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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  September 23, 2015 12:00am-2:01am EDT

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courageous actions. i took very tough issues to this president, and he took action. there have been some way there was not action. if those in which there is not action taken really matter, then there are consequences that accumulate. i do think that the syrian redline that was not a redline that had a decent outcome in the end, 90% of the chemical weapons were gone. the way we got to that was quite a circuitous path unveiled by a verynt putin and was interesting outcome. that is not the kind of case, i instills a, that great sense of confidence in the united states. >> let me ask another in terms of action. we are seeing a lot of strategic interests from the russians and other nations for reasons of natural
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resources, transportation, and you have seen a pretty dramatic move by the russians in terms of an arctic military command. there, newt's icebreakers, and heated rhetoric. weterms of u.s. action, if were to remove our substantial arctic forces -- that the only what with that do in terms of additional russian reaction? i have expertise in a reasonable number of places, but i will defer to you on the arctic, i'm afraid. >> there is a bit of a strategic irony going on where some of us think that we are withdrawing and parts of the world, but when you look at it and in schmitz of
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american power, things like -- in terms of american power, things like energy, the resurgence of manufacturing, the best universities in the world, the list -- agriculture -- the list is very strong. we have so many advantages over other countries -- china, how do weatever -- utilize those in a way that shows that we are still the country holding all the cards? on so many different instruments of power that countries measure power by. all petraeus: we don't own rumors of but america's demise seven greatly exaggerated, to quote mark twain. did a monograph at harvard as a fellow on the great new emerging economy -- north
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america. when i was asked a year or so ago after the american century of what? the expected me to say the asian century or the chinese century. the north american decades. the bottom line, our economy is fundamentally -- it has a lot of challenges, some the we have to thatve -- all notwithstanding, at a time when the number two economy is slowing down significantly, we don't yet see the rise of india. the euro zone has a very differentiator recovery, the u.s. has continued, we may be in the longest recovery in our history. it is not achieved escape velocity, there are aspects that are not great, but when you look at the rest of the world and the fundamentals of the united states -- whether it is
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democracy, the values we share with our two neighbors, you don't see mexico asking china to pivot in north america to help against the united states. the way every country with china is doing to aust. there are enormous strengths in this country. elsewhere, them out there are a number of actions they can take to address this issues. we can capitalize on this i.t.tunity because of the revolution. the manufacturing revolution is now beginning to gather steam, and the life science revolution. we are among the leaders in every one of these areas, and we have a number of really great fundamentals that are going to keep this country, and north
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america written large, and a very enviable position. i would not want to be in any other economy than this one, right here. i now get paid to analyze those kinds of factors and elements. >> thank you, general. >> general, thank you very much for a lifetime of extraordinary service under difficult circumstances. gen. petraeus: thank you to you for yours as i noted in a response to a local newspaper. you served at nine stints under andommand in iraq afghanistan. each of those as a week or a bit longer. i was skeptical before the first one, i did not appreciate the great opportunity -- >> i can understand that. gen. petraeus: i accepted kernel lindsey graham as the judge advocate general of the u.s. air
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force reserve. after every single one of those visits, you provided a real nugget that helped us come to seriousth one of the issues we were confronting, starting with issues we had at camp, all the way through various legal conundrums. >> you certainly made my day, and it was a very small contribution. gen. petraeus: and i am bipartisan, by the way. >> bottom line, i enjoyed the heck out of it. let's try to see if we can make sense out of the world. a fight for the heart and soul of islam, and a demand for social justice. gen. petraeus: certainly, among the biggest issues.
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i might put some economic issues that might be in the social justice category -- toi want the american people understand that young people will not live in dictatorships for our convenient any longer, do you agree with that? gen. petraeus: they are not doing and for our convenience to begin with, but the real point is the age of the dictators is certainly under a certain degree of strain. the of cnet boil over and libya -- we have seen that boil over and libya, tunisia, egypt, and others. >> should be side with them and say you are right to demand a larger voice? want moreght to economic opportunities. we should embrace what they are asking for. gen. petraeus: i would have that the back of my mind. will do it as a universal
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declaration, that is just me. on the other side, islam. do you agree that most muslims reject radical islam. gen. petraeus: yes. suggest otherwise, you don't understand the region. the biggest victim of radical islam is other people in the faith. you have been there more than anyone else i know, don't you agree that the good news for all of us is that we can partner with people within the faith are willing to partner with us to destroy this radical ideology. gen. petraeus: correct, we have socked to do that -- sought to do that. knowl the same, they don't what they're talking about. i don't think all presbyterians are the same. ,ut i'm trying to make everybody is the same, everybody
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is radical, that misses the boat. most fathers and mothers don't want to give their children to isis. that is something we need to build upon. , the presidentq says the goal is to destroy isil . gen. petraeus: that is a very high bar, and it has been lowered slightly to defeat, think it's adequate. we did destroy al qaeda in iraq, and sadly they resurrected themselves in the form of isis and then gained strength in syria. are.w, we are where we do you believe more americans would help lead to the defeat of isil in iraq? gen. petraeus: what i have laid out here today is a requirement for additional forces, not additionalat forces,
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advisers, brigade headquarters, probably augmentation. what will happen is you will get a critical mass at some point of and it will set off a chain reaction. we did that with the awakening, and rippled up and down the euphrates river. ultimately, it goes up the tigris. we have to be prepared, and we will have more training locations and more advisers. >> but, would a couple a visa battalions help? -- aviation battalions help? gen. petraeus: it would help, but you will inter greater risk. we have attack helicopters which we have employed, now we are starting to add numbers quite considerably. i would be concerned about possible ramifications.
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to talk about syria. is there anyone left to train in syria that could both destroy isil and push assad out? gen. petraeus: i think there are forces that if we pledge to support them against everybody, not just by the islamic state, and start off by allowing them to solidify, control, and enclave, before we push them into an offensive. >> what about a regional force? would you support the creation of a regional force with two goals in mind? gen. petraeus: i would have concerns about that. you have neighbors going into one of the countries in this region, again, every country is different. to go into the country that is already has fractured as is syria, i think there are some complications with that. >> finally, assad must ago.
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gen. petraeus: he has to go ultimately, that is the keyword, until we have a sense of what would replace him, we need to be very careful monday push him out because what comes after could be even worse. >> how many people are left that would be willing to fight both isil and aassad? how long would it take to train this force? i would them in the ground first in turkey, and the jordan. i would be willing to put them into when enclave and you would not put people in jeopardy. >> how long do you think -- gen. petraeus: i don't know, senator, there is a host of assumptions that we would have to make before we can get any precision. >> thank you very much. >> general, on behalf of
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chairman kane, thank you for your extraordinary testimony. it was thought-provoking, as always, and for your great service to the country. one thing that always impressed me was your dedication to the men and women you lead was unshakable. thank you, sir. gen. petraeus: thank you, senator. >> the hearing is adjourned. >> coming up, christine lagarde on global economic policy. after that, the arrival of pope francis in the united states will show you his arrival at the
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base andrews where he was greeted by the president. in armed services hearing with retired general david betray us eus talking about policy in the middle east. >> on the next washington journal, we continue our coverage of the pope's visit to the united states. he will talk about u.s.-vatican relations and look ahead to the popes visit to the white house. it is like every morning at 7:00 a.m. eastern. you can join the conversation with your calls, and comments on your -- twitter. atwe have the hearing live 11:00 a.m. eastern on c-span
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two. pope's visit to the u.s., c-span has live coverage. wednesday morning, on c-span radio, and c-span.org, the welcoming ceremony for the pope as the obamas officially welcome him to the white house. canonization at the shrine of the immaculate conception. c-span's live coverage begins from capitol hill as pope francis makes history by becoming the first pope to address a joint meeting of conference -- congress. later, the pontiff will hold a multi-religious service at the 9/11 memorial, follow c-span's coverage of the popes historic trip to the u.s. live on tv or online at c-span.org.
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>> international monetary fund managing director christine lagarde spoke at the brookings institute tuesday about her 17 point a global economic proposal. her remarks are about hour. was part of a 17-point proposal she laid out at the brookings institution. this is one hour. >> good morning, everyone, and i'm so happy and so privileged that managing director christine lagarde of the imf is visiting us this week before the big u.n. summit on the sustainable development goals, and it's also her second visit to brookings in less than 12 months.
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so we feel really privileged. it would be a week, this week, quite extraordinary in many ways. and i couldn't help to say just a few words about the imf and about that managing director. institutions for development are very, very important this is now accepted by the development profession. i think the sustainable development goals in many ways are also about the institutions, and itv three examples very quickly of institutional continuity and strength which why we may not agree with exactly what the institutions do all the time, i think are important examples and somewhat have to do with the days we live. given that we were in the united states at brookings i will say the u.s. constitution is one of those institutions. and again we may not agree with
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everyone on the constitutional court, supreme court's decisions but the existence and continuity is a fantastic example of an institution. the other example i would say this democracy in greece. i mean, despite all the trouble, despite 50 plus unappointed of young people, the birthplace of democracy, it has been peaceful. the crisis has been managed democratically in a peaceful way. and that's not so easy when you look around the world. look at what happens when institutions fail and there's total chaos. so the fact that greek democracy functions peacefully i think is another great example. and then i can't help thinking of the leader is going to visit us the next few days, the poll.
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i'm not a catholic, but when you think of the catholic church as an institution, that renews itself, meaning institutions tend to be conservative because they are rooted in -- is an institution that can change. and i think we see changing before our eyes within continuity and led by a person deeply cares about the topic we're going to talk about today. i think that's the give effort institution. the imf is one of those key institutions, instrument -- international institutions that makes the international system work. again there are many witnesses and ensure that managing director herself would like to see much more, but, frankly, if you just make a mental experiment of saying there is no imf you would retreat it or the -- such institutions don't get created overnight.
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that managing director has led this institution with a player with the quality of the leadership, with a toughness when it's needed but with a gentle style of inclusive style that i think we are all extremely grateful for, really. and the imf is about financial stability come about macroeconomic stability. but you cannot come and i think this probably will be part of what she says, take that narrowly without justice, without the inclusion, without sustainability, macroeconomic stability is a very short-term phenomenon. so the fact that the imf is not just focusing narrowly as it did maybe in the long years ago, to narrowly, it has become institution that really to the international system in partnership with others i think is great and is increasingly due
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to christine lagarde. so with that i'm going to leave it but let me say a few words. joy to brookings that eight months ago now or a little more. he is the leading development economist and practitioner. he was many years at the world bank and always at the top of an advisor on international institutional development. he did became the director of the g. 24 secretariat where he worked for the g. 24 but i think for the whole world in terms of the various mechanisms of cooperation that he was supporting. i have to also admit that he is my friend, i think of something like 38 years. so, but he doesn't look it were as i do look it. anyway, thanks a lot.
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[applause] >> [inaudible conversations] >> thank you very much, kemal. warm welcome to the one. let me add my thanks to, christine, for coming your. i don't think you could have chosen a better day. that traffic is clear, yes. the pope is about to arrive, and we are about to have i think a
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really timely discussion because tonight we're going to lighten up the lights on the u.n. building to celebrate the sustained development goals. and i really want to commend the fund, and you personally, for the leadership you have paid in getting as where we are today. you have described these three conferences that we are about to have, we are having this year, is really a once in a generation moment. and so let me begin by asking you, you know, he will be going to new york for this summit. just how important and what is the significance of this event? >> thank you very much, amar. and thank you, kemal. you are way too generous, and we need to -- it seems as if one of with something important to say,
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we come to brookings. so thank you all for being here today on this issue. thank you, amar, for putting this into perspective because of the last time i was here it was shortly before the conference, and i very much regarded the conference as one step in the journey which includes three steps. and that's one step whereas i think fairly successful, probably during parts of the parts i was editor because i was stuck in a brussels having to deal with some greek issues. but i think because it address the financing issues and because it was regarded by most as successful at the end of a relatively laborious time, the issues about the financing were i think address any comprehensive fashion.
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when i was last year i did indicate that we would be increasing our concession lending by 50% of that we would be focusing on the poor countries, and that we would extend the zero interest rate on the rapid credit that is extended to fragile countries and countries of, who suffer from catastrophe, and we did all that. the second step is the one that is taking place this week, and that is the one which will set in stone the 17 sustainable development goals with the 167 measurable targets that subset in order for the 17 goals. and hopefully at the end of the week it will be approved by the entire membership. and what i say second, i have
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trepidations when i do that because while the development goals over the last 50 years have indeed developed, and you can look at all indicators, you can look at the deduction of poverty, you can look at the present of schooling. you can look at better inclusion of women in particular. there have been some solid results. that doesn't mean probably the case because as we know, they emerging market economies were able to drive that effort in noe little part because china was a very, very large country that moved a lot of people out of poverty. once we were embedded in the 17 sustainable developer goals are articulate, well considered, well targeted. but then it was difficult to
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develop on. it was more difficult than the last 18 years of them because the development of those emerging economies has moved up the ladder, moved up the development ladder. and as a result we will not have one huge country starting from a very low base that will take a very large number of people up the development goals as quickly massively and authority, shall we say, as we've seen in the last 15 years. so those development goals will have to be implemented, measured against their targets, and for my part but i will say in new york is that each international institution, the imf included, each country, all policymakers, we'll really have to focus on what it can and should implement with respect to those 17
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development goals. the imf i think there are three areas that i would identify as the development goals, the sustainable development goals to get the category of those that are off the economic sustainability category. you have a category of the social sustainability and environmental sustainability. and they should come together. so it's economic, social and environmental. to deliver that sustainable growth, that would be job rich, inclusive and mindful of the planet that we operate on. and i think in those categories, economic, social and environmental, we have either our core of duty which kemal refer to come or we have a little bit of out of our core activity i think i met is well-positioned to provide
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policy guidance and technical assistance to capacity building in order to deliver on many of the targets. and not all but a number of the 17 sustainable development goals. so that's what i will try to demonstrate when i am in new york, and in support of that i'm very pleased to launch actually now this discussion note which is called from ambition to execution, policies in support of sustainable development goals. and that will be introduced by a team that is out to some of the members are sitting in the front row, really sort of existing research, goes further into what we have done, can do, will do in terms of operate, operate activity, if i can use that terrible work. so moving from the principles
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including implementation. i will give you an example. we often talk about the issue of climate change. i will be delivering a little talk this afternoon on that matter and integration of the third step which is -- at the end of the year. so when we talk about climate change with lots of good things to say about climate change. but there are things that we can operate in order to make a difference. that scenario would be the imf has developed analysis, has developed numbers and has developed tools that can be used by countries in order to deliver arms, for instance, -- [inaudible] and i'm happy to go on that because it's a topic that's worth a lot of money, that can actually needs it to goals of moving countries and moving decision-makers and moving
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producers in the direction of less offensive energy while at the same time delivering revenue that can be used effectively for better purposes, such as improving health conditions, such as spending more in education, such as reducing the labor taxes in order to encourage job creation. i don't know how much more you wanted to go on, but i can carry on, you know. >> we will come back to planet. maybe even more admiration as we look forward. before we do that, another point that you made is that it's not too early to think about implementation and, indeed, his staff discussion begins to focus very much on the implementation. let me ask you a question in that regard.
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these are very ambitious goals. so where do you see the main challenges with regard to implementation? >> they are challenging, but at the same time i think that the duty of some of the goals and service some of the ones where we can help, because i think everybody should be concerned. everybody should be involved. i don't want to take my institution outside its expertise and competence because others will also have to do their share. but in the area we have confidence that can help, the duty of it, however challenging the archive is that countries of their own determination can actually make a difference. in other words, they don't have to wait for the entire world to come to an agreement.
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they don't have to wait for all governments to make pledges. they can actually make a difference at home. so that sort of country aspect is something which it is quite comforting in a way because it means that even if the big players don't agree, you can decide on your own to macroeconomic stability by adopting a sound fiscal policy, by making it growth friendly but sustainable growth friendly. you can decide to use public spending in areas where they will be conducive to inclusion of women, for instance. and if i look at the example that i gave you earlier, when you decide to remove subsidies you're going to effectively deliver revenue that can be re- oriented towards much more
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sustainable policies going forward. so however challenging it can be country specific. the second i mentioned of those challenging goals is that there will nonetheless be enhanced by the corrective action. and to have financial stability around the world, for instance, is going to be critical for macroeconomic stability of a particular country. so it's that sort of dual the country and collective aspect of those policies that i find both challenging but also comforting because you can see that you can operate at that level. >> what aspect i would say the global environment is not as favorable, say as was 15 years ago, and you mentioned it, is the whole growth environment. and this is not just a question of short-term difficulties but we have concerns about potential
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growth in both developed and developing countries. and, of course, this is an area where you've been very vigorous entity that you 20 come you called it the detroit to do more to push growth and jobs. so how do you see the outgrowth -- the outlook for growth and what you think it's because noted to great a good bedrock for the sustainable development goals? >> is a very good point, amar. it's true if you look at the numbers we are certainly not at the levels where we were 16 years ago. and if anything the theaters which -- fears which demonstrate that, one is a significant reduction of mobile trade. global trade used to be almost double growth rates. it's now much, much reduced. it's pretty much -- [inaudible]
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that's never one. number two, the number of unemployed people around the world, those accounted for and where in the range of 200 million people looking officially for jobs which is the 30 million more before we had before the financial crisis. and 38 which is also a concern is the issue of -- [inaudible] and the lack of productivity that we see in pretty much all economies, advanced or emerging or developing country. so we these three factors we are not what we were 50 years ago we don't have the luxury of high water to use the analogy. in the short term are not going to keep these numbers because we are supposed to release them and about two weeks time so i will refrain from doing that. but growth is lower.
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in other words, we have recovery. no question. but the pace at which recovery takes place is lower than what it was. and has been lowered. what we are saying as well is a downside risk are greater than they were, and they fall into various categories. you have a lower commodity prices which i think is going to be the hallmark of what we are analyzing at the moment, and the true factors of that obviously lead to my second sort of downside risk, which is the slowdown of chinese growth, which was predictable, predicted, but has consequences and probably more spillover effects in the region in particular than what was
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anticipated, and that clearly legitimate given -- on a global basis. especially compared to 15 years ago. but even less so, certainly more so than even a few years ago. the third fac factors going to e the financial volatility which will result from and which has already hinted, but which will result from what you might call the realignment, which were found to see rising out of the fed, later on the bank of england come and which was consequences in terms of currency variations and in terms of movement of capital's. so that's pretty much where we see the situation at the moment. and everything is more complicated when, my grandmother used to say everything is better
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with butter. and you may say that everything is easier with growth. you can reduce debt more easily. you can have fiscal policy that is less, imposes less on countries and so on and so forth. we have to keep those objectives of sustainability, economically, socially, environmental he despite of the fact that growth is lower than what it used to be. and i think it puts the onus on policymakers to act at country level at the collective level at will but it requires a real commitment. >> on the social sustainability as you said, one really issue of concern that's persistent, unemployment in these countries, particularly of youth. and associate with it, the lack of creation of adequate employment.
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another facet of the social sustainability is growing in equality in many countries. .. i think we have clearly identified that excessive inequality does not equal sustainable growth. we model that and clearly we have a clear results that bring
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the revenues of the 20% of the highest level of the population it does not produce sustainable growth, quite to the contrary. where if you increase on the other end of the spectrum it produces more sustainable growth. that is a clear finding of the work and research that we have done. if you want sustainable growth, which is clearly the design for developing companies because it will create jobs needed for all people, young people in particular and women, less inequality will serve it better.
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>> given the fiscal qualities and aspects you mentioned and getting rid of bad subsidies. >> it is a combination of getting rid of bad subsidies. getting the price right and embedding it into a system that can be mutual and placed on the right basis. so a smart tax system can also be conducive to less inequality and better spending on those areas that will help people. more money on health and education, job focused policies, and job market improvements that
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would be conducive to more jobs. >> another area you highlighted which received a lot of attention and support in the agenda is the role of women and women's empowerment. i remember watching you on the stephen colbert show and he said what did that have to do with women and i thought your answer was bit brilliant. so what would you say in terms of the focus on this issue why is it so important? >> it is critically impntta. it is critically important and important in terms of policies
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and i'll say a few words about it white makes. it's important important for learning, labor, and leadership. there is a huge gap in those areas, learning, labor, and leadership. that and leadership. that needs to be filled, not because it's a moral issue, because it's important for humanity and it makes sense as well. that is i'm most concerned about those. it makes imminent economic sense. i am pleased the gender equality and gender empowerment is i think a sustainable. we have gone from the research that actually measures the
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impact of additional learning for young girls and the impact it has on their earning and their gdp of their country. it's mind-boggling. in the same way, if you actually modernize the impact of closing the gender gap in the labor market, both in terms of positions and in terms of compensation, again massive impact on the gdp of those countries. i have taken the initiative of a great support from the institution, men and women, you have to measure that and try to communicate to the membership that it is in their interest to
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improve the education system for girls. to try to close the gender gap, to try to. make sure leadership is encouraged and make sure girls will continue to go to school and universities, consider options when it comes to their profession. the great thing is in addition to measuring and demonstrating the economic benefits to countries, which will benefit by the way. if you take a country like india or sweden for instance the difference is going to be significant because of the gap there is in those countries. in all countries that make the difference. we also try to operationalize at the country level, the analysis
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that we have done empirically. so measuring and giving potential output and now say to some countries that have volunteered, for india, hungary, germany, this is what your market looks like. this is what your gap looks like. this is what you need to do if you want to close the gap and if you want more gdp for your country, and more leadership at women's level. one more thing because i am also a reformed lawyer. together with mark bank expert and i want to recognize the quality of the data we worked on. we have studied, across the membership that legal discrimination that exists in the legal arsenal of the
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members. i was shocked. 90% of the countries under review actually have invested in. this is pieces of their constitution, it actually discriminates against women. people might say, it doesn't matter. and we have gone further to see what sense it makes when those discriminations are removed. there are cases where simply removing discrimination that is embedded in the constitution, that that is the case in peru and kenya, by removing the constitutional discrimination and establishing a principle of equality within five years of the change gdp grew by five percentage points.
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people would argue would say it has nothing to do about it. but in those three particular cases that did happen and there is correlation between the two. it is critically important, it can make a huge difference. it is not just a moral issue. >> as mentioned the country doesn't have to do everything on its own. the partnership where you can use article for as a way to identify these issues. >> article 4, everybody knows what it is more or less. very simply, it's an audit of the state or the country that is done on an annual basis by the ins and is volunteered and
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consented to by the membership. they open their books, their economy, their doors and we can inspect and report back to the membership. those reports are are published on a regular basis. >> the significance as you look at the gdp is it has to look at country by country, designed country by country. the article four becomes an important part of the arsenal of articulating the right policies. let me come back to where you began which is the learning challenge climate and gender equality. i think ins has highlighted
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market type reforms for pushing sustainability. the workstream of fossil fuel, subsidies, effective carbon price, and more recently the work on mortar. this is highlighting the absence of having a crisis a big disproportion and you need to push reforms. the ins has also highlighted that climate can actually affect poor and vulnerable the most. against that backdrop, what are your aspirations to be in terms of formal agreement, and coming out with discussions. what will you be discussing this
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afternoon, but how can the world come together on the issue of climate. >> let me take a country for example and we can move from the country level to the executive level. when a country decides that it is spending public money inefficiently by directing that money to subsidies and they decide that money should be removed and reallocated to a higher cause. they have to be extremely careful that they do it in such a way that the poor people will not suffer the blunt of the decision made. let me explain.
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in many countries, and countries, and i don't have the details of every one of them, but you can pretty much assumed that 80% of subsidies go to those who do not need it. 20% go to those who actually need it. so a lot of work has to be done on that 20% to make sure the school people do benefits, actually get equivalent benefits somehow. whether it is by way of cash incentives, or the equivalent of financial support. they have to be taken care of first and foremost. then you can move to completely removing the fossil fuel subsidy.
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that is how it is successful. we have conducted a study study that covers 39 cases of countries that have gone through the process of trying to or eliminating subsidies. some of them succeeded some of them have semi- succeeded and those have failed. sometimes it's dead of running before they transition out. the same principle should be applied. so those who would suffer most, those who are less privileged have to be taken care of before decisions are made that would affect them. so think we have to keep in mind that each story each country has
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a story of its own. there are populations that need to be addressed to make sure they are not going to be the first victim of climate change eventually. but they do not become the first victim of climate change policies. it is easy to decide when you have the buckets of different economies. it is much more grounded than that. >> absolutely, especially today. we live in a world where there are only 31 poor countries. another from my side is looking at public investment in public
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infrastructure, which is a point you always make. >> so do you. >> i want to say another way to think about it is we are going to be in the regime work choices critical. if you want the right choice the public has a significant role in making those choices and it can redirect that investor may in a way it is more sustainable. perhaps as you point out by building an access box. so we leave it at that. i think we have taken enough time. >> you do advocate that as well. it is critically important that money is well spent. i think we have analyzed the
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efficiency of infrastructure. there is significance between efficiency and inefficiencies. you can have 20% variance between the two. the second point on infrastructure, on there's short-term and medium-term intern investment. it is also long-term because if you have better infrastructure you have more commodities going through. you can keep the harvest. it is also critically important for women. if they don't have to work for a
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few hours to go to the marketplace or to go to their job because there is a better road, a better bridge, public transportation, it is a huge difference. >> absolutely. there is two things that have come out from the discussions one is there is no race between infrastructure and it is critical to social development. and there is nothing between good infrastructure and developing. it can give you these efficiencies that can protect our climate. i can you can see your interventions have been made
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critical. let me turn to the audience. as you heard we covered a huge amount of ground and it goes without saying that the agenda is quite broad-based right now. there is a lot of ground to cover. this is also very integrated because delivering on this means delivering on a coherent set of policies and actions. if you can go to a microphone. please keep your questions focused on the topic we are discussing here. >> thank you for a nice presentation. my question, it is focused on the word sustainable.
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i'm encouraged to hear that climate change is being incorporated. my question is, my name is peter edwards i work for noah. moving forward will the bank be consisting or working with donor countries, i know you have borrowing conditions that countries have to satisfy. will you be considering encouraging them to include natural capital into their framework. more importantly in the infrastructure projects, again having people think about internalizing these things associated with these. carbon is one thing but their other negative things to be considered.
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>> i'm not the bank. i'm the irs. unfortunately we each have to do our job. our job is we don't lend for project purposes. we lent when a country is in a difficult situation. went balance of payment is negative and financing is at risk. so that is when we intervene with funding. we do that generally under programs which is a partnership with the country. because we are lending the international community they have to agree to certain commitments that agree with their fiscal commitments, structural reform and improve its public finances.
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i understand your point about natural, capital identification and accounting. i think that is very valuable. just as much as external should be factored in and i think we have demonstrated clearly in getting the price right. and supporting carbon taxation. there are things that can be improved with the public accounting system and the private accounting system. accounting better for things that are not accounted for. where's natural resources, cultural goods,.
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the commission that started with how we measure gdp. its it's gdp actually the right instrument to measure the collective good that we had. i think conclusions have been taken over and i think we'll continue to have gdp around. >> thank you. my question is about the
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upcoming president obama meeting with the chinese president. i think the two sides have mentioned climate change, will this be a parody a part of their discussions. what topics do you think the two leaders should communicate with each other? what message should they give to work together to promote global growth? >> who am i to re- command or decide what they should communicate about. it belongs to them. i would very much personally
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like if part of reform the two leaders have embarked upon, whether it is in the area of climate change, referring to the previous arrangement they had previous arrived at or if it's in the area of economic reform and i've indicated how implementing reforms and delivering on them would be a clear indication of wanting to improve. >> will take one more question. please keep it focused on the
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summit and the topic. >> thank you so much. i'm from greece. i want to ask you something on the topic of this conversation but i think the topic is relevant to what you mentioned about sustainability and implementation. are you optimistic about the new government ability to make the whole greek case sustainable? and the government there are many worries what we are experiencing now in greece is sustainable and if we can have hope? >> it may be sustainable and it
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may be focused on implementation. that is it. >> okay i'm going to go to the guy in the back. >> the global economy talk about growth being an essential driver for lifting people out of poverty. you talk about looking backwards, that is why we have achieved some of the things that going forward. given the dismal state of growth in the major economies, and the inclination to air on the side of protectionism either depreciation exchange rates, or failure of economics in turkey or brazil, isn't the economy
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careening towards a long decade of dismal growth. and to make the structural changes you're talking about necessary to meet these goals. >> as i have said earlier, the growth potential and the shortfall of that growth potential is an issue which does not facilitate the implementation of sustainable. in other words it will be a lot easier if the world was cruising at five and a half or 6% global growth than it is at the moment. i've set as well that the sustainable development goals over the next years will be more
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difficult to attain because it will be in dependent on many countries to try to drive that exercise. the outcome of the exercise will not be as maximum as we have seen. in other words, when i look at for instance africa and african countries, where sustainable development goals might make a difference it's growing at about 4.5% which is not the 11 or 12% at which china is growing. and will not help lift out of poverty hundreds of millions of people.
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>> .. [inaudible]
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it's not fair. it's the family and discrimination. [speaking in french]
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[speaking in french] spent. >> what the will translate very quickly. american citizens from the democratic republic of congo, you are very concerned that 80% of the business in general is held by african women and yet they are discriminated against. they have no access to currency and what can be done about it and how can we help? you completely -- i'm not sure about the 80% of the businesses held by women. i don't have the numbers and i can't attest to that but in all african countries i have visited i have tried to meet with women in leadership whether they are in business or civil society
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order from any walk of life and it's true that they are extremely entrepreneurial extremely engaged. they have also been veritably that access to financing is beneficial and not having the loans, not having support that financial institutions otherwise give to men is a big hurdle for them to grow their business. i think very quickly, because i think it's part of the changes that we will be seeing. i think the financial institutions as we understand them traditionally are seeing a significant change occurring in front of their eyes. some of them are embracing the change. some of them are defending against the change but the
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changes coming and one of the faces of that change is the use of telecommunication means in order to provide financing. you are probably familiar with kenya and the way in which it has completely cut across all traditional institutions so 80% of the kenyan people men and women have access to financing have a bank account and can transact on their bank account. this is going to be duplicated ad infinitum in my view in many of those countries that are restricted because there is -- there are not many operators. the remittance system is going to change on that something people should be worrying quite a bit about the disruptors in that particular field and i believe it could give chance for workers because they are
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reimbursed. anybody who does michael finance with women will say so. it's my mall as opposed to general thinking without differentiation so i think they should continue pushing but i think technology is going to be a significant drive to bring finance to all. >> i think this is one area you put a lot of emphasis on the whole financial inclusion agenda. i'm quite conscious of the time and i know the secretary has other commitments. i know this conversation could go on for quite some time. we are privileged to get an excellent overview. we really wish you the best in new york.
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it really in some sense sets the direction not just for the next two years but i would say for the next generation. we thank you again for coming here and maybe have a strong vote of thanks. [applause] [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations]
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>>'s arrival at the vatican embassy and briefing on the pope's visit. after that, the senate armed ervices hearing, david talking middle east policy. >> wednesday, a subcommittee examines whether the department improperly used guidance. we have it on c-span2. republican presidential candidate donald trump is in columbia, south carolina wednesday, for a town hall event hosted by senator tim scott. our live road to the white house coverage begins at 6 p.m. eastern on c-span two. >> the popes visit to the u.s.
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c-span has live coverage from washington dc wednesday morning on c-span, c-span radio, and c-span.org. begins ating ceremony 8:45 eastern. starting at 4:00, the mass and canonization at the basilica of the national strine of the immaculate conception. live coverage begins from capitol hill as pope francis makes history as the first pontiff to address congress. live coverage from new york as the pope speaks to the general assembly on c-span3, c-span radio, and c-span.org. later at 11:30, the pontiff will hold a multireligious service at the world trade center. follow our coverage live on tv or online at c-span.org.
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>> pope francis arrived this afternoon in washington, d.c. president obama and the first family were joined by vice degree theiden pontiff upon his arrival at the joint air force base. he will travel to the vatican embassy, where he will spend the night before a welcome ceremony at 8:45 at the white house. [cheers and applause]
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[cheers and applause]
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>> we love francis, yes we do. we love francis, how about you?
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[chanting] francis, yes we do. we love francis, how about you? >> ho-ho, hey-hey, we welcome francis everyday!
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[applause] welcome, hey-hey,
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to the usa! [applause]
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[cheering]
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[cheers and applause] [chants]
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[chants] [cheers]
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[chants] [cheers] >> i am coordinator for
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[cheers] [cheers]
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[crowd noise] [cheers and applause] [crowd noise]
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[chants]
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[crowd noise] [cheers] >> next the father
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reads about the pope's visit to the u.s.. >> good evening to everyone and welcome. i am the national media coordinator. we are honored to have with us , father federico lombardi. a member of the archdiocese of chicago. father lombardi will be providing daily briefings to the media across the three cities of
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the popes visit this week. we are honored to have with us his eminence, archbishop of galveston, houston and vice president of the conference of catholic bishops. axillary bishop of the archdiocese of washington. the format for this evening will be that each of our principals will say a few opening remarks and then we will open the floor to questions. would you like to start? father lombardi: thank you very much and thank you for being the papalworking on visit. i would say that in the first meeting of the pope on the plane with journalists leaving from journalistsd to the thank you for the service that
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you will do in helping me in my mission. and theding good news news of peace that he has sent the pastoral visit to cuba and the u.s. sent togreeting he has the journalists on the plane. yours said pleased say to colleagues, they you for your work in this coverage of the pastoral visit and give news of the peace and so on in the world. notress these also for you only for the group that is flying with the pope.
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cuba has come today. about the three days in cuba. -- it is good as always. he is very happy to be here now. there was a very good reception of you had -- as you have seen. this came in this motorcade. by big cars. this is the pope. and it was easy to recognize where the pope is because it is the smallest car of the motorcade. pope arrives from cuba.
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in the pastdone , anh, a few months important visit to latin america. and this means that in some fives the pope visits lands of the american continent. from latin america to central , north and to the u.s. america. i think it is good to reflect how this proceeds. in the entire world, visitpe has begun with and has visited some lands in
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europe. then he has visited asia. now he comes back to america, latin america and north america. in november,onth he will also be in africa. this means that the experience of the pope is universal and it is growing. growing not only meeting bishops from all parts of the world but also traveling in different parts of the world and problems ing the the mankind of today. feel that the pope is now ready to address global
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questions, very global questions and he is doing in latin america and the now, here in the u.s. and the united nations assembly. the pope feels to have now the experience and moral authority questionsnswers and to the most important assemblies of the world of today. speech he will have for congress and the u.n. assembly i think are very speed --ng because the
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speeds of a persian that has great moral authority and is a -- is able to interpret the questions that come from the global mankind. and to try to give orientation and answers to the people of the entire world. this occasion in particular here ,n washington and in new york there are two important speeches in the expectation of every one of us. theial in this way of service of the hoped-for the peace in the world and orientation and solidarity with mankind, addressing the most
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urgent and crucial question of today. the hope is here for the first time, as you know. and this gives him i think an attitude of humility, of hepect, of interest because will speak and also learn. the cultureaks of of encounter. greatm, this is a occasion of a new encounter. think this is also in the attitude of someone that comes to receive and not only to give. veryis i think interesting. we expect three much from him. what hes always open to
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sees in the attitude of the dialogue. mind towhat i had in say. the problem of the visit is already in your hands create i don't need to call this. we have this tomorrow morning. there is the reception at the white house. that is obviously very important. this is the first speech in english of the pope and then following the great speech to the congress. and tomorrow in the afternoon we [indiscernible] and it is also important.

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