tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN December 23, 2015 11:02pm-12:01am EST
the road, middle of conservatives what we call somewhat conservatives and two types of movement conservatives. evangelical and secular and they remain pretty stable over the last 20 years. it's their interplay and locations in the different states will determine who's going to win the domination. host: is the party growing or shrinking? guest: it's staying stable. candidates seem to be attracting some new voters into the primary process. we'll see whether that means in 2016. from what are the lessons 2011? what were some of the strategic romneys made by the mitt campaign? guest: the biggest strategic mistake they made was not understanding what the swing was and that person needed to be pulled away from the president. swing voter to be the middle income to lower middle income native born. less than ah college education and that
not find mitt romney business experience attractive. not find the tax plan attractive. didn't like the president. they needed an alternative and campaign didn't .resent an economic growth plan host: reince priebus putting together an autopsy, learning from 2012. what was your take away from that report and has the party heeded the lesson? party is heeding the lesson. the autopsy was inefficiently deep. the idea was correctly diagnosed the republicans need to show that they're compassionate. what they didn't do was take the next step to talk about the recap the economic policy that people's sense compassion.
we need to show we're good on immigration and other things. then people would agree with us on our core economics. the coreact it's economics that's one of the ing blocks. host: we've seen what happened in paris. changed orthat pivoted the debate. how has that set up the in 2016?ns guest: right now it's made national security much more issue.nt that's one thing they hold an advantage on. it's one of the reasons why in the last democratic debate, hillary clinton started to separate herself from the president as far as demonstrating a willingness to militarily. a year from now, we could have different pivots. we could have different events interyear. interfere. right now it's focusing on
national security. you twot me share with campaign responses related to that. ted cruz campaign released late
last week. >> securing our borders and stopping illegal immigration is national security. tot's why i fought so hard defeat president obama. it would have given the obama authority to admit syrian refugees. that's just wrong. when it comes to radical islamic to rediscoverneed ronald reagan strategy. we win, they lose. i'm ted cruz, i approve this message. host: as you look at that spot, what's your reaction? knows where his constituency is in the republican party. there's large number of people upset that's the level of immigration. there are people who believe that the president is weak on foreign people. ties them together very nicely. it's something that within the should helprimary ted quite a bit.
parker writes about the white guys awhite knights. this political news that donald maybe doing better than polls suggested. she said, yikes. is far and away front runner nationally. story in iowarent where ted cruz is ahead in some polls. donald trump is ahead in other polls. if you look at the trump campaign and where he stands, your thoughts? trump represents something that's new to this country. in europey common classis the white working protest. levels ofe same enthusiasm among certain groups. but he's also loath and reviled many people. in fact, donald trump ask the would you never support in the republican primary? well.leads those polls as he is a polarizing figure. divided among is
multiple candidates. race ofget to a smaller three or four people, you will start to see his feelings is to where he is now. host: taking a point of view, cathleen parker's view there mibling, saying wide -- there maybe wider support for donald trump. bradley who is the former los angeles mayor, tom bradley, is african-american who ran hisccessfully for governor, 82 defeat surprised pollsterred basededicted an easy win on polling. many people were fearful of racist.nsidered now we have people not saying for trump,ill vote unless telephone surveyors out of theirre mind. guest: i wrote about that two weeks ago.
statement.ect there are differences between the and anonymous poll on internet. that's the same thing we've seen overseas with white working that they do party .etter when there's anonymity still aless there's hard feeling on his support. the polls for his support don't necessarily indicate the depth of the opposition to him. when more candidates drop out, the opposition will start to mayapse around -- trump still do very well. he's not going to go up much now.er than where he is the mosts group is numerous nationally when you talk about the somewhat conservative voter. many states comprising of 35 -- 40% of national gop
electorate, evangelical voters by state,ficantly somewhat conservative voters are found in similar proportions in state. they're not very vocal they form the gop.ck base of guest: these are the people -- host: they tend to be a lot of donald trump supporters. guest: donald trump is doing well with all ideological factions. trump is recapturing the terms ofn party in ideology.er than he does extremely poorly among graduatesh post degrees. somewhat conservative voter who trump supporters is split between that person marco cruz. ted at some point, those people candidatesf those will drop out.
host: our guest is henry olsen the book is called "four faces party."epublican we welcome our listeners and also those of you on c-span radio and those watching here on c-span television. a reminder that we're dividing phone lines a little bit segment. for this identify yourself as a conservative republican. number.he 202-748-8000. if you're a moderate republican, 202-748-8001 and others 202-748-8002. campaign.the jeb bush >> i wish we could say yes, destroy isis. finally are we need to be. >> the mass shooting is being investigated as aning a of terrorism. >> isis has claimed responsibility. this was an act of terror. so far president obama has been silent. >> americans had enough of
words. declarations detached from reality of an administration or no intention to win. we can't withdraw from the threat or negotiate with it. we have one choice, to defeat it. candidate but a similar theme with ted cruz, and homeland security issue. guest: i think all republican candidates realize how importance that is for voters now. few, perhaps rand paul become the primary exception. the battle will go to who can convince republican voters that they who can convince republican voters that they are most sincere in the fight. some people cannot link immigration in the same way that ted cruz can. that is why you have the
difference in the two ads. one is immigration and one is isis. -- he could win the nomination. there is time to go before any of the votes are capped. we are six weeks out from iowa. and four years ago, newt gingrich was winning the polls. donald trump is polarizing. him.upporters love he is now over 30% in the polls. he will be interpreted in their favor. the fact that he leads the polls for people who will never vote for him as equally as people who
will vote for him, he is the single most polarizing figure today. and he is well short of a supermajority. -- says that there is a huge difference between the corporatists who lead the gop and average conservator to -- average conservative leaning voters. that they data shows are one third of the republican party. that the people who are in the middle are in the somewhat conservative party. a partyle who don't see being dominated by the conservatives, that is the sweet spot that every candidate who wants to win the nomination wants to get. and the person who can get there is going to be the nominee. that is ted cruz's challenge. he has to persuade the somewhat conservative who may share the
policies must not the us versus them attitude. one other tweet from i am anho says, independent and i see no one worth my vote in either party. guest: you see a lot of people becoming disgusted with two-party politics. that the fourth and fifth parties are gaining support because voters are giving up hope on the two major parties. that gentleman's thought is very much along the same lines, there the leads don't understand and don't care about the average person. and consequently, they are looking for somebody new. host: four faces of the republican party: the fight for the 2016 presidential nomination
-- steve is joining us. good morning. caller: i have an analogy for you. scranton, nelson rockefeller and george romney all tried to stop goal whether who is now in conventions and , as establishment candidates themselves and they failed. when mittow, i think romney was leading, in all of the polls, and they said no, no, we want to go with someone else. -- if donald trump wants to win, if he has ted cruz as his running mate, i think that breaks the maverick dynamic. the primary election in 1964 is a great analogy. the one thing i would caution is that goldwater one very few
primaries. he was a write-in candidate in new hampshire. he lost to oregon. he won in california but that is a time when divorce was popular. secondson rockefeller's wife happen to give birth to his second child in the primary. and that pushed goldwater over the top. i think we have a very fluid situation in the republican party. ted cruzpoint, the non- and non-donald trump candidates will start to drop out. marco rubio or chris christie if bush can come back. and then you will see an interesting three-person race. and that will break down along ideological lines. is henry olsen. he is a graduate of claremont
mckenna college. he is out with a new book called "four faces of the republican party: the fight for the 2016 presidential nomination." about the demographics, this is from the wall street journal today on how the sun belt state continues to grow. florida is growing faster than california. also, north carolina and south carolina and georgia at the expense of the industrial states. .hey are losing in population how all of these demographics can impact 2016. that is available online. we are joined now from georgia. you call yourself a conservative republican? caller: i was one. host: what are you now? caller: i'm not sure. the republican party has left the black people out of the equation. --s man just said that he
demographics don't matter to him. all he wants is white folks votes. and we know the reason the republican party is diminishing democratics -- demographics matter. guest: what i was trying to say is that the swing voter is someone who is downscale economically. african-americans matter a lot. they are equal citizens. the same as white people and hispanic people and asian people. african-americans have not shown themselves to be terribly for conservative republican candidates and that is one reason why, despite the desires of the republican party, imo focus -- they may focus on other voters. it is easier to get voters who are swinging between the two parties as opposed to african-americans who tend to present-95 percent
democratic when they are faced with a typical republican conservative. host: this washington post photograph of donald trump in michigan, and one of our regular isers has this question, donald trump in danger of losing the nomination? guest: i think if there were a donald trumption, would certainly lose it. because the establishment of the do not want to see donald trump be the nominee. so if he walks in without the minority -- without the majority , i think you could see them making another contender and nominee. i doubt you will see an old-fashioned brokered convention. i could imagine that if donald
trump walked in with 40% of the delegates, they could elect one of the other ones. in order to deny him the nomination. a survey of experts is the subject of today's front page story. look at the headlines. and ted cruz lead. morning, why do you think it is that the leading of the birther movement in 2008 has said nothing about the fact that ted cruz was born in canada and is constitutionally ineligible to be president? guest: there seems to be some form of nonaggression pact between a ted cruz and donald trump. i think because ted cruz was born to american citizens, there is a question about whether he was an american citizen by birth
even though he was out of the country. but there does seem to be a nonaggression pact between the two of them. the weekend before the last to debate -- before the last debate, donald trump started to attack him but then when he had the opportunity during the debate, he said that ted cruz is a wonderful guy. they seem to recognize that there is a huge background in their supporters and that has one gains, the other might lose. for right now, it is in both of their interests to not attack. host: henry olsen, from your book and from the piece you mentioned earlier, you wrote the following. you said that donald trump is the latest manifestation of a global trend. guest: across the world, what we borns people who are need in sweden and germany and france and who areerlands
downscale it, people who don't callate from what we college, but working-class voters are angry. protest voting for candidates who are opposed to refugee status, who are suspicious of globalization and you have fiscal policies that fall between the left and the right. donald trump is striking exactly the same themes with the exact same emphasis and he is getting same support as these parties overseas. that you went on to say suggest the appeal of anti-immigration policies to working-class voters is much deeper than american elites want to believe. we now have linda from new york. she is on the line for moderate republicans. caller: good morning.
if i can get out what i'm going to try to say here. first, i think on ultram should crawl back under the rock. trump shouldnald crawl back under a rock. and isn't ted cruz and immigrant? marco rubio has trying to fix the problem. he has the courage of his convictions. he wasn't for immigration before he was against immigration. i think the whole country is going nuts. inc. you. host: thank you for the call. allen called ted cruz the pride of calgary. he was born in calgary. his parents were american. and once again, this is the third or fourth caller on him, is he eligible to run for president? that is a question that constitutional scholars will have to ask. i am not a constitutional lawyer.
i know that in 2008, john mccain, who was born in the canal zone was deemed eligible to run. even though he was born outside of the continental american states. was in thes father active military. both of ted cruz's parents were not in the military, they were in calgary for work. and ted cruz had to renounce his canadian citizenship. in thee he comes up seriousness of conversation, the more you will see people looking at that and asking, is he eligible? it certainly was an issue in 2007-2000 84 barack obama -- 2008 four barack obama even though he has shown his birth
certificate. guest: exactly. who, ifcruz is somebody being born outside of the united states is viewed as not being born a natural citizen, he would be in eligible to run. but that is a question for constitutional lawyers. host: judy, good morning. virginia on the line for conservative republicans. caller: good morning. i call myself a conservative republican because i am catholic and very pro-life. huge block ofa voters and we are a peculiar people. because the catholic church preaches the social gospel. retain alike to also safety net for the poor. so we are not classes -- not
classic conservatives. i watched her excellent presentation on saturday morning , lindsey graham, the last political race. what a shame he is out of the race. he has experience, he is a policy maker. -- look at john kasich. he also has many years of experience. in the topee people who have never held political office. for all of them who are accusing and playing to people who didn't graduate from high school, carly fiorina stands head and shoulders above everyone. she is passionately and truly against abortion.
to dig a hole and airy planned parenthood in it. but of course, she has no experience. host: thank you for the call. you mention carly fiorina, let me show you one of the most recent ads that she has put out.
let us stand together and do our duty and we shall not fail. >> our government has become incompetent, unresponsive, corrupts. that ineptitude and lack of ability is dangerous. talking tough is not the same as being strong. and to wage war we need a commander-in-chief who has made tough calls in tough times. margaret thatcher went said that she was not content to manage the decline of a great nation. neither am i.
clintono beat hillary to keep our nation safe. if you join me, we will take our country back. in the polls earlier in
the fall -- but as we move into winter she remains in the low-mid-single digits nationally and probably in the low teens in new hampshire. is an carly fiorina attractive candidate. she is someone who displays leadership and conservative values. that is one of the reasons why our last caller is attracted to her. i suspect that if she does not nomination, she would be a republican nominee for the 2018 virginia senate seat against senator tim kaine. i suspect our caller from danville will have a chance to be enthusiastic about her. viewers, thisour
ted cruz's father was not american when the senator was born. please make that correction. that is correct. is about theestion father, he was an immigrant. not a native born american but i think he was a citizen, he had become a naturalized citizen, so he was born to two american citizens even if one was a natural born. host: stephen is next, you are on with henry olsen, the author of the book, "four faces of the republican party: the fight for the 2016 presidential nomination ." happy holidays to you both. i am listening to this this morning and i think the republican party in the last four years since 2012 has gotten worse.
it seems like they tend to discard all logic, any intellectual thought in terms of being the party they preach. but teach responsibility they don't take the time to look at the positive strengths and to eradicate the negatives. what they are doing is essentially, running around in circles. they keep making the same mistakes over and over again. i think the tea party is one of the worst movements in this country. it has made a mockery of that party and of the judicial system in this country. instance, when the same-sex marriage thing was going on, i happen to be a sexual myself. i am a white male myself and i am scared to death of these people because all i wanted, like many people like me, we wanted our equal rights. there are a lot
of people who share your views. that the republican party is a group of people who are confused or don't represent values. there are millions of people who are opposed to same-sex marriage. one of the things about american politics is that we can have these discussions out in the open as opposed to behind closed doors. host: one of the issues front -- innter in two dozen 12 2012 was deportation. it came up in the debate last week and it came up in a recent event that we covered with senator ted cruz. but here is marco rubio who came up with a plan, a gang of eight. >> i have answered that question repeatedly. in that minutes probationary status where all they had is a work permit, i personally am open to allowing people to apply for a green card
and that may not be a majority position in my party. but that is down the road. you have to prove that to people. you have to prove to people that it is working and that was the lesson in 2013. it is more true today than it was then. we had miners come over and you are seeing it come up now after all of the executive orders the president has issued. courtesy of cnn, how is that playing out in the primary? guest: it is something ted cruz wants to make a major issue. it is clearly one of donald trump's major selling points. a large percentage of the republican party would like to send the illegal people living in this country back to the country they are from. a poll suggests that people do that peopleew
should be allowed to settle here illegally if they have a green card. it could determine whether senator rubio determines -- rubio emerges as a candidate. did catch up with him outside of richmond, virginia. >> i oppose amnesty. marco rubio supports it. i opposed citizenship, marco rubio supports citizenship. the gang of eight bill. whenu go back to 2010 senator rubio was running in florida, he promised the men and women of florida, if you elect me, i will lead the fight against amnesty.
todd, you'll remember in texas, i promise you men and women in texas the same thing. me, i that if you elect will lead the fight against amnesty. in 2013 there was a time for choosing. everyone had to choose which side of the line base it on. senator rubio made the decision not to honor the promises he made to the men and women who elected him. instead, he decided to stand with barack obama and hillary clinton and the money interest in washington and lead the fight to pass amnesty. and i made a different decision. to stande decision with steve king at the american people against amnesty, to lead the fight to defeat the bill. senator ted cruz at a conference in virginia this week. next, our line for conservative republicans.
are you with us? caller: yes. good morning. i have a question for your best. i am a conservative republican. i am a working-class republican. the thing is, about the people who support donald trump, and i do but i would accept ted cruz, people primarily -- a lot of this is an economic issue with them and they feel that in some , the establishment party is left that with the previous candidates. somebody like me will never support a mitt romney or a john mccain. they will stay home instead of vote. question is, regardless of who wins the nomination, do you
think that the establishment of the republican party has keyed into the anger of the working-class voter in the party? guest: no. they have not. and they are in one of the stages of grief, one of the early ones is denial. that is the reaction to the donald trump and ted cruz approach to immigration. denial. eventually, the establishment is going to have to come to grips with it. it isn't just the anger of working-class republicans, but also working-class independence at democrats. if you don't have a college degree in this country, you have seen your incomes stagnate or decline over the last years. that history true with president bush and president obama. it is something that is fueling anger about the anger among voters.
-- anger among voters. come ton party needs to the idea that everyone is a citizen, regardless of their education and the government needs to take the people who are suffering into account. that is what is fueling working-class anger. until they come to grips with it, the republican party will lose. enough of donald trump. the lead page of the washing approach. -- the washington post. -- senator graham has not endorsed another candidate. dave in fairfax virginia, good morning. caller: happy holidays.
i appreciate the format that c-span provides. i would like to ask a brief question. does the rhetoric from donald trump and others on the ticket lead over into the other candidates that may emerge as the presidential candidate? how much is this rhetoric hurting the republican brand? guest: so far there is little evidence that the donald trump rhetoric is hurting the party. generally people are distinguishing between donald party they could be open to voting for. nominee,f he were the it would be more a question of whether or not the party is associated with his viewpoints. i think that is one of the great
fears of the republican political establishment. people are suggesting that andpendence and weapons -- republicans will vote for hillary clinton if donald trump is the nominee. but right now, this is not an issue. host: this is from the washington post, it goes to the rand paul campaign. they say it is floundering despite the family name. they say that rand paul has not been able to capture what ron paul was able to during his trip to the white house. guest: that is the case. it is surprising to me. rand paul has been finding his voice in the last few months. he reacted to the rise of importance and national security among applicants -- among republicans. about theng differences between the candidates in the early part of this year, he has gone back to
speaking his voice. it is one that resonates. you have seen a resurgence in the polls. but rand paul doesn't have the emotional connection that ron paul has. and that has been blurring the differences. host: the reporting of seth maclachlan as the piece is available online at the washington times.com. libertarian voters are flocking to donald trump is the headline today. good morning. caller: good morning. i would like to ask henry olsen if he has sent his wish list to send -- to santa claus this year. the has happened to republican party, they need to divorce themselves from the chamber of commerce. we know exactly what is going on and i am a conservative
republican. that people are speaking exactly how they feel. we need to do something with the republican party. it is totally lost. host: who is your candidate? caller: i like ted cruz. all of them except for donald trump. ok.: guest: clearly there are a lot of people who share your anger and your beliefs about the republican party. right now, the people who may not share those beliefs are divided among multiple candidate whereas clearly the vibrancy of the poignancy of the messages and the rhetoric of ted cruz and donald trump have attracted people. we will see whether or not that battle ends up producing the nominee.
there are awhether sufficient number of republicans who are as angry as you to produce one of those two men as the nominee. host: do you think other candidates would drop out before iowa? guest: i have been surprised that other candidates haven't dropped out so far. i think people who would drop out would be of the lindsey graham friday, they don't have a large number of people supporting them in the polls. dropping out will not affect the race significantly. most of the people who are still in the race will wait until one of the two early states. iowa, ihuckabee loses would be shocked if he continues. carly fiorina has to do well in hampshire. -- well in new hampshire. again, this is henry olsen, the author of "four faces of the republican party: the fight for the 2016 presidential nomination." if people w
>> authors week on washington journal continues with matthew green on his book under dog politics, the minority party in the u.s. house of representatives. washington journal is live every morning. join the conversation with your calls and comments. three days of featured programming this holiday weekend. friday evening, congressional republican leaders honoring dick cheney at the capital with the unveiling of a marble bust. he asked his wife does it bug
you when people prefer to me as darth vader? you.aid no, it humanizes >> saturday night at 8:30 eastern. hudsons include red at and cathy lanier. >> most get defensive if they feel you are being offensive. and in andctful, counters, if it is not a dangerous situation, request versus demand. that changes the dynamic of that. >> and race and the criminal justice system. then, portions of the washington ideas festival including a mark and anne-marie
slaughter. >> we have two banish the word he is helping at home. helping is not actually taking the burden off of you. you are still figuring out what needs to be done and asking him to help. he is not the agent. he is the assistant. men have to be lead parents or fully eat coparents -- fully equal coparents. >> now a discussion about the history of sex in the american legal system and how the suckling court has weighed in on issues. -- the supreme court has weighed in on issues. is one hour. >> jeff and i have known each
andr for a number of years i have always admired and respected him for his sometimes iconoclastic legal positions regarding nonnegotiable cultural institutions. one has only to reflect back on the social, religious and legal coulter of this country to be astonished at how rapidly our views have changed toward same-sex marriage. to addressl courage an injustice that generated as much heat and animus as this did. man whoelp me welcome a stood up to argue and defend what our nation's highest court is now recognized as a constitutional right, professor jeffrey stone.
[applause] professor stone: thank you. i'm delighted to be here. my talk derives from a book that i am currently finishing titled sexing the constitution. the book addresses such issues homosexuality,n, abortion. i decided to focus specifically this afternoon on same-sex marriage. an issue that cut to the heart -- meaning of equal citizenship. officert 1982 a police went to the home of michael hardwick to serve an arrest warrant for public drinking. the officer observed hardwick
and another man engaged in oral sex. the officer placed both men under arrest for the crime of sodomy. 1986 that the supreme court held the homosexual sodomy law was not unconstitutional. noting the constitution says nothing about a right to commit sodomy and that prescriptions against homosexuality have to claimoots, just as the constitution protects a right to engage in such conduct is at best to see shows. opinion, war and added the condemnation of homosexual conduct is rooted in judeo-christian moral and ethical standards and that the hold the act of the sexual sodomy that was protected by the
constitution will be to cast aside millennia of moral teaching. blackmun dissented . although conceding the traditional judeo-christian values, for hundreds if not thousands of years, black men insisted that that could not provide adequate justification for the law. that certain religious groups condemned the behavior gives the state no license to impose their judgment on the entire citizenry . contrary, it depends on whether the state can advance some justification for its law beyond its conformity to religious doctrine. finding no such justification, the statute could not be reconciled with the united states constitution.
that however was a dissenting opinion. the court's invocation of moral and religious prescriptions against homosexuality played a central role under the reasoning in bowers. it's useful to have some understanding of that history. let's take a look at the ancient roots that justice white invoked. the pre-christian world generally thought of sex as a .ositive art of human nature it did not see sex as bound up with questions of sin or religion. the ancient greeks focus not on sexual sins but on whether an individual's conduct was actually harmful to others. this extended to homosexuality. it was that adult men often had same-sex relationships with adolescent boys. this may seem strange to us but
greek poetry and literature celebrated sexual relationships and identified them with love, integrity, and courage. life wasroman sexual different from that of the greeks, the romans celebrated sexual pleasure and neither roman religion or law condemned same-sex sex. the emergence of christianity produced a profound change in the understandings of sex. i the end of the fifth century christianity had come to homosexual desire as an evil temptation that must be suppressed. this shift occurred over the course of several centuries but it was a gustin who crystallize the early christian understanding of sex. in a critical leap he linked sexual desire to the fall of man . adam's transgression he argued had not been one of disobedience
, but one of sex. he maintained that every sexual desire is born out of evil. that every child born out of evil is born in sin. that it is to sex that man has passed on the original sin from one generation to the next. that man'soncluded only hope for redemption lay in repudiating the sexual impulse and with it the burden of sin and shame inherited from adam. augustine vision ultimately shape the future, not only of christianity but of western culture and law. changed political and legal authority. the sin of sodomy was seen as uniquely dire.
todd, forlical story this particular sin god will punish not only the sinners also those who fail themselves to prevent the sin. it was still unclear precisely what can constitute sodomy. short ryan s first drew a distinction between unnatural acts. before long, time us was thinking on this point. at the same time, same-sex sex became for the first time to be declared not only a sin but also a crime.
the church for the first time conscripted the secular law twixt then its prohibition on same-sex sex not only to those who share the faith but to those , everyone regardless of religious beliefs. criminal statutes against same-sex sex were enacted throughout europe and because of the nature of this crime these laws called for homosexuals to be castrated, dismembered, burned at the stake, drowned, stoned and decapitated or buried alive. in short, homosexuals for the first time became the object of a systematic campaign of extermination. the reformation brought about significant changes in the protestant attitude towards sex. those did not extend to homosexuality. reaffirmedreformers no uncertain terms the traditional condemnation of homosexuality as a detestable
sin. colonies, itan would be punished with death without mercy. the time the american revolution the colonies under the influence of the enlightenment had stop using the criminal law to prosecute most forms of consensual sex. except for the crime of sodomy which remained a capital offense. sodomy remained a serious felony in every state of the nation for the next 200 years. throughout all of this history until the late 19th century it was assumed individuals who chose to engage in same-sex sex were no different than other individuals who chose to engage in other sinful behavior. engaging in homosexual sex like murder or robbery was simply a choice. that assumption began to be question for the first time in
the 19th century as medical authorities became interested in the issue. for the first time persons drawn to same-sex sex began to be seen as individuals possessed of a distinctive psychological identity. in this era the concept of the homosexual became into being. leading studies of homosexuality in the late 19th century posit that homosexuality was a pathology. persons afflicted were strange freaks of nature. orng the questions debated rather the inclination to engage in homosexual conduct was congenital or acquired. whether it was curable or incurable. whether it should be accepted as an unavoidable condition or resisted and suppressed. physicians proposed a broad range of remedies for homosexuality including hypnosis , psychoanalysis, sex with
prostitutes, intense bicycle riding, -- [laughter] electrical stimulation. many doctors recommended sterilization of homosexuals to prevent this from being passed on from one generation to the next. compulsorystates had sterilization laws. in the 1930's the image of the homosexual took on a sinister cast. anxiety overlic sex crimes recast the dominant image of homosexuals as dangerous psychopaths who were naturally inclined to commit the most unspeakable crimes against others. human eyes not only as perverts but now is child molesters. the became the new enemy of the people.
during world war ii, the united states for the first time attempted to prevent homosexual men and women from entering the military. those who were discovered were discharged and left them branded for life. with the advent of the cold war things got even worse. fearful of domestic conversion, americans turned with a vengeance against homosexuals. conflation'sn's -- of communism and homosexuality went hand in hand. the russians are strong believers in homosexuality, as one said. they are now converting american youth to homosexuality to defeat us from within.
wasavender scare well underway. testses use lie detector to determine if their employees were homosexuals. president eisenhower issued an executive order declaring sexual perversion a serious security risk. in light of the intensity of the anti-homosexual fever that gripped the nation during the lavender scare, gays and lesbians were found increasingly isolated. the law branded as a vicious crime and the medical profession diagnosed homosexuals as disease. individuals who harbored homosexual impulses did their best to hide their secret shame from family, friends, and associates. the terrible fear of discovery
kept most homosexuals invisible even to one another. even civil rights groups turn their backs on gays and lesbians. 1957, the national board of the american civil liberties notn declared it was within their inspired by the civil rights in the women's rights movement, handful of courageous gay men and lesbians began calling openly for the acceptance of homosexuals as equals in society. leader, for example, a j "our gate leader declared first job is to clear our own heads of the garbage that has been poured into them. " it is defining who we