stock market even though it has gone down as a correction in the past couple days, under bush it went down to 7000. legacy is the
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destruction of this country and republicans the day obama was elected they said we are going to be against anything this man does or tries to present so just think what a wonderful country we would have right now if the republicans had worked with him to bring about the new economy we are having. ameone mentioned jimmy carter little while ago and it is very true that -- what did reagan do? jimmy carter put solar panels on the roof of the white house. reagan said no and took them down. that the country has been headed in such a wrong direction ever since reagan that it amazes me that people seem to be so obtuse about it. and i thankn and on you for giving me all of this time.
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host: one of the questions from that poll asked the respondents if the elections were hold today which party should control the senate? there was a tie. the republican party or democratic party should control it. for those who did not know or did not answer -- 11%. in the new york times taking a look at the 2016 fight for senate control. the republicans who have the of defending 22 senate seat and 2016, with half the competitive states appear to have been snuffed out in the ideological warts that have been the deviled them. two within the halls of congress. the tough primaries will most likely leave incumbent
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checkbooks and stamina in tact. -- wherery drama where battle lines were drawn less illinois,gma -- in the democrat favors the take on deeply vulnerable republican senator mark kirk feeling pressure from supporters of andrea zopp. this past month she told reporters that washington insiders will be telling voters of cook county who they should choose. isgeorgetown, maryland, this dan. -- i'm sorry georgetown, massachusetts. caller: good morning. i think we are definitely headed in the wrong direction. a lot of things happened.
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a lot of things have happened that the majority of people are not aware. want to seeo you something or look into something that is potentially very painful and most decide no, i would rather continue my life. so we have all of this stuff happening that no one wants to look at because it is so ugly so they are able to get away with things. for instance, the saying ouract, own government cannot use our own tax dollars to use propaganda within the borders of the united states. this was rescinded in 2012 so now the government is operating deceptiveoney to use tropicana against us to mislead us. so we look at these big news
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stories that happen and it is as if we believe everything they are saying -- no matter what the evidence is because people are too afraid to look at the facts because it counters what we are being told day after day after day. listened to ai journalist and they were talking nominee andpublican their percentages and so on. he made a great comment. he said, washington operates the way that it wants to and it keeps saying the same thing over and over. eventually he and theyhe nominee feel that this will happen and they will do everything possible to do it. think there is an
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unbelievable amount of deception coming from our government to us and we are basically being played like an orchestra and the people who are walking in line and i'll make a nice, handsome paycheck and a lot of them are thinking -- being paid to look the other way. host: that is dan from massachusetts. harold from alabama. democrats line. caller: what we are facing now and andficult time time. host: go ahead, you are on. caller: we are facing the tribulation times and a lot of cannot understand why is there so much violence and hatred. it is in the bible. another thing, pedro. people realize this, you have of the republicans and democrats --
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host: you have to keep going and not listen to the tv. ok, jessica. camden, north carolina. last call. republican line asking about the satisfaction of the country. caller: i am very dissatisfied. i am a military wife and i don't like the way the country is being ran right now. you don't hear about the military anymore being killed went overseas. being mistreated and the democrats have not been doing what they should. office,a republican and i am talking about dr. ben carson who is a christian man who will stand for biblical times and what they should stand for. christians are being mistreated and he will stand for what needs to be done. host: jessica will be the last
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call on this topic. in the papers today, even stories about the stock market crash, also big questions about china's economy. join us next is peter. the former chief world bank resident in beijing talking about china's economy and how it effects the u.s. economy and later on, can robots replace workers. obama is indent alaska for a three-day tour and a spotlighting the issue of climate change. he spoke to participants on the topic and also met with alaska's native leader. here is a bid from president obama in alaska. pres. obama: climate change is no longer some far off problem. it is happening here and now. climate change is already our ecosystem, our
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water supplies. our infrastructure and human health and safety. -- climate change is a trend that affects all trends. economic trends, security trends, everything will be impacted and it becomes more dramatic with each passing year. already it is changing the way alaskans live and considering the arctic's unique role influencing the global climate it will affect changes to the way we all live. -- 1979, summer sea ice has increased by more than 40%, a decrease that has dramatically accelerated over the past two decades one study
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estimates that alaska's glaciers alone was about 75 gigatons of ice each year. perspective, one site described a gigatons of ice is a block the size of the national mall in washington. lincolngress to the memorial. four times as tall as the washington monument. imagine 75 of those ice blocks. that is more than alaska's glaciers alone lose each year. the pace of melting is only getting faster. it is now twice what it was between 1950 and 2000. a littlefast as it was bit over a decade ago. if you want to hear that whole speech, go to our website
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at c-span.org. joining us now is peter bodily attalier of johns hopkins university. good morning. guest: thank you, good morning. host: when we talk about china, we talk about their economy. how should people look at what is going on in china? guest: the main thing that everybody knows and talks about expansion hasc slowed down a lot compared to a few years ago and there is concern that this slowdown may continue to fire and create social problems in china. the slowdown per se is not a problem. they are treading to move to a move model of economic growth. there are more dependent on
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domestic consumption. that transition to a new model of growth is very difficult and the slowdown was part of that. now the concern is that it may go too far. host: too far how? guest: by contraction in the manufacturing sector way beyond what the government had thought prudent. host: talk a little about china's economy. and how the u.s. is affected. we saw those comparisons being made a couple weeks ago, talk about how those connections are made. 20 years ago, china was a small and unimportant economy. the u.s. and china are closely intertwined economically and any significant change has global economic consequences.
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it is the largest single customer of china but it is also an important export destination for the u.s.. so in the chinese economy contracts significantly it has an effect. it also has an effect through the financial circles. the china's financial system is not well integrated, much less than the commodity markets but is still very significant. host: one of the issues that also can mount was the issue of transparency. do you think china is being forthright as to how the economy is doing? guest: i am one of those who believes that the official vote numbers have to be taken seriously. there is obviously some massaging of the numbers to but them less volatile
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trend growth numbers have never been seriously challenged in my opinion. the last growth summers we have are for the second quarter of this year that showed 7% growth. many commentators without any fundamental basis have questioned that and suggest it may be as low as 4% or 5%. i don't believe we have good reasons to fundamentally challenge these statistics. i believe we are still growing at a rate of 6%-7% in china. host: you talk about a change between one type of economy and another. what spurred that? guest: they were going very fast and in the first seven-eight years of this century the growth rate was 7% plus.
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addition, the chinese were developing huge environmental anderties domestically there was deep concerned that if the investment and export-fueled growth was continuing indefinitely that china would sooner or later run into a hopeless and unsustainable problem. leadership decided almost 10 years ago that the model has to be changed and that they have to become more dependent on domestic demand and less on export demand. any is a fundamental change progress to that had to wait much longer because of the crisis -- the financial crisis in 2008. dependent ony
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exports at that time because of the contraction and the global economy in the chinese consumption industry was huge and the government became very concerned about adverse social consequences and social stability. to avoid social stability problems, they launched a massive stimulus program at the end of 2008 which was largely credit-financed. unfortunately they overdid it. we are now living with the consequences of that. int over expansion manufacturing. over and get it this -- over endebtedness to other countries. all of this was financed by the
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state banks. host: if you have questions for him, the line to call democrats (202) 748-8000. for republicans (202) 748-8001. for independents (202) 748-8002. we will start with sal in california. you are on them -- the air. caller: i would like to go back, if i may to the time of richard nixon. was it mr. makes -- -- was it mr. nix -- host: go ahead. sal has left us. if the idea you say for china's government is to put more of the burden on the is thec side of china, average chinese citizen ready to take on this responsibility?
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guest: it is a pretty large country more than four times the size of the u.s. population so it is hard to generalize about a country that size. different parts of the society and the country are affected in different ways, but i think the emerging chinese middle class in alreadycities is beginning to consume at a much higher rate. consumption growth is higher than gdp growth so eventually the economy will rebalance in the direction of trade consumption. that process is already happening. about an emerging middle class -- what is causing that? guest: income growth. wages in china have been growing is fairly significantly since the beginning of the country and
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in spite of the slowdown this is still going on today even though the real wage increase is less than it was 4-5 years ago but it is still pretty significant. in what sectors? guest: basically it is in the urban economy. in the service sector under mao neglectedt was very but that has completely changed in the last 10 years. the service sector employment and income growth is affected in china. that is one of the main reasons why urban consumption is growing so fast there it -- so fast. ask, one would like to question i have, a suggestion
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for pedro and the question for this gentleman. pedro, the next time you compare the american economy, you should say is it doing good in terms of -- are you comparing it to when bush was in the white house? or when reagan was in the white house? you have to compare it with something. now for the gentleman here. didn't we bail out the chinese economy in 1989 when president clinton was in the white house? thank you. guest: i'm not sure i understood the question. 1998? do what wrong in host: he basically said didn't we bailout the chinese economy in 1989? guest: in 19 89? that was the time of the tiananmen disaster. i cannot remember that there was
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any significant economic relationship between the united states and china at that time. certainly nothing that would of been termed a bailout. i'm not sure i know what you're talking about. host: let's hear from cheryl in florida. caller: very glad to be here. i would like to ask the guest this morning if he thinks the united states of america is too dependent on china's money. host: it is true that the theest external creditor of u.s. economy and federal government is china. that has many aspects to it. if china had not been the creditor, had not been able and willing to lend a lot of money to the united states, or could have -- somehow the u.s. external deficits had to be financed.
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it so happened that china had large surplus. created ans uncomfortable political situation where the largest creditor of the u.s. is in fact china which is a bone of host: how much debt does china hold now? treasuries,al according to the latest , that is not the sum total. the chinese also holds significant interest in freddie may desk fannie mae and freddie mac. -- fannie mae and freddie mac. ofy hold significant amounts municipal bonds and corporate debt. a total amount of money that the u.s. owes to china is larger
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than the $1.3 trillion. --t: mark from washington dc from washington, d.c. caller: i want to know how much of the financial free market embraced?s china has that contributed to the easy credit environment china had in the last few years leading up to this crisis? i wanted to make a quick comment . i remember hearing the strength of the american economy was that we had different regions doing different things. that was the strength of the american economy when one part was working, the other was being laid off. there was a diversity. , there isr or see now not that kind of diverse
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economic mechanism. we have a lot of the financial -- as you just said, a large financial pot in one country and one type of operation. i think going forward that is a bit scary. i will take your answer off the line. guest: with regard to your question about the financial sector developments in china, it is important to remember that the opening up process of china's economy began in the late 70's, focused with -- in the late 1970's focused on the first few decades on commodity trade. not on the financial sector. the chinese cap the banks and their financial system -- kept their banks and the financial system close to foreign participation -- closed to foreign participation.
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former secretary henry paulson push them very hard. closestill relatively situation. what is happening now, u.s. financial companies, brokerages, banks, investment companies, are beginning to be participants in china's financial sector development in a significant way. now that the chinese economy is beginning to contract, the problems extend to the financial sector in the u.s. host: this is jack from ohio. good morning. ifler: i am calling to ask the gentleman sees unions forming in china. governmentchina's
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position is vis-a-vis unions. what u.s. corporations operating in china's position is. guest: trade unions in this country are known in china. it is illegal to form trade unions across industries. at the same time, the chinese require individual enterprises to have trade unions. at the enterprise level, not beyond. collective bargaining of the kind that we have in this country and in europe, and canada, is virtually unknown in china. there is movement in the right direction. it is illegally officially in china to strike but strikes are all over the place in china these days. a lot of emerging labor power in china. host: from helen in maine. good morning.
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caller: i have a question about chinese investments in the united states. particularly in the area of real estate. i live in maine. we have slightly more than one million people. we have recruited almost 1000 chinese students to come to maybe to study -- to come to maine to study. we also have old factories in nearby towns the chinese are looking at purchasing for the purpose of opening up shoe industry again. also, purchasing buildings to refurbish to house individuals for medical tourism with a local hospital complex. i'm wondering what your guest thinks about this in terms of bringing the dollars here. what impact this might have on our local economy and our own unemployment rate. host: there is a story from
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yahoo! news addressing this. it says that worldwide, chinese investors bought $21 billion in commercial real estate. about 6 billion of that was invested in the united states with most of that going to properties in manhattan. guest: that is an important point. i'm not sure i know all the facts on that subject. the outflow of private capital from china often takes the form of investments in real estate properties in the united states and in europe. also in australia and new zealand. all over the world you see chinese investments in real estate. that is driven by political nervousness in china. the rich middle class in china wants to hedge their bets, put their money in foreign countries and real estate is considered one of the safest investments. that is from private sources in china. in addition to that, you have chinese direct investment in
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many industries all over the world, including the u.s. chinese investments from industries has also become very important. maine happens to be part of the united states in which the chinese are particularly interested. it is also california, all of the northwest and northeast. even in washington, d.c., we have brokerages that are now focusing in particular on chinese investments in real estate. this is a significant development. the china has become a major economy in the global economy. a large amount of investable resources. the private sector of the chinese industrial sector. we are only at the beginning of a process unless we get a financial crisis in china, which is still possible but not likely in my opinion. this outflow of investment money from china is only to increase
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in the years ahead. ,ost: as far as the long-term what are the strengths and liabilities as far as so much investment from china in aspect of the united states economy? guest: whose liability? host: liability for the u.s.? guest: i don't think china is different in that respect from other sources of foreign investment in the u.s. the u.s. as a foreign investment dependent economy. it invests private investment money from europe, arab countries, australia, new zealand, and from canada, and mexico. china is the new major source of investment in the u.s. economy which will create -- which may create legal problems depending on how all of this is evolving as a major new industry for law
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firms in washington who have to deal with this inflow. not only the trade by chinese investment money. host: timothy from california. your next for our guest. i guess trump made his $5 billion from the chinese. my main question is, what about terrorism? it seems like there is going to explosions. one last week and one last night. 146 some people died in the first explosion. how bad is terrorism in china right now? or isworse than we think it just normal? i do not know if there's such a thing as a normal amount of terrorism. you're asking about terrorism in china and industrial safety which is a big problem as
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illustrated by these explosions. jin, a0 days ago in shan large port city in beijing. i believe there was another industrial explosion somewhere in china yesterday or the day before. terrorism in china is different from what it is in many parts of the world. it is essentially a domestic problem related to minority muslim populations in china particularly and the far west. -- turkishion speaking population. china is concerned about the possible threat of terrorism emanating from that. other minority groups including , thenn tibetan elements they are from muslim, isis related terrorism. it is a serious problem.
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the chinese are very alert to this problem and protecting themselves in many different ways. it is unrelated to the industrial explosions you mentioned that has no link to terrorism in my opinion. host: cnbc says the one that --pened in don kinying guest: this is an illustration of one of the problems that has emerged as a result of this rapid growth in the last 3.5 decades. almostconomy has grown 10% faster than any other economy in world history. as a result of that, many aspects of the government's capabilities to supervise this economy have lagged behind the upward growth. that is also reflected in many problems regarding industrial safety.
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food safety is another aspect. many food safety problems in china. the industrial explosions we have seen in recent weeks are an illustration of the relatively slow enforcement of industrial safety regulations. host: pieter bottelier of johns hopkins university joining us. chief resident of the bank in beijing. caller: is it true that the bush administration is the reason chinae oh so much debt to -- the reason that we owe so much debt to china? guest: i don't think it is fair or realistic to put the blame at the foot of any particular u.s. administration. china is mainly the result of large trade
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surpluses by china in the emerging financial trade between the countries. this started well before the bush administration. it was already big under the clinton administration. china became the cheapest source of supply for many u.s. imports. advantagea relative in exports with many countries able to develop large export surpluses. the rest of the world developing huge amounts of liquidity at the hands of the government. some of the rich -- some of which was lent out to financial deficits in the u.s. it is unrealistic and unfair to to make the bush administration or any particular administration responsible for that. these are long-term economic developments which go from administration to administration , still going on today under
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obama. host: there are stories that there is the potential for the united states to impose sanctions against china because of hacking and information being done by hacking. do you think that is going to happen? what is the long-term impact? guest: my knowledge is limited to what i'm reading in newspapers. the possibility of u.s. host: relatedinst china, to the hacking that we have heard about in recent weeks, particularly from the office of personnel administration, are very serious. if we are sure that the source china, andckings is we are sure those hacking's are condoned by the chinese a forceful i believe reaction is justified.
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the timing of that is sensitive because we are expecting the chinese president in washington in the next three weeks. host: i was going to ask about that. guest: if the administration comes the conclusion that they have to impose sanctions and announce that in the next few days or weeks, there is going to be a serious problem in a relationship with china. host: do you think the topic of the economy is going to come up as far as discussions between the two leaders? guest: i think it has to. it is an important aspect of the bilateral relationship. not just human rights, the economic relationship remains one of the most important dimensions of the u.s./china relationship. the obama administration would be at well advised to put not only the trade relationship, but also the hacking, the internet safety issues on the table. host: what kind' you think the
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chinese leadership will take? guest: they will probably deny they are the source of the hacking. they will certainly deny that the government is condoning it or sanctioning it. how that will evolve, i have no idea. host: herbie from mississippi or our guest. it sounds like communism is over trumping capitalism. is problem with america because a capitalism. we are selling out our country and it is only benefiting very few. with communism being able to do for more in china with the middle class rising when in america the middle class is declining, i think capitalism is the problem and america should try to revert to more of a socialism program in order to help many instead of a few.
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i would like for him to shed light on the differences between capitalism and communism when it comes to the stock market and who is benefiting. guest: if we want to seriously discuss these issues, socialism versus common wisdom and capitalism -- versus communism and capitalism out weed more time than we have. -- we need more time than we have. no longerommunism is accurate to describe the system in china. there are few genuine communist left in china. the system could not be described as a communist system. perhaps the best way to describe -- chinese economic system -- the stateg retaining significant influence on ownership and decision-making of processes. ,arge parts of the economies
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significant ownership of the system. whether the u.s. should move more in a socialist direction as many people are beginning to contemplate, is beyond my capability to discuss in the limited time available. if you look at the u.s. economy in the first few decades after the second world war, the federal government had a greater role in the economy that it has today. even today, we should not dismiss the influence and impact of u.s. federal government participation in the economy. we often forget we still have fannie mae and freddie mac. three out of four houses in the u.s. are actually one way or another owned by or guaranteed by the u.s. federal government. the u.s. economy is in some ways
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more socialist than we realize. whether we should go further in that direction or retract is my brief at this point. race.from arizona, good morning. caller: my question is, i -- i'm talking about rothschild and build a burger. . a lot of our representatives are on the payroll and not really representing the american people. thank you. guest: i'm not sure that i understand the implication of your question.
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are you suggesting that the rothschild own a lot more in the u.s. and china than we realize? that the influence of certain investment groups is greater? could you sharpen your question? host: he is no longer with us. guestlet's go to ivan from new jersey. democrats line. caller: my question is, how politically feasible is it in wealthy and the income so there could be an increase in demand and the economy can become more modern? how politically feasible it is, considering that it has been almost two impossible to do it here in the u.s.? i will take my question off the air. host: could you paint a picture of what the comparison between
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those were wealthy and china and the middle class you were talking about? guest: an interesting question. it would take us a lot of time to really explore that issue. there was no middle class in china to speak of 30 years ago. -- a, we have a very laws very large middle class. the rich part of the middle class is really rich. about one million millionaires in china. a substantial number of billionaires. the tax problem is a serious problem. there was never a significant personal income tax and china that was introduced for the first time at the national level in 1994. the systems you need to effectively tax, control the , the time yout need to build such systems is significant. china is nowhere near the point where they have a truly efficient tax system.
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taxing the rich in china is a problem because tax evasion is large. it is not different from what it is in the u.s. income inequality in china has become a serious problem in the last several decades as part of enormous distortions that have developed as a result of this supercharged growth in the last three decades. the current finance minister is very much focused on this problem of social inequality. the dressing some of this inequality for a more efficient tax system. democrats, you can call (202) 748-8000. republicans, (202) 748-8001. .ndependents, (202) 748-8002
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how do you think chinese leadership is looking at discussions over whether we approve the transpacific partnership trade deal? guest: they were not initially invited to join negotiating parties. to which extent that was politically motivated by the u.s. is hard to say. the u.s. officially claims china would eventually be welcome to join. i think the chinese realize how important these negotiations were, they began to make noises to the effect that at some point they would be willing to join. how serious they were about that, time will tell. is is not a reality but this an important issue. i think they are nervous about the tpp initiative. they have launched their own trade initiative in the form of regional a pet based -- aipac based trade initiatives in
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china. the initiatives involve the u.s.. that is the big chinese trump card. if they get enough interest in the a pet based -- aipac based trade proposals, the u.s. may be faced with the difficult choice whether to join the chinese initiative or to put all their .ggs in the tpp basket i would be inclined to think it would be good for the u.s. to join the chinese aipac based initiatives. the transpacific trade initiatives, still in the early stages of proposals, rather than ignore it. this is a huge issue for the obama administration. a huge issue for china and the u.s. a sense the tpp effort of getting leverage over china? guest: obviously. if japan joins tpp and the other
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nine countries -- the other 11 tpp, you, all joint have a massive trade block all around china. ed, chinaing includ tends to suffer trade losses as a result. the chinese are watching this, potentially very nervous. tpp is not a reality yet. it has some ways to go. it is more complicated than mr. froman had sorted -- had thought a while ago. this is a work in progress. i think the chinese response to p is very important. host: teresa is from trenton, new jersey. caller: good morning. i wanted to question regarding
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the counterfeit going on in china. seen this thing called -- this thing developed in china. a lot of the people in china from generation to generation is learning how to replicate products and merchandise that is being sent around the world. my question is, you say that the middle class is getting richer. is this counterfeit of these products sent out worldwide part of the money being made in china? guest: would you mind repeating the main part of the question? i missed certain keywords. host: you're asking about counterfeiting? guest: the issue of
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counterfeiting, intellectual property right action is an issue. u.s. is one of the leaders to try to bring order in the world trade relations involving trade protection rights. especially intellectual property. the chinese growth model has depended on the importation of foreign technologies. some of that was legal. some of that was dubious in the sense that the chinese created international -- skirted international law, partly through their trade policy negotiations and because they were leveraging their in norman market size to gain -- in norman's market size to gain access to technologies faster than they otherwise would have. host: news this morning saying that china's stocks got off to a
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rocky ride with indexes tumbling 5% as weak manufacturing data faces to revive a stumbling economy. does that information concern u.s. far as another repeat of what we saw a couple of weeks ago? guest: i don't know what happened in the chinese stock exchanges yesterday. as we all know, there is huge turmoil. since the middle of june, the composite index, one of the main indices in china has fallen by something like 40% , wiping out basically all of the profits that have been racked up in 2015 so far. we should not forget that the rise in the chinese stock value started earlier in 2014. relative to the beginning or even the middle of 2014, we are
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way ahead. we had a bubble situation in chinese stock markets like we had at one point in the real estate sector. the correction in the chinese stock markets that took place as the middle of june has surprised many chinese and affected global financial markets in a major way. not because chinese markets are open to foreign investment but because indirectly commodity flows, whatever happens to chinese wealth is an important factor affecting trade flows. host: schenectady, new york. caller: great topic. i have a question for the professor. to what extent is government corruption a serious drag on its
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efforts to stimulate the domestic economy? is this going to become a serious issue? what do you see happening with this problem i am reading about in terms of government corruption? guest: corruption is a serious problem but paradoxically it does not seem to have affected chinese growth very much. of this strange situation have observed that china is one of the few countries where corruption became very serious where it does not seem to have slowed down economic development. , andnticorruption drive agenda of the current party secretary is important. it is probably motivated less by the economic serrations than by -- economic considerations meant to make the party more
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accountable internally. to push theants party in the direction of greater purity and thereby regain some of the credibility that was lost as a result of the corruption. the connections between corruption in china and economic development are not clear. host: indianapolis, indiana. paul is next. caller: good morning. i was wondering, to what extent do you believe china is going to be willing to make economic sacrifices in order to contribute to the fight against globali was warming? the united states is making significant sacrifices in the clean power plan on the premise that it is going to encourage the rest of the world to join us. chinuestion is, is china willingis to follow the united states and make changes to its power systems to reduce co2
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emissions? guest: we do not have enough time to really explore that. there is a paradox again. china has become the largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the last five or six years. as a result of the fantastic economic growth that preceded it since the late 1970's. we have a huge problem. china is perhaps the largest source of greenhouse gases. the accumulated total over the last 50 years or so originating from china is much smaller than from the united states or rich european countries. the international discussions of climate control where i think the objective is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, there is a big issue. the chinese are saying, you are the major source of the problem today because you proceeded -- preceded us in economic development by decades. we are latecomers in the process
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of economic development. on a per capita basis we are smaller in matters of co2 and other greenhouse gases than you are, united states. the chinese take the position that it is a serious problem but they are not at this point willing to commit themselves to binding targets and enforceable targets of emission controls. the u.s. is the leader in the forthcoming climate talks in paris later this year. insisting on binding targets and enforceable targets. this, china is the largest emitter but it is fast ingressing very the development of alternative energy sources. almost all turbines for wind generation come from china these days. fast in the development of alternative energy sources.
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solar panels come from china. china is making enormous investments in the development of alternative energy sources, sustainable energy sources. at this point, it has been elected to commit it's a -- reluctant to commit itself to binding targets. beforeve some ways to go more comfortable economic situation. poor still on average a country. per capita income in china is a fraction of what it is in the united states. it is such a big country that the total volume of greenhouse gas emissions has become enormous. it is incorrect to suggest that the chinese are not doing anything about it. they are doing more than almost any other country. host: this is carol from new jersey. caller: i have a question for the professor. hello. host: you are on. caller: i have a question. there were two items i have come
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across in the news through global sources news and reuters. one of them is the chinese recently opened an infrastructure bank. as far as all the great minds are concerned, the infrastructure bank that china recently opened, 58 countries have signed onto it. among those countries are the united kingdom, italy, india, france, and so on and so forth. all our semi-friends. think as the co2 goes, i it is a rescue for the petrodollar which seems to be going into the ground at a rapid rate. all of our economy is based on anymore is the petrodollar, the worth of oil. been our gold supply has
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relegated to the dust heap of history. in siberia, i recently found out is workingprom in conjunction with standard oil, bp, and all the rest of the well-known american and friendly oil companies. host: we are just about out of time. we will let our guest respond. guest: on the first point, the infrastructure bank, i think it is an important initiative. the bank that has been officially established a few months ago is called asian infrastructure investment bank. well over 50 countries have joined. initial members including some of u.s.'s allies.
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it.u.s. has stayed out of i believe that was a mistake. u.s. should have joined as a founding member. it is not important -- it is an important chinese initiative. the bank has to make its first investment operation but that is expected before the end of this year. it is a multilateral bank owned by well over 50 countries. it is not purely a chinese bank. china was the initiative taker and is the largest single shareholder and will undoubtedly have a major influence on board decisions. i see it in a different light from many u.s. politicians. i see this is one of the better chinese initiatives that we have seen in recent years. the world is desperately short in many parts of infrastructure.
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the chinese are willing to devote money to infrastructure development in central asia eastern europe, north africa, the middle east. this is what the u.s. should have been part of. host: pieter bottelier, thanks for your time this morning. coming up, we will be joined by john markoff on the topic of robots and how it might affect not only workers but the future economy. he has written a book and several stories on the subject. we will have that discussion, coming up. ♪ >> the c-span cities tour, working with our cable affiliates and visiting cities across the country. this weekend we are joined by charter communications to learn more about the literary like of grand junction, colorado. the mining of a certain mineral
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had a long-term importance in this part of colorado. >> all over the colorado plateau , we are surrounded by an morrison rock. we find a lot of dinosaur bones, fossils. that has intrigued platonists for a long time. is ather thing we find carnatite.lled carl it contains radium. it also contains been 80 him which is used to strengthen steel. during the buildup to world war adium was of extreme value. uranium is one of the best sources for atomic power and weapons. >> congressman wayne aspinall was largely responsible for his area upon agricultural development.
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-- this area's agricultural development. >> he fought to preserve water for western colorado by making sure we got our fair share. his state career and going on to his federal career, he climbed up the ladder of seniority and was able to exercise more power than you might normally have. certainly in the united states congress where he was able to make sure colorado and western colorado would be treated fairly in any divisions of water. his first major success was the passage of the colorado river .torage project in 1956 >> see all of our programs saturday at 7:00 p.m. eastern.
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>> washington journal continues. markoff joins us. a science writer for the new york times and offer of the book "machines of loving grace." good morning. guest: good morning. host: when did you see this as a concern? guest: i started to report more about robots in the mid-2000 when darpa began to have the first of the grand challenges. there were three of those. more recently, the rescue robot grand challenges. a lot of fun to write about. host: darpa is the pentagon project for technology. guest: it was created in the last -- does treated in the 1950's because of sputnik. done research for much of what silicon valley has developed.
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host: how much are robots used in the manufacturing world? are there other places with a are used? guest: the manufacturing world was the first to adopt robots on a broad scale, particularly industries like the automotive industry. robots are largely in cages assembling cars. they are beginning to do other things in the world. that is what is interesting. they are coming out of the cage is a bit but they are still basically in cages and basically machines you don't want to be too close to. the challenge is building machines we can work in collaboration with. host: you say they are doing things in these cages. we are used to seeing robots on manufacturing. what other things are they doing? guest: when i was at stanford working on this book, i went to the golf course. there was a good coffee place at a woman drove up in a tesla. she got out of her car and took
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out her golf cart and walked off and the golf cart followed her. it was a robotic golf cart. i freaked out. i went to google and you can buy them. cars are getting closer to self driving. parts of many modern cars now capacitiesdriving but not complete self driving. host: the london school of economics did a study on the use of robots. some of the things they found our that in 17 countries the use of robots increased by 150%. it was the use of those robots that led to pre-up -- led to productivity in wages. some impact was done on the lower and middle skill sets. you find that in common with the things you research? guest: one of the most fascinating things about where we are now is the spread of the spectrum of different interpretations of what impact robotics is on the economy.
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you can talk to the international federation of robotics and they will tell you robots will lead to the biggest job renaissance in history and you can go to computer and they will tell you there will be nothing robots cannot do in terms of human jobs by 2025. it is a nuanced problem to pick apart. robotics are having a dramatic impact on our economy but i think the situation -- the picking apart is more complex and people thought. we seem to become anxious about automation about every decade. one of the points on one side is, if you look at america now, there are 140 million people working in america. more people have worked to than ever in history. people say, the labor participation rate is down and when you start to pick that apart it is down for a lot of
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reasons. technology is one of them. it is dangerous to take a snapshot. the economy has always been changed by automation going back to the dawn of industrial automation. --seem to have this ability it was came to said wh -- you said technology does not destroy work. i believe it is more new wants to situation. us.: john markoff joining (202) 748-8000 for those in the the eastern and central time zones. (202) 748-8001 in the mountain pacific time zones. you can look around the economy. not just mechanical robots. one of the things that happened
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corporationsecade, are hollowed out by companies develop and ibm who technologies that allow you to reengineer business processes and a lot of clerks disappeared. president obama got in trouble that bankr noting tellers have been displaced by atms. people jumped on him for that. it turns out that because of the falling cost of computing, we have branch banks about everywhere there is a starbucks. banks like to have humans facing their customers. the number of bank tellers has actually stayed flat. he picked the wrong part of the banking industry. the people who used to shuffle checks are gone. a neutron bomb went off in the back office. there have been great changes.
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atms andple are using cards. guest: banks like to have humans facing their human customers. host: when did you find yourself changing over? fire andhad my hair on i was talking to an economist and i was basically saying, as automation and robotics can to china, there is a possibility of social disruption. there may be a possibility of social disruption and china but i do not think you will be about robotics immediately. he said to me, you don't get it. in china, the robots will come just in time. he said, china is an aging population. that is one child policy. their workforce will start to shrink so you have these situations, a shrieking workforce and robots will be -- a shrugging workforce and robots will be useful. you have this other issue of
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elder care. look at japan where the population is imploding. the new york times just wrote about ghost houses. europe is spending one billion euros to develop older care robots. the irony is, because of immigration, the u.s. is somewhat insulated from this aging problem. 2020, for the first time in history there will be more people older than 65 and under five for the first time in history. situation.amic it is hard to pick apart. host: (202) 748-8000 for the eastern and central time zones. (202) 748-8001 for the mountain and pacific time zones. here is daniel from corpus christi, texas. caller: i read some of adam smith through robert how broader . i figured pre-much agrees with
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you. he talks about the effect of jobs on people when people do repetitive stuff robots now do. that people become pretty much stupid. they go home and they have got a one job mentality and a precision mentality and they destroy their family by taking that attitude home. adam smith was a rembrandt about economics. economy wasd the going to need to mature and change what is compensated people for doing. to change compensating people for doing repetitive jobs to compensating people for having and raising two children. -- good at children. we are falling apart from the point of view of educated population. guest: there is a possibility and going in either direction.
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you can see parts of the economy where you have hd skilling going illingwhere you have desk going on. i think that is a trend and you can point to areas even in the medical profession where it is going on. one of the areas where i reported -- where i first saw the impact of technology on the white-collar workforce was the discovery that $35 in our paralegals and $400 an hour attorneys were being displaced by software that did a better job of reading documents. it was called e discovery software. it has had an impact on the structure of the workforce. you are starting to see things happen in the medical profession . ibm has the technology that will be interesting to see how they use it. they can use it as a doctor's advisor or in ways to deskill
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doctors. my point in the book is that this is a human choice. we can give them added intelligence or displace them. humans are doing this. host: from hot springs, arkansas. jason is next. caller: the thing i'm thinking about it is, we have all these robots for making but at the same time we have less jobs coming in. the money value keeps going up and things are costing more. if you have less people working, how can that be helpful for the country? guest: i agree. i think that would be terrible for the country. it is a mixed picture. even though in the wake of the recession there was a decline in unemployment, more people are working in america than ever in history at the moment. answerstion difficult to , traditionally, new technology
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has boosted productivity. 2000, largely because of the introduction of computer technology, there were jobs and productivity in america. the last half decade, productivity has been flat. i have read a lot of the economics and they are all over the map in trying to explain what is going on. if we have all this technology, why aren't we seeing it? robert solow once said, computers are everywhere except in productivity statistics. it is a huge puzzle. i don't think anybody completely understand what is going on in the economy. i think the greater danger other than absolute job loss is the risk of polarization. that is what we have seen some to last recession. people like david odder it at m.i.t. have written about how the middle is dropping out and we have job increases at the bottom and the top. that is probably not good for democracy. you probably want to have a
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thriving middle class in technology takes out those jobs. host: you wrote a piece for the publication of "pacific standard." one of the things you wrote is that the challenge presented by the new wave of artificial intelligence is an opportunity to remind yourselves that the future economy will be designed by human. nothing is inevitable. the designers of next generation industry machines have an opportunity to design humans into or out of the systems they create. hast: the automotive world probably done a better job of automating than most industries. what toyota found, you automate a line and it stops improving. machines are not thinking. machines are not designing. a put workers back into the line . craftsman who could look at the process and could he vault it -- it could evil it. -- could evolve it.
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they could be productive but they will not change. you need humans, skilled humans in the loop. guest: here is -- host: here is sean from tampa, florida. caller: i don't have so much as a question. i wanted to say, robots are replacing people. if you look at the early 1920's with baker's and farmers, there were people in the field farming. baker's had long lines of people doing stuff to make cakes and cookies or whatever. now you look at the bakery, they have automated. people that make peak on pies and what have you. robots can replace workers but does that mean the jobs will be more efficient? jobs categories are
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disappearing. new jobs are appearing as well. , who would've thought there were be a job category called search engine optimization? yet we have google and people working off of google we never thought of. the most interesting example of that dichotomy and the difficulty in picking this apart , a number of books have expressed the anxiety about where we are today have talked about the dichotomy between instagram, 13 programmers that built a huge digital sharing world, and kodak. 140,000 workers. the location is, 13 workers displaced 140,000. when you unpack that you realize instagram did not destroy kodak. kodak destroy kodak. they made strategic mistakes and
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the proof is kodak's biggest competitor made it across the chemical to digital chasm fine. ,he thing i find fascinating instagram could not exist as a company until the mature internet existed. the mature internet created millions of jobs, many of them quite good. more than 2.5 million jobs. for the02) 748-8000 eastern and central time zones. (202) 748-8001 for the mountain pacific time zones. john markoff of the new york times. guest: there is this wonderful poem written by richard brautigan in 1967. to be honest, i had the poem -- for my generation everybody went through a brautigan phase.
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when i was first reporting about personal computers in the early 1980's, the poll was a sweet poem. it is titled "all watched over by machines." be aitor said that would great title for a book. host: a robotic arm building something. asot shells coming in pickers or filling orders. does that go along with the dichotomy of what is going on with robots? some are doing the work away from humans and some are working alongside humans? guest: robots that are collaborating with humans are just showing up. most robots are big, fast and can hurt people. every year you hear a story about a robot killing a human. although, people die in industrial accidents all the time. it is just a machine. 2005, andy rubin on an engineer who built google's robotics, he
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said something to me. he said pcs are starting to move around in the environment. it took me about a year or two to figure out what was going on. if you look at a company like ,e-think robotics in boston they made a robot called baxter. is a machineaxter that can work outside a cage and can do rudimentary work around human workers and collaborate. i think we will see more of those. it is not going to come as quickly as people think. is a machine that can work outside a cage and if you saw chappie, it seems that the robots are already here. doing autonomous things is hard and we are taking baby steps. host: it is this idea of building trust in the systems and these robots we will use. guest: trust and perhaps ethics. about theov wrote
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three laws of robotics machines should have. people are starring to think about that in terms of self driving cars. if you sawcars have to make ligg quick decisions and some of them are ethical. that is also true of weapons. all of that is happening. i think it is not going to come tomorrow. a friend of mine in silicon valley says frequently, never mistake a clear view for a short distance. as someone who is written about silicon valley for a long time, i think that is something you need to be aware of. doug angle bart invented the computer mouse in 1964. it did not become mainstream until 1989. host: here we are using it every day. beverly is next. caller: thank you. i have a comment. i think a lot of the problems with the younger generation now
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is they don't actually know the satisfaction of work. i am talking manual, physical labor. using yourthey don't really unde satisfaction that comes from that. that could be some of the problem with the young people who have no direction. just food for thought, thank you, c-span. host: a great point. i think as a species, we are hardwired to work. i think most people get ieir fulfillment -- guest: think most people get the film and from work and that's not going to change quickly. host: brad from pennsylvania. you spoke of watson and ibm. can you explain further what watson is and what ibm plans to do with it? ibm several years ago
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held a remarkable contest where they built a machine that was capable of playing jeopardy. to beat twowas able of the best human jeopardy players. a great pr demo for ibm. all three of the contestants, the two humans and the robots, had to press a button. you have press then, and you have to do it in a window. you can press into early, or too late. it turns out, because of some statistical algorithms that were built into it, the robot was really good a pressing the button at the right time. it also turns out that level of jeopardy, everybody knows the answer. winning often has to do as much with pushing the button at the right time. not to take away completely from but the watson program is an ambitious artificial intelligence program written ibm as a company has had a
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back-and-forth relationship with ai. they started doing ai research in the late 1950's and then backed away from it because they didn't want their customers to think of their machines as deposing humans. now they're coming back and trying to position technologies to collaborate with humans. where it gets interesting is as machines develop the ability to understand human speech and to areas that ourhe economy is excellent grown in dramatically since world war ii is in people who answer questions over the telephone. call center tech support, call center sales, operators, all of those things which have largely been outsourced are beginning to to the united states, as software running in data centers. the impact of that technology is one of the most interesting things to watch over the next
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half decade. host: tim is from new hampshire. go ahead. caller: hello. i just wanted to ask, you mentioned earlier autonomous weapons. ask you to comment more in general on them. whether --curious with the self driving cars, we've got an intermediate stage of the driver assist functionality. wonder whether there is degreesr progression of of greater automation with military robots. i'll take my answer off the air. have athe u.s. does not policy that bans the deployment of autonomous weapons. at the moment, we don't have any
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purely autonomous weapons in the arsenal. we are developing a cruise , or long-range antiship missile which is supposed to enter the arsenal in 2018. it is semiautonomous. this is kind of a hotly debated topic of what is autonomous and what is semiautonomous. in a time as weapon in principle is one that can make decisions, target and attack enemies without human intervention. agodod several years prepared a memorandum where they tried to sort of defined what is autonomous, what is semiautonomous. a semiautonomous weapon is one ,n which a human fix a target and in the weapon goes off and find that target. it makes the final kill decision. , ithe case of this weapon really comes out of a strategic relationship with china and the u.s.. american carriers, because china is becoming a military power,
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having to operate farther away from china's mainland. and we still want to be able to project our military power. this is a weapon system that has to be able to fly for 500 miles or more. in the last couple hundred miles, it's supposed to be able to fly without any contact with humans, or a network so it can be jammed. when he gets to the enemy fleet, it has to pick which ship to attack, and what could possibly go wrong? there is an international campaign that has warned about the creation of this, and is concerned about the creation of a new arms race. on the other side, people argue that a weapons won't commit war crimes. i'm particularly worried because right now, the drone technology is a particular u.s. advantage. our soldiers are away from the front line. they fly these things from florida and nevada. what happens when our enemies get the same technology?
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all of a sudden the whole world becomes a battlefield. it's one of the biggest dangers of this technology. the challenge is that the technology, like nuclear weapons , are readily accessible to both sides. graduate students in computer science can design these systems. there is a real possibility. host: not just as far as weapons, but are these decisions that washington has to weigh in -- is this a developing policy concern as far as how we use robots in the future? guest: it is. the pentagon has a memorandum and the issue was before the u.n. i think within the next year the u.n. may embark on a treaty process that, if there is an arms race, it would be now that we could slow it or halted. can -- ken from
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california. caller: out here, we have seen technology do all kinds of wonderful things. in the 1980's, contrary to popular belief, reaganomics saved the economy. it was actually the personal computer the save the economy. back in the 1980's because it increased office productivity. secretary's typing out the same letters anymore. i could see robots that could pick bugs off of plants or pick fruits, with the apples that are ripe off the tree. so we could get better agriculture productivity and better products. is -- cany question robotics exist in a society like we have here in america? it might do well in china where
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did feet a lot more people. but if you are trying to coexist, that's the big question for me. i think the robotics is a new wave of technology. machines that can see and speak and listen. it's going to have an impact that is much broader than earlier generations. let me give you an example. the impact is very intriguing. there is a group of people who developed a technology to load and unload trucks in palo alto, a company called industrial perception. they got bought by google. they had basically developed a robot arm that could pick up a box in an unstructured environment with bad lighting, which was impressive. thateason that happened is there was technology that was developed for the xbox, that was
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the sensor that was designed to watch you play and give hand gestures in the living room. and it basically really drove down the cost of computer vision. we drove down from thousands of dollars to hundreds of dollars. when you get that order of magnitude change, you can do new things. all of a sudden they could put that sensor on a robot arm it can grab boxes. what is the consequence? 100,000 orrobably 200,000 people that do that in the economy. and now their jobs are risk. they are crummy jobs. they are good jobs, but they're also jobs where you have to lift 70 pound boxes, your back gets hurt. as long as we can retrain those people, i don't think there is a huge loss if those jobs go away. as long as those people have an opportunity to do something else useful in society. restaurant ina san francisco, customers order from an ipad, the pick up their food from a copy. .- a cubby
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there are no servers or cashiers, although a human is on hand for troubleshooting. seen thataven't restaurant yet, i will have to go back and try it. there has been a lot of discussion about the rise in minimum-wage and what it will do , whether believe fast food chains to displace low-income workers. there is another san francisco-based startup called momentum machines. it's developing machines to cook cameras. they worried it was going to replace the back half, automatically producing. the young computer scientist in charge of the company. only did it have an interesting business discussion, they're not planning on selling to mcdonald's. if you know san francisco, we have a very high-end coffee company called blue bottle coffee where people pay for five dollars for well-crafted latte. he wants to do the same thing for hamburgers. he wants you to be able to press
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the button and walk into this very nice place and get a perfectly custom-made robot made hamburger. here's the deal with his workforce. he wants to have human concierges to take the orders and things like that. he is going to hire people who he expects to work for him for two years. in exchange, he is going to pay for their education to get a higher skilled job. that is an example of a designer thinking about the consequences of what they do. it's very heartening to me. host: eric is up next for john markoff. in wichita, kansas. it morning. caller: my question is with the advent of quantum computing, told they -- as they tried figure out how we as humans think, and our brain works, and they put that in a quantum them,er as a miniaturized
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and could quantum computer robots in essence in the future replace human beings? guest: i report on quantum computing, -- host: give us a nation. guest: it's a different -- a difficult thing to explain. quantum computing machines are an approach to competition that uses sort of non-newtonian physics to basically vastly accelerate computer speed. do somet be able to thing like a climate simulation that would take a supercomputer dozens of years in real time. there are no working quantum computers at the moment. in the quantum competition community, there is a debate over whether there will ever be a useful quantum computing machine. that said, the question about the acceleration of computing. in silicon valley there's a thing called moore's law.
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this beta computers has doubled regularly for many years as we have shrunk the transistors that go on our silicon chips. we are at interesting point right now because moore's law, for the first time, slowing down in more than three or four decades. religious almost belief in silicon valley that things get faster, faster and cheaper faster. now realizing that all x potential starting to s curves. the free ride of moore's law is over. the unofficial religion of silicon valley is something called the similarity. the point at which computers become more intelligent than humans. i wouldn't bet on it at this point. if i had to. book is theests quest for common grounds between humans and robots and has posted a piece on the pacific standard am of the future of work, with us or against us. what is that? guest: it's a social science
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publication. host: you can find his writings on those topics. here is jorge from virginia. go ahead. caller: good morning. thank you for the opportunity. previous people talked about quantum computing. i want to go further into the use. seeing the lack of resources for gold. what's your thought about the utilization of natural resources? guest: the next generation of supercomputers will require remarkable amount of electricity to run. ophat's called petafl
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machines. that's thousands of billions of instructions for second. to get to the next level, you need the electrical capacity the small city to run these machines. it might be worth going there. for example, scientists believe one of the reasons you might want a computer with that kind of power is, you can run a climate simulation on an axis scale machine that might be able to tell you how imminent the threat, how much of a nexus dental threat global warming actually is. if you can simulate it correctly. it might be worth building that machine. they still haven't figured out either how to build them, or, they will much more electricity. host: lorenzo, thank you for holding on. go ahead. caller: i worked as a bank teller, everything was going great. and then they brought in a bunch of robots and they took our jobs. you can either look at this as a problem, or you can
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look at it as an opportunity. we can have robots take over the world, we're always going to need people to service and maintain those robots. if i was a young child, i'd be looking in that direction in my education. they may be the only ones that have jobs. host: are there new industries were employment opportunities for this? guest: there are. i think as a society, if you are in a world is changing dramatically and jobs are going away, one of the ways to deal with that is to offer people in education so they can retrain themselves quickly to do something new. have had giant social experiments in the past, the g.i. bill was one very effective way after world war ii that we made a generation of workers skilled, and made our economy competitive. we might think about doing some thing like that in the future. host: john from michigan. good morning. you are next.
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hi, john. i was one of the people that was in on the automation of general motors, if you want to call it that. the first thing they did was brought dr. deming in, and he told us not to look at things as , and to seek out different ideas. and i said it's impossible for us to do that, because we are given a product and a process, and being on the floor, we are unable to change that. what you are talking about is continuous manufacturing. when we got into that, for instance, when you talk about sensors, a lot of that manufacturing process was set up on prop switches. which didn't work real well. one saturday working overtime, which of those all off and put photocells on.
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it worked like a charm. to every time you try improve the process, they didn't want to hear it. so now, they are into the new saying, all automation. and they complain they can't find anybody to run numerical controls that will even teach it. at the time, they couldn't wait to run us out of there. and now, they're looking for people to come back and run it and teach it. i'm all done with it and retired. i think as they go down this line, what they are talking about, the s-curve on the computer and have it -- end of it, it's going to be adjusting how they handle the new automation process going forward. host: thanks, john. appreciate the call. these thingse that are rough patches.
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i tried for a long time to get to china. government has a quarrel with "the new york times." i could never get a visa. i found this amazing automated facility in the netherlands run by phillips. onllips had been planning moving the production of their high-end electric shaver's to china. instead, they decided to keep it in europe, in the netherlands, and build this really quite remarkable line, consisting of , what'sected robot arms all the lights out factory. they were building things that were far more complicated than cell phones, where they still use humans. the cell phone models change so quickly, that's it's very difficult to reprogram the machines. shaver models only change every decade or so. they were able to invest the capital. the machines operated a two second intervals. they had eight women at the end of the line in white coats, doing qa.
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the way they did qa was a listen to the shavers after the came off the line. that was in a hand automated. people tended the machines the way they were describing, and this factory was people producing something like 15 million shavers a year. i think that is the future manufacturing. one more call. this is tom from new jersey. caller: good morning. mr. markoff'sat ideas or thoughts are on artificial intelligence and self-awareness, consciousness. i've read a lot of books where people and gets inevitable. probably in the far distant future. i just wanted to know what your thoughts in regard to that are, and how that will impact society through robotics? guest: it's a great question,
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really a central question in silicon valley. there are a number of very smart people are -- people in silicon valley who believe we are incubating a new species and we're going to create self-aware machines. i have to tell you that the majority of computer scientists and the ai researchers and -- the consensus is we still don't understand how the human mind works. and even though we are now ,aking rapid progress in ai herbert dreyfuss, was a philosopher of university of california at berkeley once criticized some of the ai researchers by saying they've climbed to the top of the tree and saying they are making good progress in the way to the moon. we may be in that cut of situation. we don't know how far we have to go to make self-aware machines. this is more about us than it is about the machines. the machines will speak, they will listen, they will see. that's not the same as thinking. host: the book is "machines of the quest for
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common ground with robots." you can find the writings of our guest, john markoff. thank you for your time. in the last 40 minutes, we want to get your thoughts if you're satisfied with the direction of our country, a poll that was done by quite university talked about satisfaction. if you're are satisfied or dissatisfied want to tell us why , call (202) 748-8000 for democrats, call (202) 748-8001 republicans, and independents, call (202) 748-8002. we will take those comments after washington journal continues after this. >> the signature feature of booktv is our all-day coverage of book fairs and festivals from across the country. with top nonfiction authors. here is our schedule.
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getting this weekend, we're live on the 15th annual national book festival from our nations capital. near the end of september, we're in new york for the brooklyn book festival, celebrating its 10th year. in early october, the southern festival of books in nashville. the weekend after that, we're live from austin for the texas book festival. and you're the end of the month, we will be covering to book festivals on the same weekend. from our nation's heartland, it's the wisconsin book festival in madison. and back on the east coast, the boston book festival. at the start of november, we will be in portland, oregon forward stock. followed by the national book awards from new york city. and at the end of november, we're live for the tv or in a row from florida for the miami book fair international. that is a few of the fairs and festivals this fall on c-span2's booktv. >> "washington journal," continues. at quinnipiacs
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university did a poll asking people about their satisfaction level with the united states. when taken altogether, 2% of those people said they were very satisfied of the way the country was going. that was followed by 26% that said they were somewhat satisfied, 30% saying somewhat dissatisfied, 41% saying very dissatisfied. if you were to break it down metalico parties, it shows that between republicans and the very, if you go to dissatisfied segments, 61% of republicans saying they were very dissatisfied with the way the nation is today. 15% of democrats, 15% of independents showing up in a poll as well. for the last time, your thoughts on the satisfaction you have with united states, if you are satisfied with the direction the country is going. the lines will be on the screen. democrats, call (202) 748-8000, republicans, call (202) 748-8001 , independents, call (202) 748-8002.
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"new yorktory of the times," takes a look at murder rates in the nation's cities. walking andd on the shows us a little bit about what's going on. -- in milwaukee. efforts sayent disparate efforts are in fact. some officials say intense national scrutiny is the use of force by police has made officers less aggressive and emboldened criminals. many experts dispute that theory. rivals among organized street majorare cited as fighters in some cities, including chicago. dc, st.cites washington louis, baltimore, and other places as well. that story is in "the new york times," this morning. john is talking about satisfied levels of the country. in virginia, democrat line. john, go ahead. caller: good morning. it used to send us
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something, something that we believe. all the things we stand for the country. losing economically, we are losing the faith, we are losing everything you can think of. when you look at the way things are going, all we care about is who we vote? we don't care about our country anymore. that everyys say time we believe something and we see there's something going wrong, we need to stand up for our beliefs. we don't do that anymore. our country right now, if you look economically, we have more in thised people country. politiciansen to telling us is going to get better. nothing is going to get better. line, bob isdent
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next asking about your satisfaction with the direction of the country. bob from venice, florida. good morning. caller: good morning. the only thing i can say is i'm 72 years old and i am extremely dissatisfied. the country is in such bad shape, and the fiber of the american public has been so disintegrated that the future of the country is at question now. it's not caused by anything more than two groups in washington dc creating this animosity and division between our own people, and all of the fighting in the bickering -- as long as the fighting and bickering continues in washington, it keeps the american people divided. i see this as such a serious problem that, if there's ever a revolution in america, to get rid of the u.s. federal government, i will join it.
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that's how serious i think this thing is. host: as you see it, there's no way of reversing this trend? caller: there has to be some way. there will be a revolution. but there's going to be a lot of bloodshed, a lot of discourse, a lot of destruction. that's way down the line here. people don't take it seriously. this fighting and democrat and republican craft has got to stop. has got to stop. no one is going to win the situation. between these two fighting each other. certainly not the american people. the politicians in washington. they are there for their own benefit, they were enriching themselves, it's a great cushion , get elected, that's all they need to do is get elected, and they are set for life. they don't care about america. they really don't. bob from dennis, florida.
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this is david from flint, michigan. democrat line. caller: i'm kind of satisfied with the economy, we had a lot of unemployment, my god son just got a job, his mother got a job. my other god son had his first interview, he's got a second interview. so i'm happy with what's going on. i can stop having to pay so much of their bills. , i try and help young people out. i don't have the kids. i think obama has done a great job. i'm glad he opened it up with people are treated equal, not discriminated against because of desire, or the ways of their life. everyone is treated better, women are treated better. i'm really satisfied with what's going on. thingsre there specific happening in michigan you can point to, maybe the reason things are turning around, and
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your god son's? caller: i think the industry, it gm is making really nice progress. our stuff is really selling. my god son's have got work in small factories. i have to drive 20 miles to the suburbs to get them to work, but it's worth it until he gets a car. job, she's been unemployed for years. i'm just excited. i think it's good. flint, michigan. let's hear from thomas in boston, massachusetts, republican line. caller: hey. treatynt us to ratify a from a country that lied to us 100 times. by president that lied to us 100 times. that's a no-brainer.
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i can tell when clinton and the president are lying. when their lips are moving. we have to get somebody else in that can get another plan than what we have today. host: thomas in boston, massachusetts. we are asking you to give your thoughts on the direction of our country, if you're satisfied with it. democrats call (202) 748-8000, republicans call (202) 748-8001, independents, call (202) 748-8002. the supreme court made to decisions. monday,t one thing on they turned down a kentucky county clerk's request to be excused from issuing marriage licenses for same-sex couples. the court's first involvement in a series of legal battles that interrupted since gay couples won the right to marry. the court, without comment, turned away a request from kim davis, the elected clerk of rome
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county in northeast kentucky, who faces jail time if she doesn't begin issuing marriage licenses on tuesday. avis opposes same-sex marriage, has argued that would in doing so would violate her resistant -- her religious liberties. thatupreme court decided constitutional -- couples have a constitutional right to marry. it was and limited smoothly at first, but has encountered resistance in the south. if you go to the pages of the richmond times dispatch, the former governor in the news, particularly after the supreme courtsaying the supreme allowed bob mcdonnell to remain free while the justices decide whether to take up his appeal. in a one paragraph order, the high told the fourth circuit court of appeals to hold off on making its july 10 ruling upholding mcdonald's 11 corruption convictions final, permitting mcdonald's to remain.
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order monday will and automatically if the court does not take the case. cleveland, ohio. asking about the satisfaction with the direction of the country. hello. caller: hello, pedro. good morning, america. i voted for obama twice, and i'm not satisfied. but not for the reasons you think. i'm not satisfied because the republicans have spent all this time obstructing him, outsourcing jobs, doing everything that they can to stop this economy from growing. we see whatok back, bush did, and how he left the country, which is the reasons why we voted for obama. twice. it only shows that republicans put their party before the country. this is what the republican voters have to look at. they are moaning about the
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areomy, and the republicans steadily outsourcing jobs and giving tax cuts to their corporate buds. change, the need to vote democrat. thank you. host: from west virginia, here is peggy. caller: thanks for taking my call. i'm very sad for the caller the just called you. ignorance is really what's bringing this country to its knees. people are uneducated, they are uninformed. the schools don't teach history that they should. they are ignorant. children coming out of school can't even write a complete sentence. this country is just going down the tubes. there are people unemployed everywhere. and 62 years old and making the same amount of money i made 10 years ago. i just don't get it. we are no longer a country united, we are a country divided.
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the caller the call before said there's going to be a revolution, and very sad that that's the talk is going on today. everyone i talk to feels that way. no one is happy that i know. what do you think is driving a sentiment? caller: is a huge divide. washington is driving a wedge between the people. honestly, the federal government needs to go. their lifetime people in there with their own agendas, nobody is looking out for the people, and nobody in their has a real feel for what people in my shoes and the rest of the middle class are feeling. i think there's a total disconnect. host: can you point to a specific instance where washington doesn't look out for people like you? caller: take social security. clintono, president included social security to balances budget, and it has gone downhill since then. it has not kept up the rate. people working less hours for
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less money, there's not as much money going in. all they want to think about is it is an entitlement. it is not an entitlement. we put money into that, i have been working since i was 13 years old. i've been putting -- putting money into that for what? and they keep talking about we graded jobs. no, we haven't created jobs. if you like everybody i know is treading water. the jobs that are created are not hiding jobs. as far as outsourcing everything, that outsourcing has been going on since they made the trade agreement with mexico years ago. they have been outsourcing jobs, is not just republicans outsourcing jobs. sorry to say, it's all of them. they all have their fingers in the till, and until we get somebody in there who is not looking to become rich on the backs of the american citizens, this country is going to keep
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going the way it's going. that's peggy in west virginia. here's lionel in tampa, florida. caller: i think the country is divided, not republican or democrat. i think people in washington are all looking for their self interests. the lobbyists, the bureaucrats, the republican and democratic lawmakers. i think there are a bunch of crooks. i think they should have put all the insurance executives in jail, and all the bankers, they should of put them in jail. nobody goes to jail anymore. i don't ever put anybody in jail anymore. these people are capable of making money. if you don't put them in jail, they will just keep on doing what they are doing. the only thing they understand is going to jail. host: the state department making available a new set of e-mails from hillary clinton's private server when she was secretary of state. the washington times has the story, saying they are increasingly finding classified information on those e-mails. declaring seeger material nearly 3% of the batch release late
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monday night. that's up from 1.7 percent in the e-mails in previous releases and raises questions about whether a new set of e-mails is more troublesome, without the frustration was being more strict. all told, the government redacted part of at least 125 messages because of secrecy out of 4348 e-mails released monday as the state department rushes to comply with the judge's order that all 30,000 of mrs. clinton's messages from her time as secretary be made public. the latest release is already proving to be awkward for mrs. clinton, who is seeking the democratic residential nomination. samuel is annexed from sarasota, florida, asking about the direction of the country. hello? thanks for taking my call. granted, i'm a teenager. i don't know if i let disabled politics. but personally speaking, i think
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that the bipartisan gridlock that we've seen in congress near daily is a huge issue for our country. i think that the ad hominem attacks on politicians need to stop for 20 to make any progress of change in this country. alan up next from morgantown, west virginia. is --: yes, my comment i'm a democrat, and 69 years old. i voted for obama twice. i voted for bush once. the reason i think the country is in such bad shape, for me and the way i see it, it's all racism. heart that the only reason why obama was bad,ed is to make him look so there will never be another black president in the united states again. now, the republicans have done everything they could to keep obama from doing anything that
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he wanted to do. and they are still going to do it. now, they have ben carson. he's not going to get elected. every knows that. there never will be another black president of united states, because racism. that's all i have to say. out a"usa today," sent tweet taking a look at the stock market. continues intoy september is the dow plunges more than 300 points at the open. from marion, indiana. you are up next, asking about the direction of the country and what do you think about it? caller: we lost a lot of jobs to outsourcing. bigof them was rca, real one. after that, we had unemployment. our unemployment went up real high. all of a sudden everyone used up their unemployment, and they are
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ineligible to re-up on unemployment. so now, they say are on employment is way down, because all the jobs, were talking 30,000 people in the center of indiana, 30,000 jobs are gone. everyone is going out of town, they are leaving. indianaat are folks in -- the local government and state doing to counteract that? are they doing anything? caller: there is nothing being done. everyone is doing it on their own. people at ae of the thing they could buy them out, a lot of people made a big mistake letting them by the mount. as soon as rca went, everything went. they had a program for rca workers only. and all the other jobs that followed, trucking companies, just everything else, restaurants -- everything.
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it was the biggest thing in the area. they just jumped out and went to mexico. from joe in largo, florida on the republican line. he is up next. caller: good morning. i just wanted to comment on the direction of the country. host: you are on, go ahead. are making meings dissatisfied with the country, personally. first, the lack of accountability. we are in this position today because of the mortgage and all done crisis we had back in 2007 and 2008. i still haven't seen anyone go to jail for that. there were over $2 trillion as a nation taken out of the housing industry and spread all across the country. that money is gone, it is never going to come back. that took years and years of savings by the american people. now, all that money is gone. oftill haven't seen any type
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investigation on that point. and this applies to more than just the federal government. state governments and other places too. because the lack of accountability, it seems like people are able to get away with discussnd not have to why they did what they did. i've seen that quite a bit. the second thing i think is, we have 10% of our population incarcerated in this country. that 10% is how many people are incarcerated. if we extrapolate from that number, that means when he 5% or 30% of the people in this country know someone in prison or in jail, or who is stuck in the system. what we have is many, many people getting fines and being assessed in the system for fines they will never pay. and probation as they will never finish because probation costs are so high. dissent, notxtreme
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just from the people who committed crimes, but from their families and people related to them too. the, nation of those two things is really starting to work on the fabric of america. the incarceration of drawing people in the system, having them never be able to pay their do, their debt to society never get a good job because they have five speeding tickets in their life, and they had to go to jail for one of them. now they are never able to clear your name from that. hour andaking $10 an even a $400 speeding ticket, there's no way will ever pay that. host: joe from largo, florida. the president is in alaska talk about issues of climate change. this is from the new york times saying president obama has withstood six years in the white house, and at tumultuous political area -- era. ofwill appear on an episode
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are --rill us -- they bear grylls. the two men will come together in the alaska wilderness, adding president obama will be the first u.s. president to receive a crash course in survival. that is from the "new york times." this is elizabeth williamson writing that the congressional delegation from ohio, president mckinley's birthplace, erupted on monday with the renaming sunk in. i urge the administration to work with me to find alternative ways to reserve mckinley's legacy somewhere else in the national parks that once bore his name, tweeted by senator bob portman. republican john boehner said there is a reason that present -- president mckinley has been the highest peak in america from of the hundred years, is a testament to his great legacy.
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host: christian is next for michigan. hello. caller: i have an idea to save gas all over the world with having wind turbines for automobiles. when they go 70 miles an hour, they have 70 mile an hour wind, run create electricity and the electric engine. all you need is a gasoline engine to get you up to 70 miles an hour and save gas all over the world. and to help the economy and to help the earth with global warming. thank you, and god bless america. host: your thoughts on if you are satisfied or dissatisfied with the direction of the country. cleveland, ohio. good morning. caller: good morning. i just calling to say i have no complaints about the way the country is going.
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i think people should take stock of what they have, be thankful for the things that they haven't not complain so much. if anything, the problem is people complaining too much. if you take care of yourself, do the right thing, you should have no complaints. it's all i got to say. host: magdalen's and park forest, illinois. caller: good morning. i think the direction of the country is terrible. i live in chicago, illinois. arethe unemployment numbers -- it's all fabricated. has been inat obama blocked withs been everything he's wanted to do. democrats, all
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they are doing is fighting against each other. everyone has their own agenda in washington. we need somebody in place that is for the american people. aurora for the american people. and doesn't have their own agenda. host: in the chicago area, what is unemployment like? are you working? is on long-term unemployment. i have been unemployed for a year. i have degrees. youcan't get a job unless know somebody, especially if you are applying through the internet, that's a joke. prices, in the matter of 24 hours, couple weeks ago, raised one dollar. that's to support what? somebody else's fight? somebody else's war? what kind ofst:
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job are you trying to get? what reemployed as for? -- before? caller: a property manager. in try to get anything that pays over $10 an hour. they want to start you out at eight dollars an hour. which is a joke. david is next in irvine, california. republican line. caller: the country is going in the right direction. the republicans block everything that's good for the american people. if they wanted to do something, they would create jobs. they don't want to create jobs, they want to outsource everything. they want to give tax breaks to the rich. they don't care about the poor. fighting for are the american people. not the republicans. they suck. the only thing therefore his tax breaks for the rich and more war. and outsourcing all the jobs. host: when you say the country
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is going in the right direction, what examples you give? going into thee right georgia because they're crating jobs. we rolled in a depression because democrats and republicans got rid of trillions of dollars, a lot of seniors lost all of their money and everything. the thing is, they've got to [indiscernible] they stole all that money, it's going to crash. that's why in 1929, they put in that in 1933. it worked good until he got rid of it. now they have. frank, but it doesn't have any teeth. that means nobody goes to jail. the country's going right, we were almost in a depression and now we are in the right direction. republicans want to create jobs, start building our highways, all they want to do is send money overseas. "usa today," takes a look
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at what's happening in europe. austria, germany, hungary, tighten their borders. host: in budapest, hungarian officials stepped up inspections of trains bound for other destinations. the story goes on in the pages of "usa today." let's hear from danny and mills bring, north carolina. independent line. caller: i been unemployed for like ever.
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i spent the last nine years trying to find something out here that i can just do. the last time i was on the job looking for work, just picking up trash and stuff, cleaning up around construction areas. job because i the didn't understand or speak spanish. really, what is right with that? i'm perfectly able to do what i need to do, i didn't understand it. then i heard them laughing is that want out the door. ins, but io call probably would just get told to mind my own business. i don't know what's going to happen with united states in the next few years. but i do know we are not headed in the direction that i grew up in. we used to be stronger, we used be able to do things out there and help people. now all we want to do is bigger. like aple in washington bunch of gradeschool kids out
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there in the yard fighting over who is going to shoot the next marvel? -- marble? is disgracing for the rest of the world and everyone has to listen to these things. you think people in the middle east appreciate what we do? they look at us and laugh. that's really bad. we need to get somebody up there that's got some whatever to do something out here. thank you, have a good day. host: this is robert. hello. think all of the americans are basically saying their sentiments. i probably agree with most of them. i voted for george bush twice, i voted for obama twice. but like so many of them have said, the republicans and the democrats, they don't work together for the good of the people. i think it's a spiritual thing. aey forget, you can't have whole bunch of people at the top making all the money. you have all these poor people
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down here, all these people trying to find jobs. they have outsourced all the jobs. someonel comcast, i get over in the philippines instead of getting an american. now, i'm an american of mexican greek descent, but first, i'm a christian, and then i'm an american. our country can be great again. i'm more of a positive person about our country. but, we have these career politicians they get in their and serve 30, 40, 50 years. and they give us all of this rhetoric. -- wehey need to do is need to give people in congress that make the law, that they can only serve eight years, just like the president. and then they have to get out and let someone else run the country. we do have problems, we've always had problems. not perfect.nt is
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there's no president that's perfect. what i'm afraid of is, what's the sense of building all the above structure and having all these jobs if someone's going to send a nuclear weapon over here. i don't think the iran deal is a good deal, i think president obama, even though i like him, he is weak on foreign policy. i do worry that we need someone in the presidency that a strong president with foreign policy. host: that's robert in webster, texas talking about foreign policy. joining with others in supporting the iran deal. representative patrick murphy of florida. jason, san diego, california. democrat line. my, my, what a short memory we have. the last in administration drove this country right smack down in a ditch. joe biden and obama had to last
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through it and pull us back from the brink. day for 10billion a years in iraq. in afghanistan. we had a prescription drug and plans for prescription that went into the back room and gave the prescriptions. they gave people the option of making any price they want. we had the bush tax cuts. whenever we had a war, we paid for that. with taxes. they put on the credit card. for the middle class to pay for. and that, people. it was the last evisceration that drove this country into the ground, and they want to drive it right back in the ground with another war. don't forget that. barack obama is doing the best he can. he's doing whatever he can to get this country straight. but that don't want to let him do it. it's racism. thank you. host: jason.
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buzz aldrin says he is a master plan for settling on mars, from the washington post. he is pushing for more settlement by proximally 2040, more specifically, shooting for 2039. the 70th anniversary of his own apollo to move landing. though he admits the schedule is adjustable. he envisions using mars's moons as stepping stones for astronauts. can imagine tours of duty the last 10 years. host: buzz aldrin has a live interview talking about these issues, leaving when it comes to mars. you can go to war website for more on that coverage. ist national book festival scheduled for september 5 on c-span.org for more information. gene in orlando, florida. republican line. hello. caller: good morning.
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the previous callers, i agree with most of whatever one of them has said. gathered from all of these conversations is most of these people have not been following congress for the last seven years. i'm talking about when they are in session, trying to prevent a deal. even when it's in the best interest of us all. reid hasind harry hundreds and hundreds of hundreds of bills that the republican party in the house did pass that he refused to bring them up for a vote. whether it is law or not, i consider this obstruction of justice. this goes against everything that people want. let it stand alone. let it be voted on.
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rise or fall, let it be voted on. don't blame one house or the other, don't blame republicans or democrats if one or the other is refusing to let it be voted on. qualify, i am a registered republican. i have been registered as an independent. a democraticfor president. but we must all remember, we are americans first, party last. have a good day. host: from randall, washington, d.c. is next. i said we want to say simply want to say that they voted the republicans in. they both than initially to the thee, so they would counter republican argument about all
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the power resting in one party. to counter obama. i'm sure that had the race factor in it. they voted in gridlock. thought republicans would do even more when they voted them into the senate. the other factor is race. working-class people who are democrats, republicans, black or white, should all be working together. it is a class war going on. class people are doing worse and the congress has so.s that made itself reagan opened up china -- not reagan, nixon.

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