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space visitor center in cape canaveral florida in 2013. sherry in washington, d.c. hi, good morning. to you. caller: hi, greta. how are you? host: what's your memberry here? caller: oh, my gosh. i have gotten chills just listening to the previous callers and recalling what was going on. i was a senior inle could ledge at southern inillinois university. i was on my way to organic chem have i and hi to pass-through the student center. i remember as i went into the student center everything was silent. this was during the day where there's usually a lot of hustle and bustle. as i walked past one of the television rooms, people were packed shoulder to shoulder looking up at the television monitor. and i said what's going on? they said the challenger exploded? are you kidding? they showed it just sitting here thinking about it makes me emotional. and i'm just -- i've got chills all over. host: why do you think that is, sherry? caller: it was so emotional knowing that teacher was onboard. i'm in science myself, not
aeronautics, but i can relate to the adventure. wanting to do something exploratory. help humanity. and just knowing, just seeing that, just explode in front of your face. you just felt the whole country must have just been in mourning at that moment. you could hear my voice, i'm getting emotional. and this is how many years later? i'm 51 years old now. i remember just standing there in tears running down my face. then i ran to class. and i announced -- because i was a little late that the challenger had exploded. and honestly i don't remember what happened after that. i think i was just in shock. i'm sure class was dismised. -- dismissed. i have no recall. host: do you remember the days leading up to it and the news coverage of it? caller: i was so excited. the astronauts who were going to be onboard. it was a great time.
looking at that. everybody was so full of hope and adventure. we were following it. that was just amazing. i'm so glad i'm in college and doing research although i'm biomedical this is exciting. host: do you think the country it d get behind another event like that? caller: i think they would. i don't know if they would have just civilians trained to be astronauts like that anymore. but i think that's within us. as human beings we have to learn things. we have to explore. that's just part of our nature, i think. i think we will. since so much time has passed, too, there's people that read about it and hear about it but they don't have the emotional experience and attachment to it. i kind of hate to say it in a callous way, but it clears the deck, so to speak. it doesn't thwart their efforts.
i think that's part of human nature to explore. i think people will still want to go up and volunteer and see what they can see from above. host: sherry here in washington, d.c. tim in coca, florida. hi. caller: good morning. host: good morning. caller: i was working second is shift on -- second shift on that day and i remember watching on television and saw it blow up. i was able to go out my backdoor and see it in the sky. it was a terrible day. i was working at cape canaveral air station at the time. host: what were you doing? caller: i was a machinist with the air force area. we did a lot of satellite work. after that i was with united space alliance for 10 years in cocoa, or cape canaveral, we were 100% shuttle support. we did everything there. i was in the machine shop. it was a very good experience to be part of that team.
host: what was it like to return to work after that? caller: it was very sad. the second one, of course, that was when i was with u.s.a. that was said. our manager was part of the team that went to texas to assess what happened. host: tim in coca, florida. what do you think the impact was on nasa, tim? caller: it was real bad. all that power going up into space, it's inevitable there's going to be accidents. and those brave men and women that sacrifice themselves, it was just, unfortunately, part of the challenges that was in front of us. i think the space program was a wonderful thing and it's sad it's over with. the way that it was. we had so many people, talented people, hundreds and hundreds of people all pulled together to make this happen. and that team is disassembled now. people went on to other jobs and so forth. it took decades to get that team
together. so much talent. host: tim is referring to the space shuttle columbia that exploded over texas. is that right, tim? caller: that's right. host: where your manager was part of the team? caller: that's right. he went to texas with a lot of other people to -- they had a special team that would go there and help coordinate and do what they had to do out there. host: all right. marilyn in men mfpblet good morning to you, you're next. caller: good morning, greta. today is my birthday. host: happy birthday. caller: thank you. prior to the explosion of the challenger there was never anything memorable about my birthday. since then people remember it. as i recall that day, it just made me sick to my stomach. the thing that made me worry was all those children, school hildren watching it.
it was just awful. host: let me show our viewers president ronald reagan addressing the school children who witnessed the explosion of the challenger. >> i want to say something to the school children of america who were watching the live coverage of the shuttle's takeoff. i know it's hard to understand, but sometimes painful things like this happen. it's all part of the process of exploration and discovery. it's all part of taking a chance and expanding man's horizons. the future doesn't belong to the faint-hearted. it belongs to the brave. the challenger crew was pulling us into the future and we'll continue to follow them. i have always had great faith in and respect for our space program, and what happened today does nothing to diminish it. we don't hide our space program. we don't keep secrets and color things up. we do it all up front and in public. that's the way freedom is and we
wouldn't change it for a minute. we'll continue our quest in space. there will be more shuttle flights and more shuttle crews. and yes, more volunteers, more civilians, more teachers in space. nothing ends here. our hopes and our journeys continue. host: that was ronald reagan addressing the school children who witnessed the explosion of challenger 30 years ago today in 1986. we are getting your memories and thoughts of this. what do you think the impact has been -- was on america. eastern central part of the country dial in at 202-748-8,000. mountain pacific, 202-748-8001. we'll get back to more of your calls, political news, "washington post" editorial board on senator bernie sanders' presidential bid. a campaign full of fiction is what they write. senator sanders is not brave truth teller. he's just telling progressives what they want to hear.
they write, mr. sanders' story continue as fantastical claims about how he would make the european social model work in the united states. he admits that he would have to raise taxes on the middle class in order to pay for his universal medicare for health care plan. and promises massive savings on health care cost that is would translate into generous benefits for ordinary people. putting them well ahead on net. he does not adequately explain where those massive savings would come from. getting rid of corporate advertising and overhead literally yield so much. savings would also have to come from slashing payments to doctors and hospitals and denying benefits that people want. mr. sanders is a lot like many other politicians. strong, ideological, preferences, except when politics does. as it has on gun control. when reality is idea lgically or political inconvenient, he and his campaign talk around t mr. sanders' success so far does not show the country is ready for a
political revolution. it proves many progressives like to be told everything they want to hear. that's "the washington post" editorial board. campaign section of the "washington post," in iowa, dash, clinton takes page from sanders. she pivots to fiery pop pew limb after attacks against her rival have fallen flat. with five days to go if you count today, iowa voters will be caucusing on february 1, monday night. coverage here on c-span and c-span2. in 2008, it says, that hillary clinton was broad sided by senator barack obama. super pieror operation on the ground and by the liberal optimism of his message. this time clinton dramatically shifted her field operation to try to replicate obama's success. she has continued to struggle to connect with iowa democrats on an emotional level. she has tried attacks on bernie sanders. it has done little to move
iowans which shows sanders with 46% and clinton at 45 dst 8%. this is according to all polls compiled by real core politics. sanders on the other hand claim to have raised more than $14 million from his army of supporters online during the 24-hour period of the heaviest attacks earlier. on the republican side, donald trump will not be appearing at tonight's debate with fox news. as many of you know. he'll hold a separate event in that he will be having a rally, says he's going to raise money for veterans. we'll have coverage of that event tonight. that's at 9:00 p.m. eastern time on c-span. drake university in des moines. 9:00 p.m. eastern time. at the same time as that fox news debate. as we said yesterday, megan kelly is on the cover of "vanity fair" magazine.
the latest edition. it's an in-depth interview with her. this is what she writes about the question that she asked the donald trump. read a little bit from this for you. she said in preparation for moderating her first presidential debate, fox news research assistants put together massive binders on the candidates on everything they ever said on every topic. as she read trump's a couple of themes began to emerge. the one that hadn't been explored was his sexism. knowing if higry were to be the nominee she would hit him with that issue. kelly had her first question. i wrote it, i researched each line item myself. it was interesting to me after the debate when people started to fact check my question. my own reaction was, bring it on. you think i go out there and ask a question like that at the first g.o.p. debate without making sure i was bullet prove on every single word? she drafted and redrafted it and showed it to her fellow moderators, chris wallace and brett, whose initial reaction was wow, let's think about this. there clearly was going to be
pushback. kelly almost didn't get a chance to ask it. she got violently ill on the day of the debate. no one was going to be sitting in for me reading my questions. i can say with confidence that neither brett nor chris wanted to read my questions. for many reasons. she did the debate with a blanket over her legs and bucket to throw up in by her side. that on the latest between donald trump and fox news. this from the recent edition of "vanity fair." we'll get to politics and ask you to -- the end of today's "washington journal," our last hour, what do you think? has fox news -- is fox news showing bias for donald trump? we'll get to that conversation later on here on the "washington journal." we are spending today's first part talking about 30 years ago today when the space shuttle challenger exploded. let's go to john in rochester, michigan.
hi. good morning. go ahead. caller: good morning. yes. on that day i was attending acting school in new york city. i did not actually witness the explosion, but after i heard about it, i remember sitting in class and all of a sudden starting to weep. i was so moved. and later that day when i saw president reagan address the nation, i think it was one of the finest, most poignant speeches, presidential speeches i have ever seen in my life. i have seen a lot of them. i think -- i don't think the country could have asked for a better presidential response than what president reagan gave us that day. host: why do you think that is, john? what was it about the time? the poignancy you are talking about, what was it about this event? caller: it was -- well, it was such a sad event to know that we had, as a nation, had lost all of these brave men and women.
that was -- that in itself was a tragedy, a great loss. the poignancy, i thought, was just driven home by the president later that day. and it was just such a combination of powerful events, both the event itself and then the national tribute. it host: john in rochester, michigan, with his memories of this day 30 years ago. beverly in wisconsin. good morning to you. caller: good morning. at that time i was a fourth grade teacher in a small wisconsin town. and my class was going to participate in lessons plans that is mrs. mcauliffe had prepared. so when the explosion happened, my class and i think all the teachers in our school were in complete shock. host: she was going to be teaching four lessons from space. your class was going to
participate in that? caller: correct. host: how did you go about preparing for that? how did that all get organized? programwe listened to a at that time on what's in the news. this tv program led us to getting involved in preparing the lesson plans with mrs. mcauliffe. host: the day that it happened it, what did you tell those students? caller: we didn't see it until noon because not every room had a tv at that time. i went up to the library with the rest of the teachers, we saw a rerun and came back and told the kids. there were tears. it host: how did you deal with that? these are fourth graders, right? caller: correct. we were talking about -- we talked about the risk of being involved in the space program.
and the challenges that are going to be ahead. everybody has to take a chance on some things in life. some things turn out. some don't. host: beverly, thank you for your call. rue in louisburg,town tfpblet good morning. caller: good morning. host: go ahead. caller: i can remember very well in the 60's i started working for a company it in the space program. and though we had gotten away from that, whenever that happened, i was at work, it was just a shock that went through the entire company because everybody in there felt it because we had worked on the space program earlier. and it was a shock, disbelief, and then you were sick to your stomach. it was just -- it was horrible. because you -- even though you hadn't worked on it, you still felt the shock of it.
host: yeah. caller: it was -- it was bad. but the space program i loved. when we were working on it because everything had to be perfect, had to be so-so. host: david in washington. david, good morning to you. what are your thoughts on this 30th anniversary of the challenger explosion? david, good morning to you in washington. caller: yes. i heard that the reagan administration's going to report they should hold up on that for another couple weeks because they had a leak in it, but they didn't want to postpone the launch but they let it go anyway. that's what i heard after the terrible accident. i was watching it on tv and i was pretty shocked when it blew up. seemed surreal. could hardly believe t host: what happened after that with the investigation?
what do you remember about congress' reaction and what the politicians and lawmakers were saying about space program and how to go forward? caller: they just sort of seemed to go away. you heard about it, a report that come out. they couldn't prove it one way or the other, i guess. if it happened. there was a report that's what happened. and they didn't want to postpone it. they took a chance. i heard that they took a chance. host: a couple of tweets here from our viewers. dodi says we found out we were not infallible with the challenger. frozen o-rings brought us to the realization we weren't so march. sea of tranquility said they recognized they went outside the boundaries. t william rogers who was chairman of the chal learning astronaut commission with kneel
armstrong at the side speaking to reporters about the commission's final report. their investigation into the explosion. >> absolving or blaming, as i said, eric, i think in a sense this is kind of a national tragedy that a lot of us are to blame for. think that in a sense the administration, congress, the press, if you'll excuse the expression, all of us were too optimistic, too willing to accept the fact that this was operational. i think we all learned a lesson. we learned a lesson that it isn't operational. we have to be very careful. we have to be sure that when we continue this program, which we all hope we will, that it's a safe program. i don't think that anything is to be gained by trying to assess who is to blame.
we know what happened. we know it was a tragic event. now that the report is out, everybody has a chance to look at it and study, we hope that nasa can continue on with the program which has been very successful in the past and will be in the future. host: the challenger accident standing next to kneel armstrong, who served as the vice chairman. other notables on that commission, sally ride. astronaut and first american woman in space. if chuck yeager, retired air force general and first person to break the sound barrier in level flight. that was a little bit from the investigation. we are getting your thoughts this morning on this 30th anniversary of the challenger explosion. your memories and the impact of it. we are going to keep doing that here for about 10 more minutes or so. i want to run through some other headlines for you. the new see yum out of oregon, the statesman journal, please stand down. ammon bundy, who was arrested
that he officials had confrontation with the protesters there, is urging the protesters that remain behind to leave the refuge. so far there is no indication that they are -- plan to stand down. that from the statement journal this morning. out of michigan, this is the detroit free fress, snyder's approval sinks in the flint crisis. the first statewide survey shows 69% say the governor has handled this issue poorly. these are the empty bottles. good news for the city recycling effort. that's the bottles piling up in flint, michigan, as they continue to provide water to the residents of that city. out of michigan this morning. front page of the "new york times," helping veterans recover, spending lavishly on it sefment this is a look, investigative piece wounded warrior, one of the veteran groups that donald trump says folks raise money for, they write that, its swift rise it
also embraced aggressive styles of fundraising, marketing, and personal management that have many current and former employees questioning whether it has drifted from its mission. it has spent millions a year in travel, dinners, and hotels, and conferences that seemed more lavish and appropriate. more than four dozen current and former employees said in interviews. former workers recounted buying business class seats and regularly getting around the country for minor meetings. the organization spent hundreds of thousands of dollars in recent years on public relation answer lobbying campaigns to deflect criticism of its spending and flight leverage legislative efforts to restrict how much nonprofits spend on overhead. about 40% of the organization's donne nations were spent on its over head or about $124 million. you also have this in "the washington post" on faith, sanders breaks the mold. sanders has drifted away from jewish customs. he has a chance to make history.
not just as the first jewish president, but as one of the few modern presidents to present himself as not religious. that in the "washington post" this morning. campaign 2016 gets under way monday with the first in the nation caucuses in iowa. also, the zika virus is threatening the united states, fronts page of usa tafmente the virus is lunged to an outbreak of birth deflects in brazil a mosquito-borne infections and expected to spread to the u.s. and every country in the western hemisphere. and officials the u.s. public health officials are saying that. the "wall street journal," the feds are weary, they are keeping its options opened for now. the u.s. central bank lifted short-term interest rates by a quarter percentage point in december. penciled in four more increases this year, but the policy statement released wednesday after a two-day meeting raised questions about whether the fed would follow through with the rate move when it gathers again on march 15 through the 16th.
that in the was was journal front page this morning about what the fed is doing. just a few headlines for you this morning. let's get back to our question with all of you. tyrone in long branch, new jersey. tyrone, good morning to you. what are your memories of what happened 30 years ago today? caller: good morning, greta. i don't mean to be rude to the people, i know they have over the 30 years now i heard that that was not real. and i was 10 years old. i was a kid in school. it broke my heart to see that. and then i was reminded about 10, 12 years ago when i reunited one of my friend i got in trouble. every year after that in school they used to have us do a memorial. like for five years on today we would go into the gym room. they would talk about it. they would raise the flag. we had to salute the flag and
everything. while they would talk about challenger. and explosion. like it would just break our hearts every year, remembering that. i was reminded by one of my friend because i have been into so-called conspiracy theory for years that even at 10 years old, i guess about 12 then, i think she told me i was in seventh grade, i got in trouble in school because i wouldn't salute the flag because i found out -- i got suspended me and a group of my friends, that told the teacher we thought it wasn't true. now at 40 i'm glad to see that the senator that's out there, he was supposedly on that things the teacher's still living, the china man is still living. i don't know how they were on the plane if they are still living. host: we got your point. roberta, nashville,town tfpblet good morning to you. caller: hello. -- nashville, tennessee. good morning to you. caller: hell lofmente my memory is from rick who was a astronaut. he had been commander of the two previous flights before
challenger. he took the first doctor in space and took sally ride, whom i met with rick. and rick told me that he was command houston center because he was scheduled to be commander of the next space mission. and he sat and watched the challenger blow up knowing he was -- and he successfully almost two years later took the next mission up that was successful. host: ok. gill in jamestown, north carolina. gill, good morning to you. caller: good morning, preta. i was very disheartened an satened when the challenger exploded. -- and saddened when the challenger exploded. i was saddened too because the crew was the first multiethnic
crew. on mcnair, the asian american. as well as all the crew members. it was so sad. but i just wanted to comment about the mall feesance. i had heard the comments of previous callers about the o-rings. subsequently they found that the o-rings were defective. also there was no provision for protection for the cockpit to re-enter earth. and president reagan's eloquent statements notwithstanding, he gave the final approval for the launch. and blame -- attribution, he has to share some of that. as the committee reported, swell, there was enough to go around. he did give the final approval. i have a question to ask you and that is this, subsequent shuttle flights did not include one
teacher. can you correct me on that? my final comment is that, this terrible tragedy, the biblical admonition of pride comes before fall, by certainly learned our lesson because the shuttle program was set back for so many years. and once again if you could address that question. host: in the cnn fast facts, they don't note whether or not another teacher. i don't recall another teacher being included in another shuttle launch. we can look into that as we continue to take your phone calls. we'll do a couple more calls here from our viewers on this. your memories of the 30th anniversary of the challenger explosion. before we get to those calls, though, i want to show you what donald trump had to say on fox news last night. he was back on the network. he was on bill o'reilly's show. this is what he had to say about his decision to not show up at tonight's debate in des moines, iowa. >> putin will come