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tv   Discussion on Combating World Hunger  CSPAN  October 5, 2015 7:30pm-8:31pm EDT

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,utomakers would have access better access, to those markets. if you're able to cut the 30% car tariff and malaysia and the 70% car tariff in vietnam, you can sell more cars. that is the point here. you can create significant opportunity for american workers making those cars. that has been the goal of this particular agreement and that is the case that we will make to the senators and members of congress that are representing states with significant manufacturing presences. that is the case we will make, but ultimately, individual members of congress will have to make up their own mind. >> the european union trade minister spoke about the ttp.
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is that something the president thinks he can get done in his time in office? josh earnest: it took us more than five years to negotiate this ttp agreement. it was worth the effort and investment. it does ultimately allow u.s. inds and services to be sold one of the most economically dynamic regions of the world. that is a good thing for american businesses and for american middle-class families. negotiations are not quite anadvanced, but if there is opportunity for us, based on our consultations with our friends in europe to reach an agreement that will have the same kind of americanpotential for businesses and american workers, we would not hesitate to pursue it. there is more work to be done on that before it will reach completion.
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this will be the last one. way will the president reevaluate the task if he seeksntages it out? josh earnest: if the vice president makes the decision to enter the race, he is confronted with the challenge of balancing the responsibilities that come with running a national campaign with the responsibilities that come with serving as vice president of the united states. would not speculate at this point how he would do that or if any changes would be necessary. joe biden has demonstrated out his -- throughout his career, a willingness to work overtime. that likely would be something that would be required in the described.e you just i would not speculate as to what
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that would look like until the vice president has made his decision. one of the complications legislation is the number of entities that are allowed to do information sharing. made anydministration greater strides in thinking they had contact with the statement that have or could be allowed to share that information? many of the: executive actions the president announced in the aftermath of we shootings in newtown ere geared toward the
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effectiveness of information sharing. everybody. up next on c-span, we are alive at the newseum in washington about a conversation about ending world hunger. we will hear from tony blair and howard buffett. they're showing video of his photos right now. a new exhibit titled "40 chances, finding hope in a hungry world." it features 40 photographs he has taken in his travels to 40 countries. howard buffett: when they get home, a lot of the times, land has been taken away from them. they do not have a consistency.
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in the end, at least they are home. i remember walking down the tracks one time before the train was coming through. that is called the death train. to try hugely risky way to move. i remember asking this woman, what are you taking this risk. she gave me the same answer i have heard from 200 people. i don't have a choice. my kids are hungry. i can't make money. i don't know what we are going to do. i have to get to america. i have to earn money and find a way to america will stop this goes on all of the world. there are thousands of people dying every year because they are trying to escape some kind of violence and conflict. think, until we deal with the root of the problem, until we deal with the fact there is no economic opportunity, or there is not enough rule of law, until we deal with those issues and
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support those countries south of us to try and make those changes and achieved some success, we fences.adding more >> the howard g buffett foundation works around the world to find solutions to world hunger. howard buffett: people need solutions now. we work in places where you are absolutely going to fail. you reallycceed, change something. it is a big, big win. it is a big win for people who do not usually have those opportunities. >> good evening ladies and gentlemen. welcome to the newseum's theater
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event.ight's special " 40 chances, finding hope in a hungry world." i am the president and ceo of the newseum. i would like to it knowledge our colleagues from c-span2 and welcome their worldwide audience tonight. the newseum celebrates the freedoms of the first amendment i welcoming more than 800,000 visitors each year to one of washington's most sophisticated buildings. discuss the major issues and controversies about freedom in the united states and around the world. and by reaching out to more than 2.2 million children and teachers who wants to understand the foundational freedoms of our society, but cannot enter our building.
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we reach them through a variety of sophisticated digital means. seth is opening in 2008, the newseum has become a premier venue for the very best in photojournalism. walk through the seven floors of exhibits and you will see some of the most powerful images in world history. the rise and fall of the berlin wall, to the destruction of the twin towers, to images of war and peace. is of course, the newseum also home to the pulitzer prize photography gallery. the most comprehensive collection of pulitzer prize-winning photographs of the world. chances"t exhibit "40 follows in that spirit as it brings the issue of the world hunger crisis to the forefront to the stunning photographs of howard buffett. traveling more than 2135 countries, -- traveling more
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135 countries, he believes that each of us have 40 chances to accomplish our life goals. just as farmers have 40 seasons to improve their harvests. his work as a call to action to find lasting solutions to these global challenges. to be joinedd tonight by howard, who is chairman and ceo of the howard g. buffett foundation. a farmer, businessman, photographer, and philanthropist, he dedicates his life to wildlife conservation and finding solutions to world hunger. we also have the honor tonight to be joined by the honorable tony blair. the former prime minister of the united kingdom from 1997-2007. he tripled the united kingdom's
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a program for africa and is helping a new generation of managementders with and government principles. emmanuel de merode helps develop the alliance. alternativevelop an strategy capable of eradicating poverty and improving stability and peace to the eastern congo. leading the conversation tonight is a dear friend of the newseum, judy woodruff. she is the co-anchor and managing member of pbs news hour. this is presented with the international woman mediate foundation and the howard g. buffett foundation. i want to give a special welcome tonight to those representing these organizations. want to thank the friends of the first amendment society for
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their support of the newseum's work. it is now my privilege to introduce our moderator, judy woodruff, and our distinguished panel. welcome to the newseum. [applause] judy woodruff: thank you very much. it is my honor to be here with such a distinguished panel. you could not ask for three individuals who care more about this issue. i know they all have a lot they want to say. we are going to get right to it. howard buffett, will start with you. you are the one who was the driving force behind this. take us back to the beginning. thatas this something mattered to you? we know you came from a farming
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background. there were other things going on in your family. howard buffett: not much. i was teaching warren had to invest. other than that, not much. i had a mother that spent her entire life really dedicating herself to helping people. i think all of us kids grew up we weresehold where expected to give back to the community. of course, we had every opportunity in our lives to do what we wanted to do in many ways. best when hens it talks about the ovarian lottery. you could be born in bangladesh, it could be born in yemen, you could be born in mullally. you could be born to presidents that are -- born to parents that are divorced, or criminals, or handicapped with challenges of providing a living. there are many scenarios that
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could develop. but you were born, and in my case, a white, male united -- male in the united states. that give you every opportunity to excel in life that you could ever ask for. hopefully, those demographics are changing. when i came into this world, that was the best situation you could find yourself in. i think we knew that and appreciated that. high expectations that we would go out in the world and do some things that are productive and positive. the big driver was how i grew up and what my parents expected of me. was itodruff: and what about food insecurity and the african continent that attracted you? howard buffett: when we finally got some really money to spend, i was immediately attracted to trying to figure out where the most impoverished populations were.
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resources areere very scarce or limited. i wasare the places attracted to. we do a lot of work and central america and mexico. africa has some of the biggest challenges, especially food security in terms of agricultural production. unfortunately, it was the kinds of population we wanted to try and work with. that is how we ended up doing a lot in africa. judy woodruff: there is a lot to talk about in terms of your interest and what do have learned. i still want to bring in prime minister blair and emmanuel de merode. at some point along the way, you got to know the both of them. and something else grew out of that. tell me how all of this got started. i went to uganda
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for the first time in 1997. it was a phenomenal experience. if anybody asks what the one thing i should do in my life is, i say, go there. it is quite an experience. do it when you are young enough for the hiking. i've taken my son and taken other people and it is really something. that captured my attention. and then i met a great woman, annette, who is think is maybe here tonight. and she keptgcp wanting to have dinner with me and i noticed she had phd behind her name. i did not want a phd do come of dinner with me. and thentting her off finally, she just showed up. i realized what an amazing job she was doing and that, he hooked in the region. we've done a lot of work in these countries. in 2009 weemmanuel,
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went up to the park. he had been there for maybe a year and i realized the that have brought everything together. it brought the conservation peas, the poverty fees, the conflict peace -- the iece, theion p conflictiece, the piece. it brought all of these pieces together. emmanuel has an impossible job. we have started to work with him and we are doing it because he is always there. one of met tony it was funny because cage, who worked for tony for a long time cap sending me these e-mails. saying, why do i want to meet the prime minister?
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what am i going to do with this guy? she would send me these e-mails and i would say, i am busy. sorry. and then, i was on this plane somewhere, and i read this article and i said, god, this guy is doing exactly what has to happen in africa. we can do everything with emmanuel and what is the one thing we do not have? we do not have rule of law, governance. ailhought, man, i have to em kate back and apologize for everything i said. and that he came out and tried to run my combine. he ran some corn down. we were walking up to get in the combine and a think it was kate cusack, howard, he is not driven anything for 12 years. it is a rare thing to have
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someone with tony's experience .nd commitment he has been a leader, he has run a country. who can show up at the doorstep and share the experience is really rare. they're both very special people to meet and to my foundation. judy woodruff: i cannot wait to ask prime minister blair about the combine and the rest of it. howard buffett: he will not tell the truth. uel, whatruff: emman did you think when you are approached by howard buffett? howard buffett: you don't have to tell the truth. emmanuel de merode: howard came to the congo at a very difficult time for us. saying, myt by
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function, my position, who i am, is it middle ranking public servant. situation,t into the which is management. it is a very large national park. it is the epicenter of a war that has been happening now for 20 years. it has turned out to be the most the greatest expression of human suffering cents the second world war. everyone of those wars over the period of 20 years began inside the in national park -- the national park that we manage. i beget is park warden and i have not fully gather the difficulty. and then, howard turned up. is when i realized my problems were just beginning. [laughter]
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judy woodruff: what happened? did he actually come to you? emmanuel de merode: yes. howard has a long history of address these fundamental problems in the great lakes regions. they are enormous challenges to overcome. but what he offered us for the first time was not just the posterity of some of the generosity in terms of resources, but also the time to think through the problems that we were addressing. he was actually willing to come to the field. times of armed conflict and work through these problems with us. story,has really been the working through these overwhelming problems in the
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eastern congo. hearwoodruff: i want to the beginning though, of the howard buffett story from prime minister blair's point of view. your office was trying to set up an appointment with him and it was not working until this wonderful article came out. tony blair: i always thought he was very keen to meet me. [laughter] i did eventually get to see him. i did get to see him. and once more, i got to drive the combine harvester, which was an interesting experience. i think it was the only time i have seen howard very earnest. he kept telling me the amount of money this piece of machinery cost. the essence of it, for me, the issue of governance in africa is absolutely fundamental. when i was prime minister,
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africa was a big part of the agenda. and 2005 at the g8 summit, we actually put africa on the agenda and got commitments to give debt relief to african countries. would give a commitment to federal aid and other countries followed suit. the usa uplifted their aid substantially as well. i was aware of the fact that aid was never going to be enough on its own. you also had to build the capacity to govern properly. and so, africa came together with my other passion, which is the whole process of governance. office in 1997. the only job i had ever had was prime minister. if you are going to start, you might as well start at the top. [laughter] howard buffett: we know you were not a farmer. as well.r: just here's the thing i discovered about government.
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i came in,hen because i was prime minister and at at the cabinet table, i thought if i took a decision around the cabinet table, something happened. this is a big mistake. i realized how the process of government works. i realized, you run for office as a great campaigner. to get into office and you have become the chief executive. you have be able to run the organization. i became sensed with the processes of government. why some of the african presidents-- african were struggling with. i do not have the infrastructure of decision-making and organization around them to be able to do it properly. the purpose of the african government initiative was, we put people in who worked alongside the president's team. i worked alongside the president and we went through
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prioritization's and then the execution capabilities within the government to get things done. the thing is, with howard, he was prepared to help us with this. he supported it and resourced it. the result is, today we are in eight different african countries and i think we make a very big difference in how they function. judy woodruff: howard, talk you and the prime minister are doing together. give us some concrete examples. howard buffett: we have flexibility. we have given agi the money that was committed elsewhere. when the ebola crisis came up in liberia, one of the peace people they went to because they were familiar with them was agi, for help. this was a disaster for the population. it was a challenging messaging
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and communication system. we don't get involved with health or anything else. we are pretty focused on what we to the when we spoke staff at agi, it was a very simple decision to say, yes, we will move some of that money. you use some of that money. use it what you need to use it for. we cannot judge that. the biggest thing for us is to have the flexibility and have partners that we trust. storyel can tell you a about a situation in goma that is funny looking, back when you look at how we got it done. but it is really important for us to trust our partners. i realized that governance is such a critical issue. one of the things we did with agi was, we were on a conference call talking about different options and they brought up this called rapid action.
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it sounded great to me. i thought, tony needs to do what he needs to do. he does not need people like me or anyone else telling him how to do it. i have great confidence in what he is going to do and the decisions he will make. we made a commitment, a reasonable commitment, to fund that can help him go out to try and leverage that for additional funding. the rapid action fund is something where you don't have to go to ask a donor for something in the middle of an emergency. you have the money. we willtell us, but never ask him how he used the money. it is not important to me. tony blair: in the of bulla crisis, we were in all three countries. they organized all the help coming in. hit theike these
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countries. there can make sure the people are going to the right places, setting up the right centers, setting up the systems. deliver maternal health care programs. we help people with agriculture programs. we will do things like make sure if it is a big infrastructure project around electricity, for example, which is vital to the country, that we help them deliver that program. i have not been to liberia for about five years. but when i flew there, it was about nighttime. and at that time, he did not you could not see a light. that city did not have electricity. you are talking about a imaginen where cannot process in an a
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emergency of that scale. the don't have the people, infrastructure, or the power. people,on't have the infrastructure, or the power. you are trying to solve 20 problems at once. it is not just the ebola crisis. it is many different crises at the same time. the thing i love about that fund stafft gives tony and his the ability to just react, to go in and do it. we need much more of that kind of philanthropy. our money in the private foundation should be the absolute first risk money. we should not worry about bragging about what we got right. you should tell people how we failed. that is the truth. too many people want to feel good about what they did.
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they want to tell everybody else how well they did something. certain places. it is the wrong thing for philanthropists to worry about, with the kind of flexibility and money we have. we should absolutely be the risk capital. judy woodruff: i would imagine, tony blair, not every philanthropist, not every source of funding you go to, understands this. tony blair: in the end, it is it unders -- it is an interesting way of doing this. they understand what we are trying to do, and they might support it. and you have freedom to get on and do it. there's not a huge amount of your opportunity -- of bureaucracy around it. we are able to work really fast to help change the way those countries are run. one of the things that is very important to realize about africa is that, despite all of the challenges, it is on the
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move and there is real progress. life expectancy is going up. in the next few years, the middle class is set to double. you've still got a situation where two thirds of the population don't have access to electricity. these are fundamental things you can help change, but you can only do it if government is operating effectively. that is what it's all about. whether it's doing what we do with the government or what a manual does with conservation, the way that howard does the philanthropy is different from anything i've come across and allows us to operate effectively and react to the need. judy: help us understand. on the surface, it sounds like you are doing different things. tony blair is describing a governance initiative.
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you are the chief warden of a national park in the congo. help us understand what that means and how it's involved in conservation. tony: this guy takes real risks. judy: i should say, emmanuel is a belgian prince. he's got all kinds of royalty. [laughter] i wasn't expecting that. i think there are always a norm is parallels. none of us have a monopoly on good development practice. it's what we are all trying to do. there are many ways of doing it. there are certain underlying principles. it comes down to three things. you have to have a deep theitivity and respect for
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rights and needs of the most vulnerable, the poorest people in society. you have to have a sensitivity for the rights of the future generations, to protect the environment, governance initiatives in relation to natural resources, and then you have to respect rule of law. that is what holds society together. if you can maintain those principles, then there is a whole range of activities you can do. what tony has brought up, as long as you maintain those principles, then it's a question of how quickly and effectively you can deal with the dramatic challenges we are faced with, particularly in places like the great lakes region. i only operate in a small world, but it's a small world that is extremely intense in terms of the deep challenges that our generation has to deal with.
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destruction of the world's resources and a how badly we treat each other, particularly those who can't defend themselves. judy: you talked about it a few minutes ago, but how do you see what emmanuel has devoted himself to fitting into your overall -- you've got some pretty ambitious goals, to do something tangible about food and security, about a part of the world that has been neglected for generation after generation. howard: one of the things -- i have some important partners in .rime i felt that walking into congo at the time we did with a lot of conflict -- when we would see go throughe would
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checkpoints. the first two or three were the government. the next ones were the rebels. it was that way for a long time. we went back for or five times a year, and sometimes, 10 kilometers was a ghost town, and sometimes, 10 kilometers looked normal. a lot of change was coming. we realize the conflict part of it and the lack of the rule of law was one of the things that had to be addressed. one of the things that has never worked well in that part of the world is the demobilization and reintegration of rebels. that ifhis crazy idea we start doing things now while the conflict is happening, we would have things available, so we can putable
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500, 600 guys to work when they are ready to be reintegrated. instead of using frameworks from the past that have not turned out well. judy: reintegrated from combat? howard: i don't know the exact number. you get 700, 800 x combatants in rwanda and uganda in pretty poor conditions. in the past, they had no way to reintegrate them, no guarantee of jobs. he couldn't fit back in. obviously, that is a threat to the government. it doesn't take long to reorganize. if theme is different government wants to do something about it. we can bring them back, reintegrate them immediately, and put them to work.
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you have to search changing some of the fundamental issues that have existed historically to change the future. one of those issues is how you tants andte ex-comba keep them from picking up arms again. that is a big part of what we are trying to do. it is a huge experiment. we have no idea what will happen. we could end up spending $100 million there and look back in 10 years and feel like we've got nothing done. millionuld spend $100 and change the course of how some things happen. it won't be us changing it, but our investment. judy: how do you look on this, tony? do you look at this as a gamble, sure bet? tony: i would call it entrepreneurial philanthropy, which involves an element of risk and capital.
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if it works, it provides a model .or future engagements one of the things that is interesting about africa, you have sources from different quarters. all of these have to be used effectively by governments on the ground. with aid agencies, they will work in quite a bureaucratic way. they can be inflexible to do with. they do great work, many of these agencies, in many parts of africa, but the advantage of howard's foundation is they can act with flexibility and agility that comes on the nature of the organizational leadership. one of the things we need to do in development is experiment. the thing that howard is thinking about now, how to agriculture, this is a
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huge problem. it's probably the single biggest problem the continent faces. if he was able to come up through a process of experimentation, if he was able , ithow what could work would have a dramatic impact on the way these countries develop. the big question is, how fast can they accelerate their development? take a country like the congo. emmanuel is dealing with a particular problem in the park, but this is a country that is vast with developmental problems. if we were able to show how you could accelerate that path of development, it would have an extraordinary impact on millions. is a reminder that government doesn't always have the answers. it is essential in some ways, but you are working with some government but also around.
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tony: i think this is the way it is today. there should be partnerships between the public and private sectors. judy: specifically on the continent? tony: on the continent, there is no doubt philanthropy has made a massive difference. howard: you can't have any success long-term if the government doesn't buy into what you are doing and they don't support it. we've got an initiative in rwanda on agricultural do it all we are trying to do something we --nk will be unique agricultural development, and we are trying to do something we think will be unique. if we didn't think there was an environment where the government of rwanda would buy into what we make it so that in 10 years or 15 years, they don't need us anymore, and they have a facility and training and extension and productivity and all the things that come with it that are important, and they are
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doing it on their own. is aid. is, aid all that means is you are trying to assist someone in a difficult set of circumstances, which can come from -- develop from a diff number of different ways. people talk about poverty like it is difficult to figure out. it's not difficult. you need to give people economic activity -- economic opportunity. they have to earn a living, and they have to make more than what they make today. you have to create that environment. one of the things we are doing in congo with the hydro plants we are funding is bringing electricity. it's a great byproduct that it brings electricity to the people, and kids can study at night, but what it really does is, it says that you can now develop processing plants. you can develop anything.
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you can develop an industry so your farmers have a market. your farmers can produce more and get paid more. electricity is completely identified with agriculture if you work backwards. people don't think about it that way, but we've done a small facility, and we have a soap plant going in. we have an enzyme plant. thisricity is looked at as important thing as households and everything else. it's critical to agriculture. judy: i want to ask each one of you before we take audience questions, which we are going to do, what is your dream? what would you love to see come from what you are doing? i also would like you to be candid about what your challenges are. it you have a hearty touch on some of those. i want to come to emmanuel first. tell everybody if they didn't know that you were shot and almost died last year when there was a documentary being done -- being done.
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tell us about that. you look fine. [laughter] he has mental issues, by the way. [laughter] emmanuel: i'm very well, thank you. we go in phases, and last year was an intense period. we're in confrontation with a .ritish well company it's not over. they were trying to drill for oil in a world heritage site. ins an illegal activity terms of international law. for us, it was a major problem. what you have to understand also is that this whole issue is the illegal exportation of natural resources, and it ties into the governance problems tony is trying to address across the
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continent. the issue of the illegal exploitation of natural shows profoundly poor governance over the way africa's resources are being used. it invariably leads to conflict. in the eastern congo, that conflict has led to the deaths of 6 million people. these are serious issues we are dealing with. just because it happens to be a british company doesn't make it , whether it's an armed militia or multinational -- judy: who shot you? emmanuel: we were dealing with this issue, and around that, a whole series of conflicts were pting.ting -- eru i was perhaps not sufficiently prudent. i was coming back to the park after having submitted the inquiry report on the oil
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company, and some people were waiting for me at the side of the road. they opened fire on my vehicle. i wound up with a bullet in my chest and my stomach. i was able to get out of the car and into the forest, and some local farmers picked me up and got me out of that area. i was very lucky. a local hospital with some remarkably good surgeons. that was my lucky day. judy: very much so. wouldn't you say? ofhink we are all kind silent hearing the story. -- it each one of you don't know how you move on from that, because it is such a horrendous thing. public servants, law
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enforcement officers all over the world are confronted with sadly, it's aand sign of our times that there is so much violence around us. when you sign up to be a public servant, law enforcement officer, that goes with the job. most of the people who do get injured continue their work. it would be wrong not to. i work on a team of 500 rangers protect the park. 140 of my colleagues have been since the war started. in the last three months, we've lost 12. the person who has the leadership position runs away
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from their responsibilities, what effect does that have on the rest of the team? it's natural to commit to your job and keep going. it's not something you question. howard: it is a condition that is worse today than it was a year ago. were two attacks, and in 1, 8 civilians were killed. it's a constant thing that emmanuel operates under. he doesn't have the resources or support that he should have. it's really frustrating, because it is something where the united states, with the same type of advisory group that they put another activity -- on other activity, they could make a difference in eastern congo. force --a u.n. the
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u.n. force. they are basically they're collecting checks so they can keep somebody in the military from guatemala. that is what it is. they would don't want to talk don't want to talk about it. the truth is, we've got to do something different. this is a perfect place in time for the united states to show leadership. it doesn't take a lot. think about for a minute the adf, a group in north kivu. they would love to overthrow uganda. you would have the first radical islamic state in eastern africa, and that would undermine everything. people can say, that might not happen. it might not, but it could happen. all they want to do is undermine rwanda. then you have all these other groups that are operating freely
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in several places. imagine what it's like to try to send your kid to school in that environment. imagine what it's like to walk to a field. if you talk to farmers in sierra leone, they would tell you stories about how they went out and allon their crop, of a sudden, here is this group of guys chopping off arms. it's not an environment that we can relate to or understand or even really imagine. if we can't take our principles and values and apply them in situations where we can make a difference, with minimal risk to ourselves, what are we doing? i find it really frustrating that we picked these big fights we know we are going to lose, or we pick fights that make no sense, but there are places we can go in, and in an advisory
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capacity, assist in making some change. i think we could do that. judy: you mean the united states ? howard: the united states. judy: tony blair, what is your dream? we are talking about huge challenges you all are laying out. tony: that is what i was thinking when i was listening to .mmanuel this belgian prince had a british education. he has a wonderful sense of modest understatement. [laughter] very brave, very remarkable. my dream is very simple. i would like to see a new generation of african leaders who are smart enough to know what should be done in their country and honest and decent enough to go and do it. where we are able to work alongside them and help them accelerate that process of development. happening,ws it is
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not in all quarters, not in all places. i think democratic power switched hands about once. in 20 years since then, it's happened about 30 times. nigeria recently had an election that was free and fair, and power was transferred for the first time in a peaceful way. the frustration is, a lot of what we do as an international community is devoted to improving the infrastructure of decision-making. one of the interesting things we've learned in the work we've done, for example in rwanda, when we first went in and were working with the local people, and learning some of the basic things to be done, today, when i go back to rwanda, the quality
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of young public servants is so strong. there are people you would be delighted to have here or in the u.k. judy: why did that happen? tony: because people were there to show them how it's done. i know you think our bureaucracy doesn't function. believe me, you haven't been in a properly nonfunctioning system to realize the difference. it's partly that, and it's partly the will of the country and the leadership. africa, despite the problems, you do have a new prepared to take responsibility, prepared to take the destiny of their own countries in their own hands. all we can ever do is help. it's for them to do. the exciting thing is they are capable of doing it today more than ever before. they are doing it more than ever
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before. that this is extended and extended, and what used to be abnormal and unusual becomes normal and conventional. judy: prime minister blair can only stay 10 minutes. if any of you have questions, raise your hand. i'm going to try to see you in the darkness. we will have a little more time .th howard and tony emmanuel: we've got microphones. i'm looking at hands. >> my question is for prime minister blair. in a movie, a woman says she's getting on a train because there's no money. since central banking has come to dominate the world and our the borrowed into existence at usery, might it be time for a new redwoods kind of agreement where we restore an honest unit some money circulates in areas and people produce things?
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the credit, we reached point where we gamble on perceptions of whether there is value for production instead of producing things. do we need a new brentwoods agreement to bring prosperity everywhere in the world the echo -- in the world? [laughter] ?ony: is that for me judy: i think he said premised or blair. things i've the learned after being in office, you can be asked the question, and you can honestly say, i don't know. what would you actually say to that question? howard: that he asked you? [laughter] tony: i honestly don't know. i'm sorry. judy: do you want to reframe your question and come back to the mic?
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in the meantime, we are going to keep moving. >> i would like to ask a question of all of you, which is the following. you are working in africa now. it's obviously a challenging environment, and i would like to look ahead 50 years. you hear the population is going to double. you hear the problems of global warming. how does that affect agriculture, conversation -- conservation, and governance? how does that affect the likelihood we are going to achieve success? tony: with climate change goals? as africa develops, their need for electricity is going to be vast, and there's the possibility of developing sustainably. there are enormous possibilities for the responsible production of power. when you come to a country like liberia and they need a power station, it's hard for me to say if the coal-fired power
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station is the easiest thing to do, don't do it. the opportunities with things like hydro and seller for the future are enormous and can be developed. as those countries develop, there will be more opportunities to use them. howard: if we don't get agriculture right, you won't worry about conservation. a guy named dennis avery who told me in 1992 when all i did was focus on conservation -- he said, no one will starve to save a tree. i didn't quite get it at the time, but when i started traveling to africa, instead of going and looking for cheetah or leopards or whatever it was, i took the time to go look at a village that was off to the side or -- whoever it was, wherever it was, you relies, here we are
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as tourists coming over and thinking it's great to see a cheetah make a kill in the serengeti. that's not helping these people. somebody who to has kids to feed, who has had children die because they can't feed them, it becomes a serious thing. they will use the resources that are at their disposal to survive . they are trying to go from day two weeks.k if that is your situation, you will have no conversation -- conservation to worry about in 50 years if you don't do something about taking care of people first. that's the lesson i've learned. it's a hard lesson sometimes. if you really want to learn it, you see some desperate people and hear some sad stories.
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>> my question is not completely unrelated, and it's for howard buffett and prime minister tony blair, although i do want to add how much i admire you, emmanuel: i am thatgrateful you are there. we are at 7 billion people. in 2050, we are at 10 billion. it's estimated we need one point three miles -- 1.3 kilometers square of additional agricultural land to feed those people, and most of that is going to come from the amazon basin and congo basin. northern countries are reducing the agricultural output, and most of it is going to come from southern countries. my question is, how do you integrate the needs of local communities and governance in this increasing need for land for food for the world but with an agenda that is largely driven by industrial agriculture from northern countries and bric
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countries? how do we reconcile those different agendas? judy: prime minister blair, do you want to go first? tony: as these countries they have got huge ifortunities to develop they've formed of the right develop in ato sustainable way, including with respect to agriculture. the population of the world, the population of africa itself will grow enormously, but also as countries develop, all the evidence is that the population comes under greater control -- a girlsple education is immensely important in this. this is a problem we can solve provided you have the quality of
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governance that is both making sure that the economy of the country grows in a way that is sustainable and balanced, where agriculture production is increasing but increasing in a way that pays attention to the needs of the local people, and i feel, as well, with the possibilities of technology and what it can do in agriculture, i think this is a problem that is solvable, but it's not a problem absent thatable quality of governance being there at the central level and in obedience to the interests of the local people. others may disagree with this, but i think one of the opportunities that africa has is as a source of agricultural production, but it depends on the state of the country as a whole as to whether that production is developed in the right way and if what is produced is then used in the
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best way for the world. i think this is a problem we can solve. that's true, but i would also say that i think we have an opportunity -- i'm not hopeful we will do it right at all, but we have an opportunity to do something in africa that we didn't get right in some other places of the world, which is to embrace farmers as the solution rather than look at impose a problem, not to western thinking and western mentality and western agricultural practices in a place where diversity is critical to living. our systems are the biggest mistake we could bring to a continent like africa. a few ar

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