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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  January 1, 2016 2:00am-4:01am EST

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>> appreciate that, mr. o'connell? >> a similar protection is the up and out. people have the option to not share any of their data with us. wen they do share it, atomize that dead and aggregated as such and not only can you not data but wethe aggregate it as such that you is to that's the intent increase principally safety of the vehicles. >> hopefully will hit all of us. that related to other tech privacy protections. normsgeneral, the privacy
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in the united states are driven by different standards. also at the heart of the regulation in this area which over time has become more expensive, not just to deal with expectations that are explicitly articulated, but those that are normative. >> is our recognize myself here, can you tell me what that is? dedicated short-range radio connections. it was an safety messages between devices. >> this is being developed by the department of transportation? --and a whole bunch of agent ultimate soup. agencies, suppliers, manufacturers. andere is my concern, dod
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va spent over half $1 billion electronicet to health records to work together. this four years they said is really hard, will have to go to separate areas. now we talk about being in industry where you have so much private sector investment, why are we even thinking about the federal government getting involved and doing this? a standard hasn't developed out of the private sector. the thing is probably going to work a little bit better, do you have some opinion on this? >> we do. >> i would like to hear them. >> i shared it in my testimony consummately are technologies being developed, gncluding advanced lt and 5
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that we can't tell which will prove most effective. so we think having the ability for all of those, including dsrc to advance but without a thumb on the scale for the department of transportation. >> why do we think that department of transportation should be doing this? why would this be helpful in the concert of interconnected cars? i appreciate you talking with the safety concerns related inter--- two interconnected cars. >> i think there is a misconception about the proposal level. we are writing a proposal to make sure everything is needed to support communication between vehicles. at some point in the future, data comes in that shows there is not the technology that can meet the safety potential -- i think tesla is doing it. has even tinkered with this. none of those comments came
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in. not one person responded back saying this technology shouldn't be mandated. makingi think we are that with an open mind. it is just a proposal, the idea that we will get comments and evaluate where we are. the whole notion of going this step is to take it out of the research where it is been for so long. dearsolutely, i had friends in a recent car accident and that was a fatality. -- therethat hit them breaking involved. i think the technology tesla is developing, i want to see this as we as possible. my question to you is, is there any barriers that are preventing you from moving faster on deploying the technology? human i think it is just will, and open communication
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both between the parties here at the table and with government bodies so that confidences obtained all around. we used the convenient power of our separate agencies, and share information. that is what will solve this problem. can protect more citizens, the survey great thing for all of us. my question to you, this is from you having your hat as the new chair of the auto -- have you been given any information and brief in an thing of known attackers targeting specifically vehicles, types of vehicles, russian organized crime is that creating focus on getting access to vehicles.
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have you seen that kind of information? >> i am not actively involved in isac myself i can't get that information to you. awaret about you, are you of getting access to legal information? >> at this moment, no. >> one of my concerns is that i did this for a living. on trains and subways. we have to know the threat is. this is why i think this c istion of the auto isa important. the federal government should be sharing as much information as it possibly can with the private sector to protect itself and protect consumers. if you are not getting that, let me know. office ofint is, the
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personnel management had difficulty protecting the requisite 23 million people. audacity to not even say "my bad" when they sent out the letters that said you were compromised. when some of these issues have arose with the auto industry that i got a letter pretty quickly talking about how you fix it. there was a responsiveness that i wish the federal government had. concerned i am always inn we put too much faith federal agencies to protect our information. where we need to work sureher to make entrepreneurship is allowed to grow.
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quicki can make a recommendation for legislation pending for quite some time. it is long overdue, and to be helpful here as well. would like to recognize my colleague from virginia, mr. connolly. >> welcome to the panel. maybe, can you tell us the difference between autonomous and assisted vehicles? >> and common nomenclature, the idea is that an economist vehicle doesn't necessarily will -- autonomous vehicle doesn't necessarily rely on communication. it is truly not connect to another car or communication -- or to a driver, correct. assisted by communication or by another -- driverless also be
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in that sense? >> yes. >> i represent northern virginia, national capital &mgion as measured by a mobility scorecard now has the nation's worst congestion. as measured by these metrics -- 82 hours stuck in traffic every 35 gallons of gas wasted idling every year, and at least me every year.ti talk of these technologies assist a region like this with arguably the worst congestion? >> yes, so first of all of the backtrack a little bit to the chairman questions about, and let me say on behalf of the industry and gm, private industry is investing a
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substantial amount of money greater or equal to the mother money the government is investing in this technology. view this as, mentoring to the onboard sensor technology that are also being used for many of the safety systems. advantages today of being the only technology we know of that meets all the latency requirements to be able vehicles talk to each other in time to prevent a collision or crash from happening and works for bad weather. those are the advantages we see to dsrc, if you take all of these collisions, all of these technologies, any time that we can prevent a crash from happening we get the benefits of
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all the congestion that happens when you have a crash. >> i conceded that, but that is not my question. i think we have covered safety and i concede that. you talk about i'm not in control, what if something happens, well 94% of current fatalities are due to human error. surely we can do better than that. and we can reduce i think significantly -- seeing better already with advanced driver assistance systems. >> but how can it work in helping to alleviate and better manage congestion? that was what i was getting at? system,u take the whole certainly as we bring the andastructure into play, traversing was become more aware of what cards are flowing in what direction, they can time
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themselves to optimize the traffic flow. , beingous vehicles better control than by human operators, will be able to follow each other a little bit more closely. in a safe manner, and therefore make more efficient use of the roadways of the already have -- instead of having to continually have add lanes to our highway system. >> i want to give mr. logan seen -- loebenstein an opportunity to come in here as well. this is the nations capital, we are not very good at deploying technology currently. in terms of traffic management, not much. i have been involved in local government for a long time. japan, they're light-years years ahead of us in the deployment of technology for managing traffic control. have technology
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deployed already for improving traffic flow. if we look at the traffic informationtraffic was provided one way to vehicles here years ago, now they understand they can communicate back and we know real-time when there is traffic and weather is traffic. i think expanding the thennication allows us to improve routing which improve it improves productivity for businessmen to think about delivering goods and services. it has the capability of improving emissions as well. youtube was a great video that shows 20 cars put on a race track with individual drivers all given a green light to move at a certain time at a areain speed, human systems not great as you know. , myastructure is also hard comments are mostly within the context of tesla. driveralready fielding
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systems, what we refer to as autopilot. it presumes that the driver is there and at the hands are on the wheel. a low-speed environment such as congestion, and vehicle can modulate its own position and traffic and keep traffic flowing. it is tempting to think this or technology could be of limited rapidly across the fleet, it is too bad the connectivity doesn't exist across the fleet. at a think you'll see it incremented more quickly over time. >> just at the end, i think what is hopeful is how rapidly we already are adjusting to new technologies that assist us. on our own where getting on this and finding out what is the better route because of congestion. i can even look at reports coming from what is causing the congestion. s has revolutionized -- i have
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to explain to my young staff what a map was. we have become hooked on that already, it is an efficiency. i'm confident as we advanced technology at think we will adjust. like is a mature being here. to recognize the chairman of the full committee. mr. -- for being here, this is one of the most exciting part of our economy. this is somewhere where we can lead to world, and can real jobs on people's lives as long as the federal government doesn't come in and screw it up. we are been prone to do that in the federal government. one of the raging discussions and topics we will have to do in the station in light of the horrific terror attacks in europe and what we have a furtherd here is discussion about encryption.
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i think one of the big questions before our nation is how much security, will we give up in the name of security? it is a difficult question when these he loved ones on television being killed, it is a difficult thing. i want my neighbors and friends to be a safe and protected as they could be people who are wanted to cause them harm. if you could address the whole encryption issue, how does it really work? you really can't create a key for just the good guys. it's either encrypt it, or it is not. give me your perspective on that. thanks for the question, i
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would start by saying that people that i work with are patriots. so they were sickened by what they saw in paris, as everyone else in this room. the context in which we are this conversation speaks the issue. aboute are talking security and safety, and corruption is an important tool. the conversation is not either or, it is how we advanced security with encryption as a tool and make international security is protected. i think that are ways to do that. thatnk a folly is to think creating backdoors or making keys available to just some people is absolution. if you create vulnerabilities, they will be widely exploited. to thet you just give it guy the genius bar, and your wife, and call it a day?
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explain come to the person not as familiar with this how this works. challenge to the person just giving in to the person of the genius bar bars the same challenge we are talking about with 90% of traffic accidents. person entrusting one who may be vulnerable to being compromised with the security for everyone. that is the problem with empowering the guy or gal at the genius bar. you are creating a vulnerability that could be widely exploited. >> the city when of 20 addresses of the panel here? probably not. >> it is an issue of philosophy right? none of us has a new group was a tory i think open systems are
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ultimately the best systems to innovate and to protect. it is a dynamic process, but it hopee where i guess you either in the inherent goodness of man or the inherent badness of man. i prefer to vote for the former. i think that it is the minority that are malignant. and a truly open system where innovation is encouraged, where there is sufficient penalties for malignant behavior, you will see a net positive benefit over time. >> i think, as members on this this, 99% of with our population that does deal with things in a safe and secure way are good, honest, decent people. i think the bigger obligations to protect them as best we can. certainly, there can be carveouts for law enforcement need to fear probable cause.
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type ofave a terrorist activity going on, of course there are things -- whether geolocation or other types of things they should be able to tap into. if you are a suspicionless american, someone leading a good, decent, honest life, i think you have an expectation of privacy in this nation. that will certainly come into wit cars, butc with the internet of things. this will be one of the big question to be all have to deal with. issueswe approach these has to be grounded in something. what they need to be grounded in its our values. thatof our values here is we act consistent with laws. there are certainly legal frameworks for gaining access to that information.
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lawill work with enforcement to ensure our national security is protected. at the same time, there is a fundamental belief that people's rights will be protected as well. we have figured out how to strike that balance, and will continue to do so. that is partly why we are viewed the way we are around the world. >> may i just onto that, and other way in which to ensure growth -- both privacy and security escorted that into the cars. more privacy protected would be enhancing techniques which are minimize or eliminate the need to collect personally identifiable information. so that when there is a report of a malicious hack, those that need information are only getting the absent of -- absolute necessary information about moving the personally identifiable information. it is not important what she was
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speaking inside the car, where she was going. i do hope members are able to look at the geolocation legislation that we have here that you would need a warrant or trackion certainly to some of geolocation. i do think that is the content of their life. >> two other members have questions? >> i would like to take up a little bit where the chairman left off. thatutomakers testified they are very careful with the information that they collect. reading your written testimony, i'm not sure that you would agree with that. there is a lot of information that is tracked. i haven't turned up geolocation on my phone, this is my veterans day map.
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was, i canerywhere i slide over and it tells me i got into the houston airport and was there for 32 minutes at 4:00 in the morning. shower, ie and took a lexington, iss welcomed some bicycle riders. i then went to applebee's degree some betterments. it notes everywhere -- veterans. it knows everywhere i went. this is turned on by default in almost every persons phone. i would imagine the cars collected the same information. unless i am aggressive about turning it off, or telling them a don't want it shared with marketing partners i will is in the pop up saying you are near a water burger, why don't you stop? informationot of
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that is out there. do you want to comment on that? always advocate for stopping at water burger, but repeatedly fails consumers. this idea that there is such an information asymmetry that auto manufacturers and third-party services can gobble up all the information. and that the consumer isn't he unaware. when we're looking at the privacy pledge, the consumer doesn't have any type of choice. enough for theot consumer, that is why we need some kind of standard. where the consumer love guaranteed privacy protections. should not be on the consumer to turn off her location information at every single subset. when you look in the cars buy act, there was a provision that
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would allow the individual to turn off data collection should she choose, but still retain the functionality. >> how easy is it -- we can talk about hackers, ballistic about the government. how easy is it for the google, orto contact tesla, toyota, and say i want information for xyz person. do they need a warrant? what do they need? >> it would depend exactly what type of personal data it is. some of it may be protected under statutory provisions. but, in the absence of full on protection for all of the types of information that is collected not only by auto manufacturers but third-party services, that is why there needs to be -- >> it could eventually be subpoenaed by private parties as well. >> easily.
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insurance companies, marketers, that is some provisions to prevent marketers and getting it as well. -- do many requests they they get a year? number,ot aware of the but we have a long-standing policy whenever we get requests we require either a court order or a warrant. >> we have that same policy. we will not give away any customers private information unless there is due process of law. >> thank you very much. we talk about encryption, and all the technology in the cars and the computers. we look at -- we also created a system where we are now making it difficult for us to repair our own cars, to modify our own cars. the industry of
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being able to kill the industry for our car because it is all automated for the gps system. recently a case for john deer tractor with a could let them fix it same copyright on the security and the anti- circumcision made it illegal for the to fix it without going to a john deere dealer. we see the death of the corner garage. whether it is bigger tires to jack up your pickup truck or do things to enhance performance -- >> the example you gave is a great example of regulatory processes working. every three years the copyright office has to evaluate the dmca to enjoy the good faith
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resources can be advanced. recently, the copyright office said that as a part of doing good-faith research you can do so on a car. and get beyond the encryption systems. it is a great example of an agile system working effectively. >> my concern is you never really on your vehicle because there is so much software involved. you made the licensing software that could become a brick that if you tried to modify it or transfer it. >> we can't have it always. we can't say we want connected cars, and be secure and safe while the same time saying we want everyone to be able to get into that and be able to stop it while it is moving. think he is saying we want open sourced software so we can see what is coping in and in control. where's the line?
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>> to be clear, i did necessarily advocate for open source software. i do advocate for an open system of improving software. that is an important differentiator. the last, that there are models that posit people don't even want to own their car anymore. this may no longer be a problem which opens up the possibility that there are others. >> i appreciate your comments on that and yield back. >> and the other questions? in closing, i'm sitting here thinking my wife is a pretty ofrt lady, and she does all the computer work at the house. onng the bills, everything, a sunday afternoon she is on the
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computer. she gets a call for microsoft service center. they ask for some information. she reluctantly kind of gave it to them. the next thing we know her .omputer is locked it is an extortion attempt. i found out they were pakistanis , i'm a member of congress. we have a whole communications network, with the capitol police and access to the fbi. basically, they told me that you are screwed. and it was extortion. i can see extortion to you can , this showsar happen with our little home computer. it was interesting, we bought some of the software.
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she found of the software company that they keep another locked protection behind that. release actually can the system. think weget toyou to have incredible capabilities. i was in a general motors car, device -- i just spoke at gonzaga high school. i told all those teenagers what is coming. they were aghast. the things you can do are unbelievable. our biggest -- i was paying
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attention to the paris terrorist threat. those kids get in a car, and that is the biggest cause of death for our teenagers. fromve gotten deaths 43-33,000, a huge percentage of those our kids. the devices i saw was pretty astounding. how you can control that. the question more than the comment is -- private sector has come up with some incredible innovations. standards andg trying to protect the owner and the consumer. you have a good association bring together, trying to folks together. i'm anxious to see your report. i get to said it was just turned over. , likeope of government the chairman said, we usually over legislate and over
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regulate. trying to get it right, you want to also protect rights. i hammered on dot because i -- it is now three years ago i said let's see where we are going with this. i tried to set a schedule. that hasn't been adhered to. bitter frustration in that. it is complicated. they need to work with you. the towns like, for the most part, they are. we don't want them to come out requirements,, or mandates that-- are obsolete. by the time we enact them, sometimes they are an overreach. that is a challenge we face. in closing, and the quick
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guidance on how to proceed? i want to hear from the private sector. i know we are going down a certain path. what do think the proper role of standards, i the tried to get a biometric standard after 9/11, that was three times i put in law biometric standard. i think we may be there it is 12 years later. they're very difficult to nail down. changing technology, you have to try this. it is like trying to change the wheels on a vehicle that is moving down the highway. tell me, how you would like to see this unfold? the three guys representing the companies that actually produce vehicles.
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>> thank you, mr. chairman. with all due respect, our industry can't afford to wait for government. we are not doing that. we are investing a substantial amount of resources and energy into innovating. will make our products safer, and make them more enjoyable. again, i have to nail you down. what is the proper role of government? regulation, law, -- >> i think our industry has shown time and again that we can, and do work well together. i think the industry needs the freedom to innovate, and to do that work. >> who in government would you at -- should we leave it dot? how should it be structured?
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>> for the federal level, we work well with them and have proven we can do that. think in this space, obviously the federal trade commission is active in this space. we have begun to work with them as well. we will work with whatever agencies congress decides are the ones that need to be involved in this. >> if i could interject, -- >> after i hear from others. i didn't really get a real handle -- we haven't even really talked about the ftc. let me hear your take. >> first of all, we appreciate the work that has taken place between the auto industry and it's a so far. it is a 15 year long road to get to where we are.
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we think really good technology that is ready to go. once we get this spectrum mission close i think we can move forward with that. dsrc promises a safety alive. we look to be missed framework and think that it is a good agency for us to partner with. as an industry, to create the same types of best practices and self guiding principles be of already done in terms of the privacy and security. anothere level, and level. principle, issues of it is all about incentives. no one could be more interested in our own survival, especially as a small, young company that we are. putting the right incentives in place is key. whatever we do, whatever agency it resides in, we need to foster
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innovation and share it. but in the proper incentives in place to innovate, and to share. of how thisive case could proceed was advanced emergency braking. rather than resisting the impulse to regulate, they foster the development of the technology. then encouraged the deployment of that technology and did so as far as i know without the benefit of any sort of regulatory knowledge. the hazard with standards is in a long process you move towards lowest common denominator. that is to be encouraged in some cases, but the standard-setting process -- but not wholly appropriate in innovative arenas like this. to the agencies, i don't have any particular point of view. the only thing i would adds one of the real challenges here is that these are crosscutting impact multiple agencies. one way that congress can certainly help is bringing order
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to that for making sure there is greater coordination among all the agencies. it is not to suggest anything the cut out, but congress can play a critical role in making departmentc, and the of commerce are working with each other to achieve the things we all have in mind. again, you did a very good agendaing us your recommendations. thank you on the privacy side. thank you for participating. i look forward to hearing back and seeing some of your plans. do is leave like to the record open for ten days. we may have additional questions, others we didn't even get to.
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without objection, that is so ordered. again, i'm looking forward to having a report on the other items we requested today. you, each of you, very interesting. and we made10 years such incredible progress. thing ato do the right this important juncture. that is bringing out these issues. need to go is important. if there be no further business , we wille subcommittee adjourn. thank you. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute,
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which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] >> on the next washington journal, we look at the year ahead. you can join the conversation by phone, or on facebook and twitter. live every morning at 7:00 a.m. eastern on c-span. >> this new year's weekend, american history tv has three days of feature programming. beginning friday afternoon at 3:10 eastern, pamela smith hill, girl"itor of "pioneer discusses the life of laura ingalls wilder. chose to write about people, places, and members that were not only important to her resonatey, but would with the delta leaders in the early 1930's. pioneer girl,
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indeed contains the dark scenes of domestic abuse, love triangles gone awry, and a man who was himself on fire. evening, james swanson compares the assassination of president abraham lincoln and john f. kennedy by highlighting the similarities and differences between both tragedies. absent a clock, the 1965 nbc's meet the press interview with daniel p moynihan who authored a report on the causes of black poverty in the united states. >> i believe what president johnson said, you cannot give a man in chains for three centuries then say ok, you're free. people have to be given the opportunity to compete -- i believe that we should make a special effort. a visit to pershing
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park and washington, d.c. do hereby proposed designs for a new national world war i memorial. for its upcoming 100th anniversary. our complete holiday schedule, go to >> c-span takes on the road to the white house. the best access to the candidates at town hall meetings. we are taking your comments of twitter, facebook, and by phone. always, every campaign event is available on our website. >> democratic presidential candidate bernie sanders held a campaign rally this weekend in las vegas area. critical of donald trump.
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senator sanders: las vegas, thank you very much. this is a fantastic turnout. i thank you all so much for being here tonight. [cheers] me thank ryan and rodney smith for those very generous introductions. let me tell you a little bit about what this campaign is about. yesterday, i was in reno. early 30's,n in her she has a child five years of age.
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$10.49 an hour. i talk to senior citizens who were trying to survive. in order to survive, they're cutting their prescription drug pills half. they're having trouble finding meanwhile, while the middle class of this country
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disappears. while millions and millions of people are working while single moms are trying to figure out how they can bring in enough income, how they can afford a child care for their children, almost all of the new income and wealth created in america today is going to the top 1%. this campaign is about, sing loudly and clearly, enough is enough. [cheers] this great country of ours, and our government, have to
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represent all of the people, and not just a handful of billionaires. [cheers] before i get into the thrust of my remarks, i want to say a few words about our campaign. when i began this campaign, it was fair to say we were about 3% in our polls, it was fair to say with no political organization. we had no money, and much of the media considered our campaign a fringe candidacy. bernie sanders, he combs his hair very nicely -- [laughter] a well-dressed candidate, but you know, not really going to go
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very far in this campaign. then some of the expert said something -- i think has a lot of truth to it. they said look, if you're going to run a national campaign in today's world, you need to raise tens of millions of dollars. that is the reality. the only way they said that you can raise that money is to have a super pac, then go to the millionaires and billionaires and say -- beg for money. [boos] but that is what they said. way.nly [applause] what they said is the way modern politics is run, and it is true. people don't do meetings like this, they spend their lives
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going to mansions and sitting down with very wealthy people than putting ads on tv. we decided to do something very different. i do not represent the interests. of the billionaire class, or corporate america. [cheers] i do not want to their money, and we decided to do it a very different way. we said, to the working families of this country and the middle class -- we need a political revolution in this country. you will have to help us make that happen. this is what happened -- this is really amazing. i would not of dreamed i would be able to tell you eight months after we began this campaign.
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what happened is that over the over 2.3t months, million individual contributions that come into our campaign. [cheers] [applause] million from close to one million people. that is more individual campaignions than any in the history of the united states of america. [cheers] what we have shown the pundits, you can run a winning campaign without a begging billionaires for money. [cheers]
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proud that we have ofe hundres of thousands volunteers, including many here in nevada. a great volunteer base here. i personally thank all of you for helping out on the campaign. [applause] what this campaign is about his understanding some very important points that are not often seen on tv. that is that right now, no president, not bernie sanders or anybody else, will be able to transform our country. to do the things the middle class and working families need, have a political
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revolution. unless millions of people get involved in the political process in a way that we have never seen before. [applause] the reason for that, the reason for that is that wall street and and sheldonerica, adelson and obvious really wealthy guys and the koch brothers are so powerful in control of the economic and political life of this country that we cannot defeat them unless millions of people stand together. that is what this campaign is about. [cheers] >> [chanting] bernie, bernie,
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bernie. there arenders: people out there, donald trump and others -- [boos] attempting to do what demagogues have always done. that is, instead of bringing people together to address and solve the real problems that we face, what they tried to do is tap the anger and frustration that people are feeling. they then divide us up. trump, andessage to all the others who want to will not up -- no, we hate latinos, who will not hate muslims, we're going to stand together. [cheers]
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we are going -- we are going to stand together. in fact, we will address and solve the real issues facing this country. [cheers] about the real issues, i have to also caution you in this respect. too often, people turn on the tv or see the front page of the paper and say that is the issue. appreciate isu that the only people who determine with the real issues are, are you. to a large -- to a significant
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degree, for obvious reasons, corporate media chooses not to focus on the real issues impacting working people. we'regh we are -- what doing in this campaign, the reason we are seeing so much success. we have now spoken to over 400,000 people love come out to our rallies. the reason for that is that people want to be treated as intelligent human beings. they want to hear a real discussion of real issues. when i talk about the real issues facing america -- it is not necessarily what you will see on television tomorrow. but on top of my list is the united states today has more
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income and wealth inequality since 1928.time it is worse here than in almost any major country on earth. -- youyou to hear this will not see it on tv. you might as well give it here. [laughter] ownsop 1/10 of 1% now almost as much wealth as the bottom 90%. 1%, the top 1/10 of 1%. the 20 wealthiest people, not a lot of people, own more wealth than the bottom half of the american people. family, america, one the walton family of walmart
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owns more wealth than the bottom 40% of the american people. [boos] vermont, and all over this country, in order to make a living -- in order to bring in enough money, or get some health insurance -- people are working incredibly long hours. states,in the net's work the longest hours of any people in the industrialized world. japanese are very hard-working people, we work now longer hours than them. despite the sweat and the toil and the stress that millions of families are living under because they are working so hard -- husbands don't see why it's, mother started the -- their wives, mothers on to their kids. 58% of all new income generated in america today is going to the
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top 1%. is, we have an economy that is rigged. the rich get much richer, corporations get -- enjoy record-breaking profits, and the todle class continues disappear. what we have got to do together is create an economy that works for working families, not just billionaires. [applause] when we talk about our economy, it is such as the grotesque level of income and wealth inequality. here is something else you may not have seen in the papers.
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once a month of the federal government publishes and unemployment report. official unemployment nationally is about 5%. but there is another report, that includes people who are giving up looking for work and people who are working part-time -- that number is close to 10%. here is something else that is never discussed. a couple of months ago i asked and economists to a study for me. i asked them to tell me what unemployment was in this country for young people who graduated high school. didn't drop out, graduated high school. they reported back for white kids between 17 and 20, real unemployment and underemployment was 33%. 36%, foro kids, african-american kids, 51%.
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if there is anybody in this room who does not see a connection between this high rate of youth unemployment and the fact that shamefully we have more people in jail than any other country on earth, and you are missing a significant point. [applause] let me tell you what i think we have to do. we have got to invest in jobs and education for our young people, not more jails and incarceration. [applause] here is my first promise to you. after my first term as president, we will end the
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disgrace of having more people in jail than any other country on earth. [applause] we are going to put our kids into decent jobs and back into school, not into jails and, by the way, we are going to reform a very broken criminal justice system. [applause] together, we are going to and institutional racism in this country. [applause]
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together, we are going to bring about real police department reform in this country. i was a mayor of the largest city in vermont and worked closely with the police department. the vast majority of police officers in this country are honest and work hard at a very difficult job. but when a police officer, like any other public official breaks the law, that officer must be held accountable. we need to make police departments look like the diversity of the community they are serving.
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we need to do militarize police departments so they do not look like invading armies. [applause] we've need to take a hard look at the so-called war on drugs, which has ruined many lives in this country. [applause] right now, at the federal controlled substance act, marijuana is treated the same way as heroin. we can argue, and there is a lot of debate about the pluses and minuses of marijuana. but no sensible person thinks marijuana is equivalent to heroin. that is why i have introduced legislation to take marijuana out of the federal controlled substance list. [applause]
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the reason i have introduced that legislation is not to encourage anybody to smoke marijuana. you are laughing, but that's the truth. i smoked marijuana twice and all i did was coughed my guts out. it did not work for me. but i do understand other people have had different experiences. [laughter] here is the point, and this is the serious point. over the last many decades, millions of people have been arrested for possessing marijuana. most of those people do not go to jail. but all of them get a police record and if you have a police record and you go out and try to get a job, it becomes more
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difficult. and the racial component of this, it turns out the black community and white community do marijuana at about equal levels, but blacks are more likely to be arrested than whites. so there is a lot to be done in reforming a very broken criminal justice system. our job is to provide opportunities for people so they do not get arrested. we have to make sure that people who are arrested doing nonviolent crimes do not spend time in jail. we have to make sure people who are arrested and are in jail, when they are released, have the education and job an opportunity to make it in civil society. [applause]
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there is a lot of work that has to be done. i just want to give you some aspect of criminal justice reform that needs to happen. but there's one simple fact that everyone knows about but we do not talk about it. that's the reason people are working incredibly long hours is wages in this country are too damn low. [applause] the federal minimum wage of $7.25 an hour is a starvation wage. [applause] we have to raise the minimum wage to a living wage -- $15 an hour over the next few years.
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[applause] when we talk about fair wages, i hope every man in this room will stand with the women and fight for pay equity for women workers. [applause] there is no rational economic reason women are making $.79 on the dollar. that is old-fashioned sexism and we are going to change it. [applause] in nevada, you are going to see a lot of politicians running through your state because your state plays a very important role in the primary and caucus process. you are going to hear a lot of republicans talking about family values.
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they just love families. but you all know what they mean by family values. what they mean is that no woman in nevada or in america should have the right to control her own body. i disagree. [applause] what they mean by family values is the federal government should defund planned parenthood. i disagree. what they mean by family values is that our gay brothers and sisters should not have the right to marry. i disagree. [applause] i have been married 27 years. i've got four grandkids -- i've
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got four kids and seven beautiful grandchildren. my wife and i believe very much in strengthening family life in america. but when i talk about family values, i talk about ending the international disgrace of the united states being the only major country on earth that does not guarantee paid family and medical leave. [applause] it is not a family value -- i want you to think about this -- when a working class or low income woman has a baby today, she will be forced to separate herself from her baby after a week or two weeks because she has to go back to work to earn enough money to take care of her family. that is not a family value.
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that's the opposite of a family value. that is why together, we are going to establish three months of family and medical leave. [applause] there is enormous economic anxiety out there. people are so worried about whether they will have the job tomorrow or be able to find a job. real unemployment is 10%, youth unemployment is a lot higher than that. that is why we need to create millions of decent paying jobs. instead of firing teachers, we should be hiring teachers. [applause] we need to hire hundreds of
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thousands of people to go into childcare to provide our little kids with the best pre-k education in the world. when our infrastructure, our wastewater plants, airports and rail are deteriorating, we can create 13 million good paying jobs through a trillion dollar investment and i intend to do just that. [applause] it is not only a question of creating millions of decent paying jobs, it is a question of preventing the loss of decent
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paying jobs through disastrous trade policies. right now, we have a set of trade policies, all of these trade policies were written by corporate america in order for them to get the cheapest labor possible on this planet. our message to corporate america is the time is finished when you are going to shut down plants in america and move to china. you are going to reinvest in this country. [applause] when we talk about the economy, there is an elephant in the room that must be discussed and dissected. and that is that the greed and recklessness and illegal
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behavior of wall street has done incalculable harm to the people of nevada and the people of america. [applause] i find it interesting and very telling about the nature of american society and our criminal justice system that you have young people who are caught possessing marijuana, they get a police record. and yet the ceos of wall street firms who have destroyed the lives of millions of people get away scott free. [applause] not only do we have a situation where we have banks that are too big to fail, we have bankers that are too big to jail.
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we are going to change that. [applause] are you ready for a really radical idea? even if you are a ceo of a large wall street firm, you are going to have to obey the law. [applause] the truth is after we bailed out wall street because the banks were too big to fail, three out of the four largest banks in america are bigger today than they were when we bailed them out because they were too big to fail. the largest six financial institutions issue two thirds of the credit cards and one third of the mortgages in this country.
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when you have a small group of people at financial institutions who have so much economic and political power, the time is now to break them up. [applause] when we talk about the major issues facing our country, there is one issue which is unique in that it impacts every other issue. that is, as a result of this disastrous supreme court decision, the united states campaign finance system has become corrupt and american democracy is being undermined. today in america, most of the campaigns, most of the candidates are receiving more
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support from super pac's funded by millionaires and billionaires than they are from their own fundraising efforts. the people of iowa, they say have the first caucus in the country. they are wrong. the first caucus was held here in nevada by sheldon adelson. and what he did was invite a number of republicans to tell him what they will do for him. and if they say the right words, they get tens of millions or hundreds of millions of dollars in campaign contributions. the koch brothers and a few of their friends, multi billionaires are prepared to spend $900 million on this campaign.
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brothers and sisters, this is not democracy. this is oligarchy and we are not going to allow that to continue. [applause] here is what we are going to do. what we are going to do is make it very clear that any supreme court nominee of mine will be loud and clear in telling this country that one of their first orders of business on the supreme court will be to vote to overturn citizens united. [applause] and, by the way, when we talk
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about a democratic society, we are going to end the kind of voter suppression we are seeing from republican governors and legislatures all over this country. my message is to republican governors and legislatures, if you don't have the guts to participate in a free and fair election, get another job. [applause] in one way or another, either by a constitutional amendment or legislature, we are going to pass law that says in america, if you are 18 years of age or older, you are registered to
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vote, end of discussion. [applause] when we talk about what is going on in our country, i know every person in this room understands that we live in a very, very competitive global economy. and if our economy is going to do well today and in the future, we need the best educated workforce in the world. within that context, it is beyond comprehension that in our country today, there are hundreds of thousands of wonderful and bright young people who have done well in school but cannot go to college for one reason. and that reason is their families lack the funds. that is grossly unfair to those young people and it is absurd
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for the future of our country if we want to tap the best intellectual capabilities are people have. [applause] that is why i have introduced legislation in the senate and will make happen as president legislation that does two things. first, it says every public college and university will be tuition free. [applause] that is obviously important for young people who are thinking of going to college. but it is much more important than that. i grew up in a family that never had a lot of money and my parents did not go to college. the people my family associated
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with did not go to college and that's the way life is. you have millions of kids today in the sixth and seventh grade whose parents never went to college, who don't know anybody who went to college and don't believe they will ever go to college. what i want these kids and teachers and parents to know is that if they study hard and take school seriously, regardless of the income of their families, they will be able to go to college. [applause] but, not every kid wants to go to college. there are kids you want to do things with her hands, they want to be electricians, plumbers, carpenters. they deserve to learn those skills to go out and make it.
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and then, in terms of higher education, we have another absurdity -- we have millions of people and some in this room who are struggling with outrageously high student debt. [applause] raise your hand if you are dealing with student debt. 1000 a month -- the young lady right here talking about paying a thousand dollars a month. $1000 a month. i have talked to people all over this country -- just a few stories about how absurd and dangerous the situation is. i had a meeting in vermont on this issue. a young woman comes to the meeting and says i want to to medical school and i did. i wanted to practice primary care with low income people, which is exactly what we need.
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she said, the price i had to pay, the penalty i had to pay for being a doctor treating poor people is that i am $300,000 in debt. i was in iowa a couple of months ago and said that and at the end of the meeting, woman comes up to me and says $300,000 in debt. i just graduated dental school with $400,000 in debt. all over this country, people are leaving college in debt, paying interest rates of 6%, 8%, 10%. in my view, if you can refinance your home today for 2% or 3%, why are we paying 8% or 10% on student debt? [applause] our legislation will allow
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people with student debt to refinance at the lowest interest rates they can find and not be stuck forever with high interest rates. i have been criticized by some who say that's a nice idea, free public college and lowering student debt is expensive. that's about $70 billion for year. do you know how we're going to pay for that? we going to pay for it with tax on wall street speculation. [applause] when wall street's greed and illegal behavior helped destroy this economy, the taxpayers of this country bailed them out. now it is their turn to help the middle class of this country. [applause]
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when we talk about our responsibilities as adults, there is nothing more important than leaving this planet to our kids and grandchildren in a way that is healthy and habitable. [applause] i am on both the senate environmental committee and energy committee. i have talked to scientists all over the world. the debate is over. climate change is real. [applause] it is caused by human activity, and it is already causing devastating problems through out the world. in my view, pope francis is right when he said we are moving
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in a suicidal direction in terms of climate and the planet. we have a moral responsibility to lead the world and work with china, russia, india and other countries and transforming our energy system away from fossil fuel to energy efficiency and sustainable energy. [applause] i have been told that here in nevada, your public utility is making it harder for people to install solar. that's about the dumbest thing i've ever heard. [applause] our job is to make it easier and more affordable for people to move to solar, wind and other sustainable energy.
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[applause] and when we do that, we can create millions of jobs as we transform our energy system. let me connect the dots. i mentioned a moment ago about how corrupt our campaign finance system is and how it impacts every aspect of our lives. let me give you one very clear example of that. you have a republican party today that with few exceptions refuses to even acknowledge the reality of climate change, let alone trying to transform our energy system. the reason for that is very clear. the reason is one fundamental thing. if any republican candidate
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stood up and said climate change is real. on that day, that candidate would lose their funding from the koch brothers and the fossil fuel industry. [applause] that is the reality. i say to my republican colleagues, i understand that is a tough issue for you. but you have to be looking at the planet you are leaving your kids and your grandchildren. have the guts to stand up to the fossil fuel industry and do the right thing. [applause] what this campaign is about -- and what i mean by a political revolution is not just involving millions of people in the political process, but it is
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also thinking big. we are the wealthiest country in the history of the world, but very few people know that because almost all of the wealth and new income is going to the people on top. but because we are the wealthiest country in the history of the world, if we get our priorities right, there's nothing we cannot accomplish. [applause] right now, there is one major country on earth, one that does not guarantee health care to every man, woman and child and you are living in that country.
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[boos] affordable care act has done some important things. it has provided health insurance to some 17 million people who otherwise would not have had it. [applause] it has ended the obscenity called pre-existing conditions. and it has done some other good things. but, at the end of the day, in america today, 29 million people have zero health insurance. millions more, including many in this room, are underinsured with high deductibles and high copayments. you've got millions of people with $5,000 the dockable. -- with $5,000 deductible. they can't afford to go to the doctor because they do not have
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enough money to do it. meanwhile, we end up spending far more per capita on health care than do the people of any other nation. we spend almost three times per person what the british do, who guarantee health care to all of their people. we are spending 50% more than what the french are doing, guaranteeing health care to all of their people. we are spending much more than the canadians, who are guaranteeing health care to their people. i think maybe it is time to say loudly and clearly that in this country, we are going to guarantee health care to every man, woman and child. [applause] bernie sanders: by the way. when we do that, we're going to end the absurdity of the people in the u.s. paying the highest prices for prescription drugs of
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any people on earth. [applause] bernie sanders: when we talk about america today, it is important to understand, especially now in the holiday season when families are coming 11ether, that there are million people in this country who are undocumented. and many of those people are living in fear. many of those people are buried about being -- many of those people are worried about being deported. many kids are worried about seeing their parents being deported. in my view, this country and our congress must pass comprehensive immigration reform. [applause]
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bernie sanders: and we must pass citizenship to undocumented people. [cheering] : and if congress will not act, i will use of the executive power inherited in the presidency to do everything i can to protect undocumented people. [applause] bernie sanders: now, in this knows,oday, as everybody we are living in a very crazy world and a dangerous world. we turned on the tv and we see disgusting things that turn our stomachs. i think we all recognize that isis is barbaric and must be destroyed.
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but, in terms of foreign policy policy, ity is not good enough for us to be "tough." it is not enough for politicians to be ranting and raving about how strong they are when it is somebody else's kids going. [cheers and applause] bernie sanders: so we have got to be not only tough, but we have got to be smart. and we have to think hard about the consequences of military action. u.s.02 as a member of the house, i listened very carefully to what bush and cheney and rumsfeld were saying about how we had to invade iraq. i listened closely. i ended up voting against the war. [cheers and applause]
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bernie sanders: and it gives me no pride, no joy, to tell you that much of what i said on the floor of the house, and go to youtube and check it out -- turned out to be right. many of my fears turned out to be right and i will never forget the many funerals i went to in the state of vermont for my young people in my state never who never came home. and as the former chairman of the senate veterans committee, i understand the cost of war and know that 500,000 young men and women came home with ptsd or traumatic brain injuries, not to mention the 6700 who never came home alive. that is the cost of war. our job it seems to me, is to be very smart in terms of how we
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destroyed isis. we have to understand and learn the lesson of iraq. and that is we do not do it and we should not do it alone. [cheers and applause] bernie sanders: what we need is an international coalition. recently, one of the heroes in that region, king abdullah of jordan made the following point. he said, terrorism is an international issue, but it is primarily a muslim issue as we are fighting for the islam islam against those who want to hijack and demonize our religion. and what he said -- and i think he is absolutely right -- the that for a dozen different reasons, the way to destroy isis
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is to have the muslim countries on the ground taking them on. [cheers and applause] bernie sanders: now we have the united states, the u.k., france, germany, russia, the powerful nations of the world have a very important role to play in that coalition. we have to provide the air support and maybe special forces and training for the soldiers in the muslim world. this is the nightmare that i will do everything i can to prevent. i will not allow this country to be involved in a never-ending perpetual war in the middle east. [cheers and applause] bernie sanders: i believe that if we are successful in putting
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together that coalition, if we demand that some of the wealthier countries in the region's like saudi arabia and qatar, are paying their fair share into helping us destroyed isis, we can do that without the united states being involved in perpetual warfare. [cheers and applause] bernie sanders: brothers and sisters, we are living in a pivotal moment in american history. we are the wealthiest nation in the history of the world but so many of our people are suffering. we have the highest rate of childhood poverty of any country on earth. youthve use
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unemployment that is off the charts. we have 29 people with no health insurance. we have a child care system which is dysfunctional and we have millions of people working longer hours for lower wages. i believe that if we do not allow our opponents -- the donald trump's of the world -- to divide us up as to whether we are white or black or latino, to divide is up as to whether we are gay or straight, man or woman, if we stand together, there is nothing we cannot accomplish. [cheers and applause] [chanting "bernie"] bernie sanders: let me repeat
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what i said when i began because this is the god's t ruth. nobody, not bernie sanders or anybody else, can do it alone. we need a political revolution. we need all of you to be a part of the revolution. and together we can transform america. thank you all very much. [cheers and applause] president l clinton will be campaigning for his wife, hillary clinton. on tuesday, senator rand paul will also be in exeter. he will hold a town hall meeting at 6:00 p.m. eastern, live on c-span two. c-span, looking back on the year in congress. and then, on the "washington journal," a look back on the
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year. three days of featured programming this new year's weekend on c-span. , we examined the prison system and its impact on minority communities. >> the first and primary reason we have prisons is to punish people for antisocial behavior and to remove that threat from society. prison is to keep us safe, whether they are going to rehabilitate the prisoner or deter future crimes, i think those are secondary concerns. the primary purpose of the prison system is for those who are not in prison. it is to keep society safe from the threats imposed by those folks. >> saturday night a little after 8:00, a town hall meeting with elected officials from areas
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experiencing racial tensions with police. >> that is where it began. they get the job saying, i am protecting the public. their idea of the public is those who gave them their marching orders. thosed to look about have startedey using to engage themselves with our community. >> a discussion on media coverage of muslims and how american muslims can adjoin the national conversations at 6:30. and people gather in the house of commons to discuss issues important to them at 9:00. much moresue is so than buses, trains, and expense. people are surprised and disillusioned. as a child, i could not wait to experience a bus or train journey.
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we forget to notice the swishing or honking when we worry if we can afford the bus to school tomorrow. >> for our complete schedule, go to congresse to c-span's year end review. the events oft 2015, including the iran nuclear agreement. we discuss the election of the new house speaker, paul ryan, the end of john boehner's term, and the visit of the pope. mitch mcconnell laid out his priorities. >> the american people have simply had enough, mr. president. this past november they had their say. the message they sent was clear. if voters hit the brakes four
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years ago, this time they spun the wheel. they want the administration to change course and move to the middle. they wanted congress to send legislation to the president that addresses their concerns. this november, the american people did not ask for a government that dress to do everything and failed. they did not want a government that fails to do nothing and succeeds. they asked simply for a government that works. they want a government of the 21st century. one that functions with efficiency and accountability, confidence, and purpose. they want a washington that is more interested in modernizing and streamlining government than adding layers to it. they want more jobs, more opportunity for the middle class, and more flexibility in a complex age with complex demands.
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that is why we plan to pursue ideas, sense jobs and including those with bipartisan support. brokenlike reforming system to make it simpler and friendlier to job creation, opening for markets to american made products so we can create more jobs at home, and moving forward with high partisan infrastructure projects like the pipeline. americans are changing this congress and this president. what they are saying to us, they are challenging us, this congress and this president, to work for them. they are challenging lawmakers in washington to work for jobs for america, not just jobs for themselves. it seems simple enough, but in the end, in a year of divided government control, we are going to have to work hard to meet
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expectations and we are going to have to work together. step one is getting congress functioning again. that means fixing the senate. sentast session, the house over countless common sense bipartisan bills. we need to recommit of a rational functioning of the appropriations process. many need to open up the legislative process in a way that allows more amendments from both sides. m etimes it is going to be working more often. sometimes it will mean working
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late. restoring the senate is the right thing to do. and it is the practical thing to do. going to pass meaningful legislation if both parties are given a stake in the outcome. that is the genius in the regular order. >> the year in the senate begins with mitch mcconnell, the new majority leader laying out a lot of optimism and talking about a return to regular order and the things he would like to pass, like the keystone xl pipeline. what sort of roadblocks did he encounter early on? predecessor,his democrats mounted these filibusters for what they did not like. early on we saw these repeated votes with department homeland security funding.
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they were eager for the showdown with president obama. the votes were not there to pass a spending bill that funded the executive actions on immigration. they had this multiple vote over series of weeks. because democrats proved yet again, that republicans did not have a super majority, enough to go over a filibuster. >> did he at all think, harry reid was in a limited position? he was coming back and they can't exactly when he announced his retirement, but do you think the majority leader thought this was an opportunity for the republicans to take advantage of that at all? >> certainly, coming out of the midterm elections, republicans had gained control of both chambers of congress and had mandate, they thought
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democrats had smaller numbers. i think some republicans were hopeful that when he was majority leader, harry reid would prevent frequent amendment. even some democrats were getting frustrated that they could not offer amendments to bills and performed their basic function as senators. i think republicans were hoping that maybe democrats might be more willing to play ball. as we saw, it did not work out. >> one of the major legislative debate was over the nuclear agreement reached between the six major world powers and iran. in the spring, president obama signed legislation that would allow congress to vote on whether to block that agreement and in september, the house and senate debated that resolution. >> this is a historic occasion and a veryse emotional time for me because unfortunately, i have known
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war.mers ohorrors of i speak for all of those who have had this experience to say that we should always give diplomacy a chance before we put any american in harm's way. us with anyk any of degree of certainty have any idea whether this agreement is going to hold. can contain the ambitions of the leadership in iran. what we do know is that the international powers, not just of china or russia, but of the united kingdom, of france, of thinking the united
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states of america truly believes this is the best possible way to avoid war. it would seem to me, that now is in the time for us to engage exchanges that separate and bring us apart as a nation. the rules of the house and the senate make it abundantly clear that whether you like it or not, this is going to become the policy of the united states of america. this will not be the policy of president obama, of democrats or republicans, but the policy of our great nation. it pains me as i am about to leave service in this office, that we have people in this
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chamber that have such hatred and disdain for the leadership of this country that they would above,s feeling o what is the best policy for the security of this great beloved nation of mine. president off the the united states was able to there would be people in this chamber that would say, see? we told you that he couldn't swim. , i don't thinkg i can do that because you said that china and russia supporting this because they want to sell off oto iran.
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i think that is despicable because that includes the united kingdom, france, germany, that includes people that are talking about this is the best way we are able to do this. and so, what i am saying is this. 14 years ago a terrible thing happened to my country, to my struck on terrorists september 11. now, we have the opportunity to bring our country together the way we did then. 14 years ago there were no republicans, they were note democrats, they were americans that would say, we have to come together. we are not going to change this agreement. this is the policy of the united shouldof america, or be.
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are we here to embarrass presidents? or are we here to reserve -- >> the gentleman's time has expired. the gentleman is recognized for 30 seconds. >> thank you, mr. chairman. are we here to preserve the rignet the and integrity of the united states of america -- here to preserve the dignity and integrity of the united states of america. if there was ever a time to come together and support the policy, the time is now. thank you so much for giving me this opportunity. [no audio] [applause] booke oldest trick in the is, if you cannot win the debate, impugn the other's motives.
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it is a terrible agreement and there is no other reason. with that, i give one and a half omantes to the gentlew from tennessee. >> you are here as guests of the house. any mann manifestation of approval or disapproval is subject to house rule. >> this nuclear deal is not much of a deal at all. it is a gift to the iranian regime. we gave them sanction relate to the tune of $150 billion in exchange for temporary restriction enrichments. just this week he said that israel would not exist in 25 years. imagine that evil that this regime could carry out when they cash in their billions. under this agreement iran will be called the central bank of
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terror. we feel we shrugged off the opportunity for true anytime, anywhere inspection's. instead, we gave iran an opportunity of 21 days to conceal the signs of compliance. thatworse, we have learned iran will be allowed to self inspect. members who vote for this agreement will be voting for a deal they have not seen in full the not prepared to tell citizens of tennessee that i that we should support this without knowing every last deal. we should not leave anything to chance when it comes to the security of america and our allies. i will be casting my vote against this dangerous deal and urge my colleagues to do the same.
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like yield back. >> the gentleman from michigan is recognized. >> mr. lewis from georgia. >> mr. lewis is recognized for two minutes. mr. speaker, a pathway to peace. long and hard about this decision for many months. and meted briefings with citizens of my district. i even had a long session with myself and reflected on the words of martin luther king junior. we have a long, but bitter struggle for a new world. the way of peace is one of those niativey i
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principles. i believe this is a good deal. no, it may not be perfect. i remember standing on this very floor several years ago and speaking against a swawar in iraq. i said it then and i will say it again today. war is messy. it destroys the hopes, aspirations, and the dreams of the american people and people around the world. we are sick and tired of war and violence. we do not need more violence. we don't need more guns. when you read the newspaper, you will see a mass dislocation. too many people are suffering and leading a desperate chance for peace. i believe in my heart of hearts that this may be the most
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important vote we cast during our time in congress. to put it simply, it is nonviolence or nonexistence. it is my hope that my vote today, along with the votes of others, will be a down payment for peace toward a world community and peace itself. maybe with this deal we will send a message that we can stop a war. maybe we can come together as a family of human beings. mr. speaker, we have a moral obligation, a mission, and a mandate to give peace a chance., i yield >> the gentleman from wisconsin. >> i would like to yield one minute to the gentleman from >> recognized for one minute. >> let me thank my colleague
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for yielding. my colleagues, later today we are going to cast two votes and these votes will be amongst the most consequential votes that we will cast some of us in our careers. our founding fathers charged boats the president and the congress for providing for the common defense for good reason. it is the core responsibility of our federal government. it is the key to our freedom and for all of our opportunities. that's why at the front it is the beginning of every oath we take. i will support the constitution against all enemies foreign and domestic. so as we consider this nuclear it oent with iran


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