Skip to main content

tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  December 31, 2015 2:00pm-8:01pm EST

2:00 pm
on the judiciary. there is no reason these people should be on there for the rest of their lives. we should have term limits for the president, for members of congress, and for the judiciary and we need to appoint people to the bench that know that their job is to interpret and apply the constitution, not manipulated or create loopholes in it. back again, all right. >> you mentioned earlier your student loan debt. as president, how would you fight the rising cost of higher education? sen. rubio: i feel personally committed to the cause of dealing with student loan debt. we have so many other americans who are inheriting thousands of dollars of student loans often for a degree that does not even lead to a job. we will make it easier to pay
2:01 pm
back the loans people already have. we will have an income-based repayment model. i would rather collect $20 a month than nothing. if you ruin your credit, you cannot buy a house, start a business, or go on with the rest of your life. they basically are with you until you die or pay them off. we will make it easier and cheaper to acquire college credit. we should have more competency-based learning. if you've artie learned something because you served in the military, you should give people college credit for what they've already learned. if you served two tours of duty in the middle east, why should you have to pay to sit in class and take a course on middle eastern affairs? we will create an alternative model that allows you to acquire that learning cheaper and faster. the third thing is we will have alternatives to the student loan like the student investment
2:02 pm
plan. it allows promising students to have their tuition paid for the same way a private group would invest in a small business. it's better than alone because loan's better than a because it does not sit on your credit report, and all the risk is on the investment group, not only student. this is particularly useful for graduate students. and we will provide you with more information. did some lights go out over there? it's these chinese hackers, man. they will not stop. we are going to provide you more information. before anyone takes out a student loan, you will be told this is how much people make when they graduate from this school with a degree you are majoring in.
2:03 pm
so our students can make informed decision on whether the degree they are pursuing is worth their investment. it will provide ways for students to pay back their loans or perhaps even avoid them and not find themselves in the situation millions now find themselves in, which is unable to pay back the loans that have basically taken over their lives. >> i would like to ask mr. gowdy, do you think there are any indictments coming down the road that might change the whole presidential campaign? trey gowdy: do you mean one of our people are one of their people? [laughter] >> one of their people. mr. gowdy: let me say this. that's more my old job than my current job. i used to be a federal prosecutor and i was a state prosecutor. i'm not in a position to know the answer to that. i will tell you this, i have a lot of confidence and i might be
2:04 pm
biased toward the fbi. i worked with them for 16 years and i never once had a political conversation with a law enforcement officer. i trust the director and he's going to do his job, and he will do it well. i'm confident it will be an outcome for all americans to have confidence in. but it is important -- i get asked this at the grocery store all the time. the legislative branch has its lane. the one reason i so desperately want marco rubio to win, but for conservatives to control the executive branch is for all the reasons the senator just mentioned.
2:05 pm
you pick judicial nominees, the attorney general, the united states attorneys. that's what the executive branch used to do. it's important that we went in 2016 but i trust the folks that are looking into that. they have more information than i do. sen. rubio: i would just say this. if a member -- i'm on the intelligence committee. if a member of my staff took classified documents and walked out of the building with them, they would be fired and prosecuted. just because you come from a powerful position or a rich family, it should not hold to -- hold you above the law. if you do that kind of thing, you are de facto disqualified from being commander-in-chief of the united states because you are reckless and irresponsible with the most important information of the united states. i personally believe what hillary clinton did with her e-mail server is something that disqualifies her from being president of the. there is no way someone that
2:06 pm
reckless or irresponsible should be the commander-in-chief or president of the united states. [applause] >> live quest -- last question, senator. >> to piggyback on your educational reforms of college. the last time i heard you speak, you had a very good plan or vocational-technical schooling. i'm wondering if you could share that with the people because i thought that was great. not everybody is going to go to college. sen. rubio: about 30 years ago or maybe a little longer, our public schools started lying to our students. they started telling them that vocational schools were for kids not smart enough to go to college. that is alive. do you know who vocational
2:07 pm
schools are for? these are incredibly good paying jobs that are highly complex and valued jobs. when i'm president, i will be the vocational educational president. i will use the white house and the bully pulpit of the presidency to celebrate these jobs. these are the jobs that service the backbone of entire communities in this country. it is the loss of those jobs it has destroyed cities and towns across america. when you one for president, you drive through some of the cities and you see that been hollowed out because the factory closed. we need to bring more of those jobs back and train people to do them. the first thing i will do a celebrate these jobs that are
2:08 pm
just as good if not better than some of the four-year degree jobs. then we will make it easier for people. when i'm president, if you are a high school student and you are going to a high school or school system that does not offer quality vocational training, we will let you use the pell grant to go to a trade school while you are still in high school. that means the students can go to high school in the morning and in the afternoon, go to trade school. when they graduate at 18 years of age, they will not just be handed a high school diploma, they will receive an industry certification that says you are ready to work as a welder, pipefitter, electrician, plumber, to work in a factory. imagine a country where thousands are graduating from high school ready to work in these professions, what it would mean. that's what we're going to do. these are good jobs and we need to train more people to do it. that means we will have more people employed. [applause] we did a poll last week. i have completely lost the
2:09 pm
philosopher vote. fortunately it's only .2% of the voting electorate. that is a joke. i want to close by saying i know you have a lot of choices. one out of six republicans is running for president, so i know it's a lot of people. we have a very talented field. none of our candidates is a socialist. none of them are under fbi investigation. but none of them understand what makes america special more than i do. it's not something i saw on a documentary or even read about in a book. i listened. my parents were not born in this country. my father lost his mother when he was four days shy of his ninth birthday. at nine years of age, he stopped going to school and started going to work. younger than anthony. went to work. he would work for the next 70
2:10 pm
years of his life. he never made a lot of money. my parents never became rich or famous, and they were incredibly successful people, because they came to the one place on earth where immigrants with a limited education who were willing to work hard and sacrifice, to find a job that paid them enough to own a home, to retire with dignity, and could leave all four of their kids better off than themselves. no one running for president understands it better or will fight harder every single day not just to keep you safe but to ensure that the country your children and grandchildren inherit is the country our parents left for us, the greatest nation in all of human history. if you are ready to sign up now, we have forms here. we ask you to fill them out so we can stay in touch with you. so that in less than five weeks
2:11 pm
here in iowa we will take the first step in replacing barack obama and reclaiming america for our children and grandchildren. thank you all, and god bless you. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2015] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> you can get more information. especially at the graduate level -- and there's more information about what you can expect to make, so you can make a value decision. you can learn stuff on your own. if you can prove you have mastered a topic, why should you sit in a classroom? universities don't like that. we can't afford to keep doing it the way we are doing it. thank you so much.
2:12 pm
learning today is faster than ever if you are willing to open it up for innovation. thanks so much, and has been an honor to be with you. >> the way i proposed it is we will do a regulatory budget that would cap how much regulation -- all agencies have to reduce regulations. when you reduce regulations, you reduce the work. it's a way of crunching down not just on the regulatory state. >> is not optional? >> it's a mandatory budget. the same as the spending budget. it has to go through congress. if i win, we will have a majority in the house and senate and that means we will be up to get some things done. when i'm president they will get
2:13 pm
these things done when the power of the president is pushing them to do it. part of it is we are playing defense all the time. we will play offense when i am president. thanks for being here. god willing, that's what we are working on. thank you. >> can you give some power back to the states? >> [indiscernible]
2:14 pm
>> can we have a balanced budget immediate -- amendment? >> no, we don't. not at the federal level. congress will not pass it. >> can you give some power back to the states? >> that's the only way we will be able to do it. people like spending money. >> have you ever been broke? >> when we were first married, i was in that situation where you write a check on thursday that you dated for friday because your check doesn't clear until friday. >> the only way to get better is to feel that. how am i going to exist tomorrow?
2:15 pm
>> when we got married my biggest bill was student loan. there are people that make less than you and you know we are struggling. >> we farm and after i had children i quit my job to stay home with them. it was hard. the only thing i know today is i never want to go back there. we are very successful in doing very well but we did it all ourselves. no support. >> there is always a bill that you did not expect. >> there is more to it than politics.
2:16 pm
>> i appreciate your enthusiasm. >> it is an honor to do it. >> i'm going to go home and tell my friends to support you. i don't like america to be broke, and i don't like trump. >> if we don't have a balanced budget, we will never bring spending under control. we are working hard and we feel good about it. thank you. thank you so much. thank you for coming. i appreciate you being here. >> what about countries like saudi arabia and pakistan?
2:17 pm
[indiscernible] who raise more terrorism than any other place in the world? sen. rubio: they need to be held accountable. we have sunni allies we work with. they have accepted no real significant number of refugees. they are not contributing to the issue we are now facing with isis. and you're right. they are funding some of these movements around the world. they created some of the vehicles around the world by which people are being radicalized. that seems to be part of the situation. we have a complicated relationship with pakistan. we need to be honest with the countries we work with. even if they are allies on some issues, we need to be stern on the others. >> [indiscernible]
2:18 pm
pakistani people do some crazy things. then people get penalized or punished for something they are not even involved with. sen. rubio: our quarrel is not with the iranian people. our quarrel is with the ayatollah. iran is a nation with an incredible potential. one of the youngest populations in the world. one of the most sophisticated people in the world with an ancient culture that is deep and embedded. it just has these radical leaders. >> i'm happy that you understand. [indiscernible]
2:19 pm
>> -- >> we have a lot of information that is going on. there's a difference between iran and pakistan. in pakistan, the government may be coordinating with the u.s., but the problem is that people. the issue is the people. the problem is the government. 70% or 80% of the people, i'm not saying all of them. they don't get involved with all this. sen. rubio: that is a good distinction and i'm glad you raise it. our quarrel is not with the people, it is with the ayatollah.
2:20 pm
thank you. >> thanks for being here. >> really like your ideas about student loans and making college cheaper. sen. rubio: where it really begins to hit you is in graduate school. the other thing is that a lot of the families taking on loans, the parents make more than enough money so they don't get student aid, but they don't make enough to pay for it. >> how do you convince kids to get out there and work those minimum wage jobs to work their way through college?
2:21 pm
senator rubio: i'm not sure that that is government's role. that's where parents and families and community come in. >> i agree, but hillary is telling a different story. sen. rubio: in the end, all we can do is tell people the truth. i need to ensure that you have your constitutional rights to do that be respected. the law can only tell you what is legal. they cannot take you what is right. we have to teach our kids what is right and instill those values on what it takes to succeed. >> you have just totally convinced me you are the guy. sen. rubio: thank you, i
2:22 pm
appreciate it. thank you for your confidence. >> that vocational thing is great. i went to community college and became a carpenter and did real well. jesus was a carpenter. senator rubio: actually be read the bible, the greek translation is says he was a builder. the bible says joseph was a builder. masonry and carpentry work were considered the same. >> thank you so much, god bless you. sen. rubio: thank you so much. he knows how to do it. i worked with the archbishop in
2:23 pm
orlando. i probably see him a couple of times a year. every now and then he comes to washington. he is a good man. >> i'm going to work for you. i'm going to get friends to work for you. senator rubio: thank you. >> when are you back in iowa? sen. rubio: monday, tuesday, and wednesday.
2:24 pm
we will basically be here the whole time for the next few weeks. >> thanks for coming today. [indiscernible] we need more action on climate change. i hope you will start supporting climate change. sen. rubio: i support the american innovator finding ways to make us more efficient and cleaner. what i don't support our unilateral mandates that will hurt our economy. >> [indiscernible] we need action on that. we have a lot of hope for that. sen. rubio: thanks for sharing. thanks for having me here. >> they come back with undiagnosed injuries and other things they face. part of it is the v.a. system is not very efficient with regard to mental health care. there is a stigma associated
2:25 pm
with it. -- it is a tragedy -- is part of the overall problem we have caring for people when they come back. come back is they with undiagnosed injuries and other things that they face. things in the battlefield they did not understand. part of it is the v.a. system is not very efficient with regard to mental health care. there is a stigma associated with it. that is why we need a modernized v.a. a lot of times these scars of being away from home -- a lot of times things manifest themselves later. thank you for that.
2:26 pm
>> part of it is rallying around the big issues of our time. one thing i will do as president -- >> thank you. toany thoughts about how unite our increasingly polarized country? it seems like we are yelling and shouting at each other. senator rubio: i think part of it is rallying around the big issues of our time. one thing i will do as president is not try to pit people against each other. the key is to have a president who's willing to work on behalf of all americans, including the ones that don't agree with him. i've always done that at every level of public service and i will do that is president. we will still have strong disagreements. we are a free society and people are going to express themselves
2:27 pm
, but i will make sure as president i am a unifier, not a divider. i will never try to pit americans against each other. great hat, do you want me to sign it? >> sure. i don't know if that ruins it or not. >> i appreciate it. [indiscernible] >> we have a shortage. one reason why manufacturing struggles in america is workforce issues. if you have a president who starts telling americans there's nothing wrong with being a long-haul trucker, a welder, pipefitter, software designer, these are good jobs.
2:28 pm
thanks a lot. thank you so much. thank you for coming. >> thank you. thank you so much. thank you for coming. >> [indiscernible] you are fired up about the rose bowl? >> absolutely. is that a night game at 7:00 p.m.? you guys came within seconds of being at the orange bowl. seconds away from playing in miami.
2:29 pm
>> 17 seconds. the biggest heartbreak i think i have ever seen. >> it could have gone wrong, i guess. >> good to see you guys. >> it's an honor to have you here. >> thank you. it's an honor to be here. >> i will do everything possible -- because i truly feel you are the right person and i'm glad you are running. senator rubio: thank you. it's a real honor. we have another stop, yes. >> anytime -- i want to donate a significant amount -- senator rubio: thank you. we will work with you on that as well. we have a team that can help you do that. at hopefully we will see you again. >> good seeing you. senator rubio thank you so much. >> i have the best coffee shop
2:30 pm
on the upper side of the square -- senator rubio: those are two -- those aremisses two different businesses. >> we have a medical transport company as well. we have a third company we are getting ready to launch in everywhere it. sen. rubio: we need to have a government that makes it easier for you to succeed, not harder. >> we are in the process of reorganizing. sen. rubio: everybody will be treated the same. no one will pay more than a flat rate of 25 and every penny you invest in your business you will be able to write off.
2:31 pm
>> that is wonderful. sen. rubio: thank you so much. >> tomorrow we look at the -- thank you so much.
2:32 pm
[indistinct conversations] >> c-span takes to on the road to the white house. best access to the candidates at town hall meetings, speeches, rallies, and meet and greets. we are your comments on twitter, facebook, and by phone. and as always, every campaign we cover is available on our website, www.c-span.org.
2:33 pm
" withay it is "q&a journalist evan thomas with his book "being nexen." it looks -- his book "being nixon." it looks back at his life and marriage. that airs today at 7 p.m. eastern on c-span2. >> tonight on c-span, a look at congress in 2015. we will show you major events that took place over the last year, including the arena nuclear agreement, the pope's address to the congress, and john boehner's resignation as speaker of the house. here's more from that event now. speaker boehner: it has become that this prolonged
2:34 pm
leadership turmoil would do irreparable harm to the institution, so this morning i informed my colleagues i would resign from the speaker ship and from congress at the end of october. you have often heard me say, this is an about me. it's about the people, it's about the institution. >> that was just part of what jeff weiner had to say as he was -- what john boehner had to say as he resigned as speaker. you can see that you're in review tonight on c-span. and also today on our facebook page we are asking, what was the most significant event that happened this year in congress? several have posted their thoughts, including joseph who hmm.. failure to listen to
2:35 pm
the people they represent." john boehner" leaving was huge. another victim in the gop civil war." now we would like to hear from you. log on to c-span to join the conversation. q&a,"is sunday night on " two-time pulitzer prize-winning martinez. michael >> i have israeli settlers and a palestinian figure, who if you will notice, use on a prayer rug, but he has his shoes on. both of these figures are utilizing a false religion for political purpose. so, it just proves once again i am an equally -- equal opportunity offender.
2:36 pm
c-span sunday at 8 p.m. eastern. former new york governor mario cuomo died this year at the age of 82. he served as governor for 12 years and is the father of the new york governor andrew cuomo. he spoke at the 1984 democratic national convention in san francisco. this is 48 minutes. governor cuomo: thank you very much. on behalf of the great empire state and the whole family of new york, let me thank you for the great privilege of being able to address this convention. please allow me to skip the stories and the poetry and the temptation to deal in nice but vague rhetoric. let me instead use this valuable opportunity to deal immediately with the questions that should determine this election and that we all know are vital to the american people.
2:37 pm
ten days ago, president reagan admitted that although some people in this country seemed to be doing well nowadays, others were unhappy, even worried, about themselves, their families, and their futures. the president said that he didn't understand that fear. he said, "why, this country is a shining city on a hill." and the president is right. in many ways we are a shining city on a hill. but the hard truth is that not everyone is sharing in this city's splendor and glory. a shining city is perhaps all the president sees from the portico of the white house and the veranda of his ranch, where everyone seems to be doing well. but there's another city. there's another part to the
2:38 pm
shining city, the part where some people can't pay their mortgages, and most young people can't afford one, where students can't afford the education they need, and middle-class parents watch the dreams they hold for their children evaporate. in this part of the city there are more poor than ever, more families in trouble, more and more people who need help but can't find it. even worse -- there are elderly people who tremble in the basements of the houses there. and there are people who sleep in the city streets, in the gutter, where the glitter doesn't show. there are ghettos where thousands of young people, without a job or an education, give their lives away to drug dealers every day. there is despair, mr. president, in the faces that you don't see, in the places that you don't visit in your shining city.
2:39 pm
in fact, mr. president, this is a nation -- mr. president you ought to know that this nation is more a "tale of two cities" than it is just a "shining city on a hill." [applause] governor cuomo: maybe, maybe, mr. president, if you visited some more places -- maybe if you went to appalachia where some people still live in sheds, maybe if you went to lackawanna where thousands of unemployed steel workers wonder why we subsidized foreign steel. maybe -- maybe, mr. president, if you stopped in at a shelter in chicago and spoke to the
2:40 pm
homeless there, maybe, mr. president, if you asked a woman who had been denied the help she needed to feed her children because you said you needed the money for a tax break for a millionaire or for a missile we couldn't afford to use. [cheers and applause]
2:41 pm
maybe -- maybe, mr. president. but i'm afraid not. because the truth is, ladies and gentlemen, that this is how we were warned it would be. president reagan told us from the very beginning that he believed in a kind of social darwinism. survival of the fittest. "government can't do everything," we were told, so it should settle for taking care of the strong and hope that economic ambition and charity will do the rest. make the rich richer, and what falls from the table will be enough for the middle class and those who are trying desperately to work their way into the middle class. you know, the republicans called it "trickle-down" when hoover tried it. now they call it "supply side." but it's the same shining city for those relative few who are lucky enough to live in its good neighborhoods. but for the people who are excluded, for the people who are locked out, all they can do is
2:42 pm
stare from a distance at that city's glimmering towers. it's an old story. it's as old as our history. the difference between democrats and republicans has always been measured in courage and confidence. the republicans -- the republicans believe that the wagon train will not make it to the frontier unless some of the old, some of the young, some of the weak are left behind by the side of the trail. "the strong" -- "the strong," they tell us, "will inherit the land." we democrats believe in something else. we democrats believe that we can make it all the way with the whole family intact, and we have more than once. ever since franklin roosevelt
2:43 pm
lifted himself from his wheelchair to lift this nation from its knees -- wagon train after wagon train -- to new frontiers of education, housing, peace; the whole family aboard, constantly reaching out to extend and enlarge that family; lifting them up into the wagon on the way; blacks and hispanics, and people of every ethnic group, and native americans -- all those struggling to build their families and claim some small share of america. for nearly 50 years we carried them all to new levels of comfort, and security, and dignity, even affluence. and remember this, some of us in this room today are here only because this nation had that kind of confidence. and it would be wrong to forget that.
2:44 pm
so, here we are at this convention to remind ourselves where we come from and to claim the future for ourselves and for our children. today our great democratic party, which has saved this nation from depression, from fascism, from racism, from corruption, is called upon to do it again -- this time to save the nation from confusion and division, from the threat of eventual fiscal disaster, and most of all from the fear of a nuclear holocaust.
2:45 pm
that's not going to be easy. mo udall is exactly right -- it won't be easy. and in order to succeed, we must answer our opponent's polished and appealing rhetoric with a more telling reasonableness and rationality. we must win this case on the merits. we must get the american public to look past the glitter, beyond the showmanship to the reality, the hard substance of things. and we'll do it not so much with speeches that sound good as with speeches that are good and sound; not so much with speeches that will bring people to their feet as with speeches that will bring people to their senses. we must make -- we must make the american people hear our "tale of two cities." we must convince them that we don't have to settle for two cities, that we can have one city, indivisible, shining for all of its people. now, we will have no chance to
2:46 pm
do that if what comes out of this convention is a babel of arguing voices. if that's what's heard throughout the campaign, dissident sounds from all sides, we will have no chance to tell our message. to succeed we will have to surrender some small parts of our individual interests, to build a platform that we can all stand on, at once, and comfortably -- proudly singing out. we need -- we need a platform we can all agree to so that we can sing out the truth for the nation to hear, in chorus, its logic so clear and commanding that no slick madison avenue commercial, no amount of geniality, no martial music will
2:47 pm
be able to muffle the sound of the truth. and we democrats must unite. we democrats must unite so that the entire nation can unite, because surely the republicans won't bring this country together. their policies divide the nation into the lucky and the left-out, into the royalty and the rabble. the republicans are willing to treat that division as victory. they would cut this nation in half, into those temporarily better off and those worse off than before, and they would call that division recovery. now, we should not -- we should not be embarrassed or dismayed or chagrined if the process of unifying is difficult, even wrenching at times.
2:48 pm
remember that, unlike any other party, we embrace men and women of every color, every creed, every orientation, every economic class. in our family are gathered everyone from the abject poor of essex county in new york, to the enlightened affluent of the gold coasts at both ends of the nation. and in between is the heart of our constituency -- the middle class, the people not rich enough to be worry-free, but not poor enough to be on welfare. [cheers and applause] governor cuomo: the middle class -- those people who work for a living because they have to, not because some psychiatrist told them it was a convenient way to fill the interval between birth and eternity. [cheers and applause] governor cuomo: white collar and
2:49 pm
blue collar. young professionals. men and women in small business desperate for the capital and contracts that they need to prove their worth. we speak for the minorities who have not yet entered the mainstream. we speak for ethnics who want to add their culture to the magnificent mosaic that is america. we speak -- we speak for women who are indignant that this nation refuses to etch into its governmental commandments the simple rule "thou shalt not sin against equality," a rule so simple -- [cheers and applause]
2:50 pm
governor cuomo: i was going to say, and i perhaps dare not but i will. it's a commandment so simple it can be spelled in three letters: e.r.a. [cheers and applause] [crowd chanting "e.r.a."]
2:51 pm
we speak -- we speak for young people demanding an education and a future. we speak for senior citizens. we speak for senior citizens who are terrorized by the idea that their only security, their social security, is being threatened. we speak for millions of reasoning people fighting to preserve our environment from greed and from stupidity. and we speak for reasonable people who are fighting to preserve our very existence from a macho intransigence that refuses to make intelligent attempts to discuss the possibility of nuclear holocaust with our enemy. [cheers and applause]
2:52 pm
governor cuomo: they refuse. they refuse, because they believe we can pile missiles so high that they will pierce the clouds and the sight of them will frighten our enemies into submission. now we're proud of this diversity as democrats. we're grateful for it. we don't have to manufacture it the way the republicans will next month in dallas, by propping up mannequin delegates on the convention floor. [cheers and applause] governor cuomo: but we, while we're proud of this diversity, we pay a price for it. the different people that we represent have different points of view. and sometimes they compete and even debate, and even argue. that's what our primaries were all about. but now the primaries are over and it is time, when we pick our candidates and our platform here, to lock arms and move into
2:53 pm
this campaign together. if you need any more inspiration to put some small part of your own difference aside to create this consensus, then all you need to do is to reflect on what the republican policy of divide and cajole has done to this land since 1980. now the president has asked the american people to judge him on whether or not he's fulfilled the promises he made four years ago. i believe, as democrats, we ought to accept that challenge. and just for a moment let us consider what he has said and what he's done. inflation -- inflation is down since 1980, but not because of the supply-side miracle promised to us by the president.
2:54 pm
inflation was reduced the old-fashioned way, with a recession, the worst since 1932. [applause] now how did we -- we could have brought inflation down that way. how did he do it? 55,000 bankruptcies. two years of massive unemployment. 200,000 farmers and ranchers forced off the land. more homeless -- more homeless than at any time since the great depression in 1932. more hungry, in this world of enormous affluence, the united states of america, more hungry; more poor, most of them women. and -- and he paid one other thing. deficit $200 billion threatening our future. now, we must make the american
2:55 pm
people understand this deficit because they don't. the president's deficit is a direct and dramatic repudiation of his promise in 1980 to balance the budget by 1983. how large is it? the deficit is the largest in the history of the universe. it -- president carter's last budget had a deficit less than one-third of this deficit. it is a deficit that, according to the president's own fiscal adviser, may grow to as much 300 billion dollars a year for "as far as the eye can see." and, ladies and gentlemen, it is a debt so large -- that is almost one-half of the money we collect from the personal income tax each year goes just to pay the interest. it is a mortgage on our children's future that can be paid only in pain and that could bring this nation to its knees.
2:56 pm
now don't take my word for it -- i'm a democrat. ask the republican investment bankers on wall street what they think the chances of this recovery being permanent are. [cheers and applause] governor cuomo: you see, if they're not too embarrassed to tell you the truth, they'll say that they're appalled and frightened by the president's deficit. ask them what they think of our economy, now that it's been driven by the distorted value of the dollar back to its colonial condition. now we're exporting agricultural products and importing manufactured ones. ask those republican investment bankers what they expect the rate of interest to be a year from now. and ask them -- if they dare
2:57 pm
tell you the truth -- you'll learn from them, what they predict for the inflation rate a year from now, because of the deficit. now, how important is this question of the deficit. think about it practically: what chance would the republican candidate have had in 1980 if he had told the american people that he intended to pay for his so-called economic recovery with bankruptcies, unemployment, more homeless, more hungry, and the largest government debt known to humankind? if he had told the voters in 1980 that truth, would american voters have signed the loan certificate for him on election day? of course not! that was an election won under false pretenses. it was won with smoke and mirrors and illusions. and that's the kind of recovery we have now as well.
2:58 pm
[cheers and applause] governor cuomo: but what about foreign policy? they said that they would make us and the whole world safer. they say they have. by creating the largest defense budget in history, one that even they now admit is excessive -- by escalating to a frenzy the nuclear arms race; by incendiary rhetoric; by refusing to discuss peace with our enemies; by the loss of 279 young americans in lebanon in pursuit of a plan and a policy that no one can find or describe.
2:59 pm
we give money to latin american governments that murder nuns, and then we lie about it. [cheers and applause] governor cuomo: we have been less than zealous in support of our only real friend -- it seems to me, in the middle east -- the one democracy there, our flesh and blood ally, the state of israel. our -- our policy -- our foreign
3:00 pm
policy drifts with no real direction, other than an hysterical commitment to an arms race that leads nowhere -- if we're lucky. and if we're not, it could lead us into bankruptcy or war. of course we must have a strong it could lead us into bankruptcy or war. of course we have to have a strong defense. of course democrats believe there are times we must stand in fight and we have. thousands of us have paid for our freedom with our lives. our purposes were clear. now they're not. now our allies are as confused as her enemies and we have no real commitment to our friends or ideals. not to the others struggling for freedom in south africa.
3:01 pm
[applause] [applause] governor cuomo: we have come in the last few years, spent more than we can afford. 279 young americans in lebanon and we lived behind sandbags in washington. how can anyone say we are safer, stronger, better? [cheers and applause] governor cuomo: that is the republican record.
3:02 pm
that is disastrous quality. i can only attribute to the presidents amiability and the failure by some to separate the salesman from the product. [cheers and applause] now it's up to us. to me toup to you and make the case to america and to remind americans that if they are not happy with all the president has done so far, they should consider how much worse it will be if he is left to his radical proclivities for another four years unrestrained. [cheers and applause] governor cuomo: if july brings
3:03 pm
back, what can we expect of december? [cheers and applause] governor cuomo: where would another four year's take us? how much larger will the deficit be? how much deeper the cuts in programs where the struggling middle class and poor? how high will the interest rate to? how much more acid rain killing our forests? please think of this -- the nation must think of this -- what kind of supreme court will we have? [cheers and applause]
3:04 pm
[cheers and applause] askrnor cuomo: we must ourselves what kind of court and country will be fashioned by the man who believes in having government mandate people's religion and morality, the man who believes trees pollute the environment. believes the laws against discrimination, people
3:05 pm
goes too far. a man who threaten social security and medicaid. how high will we piled the missiles? how much deeper while the gulf be between us and our enemies? , will fourgentlemen years more make a meaner the spirit of the american people? will measure the record of the past four years but more than that, it will answer the question of what kind of people we want to be. we democrats still have a dream. we still believe in this nation's future. this is our answer to the question, this is our credo. we believe in only the government we need that we insist on all the government we need. [cheers and applause] governor cuomo: we believe in a
3:06 pm
government characterized by fairness and reasonableness that goes beyond labels. we believe in a government strong enough to use words like love and compassion and smart enough to convert our noblest aspirations into practical reality. we believe in encouraging to talented but we believe while survival of the fittest may be a good working description of the process of evolution, a government of humans should elevate itself to a higher order. [cheers and applause] our government should be able to rise to the level where it can fill the gaps left by a wisdom we don't fully understand. we would rather have laws written by the patron of this great city, the man called the
3:07 pm
world's most sincere democrat, darwin.ws written by [cheers and applause] we believe as: democrats that a society as blessed as ours, the most affluent democracy and world history, one that can spend trillions on instruments of destruction, should be able to help the middle class or to find work for all who can do it, room at the table, shelter for the homeless, care for the elderly and hope for the destitute and we proclaim as loudly as we can the other insanity of nuclear if only toon affirm the simple truth -- peace is better than war because life is better than death. [cheers and applause] [cheers and applause]
3:08 pm
governor cuomo: we believe in firm but fair law and order. we believe probably in the union movement -- [cheers and applause] governor cuomo: we believe in privacy for people, openness by government, civil rights, human rights. we believe in a single, fundamental idea that describes
3:09 pm
better than most textbooks and any speech i could write what a proper government should be -- the idea of family, mutuality, the sharing of benefits and burdens for the good of all, sharing one another's blessing reasonably, honestly, fairly without respect to sex, political affiliation. you must be the family of america recognizing we are bound one to another. the problems of her retired schoolteacher in duluth are our problems. the future of a child buffalo is our future. the struggle of a disabled man forced to survive is our problem. the hunger of a woman in little rock is our hunger. the failure to provide what reasonably we might to avoid
3:10 pm
pain is our failure. [cheers and applause] 450 years, we: democrats created a better future for our children using traditional democratic principles as a fixed beacon giving us direction and purpose but constantly innovating, i'd acting to new realities. programevelt also that -- alphabet program, kennedy's intelligent tax incentive, johnson civil rights, carter's human rights. democrats did it. democrats did it and democrats can do it again. we can build a future that deals 50 years oficit but progress under our principles never cost us what the last quarter years of stagnation have. [cheers and applause]
3:11 pm
governor cuomo: we can deal with the deficit intelligently by shared sacrifice with all parts of the nations family contributing, building partnerships, providing a sound defense without providing -- depriving ourselves of what we need. we can have a future that provides for all the young by marrying common sense and compassion. did it we can because we for nearly 50 years before 1980 and we can do it again. if we do not, forget this entire nation has profited by these progressive principles, that they lift up generations, they gave us a chance to work, to go to college, to raise a family, to , andcure in our old age before that, to reach heights our own parents dare not dream of.
3:12 pm
that struggle to live with dignity is the real story of the shining city. it is a story i didn't read in a book or learn in a classroom. i saw it and lived it like many of you. work 15, a small man 16 hours a day. from the once bleed bottoms of his feet, a man who came here uneducated, alone, unable to speak the language who taught me all i needed to know about faith and hard work by the simple eloquence of his example. i learned about are kind of democracy from my father and our obligation to each other from him and my mother. they asked only for a chance to work and to make the world better for their children. [cheers and applause] [cheers and applause]
3:13 pm
governor cuomo: they asked to be protected in those moments when they would not be able to protect themselves. this nation and this nation's andrnment did that for them they were able to build a family and live in dignity and see one of their children go from behind their little grocery store in south jamaica on the other side of the tracks to occupy the highest seat in the greatest state, and the greatest nation in the only world we know. it is a beautiful tribute to the democratic process.
3:14 pm
ladies and gentlemen, on january it-- january 20, 1980 five, will happen again on the on a much grander scale. we will have a new president, a democrat born not to the blood of kings but of pioneers and immigrants. who will have america's first woman vice president, the child of immigrants. [cheers and applause] [cheers and applause] governor cuomo: she, she will open with one magnificat -- whole newt stroke a
3:15 pm
frontier for the united states. it will happen. it will happen if we make it happen, if you and i make it happen. , ladies andw gentlemen, brothers and sisters, for the good of all of us, for the love of this great nation, for the family of america, for the love of god, please make this nation remember how futures are built. thank you and god bless you. [cheers and applause] [laughter] [cheers and applause] ♪ >> sarah brady died in april at the age of 73. she was the wife of james brady, ronald reagan's press secretary wounded in an assassination attempt.
3:16 pm
she became a prominent advocate for gun control. in that he 93, president bill clinton signed the brady handgun prevention act. sarah brady spoke at the bill signing ceremony. this is half an hour. since that grim day in 1981, the bradys have been an inspiration to all americans. that day, the tremendous physical courage of jim brady has been an example for us all -- never to give up. together, jim and sarah have soned a wonderful fund -- who will celebrate his 15th birthday in december. together, they have fought back and they have never given up. that,t just content with
3:17 pm
since 1987, they have tried to bring reason to guns in america in a way that should be an example for us now and for the future. there were bleak days, there were days when sarah had to go it alone, when she would appear on courthouse steps by herself with no entourage fighting for the brady bill and together, they never gave up. they are in example for all americans that we can make a , butrence, that one person one family can make a difference in violence in america and this day is a culmination of just remarkable examples of american heroism. the most important thing come on the day the brady bill passed, sarah was asked, "what are you
3:18 pm
going to do now?" to sarah said " i'm going keep fighting and we are going to get the ban on assault weapons past." [applause] are an exampleh to all americans that we can end the violence tearing us apart, that as a family, as individuals, each of us can and will make a difference. sarah brady. [applause]
3:19 pm
ms. brady: she didn't tell you on that courthouse steps alone fighting for the brady bill, there was one other woman, the attorney general herself. and right along the way, we have been fortunate enough to have her along with us. it's a special day for us all. i don't think it ever occurred to me i would be this emotional when i walked down and looked at the faces here and the memories come back over these past seven years. every face i look at brings a different memory. i want to thank a lot of people here and i'm going to try and do it as quickly as possible.
3:20 pm
everybody here has helped and each of you in your own way reflects many others across the country. all, i want to thank the administration and the president who we knew would sign this bill. it is of the utmost importance. i would like to another president who we feel very close to, president ronald reagan, who supported and came out for the brady bill and made it a badge of honor for republicans. [applause] ms. brady: and brought this bill into the arena where it wasn't a partisan issue. i would to thank the men and by then blue who have
3:21 pm
hundreds of thousands come to washington to fight for this over the years, marched for us, been in press conferences, and one than anything else who day in and day out to give their lives for all of us. [applause] ms. brady: to our bill sponsors, , and all thechumer rest of the members who had the guts to speak out early and support us along the way when sometimes it wasn't easy and i know one of the earliest once was a senator from texas --
3:22 pm
earliest ones was a senator from texas. for all the congress who have supported us, my thanks. controlnds, handgun board and staff are phenomenal. over the years, they have worked to their heart out. about thespeak victims around the country who have suffered and suffered terribly and you have gotten involved in this movement. i know today for them is a very special day and we thank them for what they've done, for everyone who has gotten involved. i don't know how to say this is all part of everything -- a team , a large team did together. there is one man in particular now i want to speak about and that is a gentleman by the name of pete shields, my predecessor.
3:23 pm
it was him who made this movement what it is. before anyone else, he got involved after losing his son to gunfire quit his job, came to washington, and decided to work for this noble cause. pete shields was chairman of handgun control when i joined and he was until the year before his death until he passed away last winter. -- we owe aeat great gratitude to pete and his family. [applause]
3:24 pm
ms. brady: i only have one or two other words i want to say. our critics have said the brady bill was only symbolic. i think there is some symbolism in the brady bill. symbolic of teamwork, people from all over this nation working together to pass something the people wanted. thatnk it's symbolic members of congress could stand up to a large lobby. i think it's symbolic of a lot of things but i don't want anyone to feel that's all it is. the brady bill is not just symbolism. it will begin to make a difference. it will begin to save lives. we read in the post this morning that in four states alone, over 50,000 people were stopped in
3:25 pm
the last four years from getting weapons illegally. it will help. bit ontell you a little a personal level of how it would have helped her, i want to introduce a special young woman. her name is melanie. i met her several years ago when she came, like some of the other victims, to washington to tell her story and to plead. many instory is one of the past and one of many in the future who we hope will be saved by the brady bill. now i would like to introduce to you a very special young woman, melanie music. [applause] >> i would like to start by
3:26 pm
thanking jim and sarah brady for the many years they had taken out of their lives for such a worthy cause and they have done it because it is something they believe so strongly in. i would like to thank president clinton for his leadership role and taking a stand and urging the congress. i thank him for his leadership in that. i'm an ordinary citizen. i'm not an activist, and the political arena. i decided i had to get involved because of something that happened in my life. policel 24, 1990, 2 officers came to where i was working and informed me my husband had been shot and killed well eating lunch in a food court in a mall in atlanta. the men who killed my husband had just been released from a mental institution the day before. a waiting time deterred from
3:27 pm
buying a gun in the city. went to ae neighboring county and bought the gun that killed my husband. the brady bill could have saved my husband's life if there had just been a waiting period and a background check. i think the waiting period is important for two reasons, it allows people to cool off from anger and whatever is disturbing informationows for to get into the system so when they do a background check, it's accurate. the release papers on the man who killed my husband was not written up until the day after the shooting. that's why i feel it waiting period is so important. i can't bring my husband back but i do know the brady bill will save other people's lives, the lives of people i love and care for, it could save their lives.
3:28 pm
i know from the own experience that the brady bill will help stop people from losing members of their family to senseless violence. it will work. but the fight isn't over. there are people in congress who want to weaken the brady bill, to have provisions lowered from five to three years. we need to stay involved, stay active, keep the pressure on our members of congress and let them know how important of an issue this is. the brady bill is not the solution to the problem but it is the first step in a problem oriented society we have. we need rational, practical legislation to reduce the violence in our country. not only because the president is signing the brady bill that because it shows the system
3:29 pm
works. it shows average people can make a difference. thank you. [applause] ms. brady: thank you, melanie. now someone who has been my last 12ion for the years. well, a lot longer really. [laughter] jim brady. mr. brady: this is an important day for me and sarah and for all of those who have worked so hard to see the brady bill become law. it is even more important for america and for america's children.
3:30 pm
12 years ago, my life was changed forever by a disturbed young man with a gun. until that time, i hadn't thought much about gun control or the need for gun control. maybe if i had, i wouldn't be stuck with these damn wheels. sara led the charge and i followed in her footsteps because i know firsthand the damage guns can do. it is that knowledge i have tried to share with lawmakers, with the voters, children. believe young people that a gun is the answer to their problem. i can tell them it is not. i can tell them about the pain and the frustration. i hope they will listen. today, we know that someone was listening. afternoon we seven years, the brady bill is about to become a
3:31 pm
brady law. , president clinton, for your commitment to seeing this day realized. what we are witnessing today is more than a bill signing, it's the end of unchecked madness and the commencement of a heartfelt crusade for a safer and saner country. [applause]
3:32 pm
ms. brady: i think i have heard these words said before but i never thought i would have the opportunity to say them. i had the distinct honor to introduce the president of the united states. [applause] ms. brady: and i just want to say again to him thank you for making this possible. [applause]
3:33 pm
president clinton: thank you very much. thank you very much, sarah and jim, mr. vice president. thank you for your wonderful remarks. there are two members of congress who were not introduced. i want to recognize them because they played a major role in this. one of our democratic leaders, hoyer, was constant. i thank you for that. others gave birth to this great effort. to all the law-enforcement representatives, the governors, the mayors, the folks from
3:34 pm
handgun control who are here, to the families whose lives would have been change for the better if the brady bill had been l aw. my friend kathy who lost a husband. i am honored to have all of you here in the white house. a specialt to say word of thanks to the members of congress out there early on this one there was some considerable political risk either attached to it or thought to be attached. the brady bill was first introduced almost seven years ago by congressman ed fan.
3:35 pm
resist saying a special word of thanks to the members who come from difficult districts who voted for this bill. my good friend, congressman anthony, lost a tough race in 1992 and part of the reason was he voted for the brady bill and the nra came after him. hereid to me on the way in , he said it was worth it. [applause] president clinton: everything that should be said about this has already been said by people whose lives were more profoundly imbued with this issue than mine, but there are some things we need to think about as we learn from this endeavor and
3:36 pm
look ahead to what still needs to be done. since jim and sarah began mr. -- began this crusade, more than 150,000 people from all walks of life have been killed or wounded. 150,000 people who should have been here to share christmas with us. this couple saw through a fight that really never should have had to occur. because still, when people are confronted with issues of clear, common sense, and overwhelming evidence, too often we are prevented from doing what we know we ought to do by our collective fears, whatever they may be. the brady bill has finally become law because grassroots
3:37 pm
america changed its mind and decided that congress could not leave here without doing something about this. jim and sarah were able to light that spark that swept across the people of this country improved again that democracy can work. america won this battle. americans are finally fed up with the violence that cuts down another citizen by gunfire every 20 minutes. we know this bill will make a difference. as sarah said, the washington post pointed out that just 55 50,000 people have been denied the right to buy a gun in 49 states since 1959. -- 1989.
3:38 pm
i have a friend that home who sold a gun years ago to a guy who escaped from a mental hospital. he pulled out the old form. he said have you ever been in acted of a crime, been mental hospital? the guy said no and 12 hours later, six people are dead. my friend is not over it today. don't tell me this bill won't make a difference. that is not true. [applause] ms. brady: but we allesident clinton: know there is more to be done. the crime bill not only adds 100,000 new police officers who, properly trained and deployed, will lower the crime rate by preventing crime, not just by catching criminals. it also adds a ban on several
3:39 pm
assault weapons, long-overdue -- [applause] president clinton: a ban on handgun ownership and restriction on possession of handguns by minors, the beginning of the reform of our federal firearm licensing system, and an effort to make our schools safer. this is a good beginning, and there will be more to be done after that. but i ask you to think about what this means and what we can all do to keep this going. we cannot stop here. i am so proud of what others are doing. i improve out of the work that reverend jesse jackson has been doing going back to the streets and talking to the kids, telling them to stop shooting each
3:40 pm
other, cutting each other up, to turn away from violence. i am proud of a former gang member who has turned his life around and now coordinates a program called gang alternative programs in norwalk, california, telling gang members they have to take personal responsibility for their actions and turn away from violence. reverend william moore who organized parents and other clergy in philadelphia to provide safety core doors for -- core doors for kids going to an from school. 160,000 children stay home every day because they are scared to go to school -- in this country. and all the police officers on the street who have restored confidence in their neighborhoods, becoming involved in ways beyond the call of duty. people like an officer in boston who took a tough section of east boston and transformed it from a neighborhood of fear to one where elderly people now feel safe sitting on benches again.
3:41 pm
we can do this, but only if we do it together. i ask you to think about this. i come from a state where half the folks have hunting and fishing licenses. i can still remember the first day when i was a little boy out in the country putting a can on a fence post and shooting at 22 at it. i can still remember the first time i pulled the trigger on a 410 shotgun because i was too little to hold a 12 gauge. this is a big part of the culture in america, the people have taken that culture -- we just started deer season. i lived in a place where we closed schools and plants on the first day of deer season because nobody was going to show up anyway. [laughter] president clinton: we just started deer season at home and a lot of other places. we have taken this important part of the lives of millions of
3:42 pm
americans and turned it into an instrument of maintaining madness. it is crazy. would i let anybody change that life in america? not on your life. has that got anything to do with the brady bill or assault weapons, or whether the police have to go out on the street confronting teenagers who are better armed than they are? of course not. this is the beginning of something wonderful in this country if we have learned to separate out all the stuff we have been hearing all these years, trying to make the american people afraid that somehow their quality of life is going to be undermined by doing stuff that people of common sense and good will would clearly want to do. every law enforcement official in america telling us to do it.
3:43 pm
so, i plead with all of you today, when you leave here, to be invigorated by this. to be exhilarated by jim and sarah brady who have come at here and pushed us to do better. and each of you in turn take your opportunity not to let people ever again in this country use a legitimate part of our american heritage in a way that blinds us to our obligation to the present and the future. if we have broken that, then there is nothing we cannot do. when i go and sign this bill in a minute, it will be step one to taking our streets back, taking our children back, reclaiming our families and our future. thank you. [applause]
3:44 pm
>> ladies and gentlemen, please be seated during the bill signing.
3:45 pm
[applause] >> former senator fred thompson died this year the age of 73.
3:46 pm
he worked as minority counsel at the watergate hearings, had a successful career as an actor, then ran for president in 2008. here is one of his campaign appearances from the presidential run at the midwest republican leadership conference. this is half an hour. >> i would submit that the gentleman you are about to hear from has the demeanor of a gentleman, the courage of a warrior, the intellect of a scholar. he also has the vision, the leadership, and the bearing to be the next president of the united states, fred thompson. [applause]
3:47 pm
fred thompson: thank you very much. thank you so much. thank you very much. i appreciate it. thank you. thank you very much. thank you for that warm reception and who you are and what you're doing. i can't tell you how happy i am to be here steve, i wish i could . claim a little credit for anything you have done, my friend. i can't tell you how much that introduction means to me. just tell me one thing, when pat leahy is making a bad face, how can you tell? [laughter] [applause] fred thompson: i'm sure that will be taken in the spirit in which it is given. steve, thank you so much. you have meant so much to this
3:48 pm
state and this country. i want to thank all the distinguished guests here this evening. my old friend dan burton -- it seems like i run into folks from indiana everywhere i go that's important in my life. david mcintosh has been a great friend and great advisor. him and his wife being here means a whole lot to me. i want to tell you that. i want to mention my old friend and colleague dan coats. i tell you, after he left the -- [applause] after i left the senate, one of the most rewarding things i got to do was after president bush called me up and asked me to help then judge john roberts
3:49 pm
prepare for the supreme court of the united states. dan coats helped judge alito. i can guess he feels the way i do, that it's one of the most -- the most important things we've done in our careers, to put two judges on the supreme court who decide cases and not causes. they decide between two litigants the way you are supposed to and they will be good, solid, conservative justices, i am convinced, for the duration. we just need another one or two. [applause] you know, the last time i was here, i was so impressive that a -- 10 years later i got invited back. [laughter] i am delighted to be here. jeri sends her regards. she is a depaul grad, and for
3:50 pm
all those folks, she is home tonight with hayden and sammy, and sends her best regards. i am happy to be here with people who have their priorities straight. that has not always been the case in my career. i remember when i gave my first speech on the floor of the united states senate. i was excited and talking about congress having the same laws as everybody else, which was a novel law even back then, but with senator grassley, we took it on and got it done. i made my first speech. of course, there wasn't hardly anybody on the floor at the time. nobody listens to each other in these things. an older gentleman who i will not name came up to me afterward and said fred, that was a pretty good speech. i said thank you, i appreciate that. he said i just have one question. i rose to my full stature ready
3:51 pm
to answer anything, and he said tell me, was that a real submarine you used in the hunt for red october? [laughter] i understood the priorities around the place right off the bat, but i do remember my early days in the senate fondly. you can always tell new members of congress. every once in a while they will slip up and accidentally spend some of their own money. but they get over it. i was at a little function earlier today, and a lady who is here tonight -- but i won't embarrass her -- told me her son was coming home after four years in iraq. she said we don't get a lot of recognition, but we are going to tonight. everybody who is a loved one of someone serving in the armed
3:52 pm
forces, will you stand up tonight for around of applause -- a round of applause? [applause] we need to be reminded every day that if we were not the land of the free and the home of the brave, we would not be the united states of america today and we would not be the country who has shed more blood in the cause of freedom for other people than any nation in the history of the world, and our detractors and critics need to remember that about the young people of our country. [applause] i appreciate steve going back in
3:53 pm
history with me a little bit. and i appreciate the introduction. i never take anything for granted anymore. i talked to a lady in the airport the other day for five minutes before i realized she thought i was dr. phil. [laughter] guess who? you'll never -- dr. phil. [laughter] but as he went through that little historical journey for me, a lot of memories came back. my folks coming off the farm into a little country town instead of going to school -- instead of going to high school, they had to go to work. best parents anybody could possibly have.
3:54 pm
i still have my mama back home in tennessee. because of their appreciation for education, it allowed me to do the things steve talked about. i still wonder what they were thinking as they watched their teenage kid get married and start his own family. i got to do those things. i wanted to go to the united states senate, i put everything else aside. i wanted to balance the budget, reform taxes, reform welfare, have congress live under the same laws as everybody else, the kind of things i talked about in 1994 and talking about today. i was 20 points ahead on election night against a popular incumbent congressman. was able to carry tennessee
3:55 pm
twice in a state that bill clinton carried twice. i feel proud of that, but i feel it even more proud about being part of a team that was able to do the things i talked about. but i put her in limits on myself. -- term limits on myself, and after eight years, i decided it was time to go. i could have run again, but i was consistent with my pledge. people asked me why i left the senate when i didn't have any opposition, and i said after eight years in washington, i longed for the sincerity and realism of hollywood again. [laughter] i got to kind of cosponsor the homeland security bill.
3:56 pm
we got that passed. two tries. i did have an election in the middle of it. the democrats didn't want to give the president flexibility in times of emergency to move people around on the federal employees union fought it all the way, but we got that done. i got to serve on the intelligence committee. i got to travel to various parts of the world and meet with leaders. sometimes, the most important things in your life happen under your own roof. shortly before i left the senate, i married a wonderful lady, and not too long after that, we found out that we were going to be parents. jerry had never been married, never been a mother, and my children were grown. it was a little bit of a surprise, to tell you the truth, but i knew from the first instant that another wonderful
3:57 pm
chapter was opening in my life. you cannot look at that first sonogram and ever be the same again. so, when all the politics talk started some time ago, and all the back and forth practical questions, process questions and all of that, we talked about it several times, and we kept coming back to the question what kind of country, what kind of world are these kids, now kids because hayden has a little partner in life who is 10 months old, what kind of world are they going to grow up in? what kind of country are they going to grow up in? and how many people get a chance to do something about it?
3:58 pm
so, that little journey kind of gives the background of why we are here tonight. everybody here has their own journey. the bottom line is, we have a lot of things in common. i don't know about the particulars, but it all has to do with love of country and the kind of world they want to leave behind. the first obligation that every generation has is to leave this place a little better than the way we found it. that's what our parents did, what our grandparents did, and above all, what we have to do. my friends, i feel like these next few years are going to bring decisions that we are going to have as a people, certainly on the president's desk, but on the american people's desk as to decisions that are going to affect the future course of our country many years from now.
3:59 pm
i believe that on the present course, we are going to be a weaker, less prosperous, more divided nation than what we have been. i don't say that lightly. but i think it's the truth, and i think the american people are ready for the truth. to me, when i think about it, there are a lot of different issues. goodness knows we are not deprived of issues or solutions. there are about three things that underline everything else. one is national security. our country is in danger, and it's going to be that way for a long time to come. i'd to not think that we have come together as a nation and come to terms with the length and duration, and experience and commitment, that it is going to take to meet the threat that we have in islamic terrorism and islamic radicalism.
4:00 pm
we are dealing with people who look at this as something that has been going on for hundreds of years, and they are plenty well ready for it to go on another hundred years, slaughtering innocents in the process. of years, and they are plenty well ready for it to go on another hundred years, slaughtering innocents in the process. they look historically at things and see that for 15 or 20 years they have been attacking us all over the world. the embassy, the trade center, .he uss cole, on and on they have already defeated the toughest enemy, they say, the soviet union in afghanistan. and things are just kind of
4:01 pm
going along. there is a current front in the that is something to be .ealt with before they move on we have to do better. we have to be more united, more committed, more unified than we and yetr been before, you look at our responses sometimes as a people and say that is not the message we are .ending out whether you look at budget priorities or our situation in -- some people think that's all it is. if we get out of there, our troubles will be over. a border situation where we can't or won't stop illegal immigrants from coming over our border. in the last few years, we've
4:02 pm
picked up thousands of people from terror related states alone. we only catch about one out of three. in the era of the suitcase bomb when a small amount of material can recap on the country, when you look at our court system adjustmentsmade the to combat terrorism in the court system. warning them of their rights. you can't prosecute them unless you do. ining to tell everything court, open discovery, having them take advantage of that information. we are oftentimes in this system not acting like we are serious. the debate in regards to some people have a problem with it.
4:03 pm
but if al qaeda suspects are on the other end of the line, i don't have any problem with it. but it's done begrudgingly with great debate and fanfare. it's an indication and demonstration to friends and foes alike, i think, that we have not made to the adjustment yet. 9/11 has not had its full impact yet. the second thing that concerns we are doing steady damage to our economy, that if we don't do things better, it's going to result in economic generations,future and a breaking of that commitment to leave this place better instead of weaker. we are spending their money. we are spending lots of their money, and instead of having an
4:04 pm
honest conversation, democrats , we ignore the most important part of the , and that is our grandchildren, people who have not been born yet, they won't have anybody speaking for them in many cases. our economy is good now, no question about it. that's the greatest story never told. president bush does not get enough credit for his far as tax cuts are concerned. if there is one thing that should be agreed upon among , it'sody in this country the growth effect of tax cuts. you cannot solve any of these problems unless you have economic growth. and if you look at any
4:05 pm
administration in history, the result is been the same. at if you look down the road little bit, you will see that before long we will be using up .he social security surplus you know the one that's locked up in a lock locks that every politician has the key to? -- lockbox that every politician has the key to? when the a time demographic shift will change and there will be more and more people requiring benefits, at a time when health care costs very likely will continue to go up, we have to do something about that. all of those things working together will eventually lead us to an unsustainable position. that is not my opinion -- it is my opinion, but not originally. look at the writing of the gao,
4:06 pm
the government accountability office, a nonpartisan organization. david walker, the comptroller, has been going around this country with people from a conservative think tank and a liberal think tank. i don't think they will mind those delineations. that's what i would call them. good people in both organizations all saying the same thing here it all three saying the same thing, and that is that what we are doing is unsustainable. do you hear anybody talking about that? it's not going to happen between now and the next election. these are things that cannot be by aed or decided or cured president or a political party. it's going to have to be done by the people. it will have to be done by the people. which leads me to my third point.
4:07 pm
at a point when we need to be more united and come together with common sense and honest what theion about problem is and have the guts to deal with it and not use it as a political hatchet against each other, at a time when we are probably more divided than ever before, probably have more cynicism than we have had in a a long time, at a time when you are seeing the convergence of these problems and all of the other chickens coming home to roost, like energy, like education, like , and we have a congress that, despite the great work and fortitude of some, now has lower approval ratings than probably in the history of the country, in order to have leadership, you have to have
4:08 pm
some people that are going to follow. how do you follow if you don't have confidence in what is being said or who is saying it? you can't go down that road forever. and now we have a government that apparently is incapable of doing some things that are a sick, common issues that government has to do -- deal with. we want a limited government. we want a government strong enough to protect us, but we a competentnt government willing to do the things government is supposed to do. time after time we are seeing government unwilling to do that anymore. just a couple of thoughts as we go on this journey together. we can talk about a lot of and we will have time to do that, but the main thing, i , that we need to think
4:09 pm
about going forward, are what are the principles we are going to operate under? a 15-20 point plan is great. i have a 30 point plan. at what happens when the plans go asunder and you can't get agreement on something like that? i think the united states and we as citizens should remember our first principles. i don't think the constitution and the declaration of the --'s the declaration of independence and constitution of the united states are outmoded documents. [applause] tells us ouron rights come from god and not from government. [applause] has a framework not as a result
4:10 pm
of bureaucratic haggling but is something that is designed to protect our freedom. that's the setup, including federalism, including the rise of the federal government and allowing the experimentation among the states, the competition among the states, because it promotes freedom, promotes better government, and diffuses power. those are not outmoded thoughts , but youed documents will find that every good idea that somebody has now has to be federalized. , there wereasions 99-1 votes in the senate and i was the one because this was an issue that had been the states purview for years. is the federal government getting involved when it can't do what it supposed to be doing right? [applause]
4:11 pm
thean inherent's to principles -- and adherence to the principles that underline everything we do in this country, what i always stand for, the rule of law, the kind of judges we are talking about, adherence to the rule of law, not something somebody makes up because they have decided a social policy is not to their liking, but a rule of law that people can rely upon. that's what it is supposed to be about. markets, economy, respect for private property, free trade, competition, it works to our benefit. it has been an example for every other nation in the world that has ever tried it because nobody who has ever tried it has been unsuccessful in terms of prosperity.
4:12 pm
mainly what we have to do is what others have done in times , and that is to come together, recognize the problem, talk about it truthfully, work together, remember that there is more that unites us than divides us, take on the tough jobs, and get to the other side of the mountain wiser and stronger than we were when we started out on the journey. we know how to do that. we have done it so many times before, and every time we have done it, we have been successful. i will notemoment, that some might say well, fred, you haven't done much talking about the republican party. , that is exactly what i've been talking about, because i think that is what the republican party believes. i think that is traditionally
4:13 pm
what we have stood for, that's the kind of things we must stand for. if we do that, we will be successful and we will deserve to lead this nation. we will lead this nation, and most of all, it will make for a stronger, more secure, and more prosperous united states of america. i look forward to working with you toward that end. thank you very much. [applause] >> civil rights >> civil rights leader julian bond died this year at the age of 75. he was a member of the student nonviolent for dating committee, chairman of the aa cp and mm -- of the naacp, and a member of the house. this is 45 minutes.
4:14 pm
>> i am very glad that it took so long to get the chairs arranged because i have an opportunity to sit with one of the most interesting people i have been able to talk with in a very long time. it would take longer than we have if i were to introduce him properly. so i am going to skip the awards and all of that for the moment and start with a little history. julian bond's grandfather was born a slave. two years after he was born, the emancipation proclamation was issued, and james bond, as his name was, made it to college. [laughter] >> his father was an academic in tennessee. his father was president of a college in pennsylvania, and grew up at a quaker school there, obviously an integrated quaker school.
4:15 pm
by the time he graduated and went to college, his family had moved to atlanta, which he said was a terrifying experience. he started at morehouse college, and in 1960, was a cofounder of the student nonviolent coordinating committee. [applause] >> for those of you not old enough to know that history, that was one of the major activist organizations of its day. in 1965, after the reapportionment rulings came down and the legislature was redrawn, he ran for the legislature in the state of georgia and won. in january of 1966, the assembly of the state of georgia declined to see him on the grounds that he had endorsed the snake position in the war in vietnam,
4:16 pm
and on the grounds that he felt people who avoided the draft were to be encouraged. for those reasons, he was denied a seat on the legislature. [applause] after that, he got a 9-0 decision from the supreme court that his constitutional right to free speech had been denied and he was seated in the georgia legislature. [applause] >> all of that made him not just a national figure, but an international figure as well. at the chicago convention, he was nominated to be vice president of the united states, first time that had ever happened in a major party
4:17 pm
convention. he had to decline the honor because you had to be 35 and he wasn't yet 30. he then served for 20 years in the legislature in georgia, which he said he loved to this day and would go back and do again if he could only do it for two days a week. [laughter] >> he left that job, which i should say was also intermixed with many other activities because the legislature did not meet full time. he has been a legislator, a professor, and taught at harvard university, american university, drexel, university of virginia, he has been a radio and television host and held many other positions. in 2008, he became the chair of the naacp, and that's where i want to start the questioning. he served as chair and to last year.
4:18 pm
what's interesting about that is two things. first, he is here tonight because the naacp is holding the convention this week, and secondly, because one of the organizations that the student nonviolent coordinating committee was originally critical of was the naacp. they thought it had gotten too old and was not serving the needs of young african-americans meeting the challenges of the civil rights era as it should have. why did you go back and become of the naacp as you did? julian: i was living in atlanta. i was in the legislature, and i looked around, and the naacp was the only man standing. it stood for 50 years from its founding until that time, and i thought what we need is to
4:19 pm
strengthen this organization that has lasted this many years. i have been active, i have been a member as a college student, but it had gotten too old and too stodgy. all of the people had gray hair. so i re-involved myself and became president of the atlanta branch and got in a dispute with the chairman and lost my seat on the board of directors. i won my seat back and helped to defeat him. i ran to succeed a woman in 1998 when she wanted to step down and served until last year, 11 years. it was a wonderful experience.
4:20 pm
our ceo made a speech this morning in which he made three observations. the naacp membership is up for the third year in a row, our resources and finances are in great shape, our budget balanced for three years in a row. something else he said was good news. three years in a row. trust me on this. he said the organization is hale and hearty and alive and well, and i am proud to be associated with it. [applause] >> what has it meant for the civil rights movement that you have been involved in for your entire life and still are as the chairman of the naacp, to have a black man elected as president of the united states. >> it means the work we have
4:21 pm
doing since 1909 is worth it. we were talking together and joked upstairs about how the headline in the onion the day after obama got it, "black man gets worst job in the united states" -- [laughter] it means that the work we have been doing all these years has paid off. it does not mean our work is over. there is more work to be done. no one can believe that barack obama would be president of the united states if it had not been for the work of the naacp. the work done by these people and these groups. it was like vindication that all of this labor, all of this has been worthwhile. we are happy to do it and see the results of it. he spoke at our convention in 1909, i'm sorry. -- 1999, our centennial. 2009. thank you. my wife is here in the front row. [laughter] she serves many wonderful purposes.
4:22 pm
[laughter] one of them is correcting me. >> i am glad she did that, because i could not get it right either. >> at any rate, he spoke to our convention in 2009. he spoke to us as senator obama. he spoke to us as candidate obama running for the presidency. he spoke to us as democratic nominee for the party. having him speak was a great thrill. having him become president was a great, great thrill for all of us. >> when he was first running, and even after he was nominated, there were civil rights veterans who seemed to be resentful, particularly because he had not
4:23 pm
lived what they regarded as "the experience." i think jesse jackson was the most prominent of those who seem to be unhappy about him in that respect. is that important? >> it is important to note that reverend jackson came a strong supporter, is a strong supporter today, campaigned vigorously for him and i am sure will be campaigning for him vigorously again when he undertakes his formal campaign for re-election. many of those people who felt that way, i felt that he would make a wonderful president. as friends in chicago kept telling me, we have a great state senator who is going to be president someday. we would say sure. that he got to be a u.s. senator. and they would say he is a u.s. senator now he is going to be president someday. and we would say, ok.
4:24 pm
then he began to run and did well, and we said sure. then he won in iowa. and i thought, if he could win in the whitest of states, i would support him. i became a convert when i hadn't been before. i wasn't going to waste my vote. he proved to me he could win. i was happy to support him then. >> we have an african-american family in the white house. african americans in the united states are still disproportionately suffering from poverty, ill health, poor schools, all of the other ailments. you avert so hard to correct those in many ways, and in many ways succeeded in correcting, but not in every way. is it harder now to argue for affirmative action? to argue for issues of that kind? >> it is a little bit harder because there is a feeling in the population that having elected a black man, all of these problems have been solved and gone away.
4:25 pm
the remedies that solve these problems are no longer needed anymore. that is false thinking. that is not true. the fact that there is a black man in the white house does not mean the country has become a wonderful place where everything is happy, everything is fair and equal. but because many people believe that, it is harder to argue for these things. we're are going to argue for them nonetheless. >> the term racism is in some respects, in some places, a punchline. i have done a program where somebody said, howdy you do the do you do the laundry, you separate the dark from the light, and the punchline is that's racist. npr did a story about this. the younger generation finds the word racism is a punchline. julian: i am not sure what it means. i heard the npr story and i read
4:26 pm
something about it. but what does it mean? does it mean if somebody says something that is uncomfortable to you or funny to you, whether it involves race or not, that you can say racism and it is a joke? if it is, i don't get to the joke. i do think young people are free of many of the bigotries and prejudices that we older people have had over the years, and cannot forget, many of us. i do think the generation of young people i teach, college students, is much freer about their associations, their friends, the things they do, the things they think, than i was in my time. but i think we have a lot more to do and we have to buckle down
4:27 pm
and do it. >> there are those who argue that the reason it is a good joke is that black people have advanced to such appointed that -- such a point that they are now occupying the white house and we don't have to worry about that anymore. julian: if it's a big joke, it's not funny to me. it's not unfunny, but it doesn't make me laugh. i don't get it. and i was a host of saturday night live, so i know funny when i see it. i am not saying it is an evil statement, but i don't get it. [laughter] [applause] >> who did you host saturday night live with? julian: the entertainment was a singing group called brick. all of the original cast except chevy chase, who had left to the show, and bill murray.
4:28 pm
>> what was the best line you had? julian: this is a setup. we had a skit called black perspectives in the news. there it more as was the post. and he was saying that the iq test has been around for a long time and still blacks score poorly on the test. and i go through a number of nonsensical explanations saying the tests are biased. are you going skiing and the stock? are you going to use number three, why? obviously, that's biased.
4:29 pm
he says no, the tests have been around for a long time and the tests are not biased. why do blacks do so poorly? and i say it is because light-skinned blacks are smarter than dark skinned blacks, and he has darker skin than i do. and he does a double take and says, say what? and i say everybody knows it. and he says we have run out of time. and the audience thought it was just as funny as you do. >> that was a long time ago and you still know your lines. not bad. what about a race politics, identity politics in the united states? why don't we think about the tea party as identity politics? this is an almost all white phenomenon that picketed the naacp yesterday. it looked more like orange county than south-central.
4:30 pm
there were about 100 people and 75 of them were white. when we say identity politics, do we talk about the tea party? why is it only people of color who are condemned in this way? [applause] >> why is it? julian: i think some people find it objective when people of color banded together in their own interests. somehow, that is supposed to be hostile to the american dream, the american way. they don't feel the same way about white people coming together in their own interests, and that seems to be because they don't think white people can do anything wrong in that regard.
4:31 pm
>> president obama was the nominee, or maybe still running against hillary clinton, i forget, but there were those who had been involved in the civil rights movement, and others who were younger wondering, do we have to vote for this guy just because he is black? do we have to support him just because he is black? what do you think of that? julian: herman cain went to my college. herman cain is a black man. i am not going to vote for herman cain. [laughter] >> one of the questions in the article was, were he to be elected, barack obama would have
4:32 pm
to be not only the president of the united states, but also the de facto leader of black america. has he done a good job at both of those things? is he both of those things? julian: no, and i think the expectation that he would be both of those things is the wrong expectation. to think he would be president of the united states and president of black america is too much. i think he has been a good president. if he didn't have this pack of objectors shouting no it him he would've been a better president and a more successful president. [applause] and i'm fairly sure his second term will be even more successful than the first. [applause] people accuse him of leading from behind. does that mean anything to you? julian: yes.
4:33 pm
it means you are waiting too long to make a decision and then trying to do something else. i don't think that's true. i think he faces an unusual amount of hostility from the other party, from americans, many of whom are motivated by the fact that he is acting like the president while black. the hostility is unlike anything i have ever seen. i have gone through president after president after president and i have never seen anything like this. i'd doubt you have either. i am older than you are. >> i'm older than you are. >> have you seen anything like this in your lifetime? >> no. do you think it is because of
4:34 pm
racism, absolutely. what else would it be? because he is from chicago? because he is tall and thin? i believe there is an and or missed number of people who would not like him if he gave each of them $1000. he still wouldn't be their president. he still wouldn't be president to them. >> i prepared some questions but i can't see them in the light up here, but i want to go from where you just left off. what about his attention to the kinds of issues that you have spent your life trying to advocate? has he disappointed you in any way? julian: he has, and i have to say he will knock at the first be the first president to
4:35 pm
do that, and i don't think he will be the last president to do that. i am not sure in his second term that he will pay as much attention to these things that i would want him to. i want him to pay attention to the appalling rate of unemployment. black unemployment is always staggering and wreaking havoc on black america. it happened all the time in the united states. staggering rates of unemployment. -- pay like him to make more attention to it. but i am not going to throw him out the window because of this or say that i will never vote for him or he is a bad guy. warren olney: do you think he is shying away from those kinds of issues because she is the first -- he is the first black president or because he is the first black president? julian bond: i do not think he wants to be perceived as the
4:36 pm
black president, and i can understand why. that is how you want to be thought of. if you can stop being the black president or being thought of as the black president. he does not want to be the black president. warren olney: i want to go back to your time in georgia in the legislature. 20 years. how long was it before you felt you were not any longer being considered as the black representative and the leftist, the unpatriotic opponent of the vietnam war? julian bond: for some people this never happened. i was always thought that way. but for most people -- politicians are very rational. if everybody in the front rows were voting on something and they had to get a majority and the people on this side voted one way and the people on this
4:37 pm
side voted another and these people could get one person to come over they would do it and they would be nice to a person and be nice to my wife was very very personable and talk to her and promise her things a she would like. i don't mean bribes. just that when she had an argument they would be on her side. when it became clear that i was a vote and i could be for them or against them, they began to pay attention to me and asked me to vote for them and in turn i asked them to vote for me. if it was something they could do, they would do it for me. so i would say about two years.
4:38 pm
warren olney: when you were first elected, there were eight of you elected at the same time who were african-american. you were the only one who was not seated. why was that? julian bond: about a week before i was elected, i was to be seated, a young man named sammy young who worked with the student nonviolent coordinating committee was shot in the back. he had been in the navy. he had lost a kidney in the navy. he is walking away from a demonstration, he comes to a gas station and wants to go to the bathroom and as he tries to do that the owner of the gas station shot him in the back and killed him. the irony of this guy losing his life in service to his country was too much. we issued an antiwar statement which at the time sounded aggressive and militant but today sounds like people are saying about the war in afghanistan, the war in iraq, just normal things. wouldn't sound bad at all but then i think sounded radical to
4:39 pm
my colleagues to be. they held a trial in the house and voted 160 odd to 12 to throw me out. the 12 were my black colleagues. they threw me out. i appeal this to a federal court and the judges appointed by president kennedy voted against me and the judge appointed by president eisenhower voted for me. [laughter] we appealed that to the united states supreme court and i went to the court to hear the argument, and i was sitting in the court just behind the bar with the lawyers in front of me and i was sitting next to my lawyer's partner in the attorney general of georgia was making the argument that georgia had a right to throw me out because i have said things that were treasonous and seditious. i think it was judge white who said to him, is this all you have? [laughter] he said you have come all the
4:40 pm
way up here and this is all you have? so i said, we are winning, aren't we? and he said yes you are and yes we did. we won 9-0 and i was seated the following year. [applause] >> what do you feel about the current supreme court? julian bond: they are awful. they are not all awful but the majority is awful. i can't quote this exactly so i hope you'll understand. you read the decision in the walmart case. justice scalia writes that business is always hire the very always hire the
4:41 pm
very best people. [laughter] there is no reason they would not hire the very best people. therefore the argument the other people are making is nonsense. if you have that kind of reasoning, how can you expect anything but garbage to come out? and garbage came out of him this time and in other decisions they made. it is a bad court. warren olney: they are going to be there for a long time. julian bond: yes they are, they are, unless someone intervenes. [laughter] warren olney: you are not talking about the student nonviolent coordinating committee? julian bond: no, we are gone. warren olney: what happened to the student nonviolent coordinating committee? it became a different organization after you founded it and nonviolence was ultimately not really its principle organizing concept. julian bond: it is wrong to say i cofounded it. there were three or five people. it continued for a number of years and it began to internally question the wisdom of nonviolence. and some members began carrying weapons. people were shooting at us and we wanted to shoot back at them.
4:42 pm
the situation seemed more and more dire in the south where we were fighting it and we were fighting it in some of the rough and tumble places in the south. it seemed normal to have a weapon for self-defense. it is the american way. it may not be the american way we like, but it is the american way. i left before this period really blossomed but it seems to be perfectly rational for my colleagues to say if somebody is going to shoot at me i want to be able to shoot back at them. warren olney: people want to
4:43 pm
have the right to defend themselves in their homes. there is more and more opposition to gun control laws. is that a good thing? julian bond: no, it is not a good thing. it is not a good thing. it is a good thing to say i can have a weapon in my home and until i moved to washington i had a weapon in my home. i had a big shotgun. i had threats on my life. i was not going to have my family unprotected. i wanted them to be able to be protected if i got the opportunity. when i moved to washington where these things never happen -- [laughter] i couldn't take my gun with me so i left it at home. left it in atlanta. warren olney: talk about those days in atlanta, the early days of the student nonviolent coordinating committee. the kind of courage that it took to sit in at lunch counters, to do some of the other things that were at the time regarded as so threatening to the majority of the society.
4:44 pm
julian bond: i am not sure if it took a tremendous amount of courage to sit at the lunch counter. the chances of some harm being done to you were not slight but not sure. i sat in first in 1960, i led a group of students from the atlanta university center to city hall in atlanta. city hall in atlanta had a cafeteria in the basement and i led them to the cafeteria and they had black women dishing food and you could see the women looking at us with a mixture of fear and admiration. fear because they knew that the police were coming and that was frightening and admiration because they have seen this in other parts of the south and they were happy that it was happening in atlanta.
4:45 pm
there was a white woman that said that it is for city employees. and i said you have a sign out front saying that everybody is welcome. she said we do not mean it. [laughter] julian bond: i said we will stand here until you do. and she called the police and the police came and arrested us and took us to jail and separated us by sex. i found myself in a large bullpen, almost as big as half of this room with the other men who had been arrested for heaven knows what. i didn't want to ask them why are you here, my good men? they patted us on the back and said way to go, good for you. because of the other arrests that had happened in atlanta that day, they decided to choose one person from each arrest site and i was chosen and i found myself in the courtroom standing between two men and i found out that they were my lawyers, men i
4:46 pm
had never seen before. there was back and forth between the judge and my lawyers which i did not understand and the judge said how do you plead? i was nervous about the question because on the one hand the police had asked me to move and i refused to move so i thought i was guilty of something. on the other hand i did not think that he had the right to ask me. i did not know what the right answer was. so i turned to my lawyer on my left who was the senior of the two. he was a heroic figure who spent his 60 or 70 years defending black people in small towns in georgia where they could not spend the night, just a wonderful, wonderful guy, and he was asleep. he was like this. [laughter]
4:47 pm
julian bond: i looked at my right where the younger of the two men was, he was the protege, and you said to me, not guilty, you fool. [laughter] i had the wit to drop those last two words, or i would not be sitting here now. [laughter] warren olney: were you segregated? julian bond: yes, not in the cell. warren olney: you took a course from dr. martin luther king. julian bond: one of us said morehouse college earlier and i heard a ripple in the crowd because you can always tell a morehouse man. what is that? yeah, ok. yes. [laughter] julian bond: i took a course that was taught by dr. king and
4:48 pm
it was the only course that dr. king ever taught. he co-taught it at morehouse college. his alma mater. it was co-taught with the man who taught him philosophy when he was a morehouse student. i am proud of this because there were eight people in the class, two women from spelman college and six from morehouse. we are the only eight people in the world who can honestly say we were students of martin luther king. because it was the only other time he ever talked. there are other people in los angeles who will say that they were a student of martin luther king. but unless they went to morehouse college or spelman college, unless they took this class, they are not telling the truth. if you hear them say it, you should call them on it. [laughter] julian bond: he co-taught this philosophy class with a man named samuel williams. i guess reverend williams knew more philosophy than dr. king
4:49 pm
did, this was his business. dr. king was a philosophy student but only a student. but i remember one day, king was reading, was answering a question about somebody, plato or aristotle or somebody, and he was looking at the textbook. the other professor would read from the textbook and we would follow along. king would recite from the textbook. "plato says." and we would follow along. it was amazing. he had not a total recall, but he had wonderful recall, wonderful memory, could remember so much. this was a great experience. warren olney: he must not have been much older than you were. julian bond: he would have been in his 30's and i would have been 23. [laughter] warren olney: close enough. what do you think was the contribution of martin luther king to the united states?
4:50 pm
julian bond: in this message of christian love and redemption, it struck a cord with southerners. he was able in that way to engage these people, even against their will in the movement for civil rights. some willingly, but some hesitantly. and that was his gift. this wonderful gift for oratory. and this wonderful way of putting things into words that made it palatable for people for whom it could not be palatable if said in some other way.
4:51 pm
warren olney: what did you learn in the course? julian bond: i cannot remember a thing. [laughter] julian bond: one of my classmates is the reverend amos brown who has a big church in san francisco. i have asked him what he remembers from the class and amos told me he could not remember anything either so i do not feel badly about it. [laughter] warren olney: but you were there? julian bond: i was there. i have the class roll so i can prove it. i got a copy from amos. warren olney: do you have other heroes that are still alive? julian bond: dr. king would be a hero. i generally tend to focus on heroes that are not alive, because i think the live ones disappoint you. [laughter] julian bond: when i was in the legislature -- they do this in the los angeles council and the california state legislature -- they are always maiming highways
4:52 pm
naming highways after somebody and i was dead set against naming things against people who were alive. you should let them be dead for 10 or 20 years until this happens, but i could never win an argument of this kind. but at any rate, i cannot remember the point i was trying to make here. warren olney: the question was about heroes -- julian bond: two heroes in particular. w.e.b. dubois. i have a photo of myself and my father and my sister. frazier. three men dressed in academic regalia and my sister. i am 3 and my sister is 4 and standing in front of w.e.b. dubois and the accompanying certificate dedicating us to a
4:53 pm
life of scholarship and my sister to a life of producing scholars. [laughter] julian bond: signed by all three men. it is a very precious thing to have. the other would be frederick douglass. i am a great fan of frederick douglass. [applause] julian bond: i'm always hoping that somebody will invite me to give a fourth of july speech because if they did i would recite his fourth of july speech. "what the american slave is your fourth of july? the day that reveals more than any day of the year of the constant injustice to which he is constant victim. to him, your celebration is a sham. your sounds of rejoicing are empty and heartless, a thin veil to cover crimes that would disgrace a nation of savages. go where you may. search where you will. go through all the crowned heads of europe, and you will never find -- i can't remember the last of it but it is wonderful. look it up. it is on the internet.
4:54 pm
it is one of the masterpieces of american oratory. if you think dr. king gave some wonderful speeches, read this frederick douglass speech. it is a wonderful, wonderful speech. warren olney: you recently said in a speech that you do not like you do not like gay marriage, do not get gay married. [laughter] julian bond: at the naacp of afternoon for two hours we have the third meeting of a task force that i set up three years ago on gl bt issues. lgbt issues. don lemon, the cnn newscaster, who has just come out, was the moderator. wanda sykes, who all of you know and love, was a panelist.
4:55 pm
and several other people were panelists. and i think we are the only civil rights organization to have done this, although there is no reason why the others could not or should not. it just struck me that black americans tend to be extremely conservative about these kinds of issues. and some of it i think is a biblically based ignorance and it can only be ignorance because leviticus says thou shall not lie with a man as one lies with a woman. they say well, i believe that. that is a prohibition against homosexuality. but leviticus also says thou shall not wear clothes of a different cloth. if you go to look at the minister's clothes they will be the silk shirt, the wool jacket and cotton pants. shouldn't that man be burned in hell? [laughter] anyway, so, you know, it just strikes me that if your bible
4:56 pm
tells you not to let people, same-sex couples marry in church, then do not let them get married in your church. they will find another, decent church that will allow them to marry, or they will go to city hall. [applause] warren olney: you boycotted the funeral -- if that is the right term, you did not go to the funeral of coretta scott king because it was held in a church that did not accept gays. you said it was because she would have objected to that. did you take any heat for that? julian bond: no, not a lot of heat. mrs. king was a strong supporter for gay-rights and same-sex marriage. she traveled around the country going to places where she could find an audience to talk about this. the idea that she would be
4:57 pm
buried in this church pastored by reverend eddie long was abhorrent to me. she was my next-door neighbor when i lived in atlanta but i could not go to her funeral at that church so i did not go. i did not get any flack from that. nobody about whom i care said anything about it. warren olney: you think that that antipathy towards gay people is changing? julian bond: i know it is changing. it is not changing fast enough but i know it is changing. and this is hard for somebody who is straight to say. if more black people would come out. if you had in black churches a coming out day and you've got people to stand up because there is often a time where you can stand up and say something and
4:58 pm
, i have been here for 20 years, and i am going to be here next week and i want you to know that and look forward to seeing me. it is hard for me to say that because it is nothing i have to do, but i think if more gay people would do that, it would ease the situation a great, great deal. and the enmity would begin to diminish. brooke diednator this year. this award ceremony is one hour and 15 minutes. [applause]
4:59 pm
thank you. thank you. thank you very much. please be seated. thank you very much. it is an extraordinary privilege o be here today. and let me begin by acknowledging this distinguished group gathered on the platform:. our extraordinary speaker of the house, nancy pelosi, majority leader harry reid; republican leader mitch mcconnell; majority leader steny hoyer; republican leader john boehner; senator john kerry; representative eleanor holmes norton; representative patrick kennedy; my dear friend, vicki kennedy; to our honoree, senator edward brooke, his wife, anne, and family. it is a great privilege to be ere today as we confer the
5:00 pm
congressional gold medal on a man who's spent his life breaking barriers and bridging divides across this country -- senator edward brooke. now, with his lifetime of achievement, ed is no stranger to a good awards ceremony. he's been through a few of these. he's won the bronze star, the presidential medal of freedom, honorary degrees from 34 colleges and universities, and more. so he's a pro when it comes to getting awards. but i think today's honor bears a unique significance: bestowed by this body of which he was an esteemed member; presented in this place where he moved the arc of history; surrounded by so many -- myself included -- who
5:01 pm
have followed the trail that he blazed. ed's journey to this day was, by ny measure, an unlikely one. raised nearby in a neighborhood so fiercely segregated that black residents needed a note from a white person to pass through -- at a time when so many doors of opportunity were closed to african americans, others might have become angry or disillusioned. they might have concluded that no matter how hard they worked, their horizons would always be limited, to why bother? but not ed brooke. serving in a segregated army, barred from facilities at the base where he trained, he fought heroically in europe, leading a daring daylight attack against a heavily armed enemy. rejected from boston's old-line firms despite his success in law school, he established his own practice, handling everything from wills and divorces to real
5:02 pm
estate and criminal cases. and when he ran for statewide office in massachusetts, and one reporter pointed out that he was black, republican, and protestant, seeking office in a white, democratic, and catholic state -- and also, quote, "a carpetbagger from the south and poor," ed was unfazed. it was, to say the least, an improbable profile for the man who would become the first african american state attorney general, and the first popularly elected african american senator. but that was ed brooke's way -- to ignore the naysayers, reject the conventional wisdom, and trust that ultimately, people would judge him on his character, his commitment, his record and his ideas. he ran for
5:03 pm
office, as he put it " to bring people together who had never been together before." and that he did. i don't know anyone else whose fan base includes gloria steinem, barney frank, and ted kennedy -- as well as mitch mcconnell, mitt romney, and george w. bush. [laughter] that's a coalition-builder. laughter and applause] and few have matched his reach across the aisle -- from working with birch bayh to protect title ix so girls can compete on a level playing field, to sponsoring the fair housing act with walter mondale and small business legislation with ted kennedy -- one of the many bills he would sponsor with the senior senator from massachusetts. he didn't care whether a bill was popular or politically expedient, democratic or republican -- he cared about whether it helped people, whether it made a difference in their daily lives.
5:04 pm
that's why he fought so hard for medicare, for mass transit and the minimum wage, for civil rights and women's rights. it's why he became a lifelong advocate for affordable housing, establishing protections that are the standard to this day. so it's a record that defies the labels and categories for which e had little use and even less patience. when pressed to define himself, he'd offer phrases like "creative moderate," or "a iberal with a conservative bent." but in truth, ed brooke's career was animated not by a faith in any particular party or ideology, but rather, by a faith in the people he served. ed always got to see the best in people -- because that was the effect he had. maybe it was his old-fashioned manners -- his unfailing courtesy and warmth. maybe it was his charm and charisma -- known to melt even e staunchest adversary, or
5:05 pm
maybe it was his genuine interest in people's stories -- the way he listened to their concerns and worked to ease their struggles. whatever it was, even if people didn't fully agree with him, they saw how hard he fought for them and how much he respected them, and they respected him back. they rose to meet his esteem for them. around ed, people wanted to be their better selves. over the years, he made an impression on just about everyone he encountered, including a young congressman named john f. kennedy, whom he met back in 1952. the two men had a lively conversation, and as they parted ways, the future president said, "you know, you ought to be a democrat." [laughter] anded smiled and replied, "you know, you ought to be a republican. it was a sentiment that many in my party would share, including the president's brother, our dear friend, ted kennedy. while ted campaigned vigorously for ed's democratic opponent, the two later became lifelong friends. and four decades later,
5:06 pm
ted would campaign even more vigorously to secure ed's nomination for this medal. so while we grace senator brooke with this honor today, perhaps a better tribute to him would be to embrace that spirit. to compete aggressively at the polls, but then work selflessly together to serve the nation we love. [applause] to look for the best in each other, to give each other the benefit of the doubt, and to remember that we're here for a purpose far greater than the sum of our own hopes, needs and ambitions. that's the legacy of our friend, senator edward brooke. and may we each do our part to carry it forward. thank you. god bless you. congratulations, senator brooke. and god bless the united states of america.
5:07 pm
[applause] [applause]
5:08 pm
> you may be seated. ladies and gentlemen, the united tates army chorus. ♪
5:09 pm
5:10 pm
5:11 pm
[applause]
5:12 pm
>> please be seated. ladies and gentlemen, the honorable john kerry, united states senator. [applause] john kerry: madam speaker, mr. majority leader and distinguished colleagues in congress in both parties, ladies and gentlemen, and members of colleague family, our ted kennedy was born into history, he was part of history throughout his life. he made history and he knew history. and it was his respect for ed
5:13 pm
brooke's role in history and his personal affection for ed brooke that led him to champion this congressional gold medal. obviously we're so delighted that vicki kennedy is here today and his great friend, my colleague now in the senate, paul kirk is here with us to celebrate this moment. in one of his first sermons after finishing his studies at boston university, martin luther king jr. observed the thing that we need in the world today is a group of men and women who'll stand up for right and be opposed to wrong wherever it is. a group of people who have come to see that some things are wrong whether they are never caught up with, and some things are right whether nobody sees you doing them or not. before his mission was cut tragically short 14 years later,
5:14 pm
dr. king met countless men and women who he had enlisted in the cause, but one who became his confidente was edward william brooke iii whose journey we honor today. like so many of us, ed was moved by the consequence and actions of dr. -- eloquence and actions of dr. king. but there were also times when dr. king was moved by ed. especially when dr. king himself conflicted and saw ed's council on the vietnam war before taking his own moral stand against the conflict. ed came to this capital as we know in 1967 and as the president spoke eloquently a moment ago about his journey in the army and his contributions to the country before that that. but his journey here in the congress began in 1962 when it is a majority leader reminded us president kennedy said of his election that is the biggest
5:15 pm
news in the country. well, there was bigger news ahead. not because of ed's race, but because of the job he did as massachusetts' attorney general. he was a vigorous prosecutor of organized crime and he worked closely with local police departments to solve one of the great crimes in our history, the boston strangler. massachusetts elected ed to the united states senate, not because of the color of his skin, but as dr. king hoped, because of the content of his character. the man massachusetts sent to the senate became known immediately for his independence, a public service, whose compass was guided not by party but by conscious. he was one of the first advocates of legislation to provide affordable housing in america and when it was especially difficult, he stood up for affirmative action,
5:16 pm
desegregation, privacy rights, minority business development and increase in social security benefits and the extension of the voting rights act. shortly after the assassination of his friend, dr. king in 1968, et became the first -- ed became the first to propose a holiday honoring the slain civil rights leader. he said it would be fitting to pay our respects to this noble -- it took 15 years for the rest of america to catch up to ed brooke.
5:17 pm
he introduced the legislation. introduced the legislation as a republican for the appointment of a watergate special prosecutor. they was first senator in either party to call for president nixon's resignation and he counciled president ford against pardoning the ex-president. ed demonstrated the same kind of independent thinking as a member of the commission which president johnson appointed in 1967 to investigate the causes of race riots that had occurred that year. the commission warned that america was moving towards two societies, one black and one white, separate and unequal. after leaving the senate, ed served on the panel, president reagan appointed to investigate the damage placed on japanese
5:18 pm
americans at the outbreak of world war ii. in 1980, the panel recommended reparations and a formal apology and five years later, congress finally passed a resolution doing just that. that is leadership. i proudly sit in the senate seat once occupied by ed brooke. when i first came here, my greatest booster was his mom who lived to be 100 and ed brooke, i might say is following in her footsteps. he turned 90 just last monday. [applause] in 2005, i had the privilege of writing the senate resolution awarding the same medal, the congressional gold medal to jackie robinson, himself a trail blazer who once said "life is not important, except in the impact it has on other lives.
5:19 pm
of." that is the kind of life ed brooke lived. a life of service and equal opportunity. in his autobiography, ed wrote this. it is my fondest hope that some rearsd of this book reflected in my role in our nation's long political struggle for equality, opportunity and justice in america, may be moved to continue that battle in their own lives and in their owneras. the torch must be passed from generation to generation if america is ever to fulfill it promise. so we look around this rotunda today and look at the great accomplishments of these last years, the presence of our president here earlier. we say ed, your great hope is coming through. the torch is being passed to a
5:20 pm
generation that is learned from your example of doing what is right. whether nobody sees you doing it or not. and has dr. king said, that is the test. it is your example, ed brooke, and your journey that we are so pleased to honor here today. [applause] >> thank you, democrat and
5:21 pm
republicanners of the senate and house. members of congress from both houses, ladies and gentlemen, senator edward w. brooke and the brooke family. let me guess, senator brooke, when you went to shaw jr. high school, to dunbar high and to howard university, all in your home community of -- not far from here, you may not have envisioned the capital rotunda as the setting to celebrate your 90th birthday. which of course occurred just two days ago. and we thank the leaders of the enate and house for timing today's ceremony today accordingly. happy 90th birthday, senator edward w. brooke.
5:22 pm
[applause] you may have been an improbable senator, a man born in the district of columbia who goes off to world war ii without the right to vote for president or mayor or member of the house, much less senator. perhaps improbable, but certainly not an accidental senator. took a man of extraordinary and , will, appeal confidence to become the barack obama of the 20th century before barack obama was even born. [applause]
5:23 pm
being elected the first african-american to sit as a united states senator. in 1967 when millions of african-americans in the united states were still denied the ight to cast a vote. senator, if you were not a hurdle jump athlete as a boy, you certainly made up for it as a man. which of your hurdles seemed most steep to you at the time? becoming a decorated officer in the segregated 336 combat infantry gentlemen of the juryment during world war ii. was it upon your return when you
5:24 pm
became an editor to have law review at boston university law school? why, before you assumed the post, did you think you could actually become chair of the boston finance commission? blackade you think that a man could win statewide office as attorney general, particularly in a state where 2% of the population was african-american. how in the world did you think that as a lifelong republican, would which you remain today, you could be elected to anything in overwhelmingly democratic massachusetts. jumped, senator
5:25 pm
were so high. after two centuries, the same congress, that gives you the congressional gold medal today, will give voting rights to the district of colombia this year. [applause] columbia this year. you empowered yourself long before the residents of your hometown empowered themselves. when residents of your hometown first got the rights to vote for local officials in 1974, you were already serving your second term in the senate. but you never forgot your hometown.
5:26 pm
you brilliantly served massachusetts and the people of the district of columbia today salute the people of massachusetts whose intelligent courage sent you to washington to serve their state and our country. you understood well, though, that the source of your values your ur character and confident determination are rooted in the district and you repeatedly introduced bills for home rule and voting rights for the residents of the nation's capital at the same time that you were leading the way on the great national issues of the day. opening relations with china, ending apartheid in south africa, the brooke amendment, providing that tenants of public housing pay no more than 25% of
5:27 pm
their income for housing. the fair housing act and so much more. it is massachusetts that sent you home here to give your talents to your country, but we in the district of columbia will always claim you, senator. so many of the nation's luminaries born and raised in the district of columbia from dr. charles drew who discovered to preserve and store blood plasma for blood banks, to duke ellington whose genius was nurtured in hometown d.c. beget before he gave his music in as a gift to the world. the country recognized your breakthrough achievements when
5:28 pm
in 2004, president george w. bush awarded you the presidential medal of freedom, which along with the congressional gold medal are the highest honors our country can give. the congress of the united states today gives you honor where you served. awards even to the least among us who often are characterized as historic, in the hyperbole of the moment today, but when senator ted kennedy asked the senate, and i ask the house, to vote overwhelmingly to award you the congressional gold medal, the senate and the house together demonstrated that we know a historic figure when we see one.
5:29 pm
however, senator brooke, the highest awards our country can offer are not given for being historic. they are given for service. your case, service to the united states of america and service to the people of the state of massachusetts and yes, nator, indescribably appreciated service to the people of your hometown, the district of columbia. would you join me in singing happy birthday? if it is not too hokie to sing it. ♪ happy birthday to you happy birthday to you dear edward
5:30 pm
happy birthday to you ♪ [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, the speaker of the united states house of representatives, the honorable nancy pelosi. [applause] speaker pelosi: good morning. what an honor it is to be here with the democratic leadership of the house and senate, the brooke family and the children with vicki kennedy and members f the kennedy clan, to be here
5:31 pm
with senator edward brooke, to be here with the president of the united states, as the congress of the united states bestows its highest honor to a great leader, senator edward brooke. [applause] i will now lead off an away of leadership, senator reid, leader mcconnell, leader highwayer, hoyer, leader boehner. we call each other leader. in a series of tributes to senator brooke in a very bipartisan way. bipartisanship
5:32 pm
applauded. on your last birthday, we were there to cheer on our bipartisan football team, democrats and republicans working as a team and leading them with that great teamwork to victory over a formidable foe. we had a democrat-republican eam win the day in that spirit of bipartisan in your honor. in 1967, that was the year senator brooke came to the united states senate. at that time "time" magazine noted him, he signaled a new style and hope as the first african-american popularly elected to the united states senate, senator brooke ignited more than four decades of progress toward the american ideal of equality. today, we also note, as others have mentioned, senator brooke's partner and progress was often his senior senator from the
5:33 pm
commonwealth of massachusetts, senator edward kennedy. may i also acknowledge the members of the massachusetts delegation and memberses of the house. it was ted kennedy who first escorted ed brooke into the senate chamber in 1967. he worked with senator brooke in a bipartisan way for their great state senator kennedy's legislation has been acknowledged and gave us the opportunity joining with congresswoman ellenor holmes norton in the south, gave us the opportunity to honor senator edward brooke today. he came to the senate after a distinguished career as we all know as a public servant and army veteran and leader in boston, the first african-american elected attorney general in our country, and yet, as senator brooke recounts himself, there were
5:34 pm
many who scolded his ambition and encouraged patience. he said he was often asked, ed, why the rush? why are you in such a hurry? edward brooke was a than a hurry for equality and progress on civil rights, on ending the vietnam war and on issues of national fairness such as increasing the minimum wage, ending discrimination in housing and ensuring affordable housing. today the brooke amendment, the brooke amendment, an amendment initiated by a republican senator that means something to all of the people in our country because it is synonymous, it signals a guarantee that public housing is affordable to all people. it is a cornerstone of our current federal housing policy benefiting millions of americans. we salute you for that, senator
5:35 pm
brooke. [applause] today we honor senator brooke for his impatience. we thank him for it. we acknowledge the impatience of senator brooke, that we move forward as a country. it is with the imparis that we get ever -- impatience that we get ever closer to the ideals of our nation's founding to form a more perfect union. today, as we convey the congressional gold medal to you, we extend on behalf of the entire congress, we all extend our congratulations and our thanks to senator edward brooke. thank you. [applause]
5:36 pm
ladies and gentlemen, the honorable patrick kennedy, united states representative. [applause] over the past couple of years, would just call and leave a message with vicki saying i just don't want to bother teddy and don't worry about having him all me back.
5:37 pm
mutual running mate and admiration and a determination to push america to live up to ts highest goals and ideals. challenges to build a more perfect union for the next generation of america and in a sense, and certainly in my own case, each of us today stands on the shoulders of giants. today senator brooke, we're acknowledging you as one of those giants. our president made history coming to the office of president of the united states with the promise, yes, we can. request our society is what it is today because people like ed brooke proved yes, we could.
5:38 pm
congratulations. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, the republican leader of the united states house of representatives, the honorable john boehner. [applause] john boehner: madam speaker, my distinguished colleagues, guests and our special guest today, senator edward brooke and his family. henry david thoreau, a the famous writer and poet from concorde, massachusetts, once wrote, if one advances
5:39 pm
confidently in the direction of his dreams and endeavors to live the life which he has imagined, he will meet his success unexpected in champion hours. during warmed wor ii, ed brooke answered the call of his nation. he served with distinction in the italian campaign. but before that, he had the duty of depending young black soldiers who were subjected to the rank mistreatment of segregation. ed brooke became a soldier's lawyer and those experiences shaped and inspired him to the call of public service. the commonwealth of massachusetts and the entire nation has benefited from ed brooke's service. he has shown bravery, commitment and wisdom in his whole life and we honor him today for that lifetime of achievement.
5:40 pm
ed brooke's life and service to america are greatly appreciated. by ending decades of exclusion, at some of the highest levels of our government, ed brooke helped reignite a spirit of hope that had dimmed after the civil war. president lincoln once said as our case is new, we must think and act anew. ed brooke is a dedicated public servant who broke down barriers and proved that america can act anew. congratulations senator brooke. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, the majority leader of the united states house of representatives,
5:41 pm
the honorable steny hoyer. >> senator edward brooke iii, an historic figure. a friend, someone to be used as an example. and we're pleased to have you and your family here with us on his wonderful day. [applause] vicki, thank you for being here. we know ted is here with you.
5:42 pm
on his arrival in the senate, edward brooke tells us in his autobiography, the same senators that spoke out so forcefully for segregation, were happy to invite me into their senate swimming pool. who did so much to hold back quality in this country. he said had no qualms about sharing their own pool with a black man. i'm sure ed brooke taught them a lot. >> if the senator truly believed in racial separatism, i can live with that. but if itp on to say is evident that some members of the senate random bigotry for political gain the senate was
5:43 pm
not alone. in that small incident, senator it can be how it easy for leaders to foster the worst in those they represent. to be the representative from fear, from suspicion and prejudiced. as long as there are legislators ,ho are find that path tempting as long as their legislators, our best defense lies in men and women who resist that choice. decent men, decent women who set out to represent the better people liker nature senator edward w brooke the third.
5:44 pm
this building, built in part by the hands of slaves, he made his name as a champion equal education, equal voting rights, social justice and most of all as he looked in justice squarely in the face he saw what was best in america and strove to represented. he succeeded. the first black senator took his seat in this building, his colleague charles sumner said this. today, we make the declaration a reality. halfeclaration was established by independents. the greatest duty remained behind in ensuring equal rights of all. we complete the work so said senator sumner. if he had only been right.
5:45 pm
quest for living out the true nature of our constitution and its promises as martin luther king jr. instructed us so well -- it remains an ongoing task. thetor edward w brooke third carried on the task effectively. our greatest challenge is to remain devoted to our nation's founding promise. even when we see it half established. the work for the day when it will be established in full. with thise honor you congressional medal of honor because you have honored the principles and values of our country extraordinarily well. god has blessed us with your service.
5:46 pm
thank you. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, the public and later of the united states senate, the honorable mitch mcconnell. >> i told senator brooke before we came on stage i had an opportunity to observe him during his first term as a senate staffer. back in the senate chamber. you could sense then that this was a man of historic significance. as others have said ever brooke is known to history as the
5:47 pm
senate's first popularly elected african-american man. this is an achievement well worth our notice. those of us who have followed this good man's career, know him for the qualities that our departed friend ted kennedy enumerated at the end of senator brooks distinguished -- distinguished tenor in the senate. we know him for being a model, his sensitivity, his courage, and intelligence. some were surprised when a black man was elected attorney general from the state in which 90% of .he voters were white the same people were surprised six years later when the only state in the nation that was difficult for next and reelected reelected by an
5:48 pm
overwhelming margin. it was not apprised to the people of massachusetts. they were sure from the moment he took office that he had their interest at heart. after that they knew he was honest. they knew he was fair. nothing else mattered. ofe is i one voter put it his performance on the finance commission. if he does not run for attorney general, i will write him in. he continued. the only thing i could sega's ad brooke is that he is better looking than i am. that is high praise from a politician. at brooke grove a few blocks from here in a segregated neighborhood. he would one day walk into the senate chamber to a standing ovation.
5:49 pm
much of the city around the chamber was closed off to him. it was a bitter irony that ever brooke made the most of it. he made integration his mission. edward brooke said he did not see the difference between black people and white people here she wanted to go to washington to bring people together that had never been together before. he wanted to break down the barriers between races. that is what he did. he brought down barriers that had stood for generations. he was a model for african-americans and to all americans of his day. with our presence today we show edward brooks has the power to bring people together. he is still bridging divides. that is a legacy to be proud of.
5:50 pm
>> the honorable harry reid. [applause] i mentioned earlier the first electoral wind of the massachusetts attorney general back in 1962. the road to the office was rocky as the coast. when brooke announced he would take the job the officials did everything they good to dissuade him. he offered him a judgeship, he said no. they offer jim lieutenant governorship, he said no. they told him he could not win, he said no, i can win. there was no dissuading edward
5:51 pm
brooke. he had good reason not to take no for an answer. him toars later they set represent him in washington for the state of massachusetts. soldiers fought fascism, lawyers fight corruption, attorney generals fight violence. remarkably's -- a successful senator. he thought for quality, transparency, peace. we are proud. what he accomplished in this building. he stood up to the supreme court nominees who rejected civil rights. he stood up for citizens who faced discrimination when i saw the place to call home. as cause was the cause of the poor, the elderly, the disenfranchised, and americans of every color. we are proud of his credentials. we are proud of his courage and
5:52 pm
his character. it is hardly easy for republicans and an .frican-american we honor him for succeeding as he did. we honor him for trying. he tried and in doing so said to a soldier named: powell, it's ok to reach for a higher rank in the military. he tried and said to a lawyer named eric holder -- it's ok to reach justice at the highest level. he tried and said to a young state senator from chicago, it's thirdbecome the african-american to be popularly elected to united states senate. , it's ok forsaid the same man to lead the nation. manyor broke encourage so
5:53 pm
people who honor him today, along with people who shaped our path. he's been giving this congressional george medal. to thomas jefferson, to george washington, you are in good company. senator brooks. [applause] [applause] [applause]
5:54 pm
[applause] >> thank you for your warm welcome. i havethe record to show turned on the sun for you since you came. politicians sometimes take credit for things they have nothing to do with. that after a rainy entry into washington, the sun is shining and you'll be able to , and this beautiful city this magnificent structure. the capital of the greatest country in the world.
5:55 pm
leader, how are you? , mitchcan leader leader, johnnority boehner. , oh, you areer back. my dear friends. ,nd the speaker of the house what a wonderful thing it is to have the speaker of the great house of representatives, and lady.
5:56 pm
[applause] >> i think that is progress. i do not think it will be long before a lady will be the president of the united states of america. [applause] >> patrick, thank you for your kind words. you came toful share this great moment in my life with me. you know how i feel about your family. i am he is notd on this platform today. in case you did not know it. this, he called me
5:57 pm
one day and said ed, come to my office. i would like to see you. i went to his office and he said we are introducing a bill to have you awarded the congressional gold medal. i was shocked, i was in all. pleased.e sure i was do not worry about a thing. you do not have to talk to anybody, you do not have to do anything. it happened. he had to get 76 united states senators as cosponsors of the
5:58 pm
only and poor eleanor had 290 representatives to get in the house of representatives. they were dauntless and they did their work. , the senatew that passed the bill, the house passed the bill. i get a call the other day and said there was a debate on the speaker, in order to use the rotunda of the capital for this location -- if you turn on c-span, you will see it. it will be a spirited debate, and it was. 417-zero.as [applause]
5:59 pm
>> if that is not a way to win an election, i do not know what is. it has never been that easy. this is been a perfect day for me and my life, if it weren't for the fact that my friend, my youngerenator, much than i would be here on this occasion. we do not control life and death. i am honored to have with us on this occasion is wonderful wife vicki who is such a wonderful person.
6:00 pm
[applause] you came from near and far. you came from amsterdam, holland. senate from the national . the distinguished senator came from france. others came from all over, from the caribbean, from california, from miami, from every place on earth i lived in. i have lived in a lot of places. , i am not going to say you have made a old man happy, you have made a young man happy.
6:01 pm
i have my family, my wife of more than 30 years has given me the best years of my life. [applause] my sons and daughters, stepdaughters, and grandchildren, cousins, aunts, so many of you -- i cannot begin to name you because it would take too long. when i think of the times the speaker have given so this and the other members of the senate intrudehouse, i cannot upon their job. me. is a heady thing for it would be for anybody. i love this country.
6:02 pm
born.the day i was i was born here in the nation's capital. 26th, 1919.he most of you are not there. -- most of you were not there. thing,s is not an evil it is a good thing, and when used properly it does good things. i think of the awesome responsibilities of the house of representatives, and the united states senate. us.e years that face , and wars we are in economy which has taken such a long time to turn it around.
6:03 pm
adequate safe housing that we promised the nation in 1949. a health care bill, which i am sure none of you want to hear about on this occasion. i will give you a break from it. i would not be resumption was to tell you what to do. i am sure you do not know what you will do yourself. you have awesome responsibilities -- not only to the country, but to the world. me a happy when you told few minutes ago that the republicans and democrats played
6:04 pm
ball last night. police,yed the capitol that was an awesome responsibility. won. at you when the republicans and democrats get together, they can do anything. [applause] the country is waiting for you to do anything. they want relief. you have that responsibility, you have the authority. you are the people on earth that are going to save this country and save this world. think about that. [applause]
6:05 pm
we can't worry about discouragement. you can't stand the heat, get out of the kitchen. we can't worry about that. mitch mcconnell. we can't worry about those things. we can't worry that you all can't get together. we've got to get together. we have no alternative. there's nothing left. it's time for politics to be put aside on the back burner. [applause]
6:06 pm
and we must lead by example and not by force. [applause] security is foremost. this nation must always be strong militarily. if for no other reason to protect itself. it's got to come first. but we've got to know how to use it. we've got to use our diplomacy more and more and more. we've got to avoid these perils
6:07 pm
before they come before us. and then it takes too long. we can't keep fighting wars. we've got hungry people to feed. homeless people. [applause] homeless and ill housed people o shelter. and young people to be educated. [applause]
6:08 pm
occasion, i applaud the congress for what it has done. our three branches of founding by our athers, our legislative branch is as strong as it wants to be. there's nothing that congress can do that it can't correct. nothing. they have the power to do it. the president is powerful but with the rsight congress of the united states. we are part of that. we must diciary,
6:09 pm
never politicize the supreme court and the judiciary system of this country. [applause] as eleanor holmes said, and i don't want to minimize this honor at all. but when she first told me i'll t, i said eleanor, exchange the honor if the congress will pass the voting rights act for the district of olumbia. [applause]
6:10 pm
eleanor said one day to me, she called me. when i e something -- turned 80, i was still playing tennis and riding horses in virginia and living the life. and then things began to happen to me with health issues. and my mother, bless her heart, lived to be 100 years old. and she said to me, just keep moving. don't give up. hang in there. do what you can. but don't stop. keep going. and i've tried to listen to her. as best i can. and eleanor called one day when i wasn't feeling too good.
6:11 pm
and i said eleanor, i don't know if i'm going to be able to make it. and she says, senator, you can't die before the congressional gold medal. [laughter] so i've kept my political promise to you, eleanor. [applause] like all of you, i wish i could call all of your names and have you rise and i would love to hug you and kiss you and so many things. you're friends. i love you so much. you're part of my family and extended part of the family. and i wish all of that could happen. but obviously it can't. but i want you to know how i am
6:12 pm
truly appreciative that you have come these distances to be ith me on this occasion. i'm going to conclude with the words of a hymn that i recite. my staff will tell you and i have the best staff in the world. know all of you think so. and some of these others with whom i worked, and they've been wonderful, becca daugherty and i could go on with these people, who did so much to make it happen. these words are god of justice, save the people from the wars of race and creed. om the strife of class and iction, make our nation free
6:13 pm
indeed. keep her faith in simple manhood. tronger than when she began. till she finds her full uition in the brotherhood of man. madam speaker, leaders of the congress, members of the ongress, my old colleagues, my family and friends, i accept deepest honor with humility and ever-lasting gratitude. god bless you. god bless our leaders. god bless the president. and god bless our country and this world. [applause]
6:14 pm
>> today it's journalest evan thomas on his book, "being nixon: a man divided." they look at richard nixon's early years and family life, including his marriage to pat nixon and the inner turmoil he experienced throughout his life. we'll also hear about nixon's relationship with political dvisors, friends, and staff.
6:15 pm
"q&a" airs today at 7:00 p.m. astern on c-span2. tonight on c-span3, a lock at congress in 2015. we'll show you the major events that took place over the last year, including the iranian nuclear agreement, john boehner resigning as speaker of the house, and hillary clinton's testimony about the 2012 benghazi attack. here's more from that event now. upe i'm reading what you said. plain language. we know the attack in libya had nothing to do with the film. that's as plain as it can get. that's vastly different than vicious behavior justified by internet material. why dent you just speak plain to the american people? >> i did. if you look at my statement as opposed to what i was saying to
6:16 pm
the egyptian prime minister, did i state clearly, and i said it again in more detail the next morning, as did the president. i'm sorry that it doesn't fit your narrative, congressman. i can only tell you what the facts were. >> that was just part of hillary clinton's testimony in front of the house select committee on the 2012 benghazi attack, taking place in october. you can see more from that event, plus several other 2015 congressional highlights tonight at 8:00 p.m. eastern on -span. >> c-span has your best access to congress in 2016. the house and senate will reconvene on january 4 to mark the second session of the 114th congress. on tuesday, january 5, the house is back from legislative work and first looks with paul ryan as speaker of the house. then on monday, january 11, the senate returns at 2:00 p.m. eastern. be sure to follow c-span ad
6:17 pm
capital hill producer craig kaplan on twitter for daily congressional updates. c-span, live coverage of congress on tv, on the radio, nd online at c-span.org. >> our guest on "newsmakers" this week is nicholas rasmussen, the director of the national counterterrorism center. he's held that position since last year, and he has spent his entire career in foreign policy and national security issues. thank you so much for being our guest. nicholas: thanks for having me. >> let me introduce our two reporters who will be asking questions. making his first visit, eric schmidt of the "new york times," covering national security. also being joined by damien, who covers national security for the "wall street journal." thanks for coming back. eric, you're up first. ic: there were some eve in belgium, as well as some success in ram adie and iraq. i wonder if you could take this opportunity to assess the state of isis, not only in iraq and
6:18 pm
syria, but in europe and the united states and the threat it poses right now. nicholas: you're right to point to recent successes in discussing isis or isil-related plotting. it is also clear we live in a heightened threat environment that is largely tied to either isil-directed or isil-inspired plotting in various places around the world. a lot of what we see gives us concern about isil's ability to inspire individuals in their own locations to carry out attack activity. at the same time, we also see indications that isis is looking to organize and direct plotting aimed at western targets as well. focusing specifically on iraq and syria, obviously the effort by iraqi security forces to retake ramadi is an important step forward in the effort to degrade, to push back, to shrink the size of the
6:19 pm
territory isis controls inside iraq. but as we said all along, at least from an analytical perspective, there's no single one action that is going to result in the degradation of the isis or isil threat. this is something that's going to take time. eric: can you tell us about the isil-inspired or isil directive? it seems like some of the counterterrorism model for al qaeda was to follow the money, but also to root out communications and intercept planning that might be targeting western targets. with some inspiration idea, which we sap bernardino, that sort of self-are radicalize, very different for you guys in terms of counterterrorism. how do you have to adjust to what do you in order to address that idea? nicholas: there's no question that the two different variants of plotting you just described of different challenges to the intelligence and law
6:20 pm
enforcement community. when you're dealing with an organized terrorist group that has the ability to direct and plan and plot over a long period of time to try to put particular plots in motion, well, that is potentially dangerous because of the complexity and the scale with which a terrorist group could carry out an attack t. also gives us many points along the way at which disruption opportunities are possible. the longer it takes for a plot to mature for the resources to be gathered, for the organization to put its plans in motion, the more opportunities exist for intelligence and law enforcement and military code to do what they do best, and that is disrupt plots like that. when you're dealing with the second category of plotting that you described, something that is more self-initiated, an individual who may be radicalized on their own, maybe acting in the name of a terrorist organization, if not with their explicit direction or explicit sanction, that's much more of a challenge to the law enforcement opportunity,
6:21 pm
particularly here inside the united states. you're not able to rely on the kinds of indicators, the kinds of clues, the kinds of tipping information that would give you an opportunity to play that disruption card at the right stage. i think you've heard the director talk about this publicly. you've heard secretary johnson from the department of homeland security talk about this as well. this is where we need the help from communities around the country. t is in cases like san bernardino, in cases involving our population of home-grown violent extremists. it's in these cases where the single greatest opportunity we're going to have to disrupt these kinds of plots or this kind of threat activity is when individuals in those communities recognize those signs and bring it to the ttention of law enforcement. eric: why has it been so difficult? why does it have such a strong pull this time? nicholas: if i could answer that in one 30-second sound bite, eric, i think we'd an lot further along than we are. and one of the challenges we
6:22 pm
face is that different aspects of that isil narrative appeal to different elements of their target population. some are clearly drawn by the attraction of the idea that isil is creating on the ground, facts on the ground, a fulfillment of a historical prophecy, something that goes back centuries, that now is the time for individuals to join that project as it takes shape. others are attracted by the sectarian narrative, the sunni versus shia conflict that is playing out in iraq and syria right now. others are attracted by the opportunity to engage in one aspect or another of the civil war in syria. and others are attracted as well to the idea of the sheer adventurism that comes with joining a military struggle with the chance to, in a sense, cut your teeth on the ground in an active war zone. there's no one piece of that
6:23 pm
narrative that i think is the single most prominent draw for isil's target population when they try to bring recruits to join their organization. and thus, our strategies have to be aimed at each and every one of those different motivating pieces. one of the things that i think will give us the greatest leg up in our effort to counter that isil narrative over time will be success on the ground inside iraq at retaking territories. that's why, as i mentioned a minute ago, the effort to retake ramadi is such an important issue, an important positive step, and over time, if iraqi security forces are able to expand the degree of control they exercise over iraqi territory, that will help chip away at the narrative that isil has right now, that it is a prospering enterprise. damian: that's not a short-term thing we can achieve, with iraq and syria, they seem to have pretty, you know, deep roots in
6:24 pm
some of these areas, and also i think we've heard that this allows them the place to kind of plan, both inspirational efforts on youtube or wherever, and also to possibly direct attacks. i mean, does that make your job harder to try to monitor both domestic plots and also international plots when they do have -- when they're able -- the iraqi army was able to take back ramadi, but when they have these big areas where they're able to broadcast signals, how much harder does that make your job? nicholas: clearly any time a terrorist organization enjoys territorial safe haven, and any safe haven of the size that isil enjoys right now, that presents a complication for us. it makes it much more difficult for us to get at specific terrorist operational cells that may be plotting and planning. it makes it difficult for us in some cases to collect the intelligence we need to collect and disrupt their plotting. so that's why we play such a
6:25 pm
priority on shrinking the size of that safe haven over time. as i mentioned a minute ago, i think there are some positive signs to point to on the iraqi side of that ledger, but even that side of the ledger is something that's going to take time. i think we've -- when you've heard the intelligence community speak about efforts to degrade or defeat isil over time, we've talked about that being a project that will take time, that there's no single set of steps that will result in an immediate turnaround of the situation, but that over time we've been able to identify some of the vulnerabilities and weaknesses of the organization that we can exploit, and those are the things obviously that are counterterrorism strategies are built around, those vulnerabilities. eric: when you look at the islamic state, it expanded to at least eight franchises around the world. how serious is this as a global threat versus some of these franchises that just rebranded existing threats and trying to take advantage of isis's
6:26 pm
notoriety? some have very tenuous ties back to the main headquarters. nicholas: i think it is, in fact, a mixed picture. you have the isil narrative being attractive to different extremist organizations in different parts of the world, as you suggest in your question. but in certain areas, i would argue that it doesn't necessarily add cumulatively to the threat that we face. it may be, in a way, be a bit of rebranding, eric, as you suggest. one terrorist organization or extremist organization simply reaffiliating i was with another. on the other hand, there are some areas in which isil is operating right now which give us particular concern. i would kind of lift up or highlight in that regard libya as being a particular concern. the isil branch in libya is one hat is taking advantage of deteriorating security conditions in libya and giving itself -- putting itself in a
6:27 pm
position to coordinate isil efforts across north africa, and that's of concern to us, because one of the things we've seen as libya has descended into civil war and political chaos is that it is very difficult for us to engage in the kind of counterterrorism operations that we would typically want to do when dealing with a threat like isil and libya. so that's -- i'd say, of the various branch or affiliate organizations tied to isil in iraq and syria, libya is the one that gives me the most concern. damian: there was a fierce debate in the past two years in this country about the scope of n.s.a. surveillance, and congress passed a law about six months ago that sort of changed, you know, the u.s.a. freedom act that changed the way the n.s.a. was going to collect telephone information, and it was supported by the white house, supported by both parties in congress. after the san better than deion tack and paris attack, there's
6:28 pm
been, especially on the campaign trail, some pushback maybe we shouldn't have gone that far, maybe the psychiatry less safe. can you offer your views on how -- whether you feel like you guys are going to need more flexibility going forward or whether you feel like you can work within the confines of this new law? nicholas: there's no question the u.s.a. freedom act provided a new frame work for doing the kind of collection of intelligence information that we find so necessary for disrupting and responding to terrorist activity. i think i'd lean on what the director said in some open testimony earlier in december when he said, in effect, it's too soon to tell in some cause. we certainly would not, as an intelligence community, have supported the measure as it was passed without confidence that we can make it work and that we can collect the kind of intelligence we need. at the same time, if over time we discover otherwise or if it turns out that certain kind of intelligence were or are beyond our reach because of the way
6:29 pm
this new frame work is being implemented, then i think there's an obligation on us to say so as well. at this early stage, there's nothing i've seen right now that makes me question that we can't operate in this frame work. eric: you've spoken in your public remarks before how this is a time where you're seeing more different kinds of threats coming from more direction, much more diffuse -type environment. i wanted to bring you back, look at the paris and san bernardino attacks to find out what has the intelligence and counterterrorism communities, what have they learned from these attacks? what have you learned about, if they do, one seems to be more the directed approach, the paris attack, whereas san bernardino, we now know the husband probably radicalized probably well before the creation of the islamic state. what have you all learned, and as you try to combat these into next year and the years ahead? nicholas: what i was i've learned is we have to literally be on our toes in locations all around the world and here at home, because we can't
6:30 pm
necessarily predict from which direction the next kind of threat will emerge. we still, as much as the conversation has turned in cent months to isis or isil-related plotting around the world, we still, in the intelligence community, spend a great time, effort and resources focused on al qaeda, focused on groups affiliated with al qaeda, what you would call more traditional terrorism threats of the sort we have been looking at in the period since 9/11. i tend to look at this as being additive or cumulative. as we add more and more it's not as if-year we're in a position to shed or subtract from that list as well. obviously we've had a fair amount of success. i've talked about it publicly as , at degradingbers
6:31 pm
core al qaeda operating out of pakistan and parts of afghanistan. degrading their ability to carry out complex attacks here in the west and that's something we should all take great satisfaction in at the same time, there's no question that al qaeda, particularly as it competition of with isis, there's no question that al qaeda and al qaeda-affiliated organization is are continuing to look for opportunities to carry out attacks against the west and against the united states. so i guess if there's a lesson learned here from paris and san bernardino it's that we can't really predict where and from what direction the threats we see next -- the threats might come from next. eric: do you feel that you can rely on your partners in europe now, given that in many ways, particularly the visa program many of these individuals are one step away from gaining entrance to the united states? you had plots right under their nose in belgium and in france.
6:32 pm
are they doing enough to combat these kind of extremists? nicholas: our european partners are clearly on a scale far different than what we're seeing here in the united states and over time i think they're going to have to make their own judgments about whether they have the right array of legal authorities, resources, money, all of the things necessary to carry out effective counter inside their own countries. i will say, if there's a bit of positive news over the last few years as we've dealt with the conflict in syria, the conflict in iraq, it's that our level of corporation over our european partners has deepened fairly dramatically. the sharing of information about individuals who may be traveling to the conflict zone in iraq and syria, the sharing of information about travelers and potential threats that our citizens and their citizens may pose to each of us.
6:33 pm
that information sharing is much more advanced than it was if we'd had this conversation 18 months ago. at the same time, your question has it exactly right, paris has rought to the fore, a set of questions about whether the europeans as a group or even individual countries are postured well enough to deal with the kinds of threats they're going to face. this is not something that's going to go away in some six to 12-month period of time. so i would expects you will see our european partners engaged in quite a bit of introspecs and self-reflection about how to deal with this. >> we're at the 10-minute mark. let me ask a question about the private sector and twitter and social media. twitter announced a new monitoring policy this week. i'm wondering whether that's something you welcome or whether that inhibits your ability to monitor? nicholas: i guess i would start with whatever help we can enjoy
6:34 pm
is the communication world almost on its face a good thing. the challenge of monitoring social media is an immense challenge. it's one of the things that i have found the most troubling about the kind of counterterrorism environment we're in these days. so much of the information that we find relevant to our analysis is now showing up in social media rather than in the usual traditional disciplines of human intelligence or signals. and that in some ways makes it more accessible to intelligence agencies to look at. e volume of that kind of information is so much greater than traditional television information has been, we're struggling in some ways to make
6:35 pm
accessible the information we have available to us. it's not possible for an analyst at any of our intelligence community partners to be monitoring and i put that word in quotes a little bit, monitoring the social media utterances of everybody who has an extreme ideology around the world. and yet, looking back at the attacks that have taken place, you'll often see signs that someone was radicalized in their engagements on social media. that's something we're going to have to build a little bit into our expectations in terms of what level we can expect from our intelligence community in terms of dealing with threats of the future. damian: you mentioned in paris how european countries are going to have to deal with a self-evaluation about whether they have the tools they need or whether they're looking at this the right way. is there something similar going on in post-san bernardino?
6:36 pm
is there a counterterrorism review under way where signals were missed or things you guys could have done better? a lot of americans are going to wonder this is the new things -- thing, attacks in the workplace that kill 20 to 40 people or are there ways we can tighten up it up in the united states to prevent this? nicholas: it's a fair question. every incident in which there has been a significant terrorism incident affecting u.s. interests overseas or at home almost is a matter of reflex. each of our organizations or the federal government goes through its own self-diagnostic what could have we -- have done better. i think this is an approach we've taken in the aftermath of or boston marathon bombings other incidents. what might have been noble or
6:37 pm
apparent to us if we were looking in the right police stations or looking harder? that doesn't necessarily mean you're finding a smoking gun showing someone made a mistake or that there was a government screw-up. it's about doing our jobs better and holding ourselves to an even higher standard for the next time. the incident in discern is -- san bernardino is an ongoing investigation and i'm limited in what i can say about that right now. i defer to my colleague comey and his colleagues. i would say there was a little bit of missed opportunities on the part of intelligence to get ahead of what happened in san bernardino. as i mentioned a few minutes ago in the context of talking about homegrown violent extremists, the kinds of activity we typically see homegrown violent extremists engage in is activity that won't necessarily be
6:38 pm
visible to law enforcement and intelligence. as a result, as i said a few minutes ago, our best opportunity to get ahead of that sometimes will come from relien -- relying on the community. . individuals who may have daily firsthand contact with the extremist to see abnormal behavior or identify changes in the wail someone is envaging -- ebb gauging with their peers at work or in a social setting. director comb illinois has talked about this we need help in dealing with this challenge, particularly here at home. i'm not sure we're going to be handed on a silver platter the kinds of intelligence that will tell us individuals are planning this kind of attack. eric: we've seen in a short span of months, terrorism rising to the list of the public's top concerns. we saw it play out in the
6:39 pm
republican debate a few weeks ago. people have expressed a lot more fears about terrorism now. are these fears misplaced in terms of having this kind of attack, the galvanizing effect we've seen from the attacks in paris and san bernardino? nick: i don't think i'm in a position to say that the public's fears are misplaced. i would say it's important to keep the kind of threat environment we are experiencing in some kind of perspective. one thing i can point to with great satisfaction is the degree of success we've had at minimizing core al qaeda, our most lethal adversary for the past several years. might be mizing their ability to carry out large-scale mass cambing event here in the united states and that's a significant achievement and something that ought not to be missed. at the same time the smaller
6:40 pm
scale but nonetheless quite fight thing attacks that isis has inspired continues to be a fear to the public at large and i understand that. but if you look at the threats we face, those episodes are still remarkably infrequent. and the number and frequency still relatively small. i would argue as much as we're concerned with isis and isil and the terrorist threat that the group poses around the world, including here at home, this is not an existential threat in traditional natural security terms and in some ways the kind of threat we're facing from isil is different from, but i would not necessarily say more concerning to me than the kind of threat we saw from al qaeda in the period after 9/11. it was interesting to not, at least according to some of the public reports, that the san bernardino pepper rate --
6:41 pm
perpetrator was in fact inspired by material that pre-dated the rise of the islamic state. one could argue that it's possible that attack might have taken place even in the absence of an isis or isil narrative being part of the terrorism discussion. these are per assistants threats that have endured over time. we are resilient. we have the ability to fight back, recover from these kinds of attacks. no, i would never minimize the sense of fear that people around the country feel but urge them to keep it in perspective. damjan: i was with a congressman a few days after san bernardino and president bush did something similar with 9/11, send a message to americans that what happened is not representative of all the muslim-americans.
6:42 pm
but i also noticed he nudged them they need to do a better job of both communicating with the u.s. government but also figuring out what is going on in anywhere communities. is that something the u.s. has been particularly good at, engaging with the muslim community or something that you guys need to be better at doing? nicholas: it's a constant work in progress and i think secretary johnson and his statue are to be commended in the work they're doing. what i have found is that it's literally a different conversation in every community around the country. what works by way of a conversation or an approach in new york city mavenlt work as well in los angeles or in chicago or in dallas or miami or detroit. so in we've of those communities, there needs to be some kind of dialogue between
6:43 pm
federal law enforcement and the local community in the form of religious leaders, community leaders, civic leaders to try to figure out how best to keep an ye out for extremeism -- extremists that might be present in the community. we're not perfect at this yet. we're expanding our outreach to these communities around the country. we could certainly scale up our efforts but i'm proud of the work we're doing in anywhere. >> -- yaren. >> that's it, we're out of time. we want to thank you for being with us on "newsmakers. nicholas: i appreciate it. >> thank you. >> our guest this week was nick rasmussen and our reporters eric schmidt of the knights, damian of the "wall street journal." i want to ask you so -- to
6:44 pm
explain in this pantheon of alpha bit that is responsible for keeping the country safe. what does the national counterterrorism center do? eric: it's a clearing house of intelligence coming from the various agencies. staffed by the intelligence communities, the c.i.a. and over places. its analysts are charged with trying to analyze this information across the varies agencies of governments, assess the different threats coming in and help to produce the products -- products for the president for his intelligence briefing. >> does it go to the president? damian: in -- if they have something urgent it will go to the president. the director deals with the whole pantheon of issues. >> so as the director described
6:45 pm
to us, a heightened state of threat which always sounds much more diffuse as the month progressed. what is the level of cooperation between agencies for sharing information at this point? how are we doing after 9/11? eric: when you get out in the field the corporation is quite good. you could have the military orking closely with c.i.a. operatives, including agents and other parts of government. it's here in washington that sometimes you see the turf battles break out over sources in methods, over money, those kinds of things. certainly that cooperation is better in the years after 9/11 but still needs to be improved across the board. dame: -- damian: we have, for example, syria, there are a
6:46 pm
bunch of countries that much different competing interests that all claim to be trying to fight the islamic state. that i think makes someone like nick rasmussen's job harder when maybe the russians have intelligence we don't have or the french have intelligence or have stopped collecting certain intelligence because of new privacy laws. there's going to have to be international cooperation but at the same time folks don't want the government to get too carried away with privacy stuff. > what is the thought in congress these days? damian: i think there's more sympathy in congress, given what happened in paris and san bernardino, though there are questions about how those resources are used. are we talking more tanks in places like birmingham, alabama or more satellites to sweep up
6:47 pm
intelligence? one of the challenges is because we're in a campaign season right now there's going to be a lot of debate on the campaign trail about having a bigger military, whether the n.s.a. or c.i.s. should have more powers. i think a looment of lawmakers are going to take their cues from what's polling well on the campaign trail. >> could you give us a sense of what 2016 looks like on this front? eric: first of all, as mr. rasmussen said, we need to closely watch what happens with iraq. will they build on what they have now and be able to push the islamic state out of iraq? big decision like fallujaha and mosul. then on the syrian side you have the u.s. assisting syrian opposition fighters. as he said, if you can shrink
6:48 pm
that territory. isis derives much of its funds from the territory, oil and other things. that will continue to draw in foreign fighters and support from around the world. >> that's it for our time. thank you very much for being with us this week on "newsmakers." >> thank you. >> thank you. >> tonight on c-span, a look at congress in 2015. we'll show you the major events that took place over the last year, including the iranian nuclear agreement, pope francis' address to a joint session of congress and john boehner resigning as speaker of the house. here's more from that event now. >> it's become clear to me that this prolonged leadership turmoil would do irreparable harm to the institution so this morning i informed my colleagues that i would resign from the
6:49 pm
speakership and resign from congress at the end of october. as you've often heard me say, this isn't about me. it's about the people, it's about the institution. >> that was just part of what john boehner had to say at a september news conference when he announced his resignation as house speaker. you can see that entire event plus several over 2015 congressional highlights tonight at 8:00 p.m. eastern on spann -- c-span. page, ay on our facebook we're asking what was the most significant event that happened this year in congress? several have posted their thoughts. katherine says the attempted destruction of civil rights in the united states. but traci posts, the ousting of john boehner for even hinting at compromising or working across the aisle on behalf of everyday americans. now we want to hear from you have. website to join
6:50 pm
the conversation. >> flee days of feeled programming this new year's weekend on c-span. friday night at 8:00 eastern, law enforcement officials, activists and journalists examine the prison system and its impact on communities. >> the primary reason we have prisons is to punish people for anti-social behavior and to remove that threat from society. to keep us safe, whether they're going to rehabilitate the prisoner or deter future crime, i think those are secondary concerns. great if it happens but the primary person for the prison system is to keep society safe from the threat posed by those folks. >> saturday night a little after 8:00, a race relations town hall meeting with elected officials and law enforcement from areas experiencing racial tensions with police.
6:51 pm
>> that's where it begins, because they get the job saying and do their job saying i'm protecting the public. their idea of the public are those who gave them their marching orders and that's us who need to look at all of this. when we talk about transparency we need to look at those rules they have to use to engage themselves with our community. >> and sunday evening at 6:30, a discussion on media coverage of muslims and how american muslims can join the snarble conversations and at 9:00, young people from across the crunalted kingdom gather in the house of commons to discuss issues important to them. > it will leave feeling people feeling disillusion ed. as a child i couldn't wait to ride a train. i looked forward to drivers
6:52 pm
honking. when we grow up, we see trains move their smiling faces and we forget to notice the switch swishing ands honking. >> for our complete schedule go to c-span.org. >> c-span's road to the white house coverage continues with republican presidential candidate marco rubio at a town hall meeting in iowa. he called for a constitutional convention of the states to establish a balanced bunt amendment and set term limits for members of congress and federal judges. introducing the senator is south florida congressman trey gowdy. in is an hour and 10 minutes. [applause] >> thank you, senator. this is going to be hard for me because they tell us in south carolina don't ever talk to somebody while your back is to them. it's going to take them about 30
6:53 pm
minutes to figure out i'm not going to be able to do that. if you see me turn around a lot that's why. i first want to thank you for your warmth, if that's the right word, and hospitality. this is my first time ever to iowa. in 50 year, i've been to lots of states. can't return to some of them until the statute of limitation -- but it's my first time to iowa. my wife told me to go buy a coat before i came. i did and she asked me last night you're wearing your coat, aren't you? isn't that stweelt? after 26 years of marriage she still wants to make sure i'm warm -- no, she doesn't want me to look like an idiot. two quick things. number one, i want to thank you for your courage and encourage you to keep fighting. what i mean by that is in south
6:54 pm
carolina it doesn't take a lot of courage to be a republican. every public office you can think of is a republican. there are no democrats left for us to fight with in south carolina so we fight amongst ourselves. iowa is different. it is the quintessential battleground state and it can go either way in 2016. and it may well be that the white house depends on -- upon what you do in iowa. i want to say thank you for the courage of being in -- a republican in a state where it's not always cool and encourage you to keep working heading into 2016. the second thing i want to do is talk about 2016. you have an obligation to analyze and investigate candidates for yourself. i did not come from south carolina to tell you who to work for. it's important to me that we ve in a nation that requires
6:55 pm
participatory democracy. you have a responsibility to educate yourself. i don't know what issues are important to you. i don't know how you prioritize those issues. how in the world can i tell you what you ought to do? what i can tell you is i've done exactly what i'm asking you to do. i've looked at the candidates and i know what issues are important to me and i know i'm going to vote in the south carolina primary for marco rubio. national security is important. the two most important things a federal government does is provide for our security. i'm looking for a president that does not jew as his main job of bracketing march madness tournaments or sampingling golf tournaments on the east coast. his main job is to provide for our national security. i've been hearing marco rubio talk for the last five years.
6:56 pm
he's an expert on national security. there is no one running for president that is more knowledgeable, more principaled and has taken the time to educate himself on issues of national security. so the three most important things in my life are my wife and two children and i'm looking for a president that's going to keep them safe. national security is number one. i include in that boarder security and interior security. i am the author of the toughest interior security bill you've -- you'll ever read. a sovereign nation has the right to determine who gets to come here, how long you get to stay and what we'll put you through to be here. it's a right to immigrate and sovereign countries have the right to determine who gets to come and who has the right to stay. we have the right to say like
6:57 pm
grandpa at christmastime, it's time to go, time to go home. if i were not 100% certain that marco rubio is committed and principaled on the issues of national security, including border security, interior security and employment security, i would be in south carolina right now and not in iowa getting ready to introduce him. trust me when i tell you i have done my research. i am at pales that he is the best candidates on the issues that matter mostsst -- most to me. do you care about fiscal responsibilities and a president that puts us on the path to fiscal responsibility he's your guy. if you doubt it, go gift exchange with him next christmas. i promise you he's a fiscal conservative. i got a copy of his book, paperback. the wrapping cost more than the gift. if you doubt that he is a fiscal conservative, exchange gifts with him next christmas. you'll find out that he is.
6:58 pm
he's also better at something that i am or ever will be. i heard him in 2010 speak on the message of conservatism in a hopeful, persuasive, aspirational way. and i'm a former prosecution. you don't want prferings -- prosecutors that are hopeful and aspirational. i can't do what he does. tim scott can do it, president reagan could do it, others can do it. i can't do it. you by know that hope is important. i was reminded of that when my i went to a fe and -- i didn't want to go but she said you have to go to your sister's wedding. it went and there's that same verse you hear in every wedding. these three things remain, hope, faith, and love and the greatest is love. we know that home and faith must be important to even be in the
6:59 pm
next sentence. it's ok to have faith that this next decade or century can be the greatest american century. it's also ok to be hopeful as you're delivering the message of conservativism. you you don't have to be angry and upset. you can be hopeful. so if you told me five years ago that i'd be in iowa getting ready to introduce the son of cuban immigrants, the son of a bartender, son of a lady who did housekeeping i would first of all tell you that's only in america and i would say are you sure that's where i'm going to with in five years? but i've analyzed the candidates and i have picked mine. you need to do the same thing. i hope and i think when you get through hearing him that you will reach the same conclusion and that he will convince you, as he has me, that he is our best hope in 2016 and beyond so help me welcome marco rubio.
7:00 pm
[applause] sen. rubio: thank you. thank you very much. first of all of me take this opportunity to verify family. they are here -- to embarrass my family. they are here. this is my daughter amanda. this is daniela. she is 13. she is on the news sites. we're so proud to have her with us. this is anthony, who is 10. he is the third oldest. we're so proud. this is dominique. i think one day he might stand on one of the stages. right? >> yes. marco rubio: and of course my wife, jeanette. we met in 1991. i think the first time i saw her
7:01 pm
she was playing sand volleyball. there was a cute girl in the bleachers. we met months later. somehow i convinced her to marry me seven years after that. we also have a friend. we have so many good friends that do not get to see snow. we're glad they are here. i want to thank all of you for being here. thank you. [applause] thank jack, the kampeter -- campaign chairman. he has done a phenomenal job for us from the beginning. has helped us get around the entire state. where so honored by his help and confidence. i want to thank tray for being here. he is a phenomenal look servant -- public servant. trey gowdy is trying to make a difference. a strong and principled believer in the constitution and the deliveries -- liberties.
7:02 pm
i am grateful for his testimony about the campaign. i am here today because i want you to caucus your -- caucus for me in iowa. it is the most and port in privilege we are given in this republic. it is the most important right to be able to choose our leaders. here in iowa, you place such a next ordinarily -- extraordinary role in choosing a president. when the country decides who will lead the nation in the aftermath of a barack obama, i hope iron that support. -- i earn that support. if you already are on our scene, our hope is to find more people to support us. i cannot emphasize how important this election is for america. this is by far, they greatest nation in human history. there has never been a country like america and the history of the world. it was founded on a principle
7:03 pm
that our rights come from god, not the government. on the principles that all human beings are equal in the eyes of our creator. therefore, that is why we believe that all human life is worthy of the protection of our laws. we were made the freest people in the history of the world. from that flows free enterprise, which made us the most prosperous people. the rest, as they say, is the history of this great country. a nation that for over two centuries has served as an inspiration to the world, and a place for millions, including my parents, came here in search of a better life. the history of america has no parallel. we are blessed to be citizens of the single greatest nation in all of human history. yet, despite everything america is and has done, there have always been these people in american politics have you america as a flawed country, in need of radical reform.
7:04 pm
people who want government more in charge of our life. they don't trust you to make the right decisions. they don't trust me to make the right decisions for my children. people that want more government involved in our economy. they believe that free enterprise is unfair. but only a handful of people make all of the money. everyone else is left out. they believe the only way businesses can make a profit is by exploiting workers and customers. people that have used those with traditional values with great suspicion. that has president said people with traditional values cling to their guns and traditions. people who think people with traditional values dislike anyone unlike them. we have had this view that america is a arrogant global power that needs to be humbled. we have had people that believe these radical things. problem is, one of them was elected president in 2008.
7:05 pm
a government takeover of our economy, our health care system, and now trying to take over our schools. you have an all-out assault on our constitutional rights. and of session with getting rid amendment, and of session with the eroding our religious liberty. aboutign policy that is betraying our allies, cutting deals with our enemies, weakening our military, and apologizing for america. the truth is, barack obama and hillary clinton do not want to fix what is going wrong in america. they want to change america. they want to change america. what you're left with is, instead of a president who has undertaken the systematic effort to redefine our country in every aspect of it. what you have now is a society
7:06 pm
where people hold views that they support traditional marriage, they call you a bigot and a hater. if you are pro-life, they say you are waging a war on women. instead of focusing on the people that are struggling and working harder than i have ever we have amaking less, president that is accessed with creating more government programs, oftentimes that benefit people at refused to work. isis is actively recruiting people to infiltrate into our country using the syrian refugee crisis as a cover. you say you want to restrict the refugees, they say that is hateful. terrorists beheading people all over the world. isis is crucifying people, carrying out attacks in paris and then bernadino. we have the runway risk of radical jihadist and the president thinks the greatest risk we face is climate change.
7:07 pm
we have the gutting of our military. have the pace to smallest navy we have had in 100 years. we are on pace to have the oldest and smallest air force the -- this country has ever had. instead of worrying about funding the men and women in uniform, we have a president who fords more time fighting funding for planned parenthood, for example. this is why people are so angry. this is why the people with a most money and the most endorsements that have been around longest are not winning. this is why people are so angry politicalated at both parties. this has been building for a while. is this why in 2009 when i just added to run for the u.s. senate, the entire republican establishment in washington was against me. i ignore them. year, why right now this when i announced i was running for president, any of the same people came to me and said, you
7:08 pm
cannot run. it's not your turn. you need to wait. wait until bought? i've -- wait until what? this is a time for action in this election. wrong,et this election there may be no turning back for america. that's why this election is so important. that's why i'm here today in hopes of earning your support in the iowa caucus. someone who clearly understands what we are facing and what we are dealing. and i do. no one running understands it better than i do because i have lived many of the same challenges our people are now facing. i want to know how is hillary clinton going to lecture me about living paycheck to paycheck, since i happen to grow up paycheck to paycheck. jeanette and i have had to live a check to paycheck. how is hillary clinton going to lecture me about student loans? i had over $100,000 of student
7:09 pm
loans just four years ago. jeanette and i happen to be raising four children in the 20th century, and we have to work harder than ever to ensure that our children grow up with the values they teach in our church, not those being ramped down our throat by hollywood and the media. we need a president who understands what our people are facing, and i do because i have facing themand in now. we need a president who understands the that me what must happen for us to reclaim america, reclaim the american dream, and make this nation greater than it has ever been. i understand this and will put it in place when i am in office. i will place my left hand on the bible and raise my right hand in to protect square and defend and uphold the constitution of the united states of america. i'm going to appoint judges and an attorney general who will respect and protect the
7:10 pm
constitutional rights of all americans, especially the second amendment and are religious liberty. immediately begin the work of undoing the damage barack obama has done to america. on my first day in office, i will repeal every single one of his unconstitutional and illegal executive orders. we will get rid of all these crazy overreaches by the employment prevention agency. we will repeal all of the overreaches. any work the federal government is doing on imposing, core, we will stop it. we have republicans out there who have supported common core. i'm going to make sure common core will never be imposed on our local school districts. we don't even need a department of education. we should close it and give it's important functions over to the treasury.
7:11 pm
[applause] on my first day in office, we are going to stop any and all taxpayer funding of abortion overseas. this is a bipartisan commitment the nation made that the president has reversed. we will change it on my first day in office and i will now that as president, i will put the full weight of presidency behind it effort to call a constitutional convention of the states. and why? i will tell you why. because that's the only way we will ever get term limits on congress and federal judges. that's the only way we will ever get a balanced budget amendment. that's why our founders created a mechanism in the constitution for us to take control of our government and our future. i will use the bully pulpit of the white house to push for and hopefully succeed in calling a
7:12 pm
constitutional convention so we can have term limits on congress and a balanced federal budget. [applause] i will cancel barack obama's deal for the ayatollah of iran. it is a betrayal of israel. when i'm president, we are not going to abandon free enterprise. we are going to embrace it. we will fix the tax code, they met in cap regulation and produce more american energy. that means solar, wind, bio you'll, oil, natural gas. we are bringing jobs back to this country but re-embracing free enterprise and creating the best paying jobs of the 21st century. every republican
7:13 pm
running is against obamacare. i'm the only republican running that has ever done anything about it. 2009, the big insurance companies cut a deal with barack obama and hillary clinton -- not hillary clinton, but nancy pelosi and harry reid. created a bailout fund with your money. a fund designed to bailout by the insurance companies who lost money under a obamacare with taxpayer money. they did that back in 2009. in 2014, i wiped out that halo one and we saved the taxpayers to billion dollars. there are experts now saying the loss of that bailout fund may ultimately lead to the collapse of obamacare. so.an only hope one way or the other, when i am president, we are getting rid of obamacare once and for all.
7:14 pm
trey touched on immigration. there is no one running for president that understands immigration better than me. my father was an immigrant. my mother was an immigrant. my grandparents were immigrants. jeanette's family are all immigrants. all of my neighbors or immigrants. i grew up in a community of immigrants. i still live in a community of immigrants. no one understands this issue better than i do. here's what i know to be true. enforcing immigration law is not anti-immigrant. countries sovereign do. they have a right to have an immigration law in the have a right to enforce them. when i'm president, we will. first of all, i understand the immigration issue has changed in just the last two years. it's no longer about new people coming here looking for a better life for a better job. it can no longer be a debate about what to do to get more votes in the next election. this has become a national security issue.
7:15 pm
terror groups are looking to use our immigration system to get people into this country. the issue has changed and so too must our approach. there was a time not long ago when people do not lock their doors. they lock their doors now. the world has changed. you don't lock your doors because you hate people on the outside, but because you love the people on the inside. , if we don'tident know with 100% certainty who you are aware you're trying to come, you cannot come into america. that will be the principle that guides us. we are not going to have amnesty. if you are a criminal, you are going to be deported. sanctuary cities that flaunt our federal immigration laws will lose federal winding. we will enforce our borders. border security is not rocket science.
7:16 pm
we know what it takes to do it and we will. we need 20,000 new order agents. we need at least $4 billion of new technology so we can identify people are trying to cross illegally certain sectors of the border. we need an entry exit tracking system to prevent these the overstays. if we do that, you will see illegal immigration, and control dramatically. don i'm president, we will it for the first time in 30 years, it will happen. on national security, it is the most important issue the federal government faces. are talks of how they will carpet bomb isis. they will make the sands of the middle east glow-in-the-dark. talk is cheap. national security is not. national security is the most important thing the federal government does, and being commander-in-chief is the most important role of president will play.
7:17 pm
you cannot kill terrorist or carpet bomb them if you don't have airplanes or if you don't have bonds. we won't be able to do any of that if we keep cutting the military. i don't understand how the commute republicans running for president who support these defense cuts and want them to go even deeper. when i'm president, we are rebuilding our military. we will ensure we remain the most powerful military in the world. and betters a safer place where america is the strongest military in the world. [applause] we will take care of our veterans. if you are a veteran, we thank you for your service and for being here today. when i am president of the united states, if you're not doing a good job working at the a, you will be fired. the benefits will be like the g.i. bill.
7:18 pm
the veteran will not have to chase down the benefit. you can take your v.a. benefit to any hospital, any doctor, any clinic, any provider you want to go to instead of the v.a. because these benefits belong to the veteran, not the bureaucracy. we will have a real war on terror, not a rhetorical war on terror. which means we will find terrorists wherever they are. if we happen to capture them alive, they will get a one-way ticket to guantánamo bay, cuba, and there we are going to find abouterything they know threats to the future. there is no middle ground. the sooner we take it seriously, the safer and better all we are going to be. i know that times are difficult and it is true that after seven years of barack obama, by the time we elect a new president, eight years of barack obama.
7:19 pm
it is true that america is a great country on the road to decline. but it doesn't have to remain this way. we are not a week nation. we just happen to have a weak president, and we are going to change that. that's why this election is so important. we cannot afford four more years like the last eight. that's why hillary clinton cannot win this election. we cannot afford to elect just any republican. it's not just a choice between two political parties. choice, agenerational referendum on our identity as a nation and as a will. the question before us is, do we want to remain a special country? or do we want to be a nation in decline, the way we are right now. i'm running for president, because while america owes me absolutely nothing, i have a debt to america i will never repaid. this is not just the nation i grew up been or was raised in or was born in.
7:20 pm
america is a country that literally change the history of my family. america did not become an exceptional country by accident. it became exceptional because for over 200 years, each generation did their part. they confronted the challenges and embrace the opportunities and let the next generation better off than themselves. for 200 years, each generation left the next better all. now our turn has come. the time has come for us to do our part. that's why i'm here today to ask you for your boat at the caucuses. if i am president, we are going to re-embrace the principles that made america great. run away from,t we will confront and solve the not leaveour time, them to my children and yours. we will embrace the opportunities of 21st century. if we do this together, we will
7:21 pm
not just say the american dream. we are going to expanded to reach more people and change more lives than ever before. does not havery to be as good as 20th century. we have a chance to make it better. so i hope that in the time we have today i can earn your support. i know of no greater cost than what we are doing in this generation. that is ensuring that our children inherit from us what we inherited from our parents, the single greatest nation in the history of all mankind. in a moment we will begin to take your questions. we have one microphone. is there a second one? we will be happy to answer any questions you have. work.get to who is going to go first? ok. yes, sir.
7:22 pm
nice hat. care, isard to obama on acutting the funding year basis, is that going to eliminate the actual legislation that was passed? is there something that needs to be done besides just cutting the funding? the only way to get rid of obama care is to pass a law that repeals it. when i'm president, i will sign that law. we can get around the filibuster in the senate. we can repeal it the same way they passed it. with a process called reconciliation, you don't need to know all the legalese a use in washington. we will have a majority in the house and senate that will pass it and i will sign it and
7:23 pm
obamacare will be gone. then every american will be given the opportunity to buy any insurance they want from across state lines. whether it's a refundable tax credit or money from your employer that you don't pay taxes on, you will be able to use it to pay for health insurance the way you want to pay for it. some people want a health savings account. others want catastrophic coverage. they can buy it from any company in america that will sell it to them. it will be better for you and better or america. >> as president marco rubio, which i would like to see, how are we going to balance approximately soon to be $20 rebuild our
7:24 pm
military, which we have to do. sen. rubio: national defense is the most important thing america does. we should fully fund our national security before we pay for anything else. it's why we have a federal government. it is not the cause of our national debt. ups president has built faster than any other president in the country. it's being driven by the way social security and medicare are structured for future generations. in florida there are a lot of people on social security and medicare. one of them happens to be my mother. i don't want anything to change for her that is negative. we don't have to change medicare and social security for her. we can leave them on disrupted for her, current retirees, people about to retire in 10 years or less. but is no way social security and medicare will look the same
7:25 pm
for me or my children as it did for her. it either goes ankara or we reform it. instead of retiring at 67, i may have to retire at 68. that is not an unreasonable request after what my parents did for me. it's not unreasonable reform. medicare can be the option of using medicare money and using it to buy private plan that you like better. we have versions of that now called medicare advantage. bring our debt under control, save social security and medicare for future generations and we don't have to disrupted for people who rely on it now or people who are about to retire. if we don't do it, the problem gets harder to resolve.
7:26 pm
>> when you become president, what are the chances you will name trey gowdy to be your attorney general? [laughter] >> i think if he is willing to no, he isemotion -- phenomenal. he would be great in anyone's cabinet. i'm not sure that's what he wants to do, but i have tremendous respect for him because he is a firm believer in the constitution of the united states. we desperately need an attorney general that believes in the constitution. it is such a unique document. other countries have constitutions. it is largely a document that says here are the powers the government has. our constitution is a document of limitation. it says here are the powers that belong to the people. the people have allowed you to
7:27 pm
have a few powers, and that is it. if the document of limitation. we have lost perspective. so we don't have a justice department that enforces the rights of all americans under the constitution. we don't have judges that do that either. we have a growing number of judges that believe the constitution is something to be manipulated, something to be creative with. that's the reason they gave us the constitution, so we would not have that sort of thinking. we need an attorney general that will do that. we also need judges that will do that. that's why we need term limits on the judiciary. there is no reason these people should be on there for the rest of their lives. we should have term limits for the president, for members of judiciaryand for the and we need to appoint people to the bench that know that their job is to interpret and apply
7:28 pm
the constitution, not manipulated or create loopholes in it. earlier yourned student loan debt. as president, how would you fight the rising cost of higher education? i feel personally committed to the cause of dealing with student loan debt. we have so many other americans who are inheriting thousands of oftens of student loans for a degree that does not even lead to a job. we will make it easier to pay back the loans people already have. we will have an income-based repayment model. i would rather collect $20 a month and nothing. you ruin your credit, you cannot buy house, start a business, or go on with your -- the rest of your life.
7:29 pm
they basically are with you until you die or pay them off. we will make it easier and cheaper to acquire college credit. we should have more competency-based learning. if you've artie learned something because you served in the military, you should give people college credit for what they've already learned. if you served two tours of duty in the middle east, why should you have to pay to sit in class and take a course on middle eastern affairs? we will create an alternative model that allows you to acquire that learning cheaper and faster. the third thing is we will have alternatives to the student loan like the student investment plan . it allows promising students to have their tuition paid for the same way a private group would invest in employees. it's better than alone because it does not sit on your credit
7:30 pm
report, and all the risk is on the investment group, not only student. this is particularly useful for graduate students. and we will provide you with more information. we are going to provide you more information. before anyone takes out a student loan, you will be told this is how much people make when they graduate from this school with a degree you are majoring in. so our students can make informed decision on whether the degree they are pursuing is worth their investment. it will provide ways for students to pay back their loans or perhaps even avoid them and not find themselves in the situation millions now find themselves in, which is unable to pay back the loans that have basically taken over their lives. dowdyould like to ask mr.
7:31 pm
, do you think there are any indictments coming down the road that might change the whole presidential campaign? mean one ofdo you our people are one of their people? let me say this. that's more my old job than my current job. i used to be a federal prosecutor and i was a state .rosecutor i'm not in a position to know the answer to that. i will tell you this, i have a lot of confidence and i might be biased toward the fbi. i worked with them for 16 years and i never once had a political conversation with a law enforcement officer. i trust the director and he's going to do his job, and he will do it well. i'm confident it will be an
7:32 pm
tocome for all americans have confidence in. but it is important -- i get asked this at the grocery store all the time. branch has its .ane the one reason i so desperately want marco rubio to win, but for conservatives to control the executive branch is for all the reasons the senator just mentioned. you pick judicial nominees, the attorney general, the united states attorneys. that's what the executive branch used to do. it's important that we went in 2016 but i trust the folks that are looking into that. they have more information than i do. sen. rubio: i would just say this. on thember -- i'm intelligence committee. if a member of my staff took classified documents and walked
7:33 pm
out of the building with them, they would be fired and prosecuted. just because you come from a powerful position or a rich family, it should not hold to above the law. if you do that kind of thing, you are de facto disqualified from being commander-in-chief of the united states because you are reckless and irresponsible with the most important information of the united states. i personally believe what hillary clinton did with her e-mail server is something that disqualifies her from being president of the. there is no way someone that reckless or irresponsible should be the commander-in-chief or president of the united states. [applause] >> to piggyback on your educational reforms of college.
7:34 pm
the last time i heard you speak, you had a very good plan or vocational-technical schooling. i'm wondering if you could share that with the people because i thought that was great. not everybody is going to go to college. sen. rubio: about 30 years ago or maybe a little longer, our public schools started lying to our students. they started telling them that vocational schools were not for -- were for kids not smart enough to go to college. these are incredibly good paying jobs that are highly complex and valued jobs. when i'm president, i will be the vocational and educational president. i will use the white house and the bully pulpit of the presidency to celebrate these jobs. these are the jobs that service the backbone of entire
7:35 pm
communities in this country. it is the loss of those jobs it has destroyed cities and towns across america. when you one for president, you drive through some of the cities and you see that been hollowed out because the factory closed. we need to bring more of those jobs back and train people to do them. the first thing i will do a celebrate these jobs that are just as good if not better than some of the four-year degree jobs. then we will make it easier for people. when i'm president, if you are a high school student and you are going to a high school or school system that does not offer quality vocational training, we will let you use the pell grant to go to a trade school while you are still in high school. that means the students can go to high school in the morning and in the afternoon, go to trade school. when they graduate at 18 years of age, they will not just be handed a high school diploma, they will receive an industry certification that says you are
7:36 pm
ready to work as a welder, pipefitter, electrician, plumber, to work in a factory. imagine a country where thousands are graduating from high school ready to work in these professions, what it would mean. that's what we're going to do. these are good jobs and we need to train more people to do it. that means we will have more people employed. [applause] we did a poll last week. i have completely lost the philosopher vote. .2% of the it's only voting electorate. that is a joke. saying i knowe by you have a lot of choices. one out of six republicans is running for president, so i know it's a lot of people. we have a very talented field.
7:37 pm
of our candidates is a socialist. none of them are under fbi investigation. but none of them understand what makes america special more than i do. something i saw on a documentary or even read about in a book. i listened. my parents were not born in this country. mother whenst his he was four days shy of his ninth birthday. at nine years of age, he stopped going to school and started going to work. he would work for the next 70 years of his life. he never made a lot of money. i parents never became rich or famous, and they were incredibly successful people, because they came to the one place on earth where immigrants with a limited education who were willing to work hard and sacrifice, to find a job that paid them enough to own a home, to retire with didn't he, and should leave all
7:38 pm
four of their kids better off than themselves. .- to retire with dignity no one running for president understands it better or will fight harder every single day not just to keep you safe but to ensure that the country your children and grandchildren inherit is the country are parents left for us, the greatest nation in all of human history. if you are ready to sign up now, we have forms here. we ask you to fill them out so we can stay in touch with you. so that in less than five weeks here in iowa we will take the first step in replacing barack obama and reclaiming america for our children and grandchildren. thank you all, and god bless you. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2015] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org]
7:39 pm
>> you can learn stuff on your own. if you can prove you have mastered a topic, why should you sit in a classroom? thank you so much. learning today is faster than ever if you are willing to open it up for innovation. thanks so much, and has been an honor to be with you.
7:40 pm
>> the way i proposed it is we will do a regulatory budget that --ld cap how much regulation on out agencies have to reduce regulations. it's a way of crunching down not just on the regulatory state. it's a mandatory budget. the same as the spending budget. it has to go through congress. if i win, we will have a majority in the house and senate and that means we will be up to get some things done. when i'm president they will get these things done when the power of the president is pushing them to do it. part of it is we are playing defense all the time. we will play offense when i am president.
7:41 pm
thanks for being here. willing, that's what we are working on. thank you. >> can you give some power back to the states? >> that's the only way we will
7:42 pm
be able to do it. money.like spending >> have you ever been broke? >> when we were first married, i was in that situation where you write a check on thursday that you dated for friday because your check doesn't clear until friday. way to get better is to feel that. how am i going to exist tomorrow? >> when we got married my biggest bill was student loan. there are people that make less than you and you know we are struggling. hade farm and after i
7:43 pm
children i quit my job to stay home with them. it was hard. the only thing i know today is i never want to go back there. successful in doing very well but we did it all ourselves. no support. >> there is always a bill that you did not expect. there is more to it than politics. >> i appreciate your enthusiasm. it.t is an honor to do >> i'm going to go home and tell my friends to support you. america to be broke, and i don't like trump.
7:44 pm
>> if we don't have a balanced budget, we will never bring spending under control. we are working hard and we feel good about it. thank you. thank you so much. thank you for coming. i appreciate you being here. >> what about countries like saudi arabia and pakistan? sen. rubio: they need to be held accountable.
7:45 pm
they have accepted no real significant number of refugees. they are not contributing to the issue we are now facing with isis. created some of the vehicles around the world by which people are being radicalized. we have a complicated relationship with pakistan. we need to be honest with the countries we work with. >> pakistani people do some crazy things. orn people get penalized punished for something they are not even involved with.
7:46 pm
sen. rubio: our quarrel is not with the iranian people. our quarrel is with the ayatollah. iran is a nation with an incredible potential. one of the most sophisticated people in the world with an ancient culture that is deep and embedded. it just has these radical leaders. >> i'm happy that you understand. we have a lot of information that is going on. in pakistan, the government may be coordinating with the u.s., but the problem is that people.
7:47 pm
people.e is the the problem is the government. 70% or 80% of the people, i'm not saying all of them. they don't get involved with all this. that is a good distinction and i'm glad you raise it. our quarrel is not with the people, it is with the ayatollah . thank you. >> thanks for being here.
7:48 pm
>> really like your ideas about student loans and making college cheaper. where it really begins to hit you is in graduate school. the other thing is that a lot of the families taking on loans, the parents make more than enough money so they don't get student aid, but they don't make enough to pay for it. >> how do you convince kids to get out there and work those minimum wage jobs to work their way through college? that's where parents and families and community come in. >> i agree, but hillary is telling a different story. in the end, all we
7:49 pm
can do is tell people the truth. i need to ensure that you have your constitutional rights to do that be respected. whataw can only tell you is legal. they cannot take you what is right. we have to teach our kids what is right and instill those values on what it takes to succeed. >> you have just totally convinced me you are the guy. sen. rubio: thank you, i appreciate it. thank you for your confidence. >> that vocational thing is great. i went to community college and became a carpenter and did real
7:50 pm
well. >> the bible says joseph was a builder. masonry and carpentry work were considered the same. >> thank you so much, god bless you. thank you so much. he knows how to do it. i worked with the archbishop in orlando.
7:51 pm
i probably see him a couple of times a year. every now and then he comes to washington. he is a good man. >> i'm going to work for you. >> when are you back in iowa? sen. rubio: monday, tuesday, and wednesday. we will basically be here the whole time for the next few weeks. >> thanks for coming today. we need more action on climate change.
7:52 pm
i hope you will start supporting climate change. i support the american innovator finding ways to make us more efficient and cleaner. >> we need action on that. we have a lot of hope for that. thanks for sharing. thanks for having me here. >> they come back with
7:53 pm
undiagnosed injuries and other things they face. part of it is the v.a. system is not very efficient with regard to mental health care. there is a stigma associated with it. that is why we need a modernized the a. a lot of times things manifest themselves later. thank you for that.
7:54 pm
>> part of it is rallying around the big issues of our time. thing i will do as president is not try to pick people against each other. the key is to have a president who's willing to work on behalf of all americans, including the ones that don't agree with him. i've always done that at every level of public service and i will do that is president. we are a free society and people are going to express themselves but i will make sure as president i am a unifier, not a divider. i will never try to pick americans against each other. great hat, do you want me to sign it?
7:55 pm
i appreciate it. one reason why manufacturing struggles in america is workforce issues. if you have a president who starts telling americans there's nothing wrong with being a long-haul trucker, a welder, pipefitter, software designer, these are good jobs. thanks a lot.
7:56 pm
thank you so much. thank you for coming. you are fired up about the rose bowl? >> absolutely. is that a night game at 7:00 p.m.? you guys came within seconds of being at the orange bowl. seconds away from playing in miami. good to see you guys. >> it's an honor to have you here.
7:57 pm
>> a truly feel you are the right person and i'm glad you are running. sen. rubio: we have another stop, yes. hopefully we will see you again. thank you so much. >> we have a medical transport company as well. we have a third company we are getting ready to launch in everywhere it. we need to have a
7:58 pm
government that makes it easier for you to succeed, not harder. >> we are in the process of reorganizing. sen. rubio: everybody will be treated the same. no one will pay more than a flat rate of 25 and every penny you invest in your business you will be able to write off. >> that is wonderful. sen. rubio: thank you so much.
7:59 pm
8:00 pm
>> tonight, on c-span, a look back at the year in congress. and then, a discussion of the top political stories of 2015. afterwards, a congressional hearing on the future of automotive technology. on the next washington journal, a look at the year ahead. the challenges and priorities of congress in 2016, the november elections, and domestic and international issues. conversation by phone or on twitter.

104 Views

info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on