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tv   Russian President Vladimir Putins Annual Call- In Program  CSPAN  April 15, 2016 2:38am-4:28am EDT

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it was a little complicated as to how each dollar amount was arrived at, but each group lost funding. sen. booker: there is obviously a better way to do it. , we seem tok about be often very reactive to a crisis. we have predictive analytics to know better about what is coming, before it dominates the headlines and fear -- could we do a better job heading these crises off? dr. redd: it is something we continue to work on. to take the particular case of zika, there are many aspects of this that are unprecedented. it has been 50 years since an infectious disease has been identified as the cause of a birth defect. there has never been a birth defect caused by an infection transmitted by a mosquito. the historicalse record, this is not something we would have predicted.
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i think there is a need to be able to forecast more effectively than we have been able to do. i totally different problem with ebola, although, the event that occurred in west africa was also not predicted. that event, had we had in place the systems that are put in place now, we would not have had the event that we had. what we arer to seeing now, with similar detection and response to a problem. -- toooker: i want more submit one more question for the record about preparedness. i like the idea that preparedness is not an event, but an ongoing process. about the states running a lot of tabletops for a lot of things. i worry about our overall state and federal working in coordination and preparing for that will become more
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and more unfortunate. not just here in the united states, but threats from overseas. so, thank you. sen. carper: thank you, senator peters. thank you for being vigilant and on the job every day. in addition to being on the homeland security committee here, i serve on the commerce committee and am currently the space,member on sick -- science, and preparedness. we are working to reauthorize the america competes act. from my perspective, if we are going to increase our biodefense preparedness and work to counter diseases which can pose a threat either intentionally or naturally, then we need to fund basic science research, and
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consider it both a national and a homeland security priority for us. laughter, and a hearing examining the blue-ribbon panel on biodefense, this subcommittee heard that report found that federally funded scientific investigators are more likely to engage in early-stage research, versus private sector focus on specific product goals and user needs. this was a cause for ebola countermeasures not to be available when they were needed. when looking at the america they examined global biomedical research, private investment in the united states, correlates very closely with government investment. when government investment and research and development string, the private sector pulled back as well. grows, thement private sector follows suit. but research and development spending has fallen below 1% of the gdp, which i believe is
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unacceptable for our future, and is important for biodefense and innovation. betweene correlation spending and basic science, i support robust federal spending for research, and believe the research can contribute to the next thing, whatever that next big thing is. it also sparks new industries, creates jobs, bolsters the economy. as we discussed today, it improves our biodefense preparedness as well. the challenge is in deciding the right ratio of basic, to apply research, and appropriate funding levels for each, and the roles of private versus public sectors. could you explain how your agencies made use of basic science research, your sense of where we are, where our needs are, and what you would like to see? dr. redd: thank you for the
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question, just to be clear, i am the head of the advanced itearch and development, means when we are working on medical countermeasures, these are measures that have reached the clinical stage of development. dr. hatchett: as well as scaling up manufacturing, if you have manufacturing issues. depend on colleagues at the national institutes of health and defense to fund that basic research. we do not fund basic research. it is important for us to coordinate our efforts with them a products and bring them forward to the earlier stages of discovery and development, we are ready to transition those products. in the case of the a bola -- those had been
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on our threat list for a long time. threats thef the department of security -- defense had identified. they have been working on countermeasures, and moving them forward through the development cycle. epidemic started in 2014, none of the products have reached the stage where our organization was ready -- where they were ready to be developed by our organization. within a year, we were able to transition 12 products from preclinical to advanced development. many had been tested in west africa. we had a strong system as a relates to supporting product development. i could not agree with you more about the importance of basic research. sen. peters: thank you. dr. redd: if we had a panelist
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from nih, you would have a proportion of basic research and applied research and practical application. we do some basic research ourselves, are predominantly, we protect the public and use the tools available to make sure they are affected. -- effective. follow-ups: the western is, do you believe that we need to be putting more into basic research. do threats seem to be developing ?n accelerating rates are we doing ourselves a disservice if not putting in more research at the foundational level? dr. redd: i think so. we need to get through the system quickly to find out if
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there -- they will be useful in large populations and effective. some of those questions are hard to answer at the basic level. sen. peters: other panelists would like to weigh in? >> it is critical to helping the department meet the needs of the stakeholders, whether they are first responders, helping make improvements to the problem -- program. it relies on the university program, as well, to help us meet the needs. we have been talking about ebola. we have a recent understanding that significant ramifications for biodefense have to be answered, still. one of the questions was, how persistent is ebola on surfaces, how long does it stay infected? understand howto it does on the carpet of an airplane, or services employees might encounter in an airport. this kind of basic research has a serious implications for our day-to-day operations, so it is
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critical. appreciate it, think you very much. >> when the gavel come down -- came down, they may be next on the list. be next for us. thank youkill: gentlemen for being with us today, this is for anyone on the panel. i want to follow-up up on a question that was asked earlier by ranking member carper. study the blue-ribbon panel top recommendations with the development and implementation of a competence of national biodefense strategy. this administration has failed to resent a comprehensive strategy in a number of areas, whether it is defeating isis, or countering the use of social
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disparatech are efforts that lack focus. as the blue-ribbon study panel concluded, the u.s. is underprepared for biological threats. it is critical that the administration establish a comprehensive biodefense strategy. could mr. currie or anyone else on the panel speak to the performance of this recommendation? >> absolutely, we think it is very important. it is similar to the blue-ribbon panel findings and recommendations. it is important to note that it is not easy. one of the reasons it is so andicult to do this providing the vice president the authority to do this, is that it must come at a level above the am a because departments cannot tell other departments what to to it is very difficult allocate researchers between the departments and identify
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resources, for example, when we want less resources in one program versus more in another. it is very very difficult to do. we understand: the difficulty, but also the importance of doing that. would anyone else like to respond? >> yes, senator. thank you for the question. -- hashe office of the not developed a strategy for the parameters described in the report, i think it is important to point out that we do believe the development of a national , oneh security strategy was completed in december of 2009. an updated version was completed in december of 2014. the next is a broader strategy,
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it does not just look at biodefense. securing security, as the title implies. it does this through major strategic objectives. at community is capable of responding to incidents of all kind, including bio threats. third, is promote health situational awareness, so that decision-makers can respond appropriately. the fourth, promote integration of public health care and emergency management systems across the nation at the different levels of government. the last strategic objective is promote global health security. that is an overarching strategy. a great deal of what we do in biodefense and in developing strategy, we read with
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stakeholders at all areas of the government. sen. mccaskill: that is wonderful, very good. great first step. thank you very much for being here. integrate information about animal and human health without creating or perpetuating misunderstandings and fear among consumers both here at home and abroad? do see this, where perhaps the chinese are other will push away any they feels or produce might do them harm, or they could make that up. your thoughts on that? weit is very important that stick to the science, and work with our colleagues on the human health side. a good example of that, is what is being called swine flu in 2009. we should have called it by its proper scientific name. it is important to do that,
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because industry is so important in iowa, and it was put in a ofl this advantage because the fear of an influenza that really should not have been attributed only to swine. that is why it is important that the science is integrated and we speak with science. it is important we have someone embedded at cdc, which we do, and work with a daily -- on a daily basis to make sure messages go back and forth. you spoke about the swine flu, we can talk a little bit about the avian flu. >> i also wanted to point out that there are robust communications that go on between these within our center. we have a liaison within the usda, that has proved to be critical for producing health messages. in one case this last fall, we are seeing erroneous news
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about acome up resurgence of avian influenza that was not at all accurate. but working through the national wildlife health center, also with the department of interior, as well as our colleagues at usda, we are able to push through those agencies and camp these storiest that could have economic consequences. the one health approach is so critical to everything that we do. we need to continue to bridge this divide. >> just briefly, to support the administrator here. we have a very intense scientific interchange between usda on influenza, and also food-borne diseases. there are pockets of collaboration.
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sen. mccaskill: very good, i appreciate that so much. we heard about this earlier, last year, the cultural secretary was rocked by the callednfluenza, commonly bird flu. this was devastating in iowa, where it resulted in the death hit0 billion birds, and a to our economy and iowa. the livestock sector is also regularly impacted by these diseases. they struggled to control them with new ones popping up each year, we have talked about some of that. anis not inconceivable that ill-intentioned actor could purposely introduce an equally dangerous and contagious , toogen into the u.s. really mess with our food security, our trading relationships, and economic
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security. i know i am going a little overtime, but to that end, what is the usda doing to prepare for this type of bioterrorism? can you give us a broad overview on that? much interested in your answer, but if we could just yield to him for a moment, we will go back. >> thank you, senator carper. this is an important area. i have a number of questions i will be submitting for the record. probably to each of you, at least three of you. i want to focus on one issue, dr. hatchett, if i could. we talked a lot about ebola today and the zika virus. they're very different. my understanding is, the way in which someone becomes contagious with ebola, its a health problem in itself, but zika is not as easily transmitted from person to person.
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however, it is transmitted from mosquitoes to people very easily. what do think we can do in terms of leveraging all of our assets, including one situated in youngstown, ohio -- iowa. they do incredible work with regards to oil spill's and mosquito infestations. do they have a role here, with regards to seek a? especially in spring, where we could see a movement from latin america into the united states. >> senator, thank you for the question. the control of mosquito populations is an area that the cbc has primary responsibility for, so if i could yield to my colleague for this question. dr. redd: it is hard to give a
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full answer to that question. some localities have finally honed and her others, hardly at all. i think there could be a role for that in locations that don't have the capability, and need it. one of the things we think is really important that the zika out, outbreak is pointing we need to revitalize mosquito-control efforts. not just for control, but to understand what is going on. what they do is capture --quitoes and speciation speciate them. >> thank you, senators. i want you to know that we are ready and willing. you do outstanding work, it would be a way to leverage some of those assets to address a very real, potential biological issue that we are currently
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facing, just as we did with ebola. >> senators. thank you, il: will submit the questions for the record, in the interest of time. i would like to hear the answer. [laughter] >> just breathe. brief. >> we worked closely with our colleagues, to conduct inspections of things and people coming into the country. that is our very first line of defense, looking for things. after that, what is important is finding an outbreak quickly. surveillance is really the key. farms, surveillance on markets, feed lots, everywhere. the surveillance comes not just from usda people, but from state people, and private veterinarians who are accredited
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at usda. theshea: if they find disease, they are duty bound to report it to us. that is the key, surveillance, prevention, getting on this right away. some other things are going on of course. dhs is developing at the animals disease center, soon to be relocated. they are working very hard to find countermeasures, detection methods. all those things are in place now. just toaskill: follow-up with that, as we are preparing for potential is it important we have stockpiles of the vaccinations or other veterinary supplies to safeguard? mr. shea: absolutely. we do have a veterinary stockpile, but it is not robust enough in the face of a huge outbreak, like foot and mouth disease, for example. we do have a good backstop for
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an influenza vaccine, but not for some of the others. >> senator mccaskill. sen. mccaskill: thank you. i understand there are several advisory committees involved in the risk assessment and determination process. that includes non-governmental experts. these determinations are in fact, the guidance that dhs considers a particular biological weapon a threat, and use bio shield funding for countermeasure procurement. my question to you, dr., is is anyone on these committees associated with companies that are actually getting the funds for the research and development for possible countermeasures?
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>> it is the organization that runs terrorism risk assessments. involved in been the process, i am not knowledgeable as to the membership that they rely on when they put together those. sen. mccaskill: if you could get that for the record, that would be helpful. i have had a hearing on this in with the person you just reference, and was saw.rated with what i i will go into that a little bit because i think it is relevant to the hearing today. about what we are warehousing and why, and what we are spending money on. look at the funding decisions and the priorities and the trade-offs, we spent one point $4 billion on anthrax countermeasures alone. two of the investments were for toxins that cost $3200 per dose.
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we also bought 10 billion doses of bio-threats, which only has a four-year shelflife. in we bought that vaccine 2005. then we bought another 18.7 5 million doses two years later. i understand you have to spend money to be prepared even if you don't use it, i get that process. but it appears to me that anthrax investment is crowding out other countermeasures, in terms of funding. i would like someone to address that, because while we had one anthrax attack, it seems to me that the cupboard is bare in a lot of other areas, where we need to have bio shield funds being used. i would appreciate if someone that, especially
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since when i talked to a doctor about anthrax, they said it is therapeutic, and potentially effective against an antibiotic-resistant anthrax. it was not even a certainty that it would be. dr. hatchet? dr. hatchett: thank you for the question. your question has multiple parts. i will try to be brief and address all of them. with respect to the anthrax antitoxins, we have limited treatments for anthrax disease. judged based on the best available evidence to be safe and effective and produce survival benefits against anthrax. anthrax is certainly one of our top threats, and we've made substantial investments to secure the nation against future anthrax attacks. to address your question of whether it is crowding out other
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products, i have to say it is not. office of preparedness our funding over the last 12 years, we have added 17 products using product bio shield funding. include products to treat anthrax, but also antivirals and vaccines to treat smallpox, botulism, radiation syndrome, exposure to chemical nerve agents, and most recently, burnsodus for chemical associated with explosions and nuclear devices. we have a number of products we will be procuring this year.
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we anticipate adding as many as five new products to strategic national stockpile this year. for two of those are anthrax, but they also include treatments for smallpox and acute radiation syndrome. we may add as many as five new products next year. we have been able to build up a diverse portfolio of medical countermeasures against them. sen. mccaskill: does the --llpox purchase include we have purchased significant amounts over the years. sen. mccaskill: is it a problem that the journal says unequivocally there is no apparent use for the vaccine at this time. in fact, seven years after the it is notocurement, recommended. they say it is not recommended for emergency use.
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dr. hatchett: i would respectfully disagree with the statement that it has no use. be anzyme was created to vaccine for immunocompromised individuals, or for contraindications against the existing smallpox vaccines. there are a substantial number of people who could have a potentially severe reaction to other available smallpox vaccines. sen. mccaskill: that makes sense. but i'm concerned when their experts noted in 2014 that it was not recommended for emergency use, and we have spent $650 million on it. i hope that would avoid raise the hackles of somebody who sits in this chair, trying to figure out what is going on. while we spending that kind of money, when clearly there are real questions about its thickest seat and safety. dr. hatchett: we also have a
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substantial stockpile of vaccines that can be administered in an emergency setting. is that ital concern requires two doses to achieve immunity. for those people who have been exposed to persons with known smallpox, there is no absolute contraindication for the existing vaccine. if it is given up to three to thatdays after exposure, may be the basis of that discussion. it clearly is efficacious and meets an unmet medical need for a large part of the population. sen. mccaskill: i know i am out of time, i have one more, do you mind? i get that we are reliant on small startup companies for developing some of these drugs because of the nature of the
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market and the nature of the research. the economics don't make sense for some of the big guys. so i get that we have got to fund a lot of this. what i don't get, take anthrax for example. science is 130 million, to include approval of the topic. including facilities as well as funds for licensing and approval processes. this was our baby. around ande to turn buy it from them for $3000 a dose. most people in missouri do not understand that. why we would pay for the development of a drug and then have to pay $3000 a pop for the drug after we paid to develop it. -- hatchett: >> good question. yes, it is a good
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question. i would say the pricing of medical counter measures is complex. -- we havetake into a sustaining revenue that will allow for the manufacture -- manufacturing base to remain intact. it is very clearly in the middle of the range. there are many therapeutics for other indications, and this price is for those products ranges slightly less than the amount you mentioned, to slightly more. i would argue that it is a fair price for the product. sen. mccaskill: have we explored if it would be cheaper to do this ourselves? we are paying them to develop the drug, and then we are the only customer, and we are continuing to pay them. it seems to me, that we are
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guaranteeing a process for owneding holy -- wholly by the government. hishatchett: we do look at -- different business models for countermeasures. problema similar market , and we are thinking through different potential approaches to how we can support companies, and how far we would like the private sector to carry products productstially, what -- assurance we have that we will have the products when we need them. i would like to mention one other thing you would be interested in. in framing your question, you talked about the shelf life of products. has an initiative we have been supporting for many years, where we look at the product that we are developing, and trying to find ways to reduce that long-term cost to the
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taxpayer. for example, you mentioned the enzyme product for the smallpox vaccine. we have supported a freeze-dried version of the product with will help the shelf life, across the board. we'll look at our entire portfolio to see how we could reduce the cost. sen. mccaskill: i was involved in another investigation, where martin shkreli found a limited market for a drug, and jacked the price up. maybe we need to take a page out of his book and jack the price down. figure the price of the drug we pay to develop, and continue to manufacture it ourselves, and drive the cost way down. because now we are taking out privateess that the company is making from our investment. i don't think the private company should be able -- it
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seems weird that we are making the investment, that is the type of deal -- deal that any businessman with like to get. dr. hatchett: yes, we are always looking for ways we can be better spending the taxpayers money. we recognize our responsibility, and we do provide a great deal of that on -- upfront investment. sen. mccaskill: i would like you to take a look at that, because i'm not sure that makes sense for the taxpayers. carper: i want to come back to mr. shea briefly. with regards to the avian influenza outbreak. a number of states were hit especially turkeys, and lay hands. we saw that in november of 2014,
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and last year. to beected the east coast hit this winter. it just has not happened. we have done pretty good on bio security. why do you think we have escaped this blow? >> all the scientist will tell me it is speculative, but some of the reasons seem to be something like this. the virus circulating in the waterfowl may have mutated to a less severe real and form. and when they dropped the virus, it is simply not catching on like it did last year, and a highly pathogenic form. that is one possibility. another, is that the bio security has improved, and i think it has improved dramatically, certainly where poultry is so important throughout the midwest.
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i think bio security is much better. mr. shea: so those are some of the things that seem to have led to it. i don't know who to ask this question, but i will start with you dr. read -- redd. can you explain the difference between how ebola is transferred to a human being to another versus zika. seeker can be transmitted by a mosquito, bisexual transmission, or possibly by blood transfusion. there is no incidents where that has occurred, but it could be a possibility. is not transmitted by mosquitoes or it it can be submitted bisexual transmission, but its primary route of transmission is contact. --coming into physical, physical contact with bodily
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fluids of someone infected. sen. carper: the cdc announced this week that zika virus is now to be a source of significant brain damage to developing fetuses. of consequences from that. just take a minute or two and talk to us about what actually happens to the brain. does it affect all pregnant women? what is actually happening in the brain of the developing fetus, and what is the bornility if the child is alive? what are some of the consequences there? a couple of points.
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this declaration is not changing what we are doing. dr. redd: this declaration was , whether people are deciding whether they should there is no question that those prevented measures are very important to present something as confirmed. fetus isens when a infected is that the brain is actually infected. that was one of the early on microscopic slides you can see brain tissue and virus right there. what we think happens is that , because of this infection, actually shrinks. , theu have a normal fetus brain gets infected, it gets smaller, and that is what causes
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the small heads. even though the term microcephaly just means small cases, itthese severe is a very particular kind of malformation. it is a very, very rare thing up until this point. of thetes of the skull fetus actually overlap because of the collapse. the skin has ridges in it, and that is not part of regular microcephaly. so it is actually a very specific finding. even though there is evidence that the zika virus causes this malformation, there are many questions. and you pointed out several of them. it does not seem that every pregnant woman who gets bitten by a mosquito has this very severe, adverse effect. we do not know why that is.
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there is a likelihood that there is a certain time frame during pregnancy that is at the greatest risk. we also suspect there are other adverse events that can occur, typical of other birth defects. they are rarely just a single thing. informationve good on that entire spectrum of disease. sen. carper: do we have any idea to what degree of a beat is born disease, how does it impair their ability to function? dr. redd: that depends on the severity. there is a spectrum. there are deaths at time of birth, that is the extreme. or before birth. i think you can go all the way down the line, that there may be much less severe findings that appear like normal births. sen. carper: for the panel, the
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last question. what common sense, practical advice can you give to people that will be traveling to these countries, and are concerned about possible infection? our advice has expanded to include more places where it is being transmitted. if you are pregnant, not a good idea to go. dr. redd: if you do go, use the mosquito prevention measures, and effective insect repellent, insecticide on your clothing, long sleeves, light colored clothing. do what you can to avoid being bitten by a mosquito. sen. carper: any other advice? dr. redd: no. really quick, only one species of mosquito carries that, is this true?
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they are both aedes mosquito. pti is expected to be one. >> and the program to use ,enetically modified mosquitoes to reduce the population of those? dr. redd: i will have to get back to you on the specifics of that. approacha programmatic , indoor residual, and outdoor residual spraying that is being used in puerto rico for pregnant women, killing mosquitoes right there. larvacides sides -- to remove potential breeding spaces. there are also less widespread uses. in all of this, we need to learn
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the effectiveness of these measures, because this is a very difficult mosquito. not to kill at an individual level, but to be sure, there are enough mosquitoes being killed to reduce transmission. sen. johnson: can anyone else speak to genetically modify? ok, experimental at best. let me close the hearing, i will go down the panel. based on the blue panel ribbons conclusion that we don't have a strategy, or a functioning leader here, budgetary as well as operationally, you are all involved in these organizations that have well-defined strategies. i have been in organizations that do not have a strategy, i am kind of in one right now. i want to get your evaluation. if you agree with the blue-ribbon panel, you don't have to say a whole lot more.
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but if you disagree, tell me what is the disconnect in terms of what they are talking about, a lack of strategy, lack of community effort. i will start with you, dr. hatchett. dr. hatchett: thank you. think the problem of biodefense is a tremendously far-reaching, and it stretches to all sectors of society, and all parts of government. the domain that we work in, public health and medical preparedness and response, i feel that we do have strong strategies. we do have strong collaborative measures. and we respond to the emergencies we are presented with. redd.ohnson: dr. dr. redd: there is a policy process, and that involves legislature, and the executive branch. this is a recommendation that
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need to be looked at very carefully. i certainly agree with them. many great things are going on between our respective agencies. i think those could all be bought together, for an advantage. i think that we are certainly taking to heart the blue-ribbon recommendations, and trying to implement as many of them as we can. i think there are strong strategies, strong coordinations. we discussed a few of them today, but there are many more. we are never going to be done. one of the things that strikes me, is after 9/11, when we were talking about agency coordination to connect the dots , there was one anecdotal story that somebody stood up and said i thought we were going to do this after pearl harbor. this is a task that is never done. we will always have to strive and grow and build these
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capabilities. >> i come from a manufacturing backer, a gets in your dna, the urge to improve. sen. johnson: again, the gentleman here think there are strategies for improvement. is that an accurate assessment from your standpoint? >> i don't want to take away from some of the efforts that have been done. the public health strategy that is thechett mentioned, closest thing to a comprehensive strategy. if i could say one key thing that is not being done, is this idea of being able to prioritize investments and efforts. within each area, you can do that. across, you cannot. sen. johnson: at the entry level you think you're doing a good job prioritizing, but from the -- down allocation resource once again, thank you everyone for your time, your testimony. the hearing record will remain
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open for 15 days until april 29 at 5:00 p.m. for statements. this mission is adjourned. -- this meeting is adjourned. [indiscriminate chatter]
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announcer: this month, we showcase our studentcam winners. c-span's annual video documentary competition for middle and high school students. this year's theme is "road to the white house," and students were asked, what issues do you want presidential candidates to discuss? one of our second prize high school winners are from phoenix, arizona. catherine, christian, and alexander, 12th graders at metropolitan art institute, want presidential candidates to discuss women's rights and pay equity in their video titled "wag(e)ing war: the struggle for equality in the workplace." >> when you work in the office, meeting with the public, whether it is my person or by telephone, is an important part of your job. it can be pleasant, like this. >> being a working woman today is very different from how it used to be, isn't it? today, women have more economic, political, and social power than ever before in american history. but is better than before good enough? >> today our country faces
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dozens of problems, and many have been the focus of hot debate between the 2016 presidential candidates. but there is one issue that has gone largely undiscussed. inrica today, women make only 3/4 of what a man makes for the same work. why? we went to federal representatives to find out. >> there are a lot of single-parent homes in our society now. the kids are usually with the mom, so when they are only earning $.76 per dollar, you are taking money not just away from that one woman, you are actually taking away from the whole family unit. if you have women as head of households with more income, they are going to spend more money, they are going to invest more in their kids. it has more positive ramifications. >> of course, i think the big elephant in the room that can be awkward to talk about, women tend to take a lot of time out of the workforce and downgrade their work when they have kids. >> when they leave work for a couple of years, that takes them
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out of the wage scale. the opportunity for them to get years of experience in order for them to continue to get pay increases. businesses should not be penalizing women for being good mothers. >> what that wage gap means, for all women, but it is even worse for women of color, it means months of rent or mortgage that can't be paid. it is very, very tough, and we see that wage gap across the board, in all industries and across all educational levels. women are still lagging behind. >> across the board, women of all ethnicities are making 20% to over 40% less than white men. when we compare the weekly earnings of men and women, we see that education is no guarantee of wage equality. the gap actually grows with each level of earning.
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>> things don't change overnight. managers don't just stop becoming sexist overnight. a lot of policies that exist in companies have existed for sometimes 50 years. they have benefited men and are not going to change all of a sudden. >> i opened for records from when i was 19, and the one job i had before that was working with records. this was many years ago when the original owner was alive. i was working really hard for them. i had worked there since i was 15, and i went to him when a management position came open and i told him i thought i was best suited for that position, and he actually laughed and said , "what are you crazy?" "no one will ever listen to a 100 pound woman." instead, i opened up my own record store and became his number one competitor. >> kat has worked her entire life doing tech report television theaters, a traditionally male-dominated field. >> i feel i have to work 10 times harder than any man doing the job to at least keep up to the level of just hanging on to
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the position i am lucky enough to get. a man is usually holding that position. >> i grew up in a single parent home. my mom raised us after my dad left at a very young age. i saw her, you know, struggle to make sure we had rent, food, good clothing. i know that had she received higher wages, that higher wage would have come back to our family. so if i can get them that 25% more, i know that i will impact their lives directly and the re will be benefits for all of society. >> rubin is a strong proponent of the paycheck fairness act, a powerful piece of legislation that goes a long way to making sure businesses a their workers without bias or in discrimination. >> for every working woman in
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the u.s., they are paid over $10,000 less than their male counterparts. they earn $.70 for every dollar paid to a full-time working man. the gap has been closing at half one cent per year since the passage of the 1963 equal pay act. >> if the wage gap is closing at only half of one cent per year, it will be another 50 years before the gap is closed. that is not so bad if you are but what about today's women, who worked all their lives at a financial disadvantage? >> it is important for us to break down the social taboo of not talking about our salaries. >> i do think that there are small ways we can count victories, but in terms of where the money and power resides, i don't think we are in a better place. and that, i would say, is as much to do with generation as it is with gender. >> it is really hard to change the minds of people that have grown up thinking that women's place is in the home, barefoot and pregnant. >> i think the average person on the street can contribute by
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taking the time to give positive feedback on women in the workplace. simply not talking to a woman's chest is one way to start. [laughter] >> at the end of the day, happy workers that are being properly compensated end up making a country better. president obama: at a time when people are struggling to make ends meet, many families are trying to get by on one paycheck. achieving equal pay for equal work is not just a woman's issue. it is a family issue. >> every day, millions of women work hard to support themselves and their families. we have seen their struggles, heard their stories, and learned that the wage gap is not just a problem for women. it is a problem for everyone and for our entire economy. the ways that we can change our out there. so, the only question left to ask our future president is
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this. what are you going to do? >> to watch all of the prize-winning documentaries in this year's studentcam competition, visit studentcam.org. hours ofv has 48 nonfiction books and authors every weekend. here are some programs to watch. saturday at 10:00 a.m. eastern, booktv's wife from maryland for the minneapolis book festival. and then, the book, in which they examine the cost and efficacy of local counterterrorism acts. and then, the founder of emily's list. she discusses her book "when women win." it looks at the rise of women elected to public office. malcolm is interviewed by a congresswoman from california. >> we wanted to raise early
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money and we thought if we gave credibility to women by raising early money, they could go on and raise the additional money they needed to win. we were like little political venture capitalists. and today's terms, we were the kick starters for women. emily stands for, early money is like yeast. we make the dough rise and we have been doing that ever sense. >> go to booktv.org for the complete schedule. >> russian president vladimir program.ted his they were topics ranging from the russian economy to the dumping scandal. he also commented on relations with the united states. the program ran about four hours. this portion is about one hour and 45 minutes.
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[speaking russian] [speaking russian]
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♪ [speaking russian]
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>> an important issue is roads.
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please look at the quality of these motorways here. the local governments and authorities don't have any roads or place for pedestrians. there are no roadways for but a ordestrians cyclists. there should be a metro system to be constructed.
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[speaking russian]>> currently f
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10% they can be used for repairs. that is number one. number two, this year we have decided to increase the excise tax for motor fuel.
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to send allplan was this money to a fund. at the current situation with the budget is quite difficult. to balance the budget, they had plans to take the rubels. >> currently there is a limit of 10% that can be used for repairs. so, that is number one. number two, this year we have decided to increase the excise tax for motor fuel. we have increased that by two more rubles. the initial plan was to send all this money to a fund. but the finance minister, because the card situation with the budget is quite difficult. the finance ministry plans to take
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this two rubles. i think we can take one ruble off the excise tax. we can change the amount to about 40 billion rubles. so, on the whole, i think this will be quite a substantial amount. now we can proceed to the studio. [speaking foreign language] >> you have seen that, for the first time in the history of this program, we now also take video calls live. to that end, you need to download a free application to
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register. you can use your existing social network account for that. and we already have over 1,000 requests. and questions by way of these video messages. you can also use mms messages. the call center has processed over 1,000 questions and queries to the president over the weekend. as of this moment, we received almost 1.5 million calls, 400,000 text messages and over 300,000 questions. you can still ask your question. you can see the number on the screen. and also, for the first time this year, you can use your questions using the social network. young people, the young generation, people under 30, are using this format especially.
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there are 120,000 users. and also, the live broadcast will go with lip-syncing for the hearing impaired. this year has been difficult for the russian economy. statistics show that for the first time, there has been a steady decline in production in russia. we are losing jobs and salaries are reduced. but despite all of that, the russian economy has endorsed. it has not been shredded into pieces, as your colleague mr. barack obama has predicted. and this year we also had some good events, some positive events. it is human nature, people usually ask about things that concern them, about things that
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are issues for them, rather than positive things. and this is a chance for them to sort out their issues, their problems. we were looking at the questions and the queries in the run-up to this program. and we see that questions are divided into groups and some of them are about the economy, economy-related issues. people now have to go to savings as regards to their family budgets. let's ask the most relevant question. this is a question from moscow. it is a question about prices. last year, i would buy groceries for $5,000 for a week's time and now, one year later, it's no less than $10,000. so, prices have gone up at least twice. the government is telling us that inflation is only 12% a year. so, who should i trust? the receipt, for the government? both. and there is no country diction here. let me explain. when the government talks about
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the inflation rate, they mean the average inflation rate per year. and it's not 12.5%. it's 12.9%. but there are different factors contributing to inflation. food prices are a major factor. last year, especially at the beginning of the year, prices went up significantly, i think, by 14%. in the third quarter of this year, basically prices actually decreased. earlier this year, growth was 2.5%, i think. so, the government is not providing you with misleading statistics. it is actually 12.9%. not, this is not little inflation, but i can
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isually tell you that this something that we did ourselves. because we limited food imports as a response to sanctions imposed on russia. we did this on purpose to create conditions for our agricultural sector. and thisup the market is what happened with the gdp dropping by 3.7%. our agricultural sector actually grew by 3%. and this is an important element of our economy. we have 40 million people living in rural areas. and in the long run, we believe this will have a positive effect. this will certainly increase our improveury,
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conditions in rural areas because people will have better jobs there with higher incomes. so, this is temporary. and as we get our market saturated with the russian food products, prices will go down and will stabilize at the same level, which is what we are actually witnessing right now. but on the whole, of course, i realize that it's hard for people, hard for consumers. and actually, here in russia, everyone is saving these days. i have to save time, this is the most precious thing we have. this is a question from moscow. the government's economic ministers, people are telling us that we've reached the bottom of this economic decline. they have said that seven times by now. how would you assess the status, the situation of the russian economy? where is it now? are we enjoying a white or a black stripe right now?
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it is gray. let me explain why. because we haven't fixed the situation yet, but at lea st the current trend is positive. gdp jobd earlier, our growth dropped by 3.7%. this year, the government expects gdp to continue 0.3%.ing, but only by and the next year, we'll actually have growth. so, it is hard to say where the bottom is. but you can actually see that we will have a little decrease this year and next year, our economy will start growing. i have this table in front of me. i told you about gdp, about industrial output. of course, there are also other
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drawbacks. and we should never forget about them. we should keep working on our disposable incomes, real incomes. decreased by 4%. wages dropped even more, but what makes me optimistic, for example, agricultural growth, like a said, 3%. housing construction, 85 million square meters. this is an all-time high. unemployment is at 5.6%. there was some growth, but it was very little compared to the precrisis period. we bestowed 453,000 rubles trade balance. even though oil prices went down
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by 60% almost, trade balance is still positive. we make more than we spend. 146 billion rubles, this is a very good indicator. we preserve our reserve funds and our reserves are back to the 2014 level. and deficit is minimum, less than we planned actually. 2.4%. >> we have another question. they say we have one year's worth of national reserve. will that be enough? >> no, no, no. like i said, we brought our reserves, central bank reserves, and we are back to the 2014 level. actually, i would say it's more.
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it is $387. and we have two reserve funds. the reserve fund per se and the national welfare fund. they decreased, but very insignificantly and are $60 billion and $71 billion. what does this mean? if we continue spending these funds the way we have been doing up to this point, like last year, this will be -- not for at least four more years, but we plan that we will have growth next year. so we will probably, one, spend money from our reserve funds. so there is no reason to be concerned about that 0.5%. what does this mean? if we stop working, we can do nothing and we will still have
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enough money for four months. >> i hope that won't happen. people keep asking about this bottom of the crisis. aren't you concerned that all economic discussions are now focused to three questions. when will be the bottom? when will oil prices go up? and should we print more money? this background, the world is moving on, new economic alliances are being created. this is an alternative to the wto. don't you feel that we are lost inside ourselves, the countries of the euro-asian economic union? >> other people who follow the developments in our economy, i can say the following. this is only what you see on the surface, discussions in the media. not even among experts. the three subjects that you
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mentioned, printing money, oil prices, and so on. real discussions focus on totally different things. the key thing is how to attract investments, how to increase productivity, and how to great demand, how to increase people's incomes. this is what the government is thinking about. and we should recently discussed all those issues, how we can help the most vulnerable categories of people. this is extremely important. because the number of people living below the poverty line increased a little recently and we will certainly respond to that. so, what does the government plan to do? printing money means nothing. it's important that we change the structure of the economy. and we are making some progress there. for example, here are a few signs of that.
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we have increased the industrial production for the first time actually, in february. we saw some increase. it's a positive trend. and high-tech exports, also increasing. compared to commodity exports. so, in real life, of course we are not limited to what you just mentioned. >> here's another question. is it true that alexi will become head of the strategic development center? and will devise a new program? meet with mr. alexi that often. but we meet regularly, and i really appreciate his contribution in the past. and he's certainly one of the most solid and useful experts.
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and what we've agreed on is, you know, he refused to work in the government, in the past, but now i see that his position has changed. the situation is not simple. and he's willing to contribute and help with the current situation. we've agreed that he will work more actively with the expert counsel, the presidential expert counsel. he may be actually one of the deputy heads in this council. and he may actually work in this strategic research center or some other center. he'll develop strategies for the future, after 2018 and for a longer perspective. >> now let's talk about foreign policy.
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the campaign has definitely become a successful campaign. are we just going to talk three of us or what? let's talk about syria and the operation in syria, especially since everybody recognizes the russian success in syria. the military operation of the russian air and space forces has essentially suppressed isis' activity there. but aren't you concerned that isis might come back? >> there is always the threat if you don't fight terrorism effectively enough. and we see that many countries actually suffer from terrorist attacks in the middle east, europe, asia, america, and russia, of course. we all know. we all suffered serious losses in our fight against terrorism. and the threat is still there. but it's not like we left syria, abandoning everything we've achieved there.
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we withdrew most of our forces, but after we withdrew our forces, we left the syrian army in a position where, with the support of their remaining part, they are still able to launch serious offensive. and after we withdrew most of our forces, they retook palmyra and a number of other strategic cities. the number of cities that have joined the cease-fire has increased during this period. and we really hope that it will bring peace to this region, a political process, not the use of force. everybody should come to the negotiating table, adopt a new constitution, hold an election,
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and in this way bring the country out of the crisis. >> do you think -- how soon do you think we'll liberate aleppo? >> the problem with aleppo, it's a strategic area in syria. this is the second biggest city. it may actually be the industrial capital of syria. and you have armed opposition groups there and you have internationally recognized terrorist organizations. and it's very difficult to differentiate between them. the syrian army doesn't need to improve their positions, because before the cease-fire, their objective, they don't need to improve their positions. and the opposition wants to retake some of the areas they lost. and it's actually not the syrian army fighting there. it's kurdish units and some
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other armed groups. and they are fighting between themselves, and they fight against kurds. we have been following this situation very closely. and, of course, we will do all we can to make sure that the situation doesn't deteriorate. >> ok. let's go back to the call center. the inquiries we're getting tell us that one of the most relevant issues is late payments of salaries. this used to be an outdated issue. and now it seems to have come back. people don't have enough money to pay their utility bills and to pay their health care bills. and it seems like this issue has prevailed all across russia. people are complaining from moscow, from other regions, from all types of industries, including even military industries. people only would like to receive the wages that they
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earned on time. let's see one video. >> good afternoon, mr. president. i am addressing you from the city. my name is dmitry. i work at the plant. we work for the defense industry. we produce utility vehicles, controllers, and we have this issue that our wages are paid late and not in full. they're given to us in portions and way behind the deadline. and of course, we get lower wages. and i have four children. thank you. >> what's the name of your factory?
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>> this is a prerecorded video message. >> ah. ok. this factory, it's part of the automotive industry, right? this industry, it's one of those that suffered the most from the crisis. sales dropped. what is actually happening is oil prices dropped. orders from the oil industry reduced. and there is this domino effect. it affects everybody. and revenues dropped, like i said. unemployment is quite low. and what many factories do, they don't lay over people. but, of course, delaying salary
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payments is not good as well. but i am not sure of the exact situation with this particular plant. but since it works with the defense industry, the government is providing support for certain industries affected by the crisis the most. and the automotive industry is number one on this list now. there are over 40 bm rubles before 40 billion rubles provided for this purpose. i will ask them to pay attention to this factory, and if possible, help this particular factory. also, they may have this problem. some time ago, in order to support our manufacturers, we introduced a new tax, which is
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supposed to improve the situation in the long run. in their competition with international manufacturers. they make those trailers, right? and this tax applies to their products as well. it was introduced only recently. and i'm not sure that this decision was well-calculated. so for this particular kind of product, this tax should be probably lifted. and now we will talk about this with the government. and this should improve the financial situation of the plant. so i can promise you that we'll look into this situation. so they never delayed payments before. >> well, they did before, but not on this scale.
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>> let's take another phone call. mr. president, in addition to delayed salary payments, another problem is medication prices. people complain. they say it's like the mafia, robbing people. we have a phone call from dmitry in moscow. hello. >> hello, mr. president. i have a question about medicine. my parents complain to me that they can't buy affordable medicines, medications, in moscow drug stores. why is it that they all have foreign expensive medications available? >> i don't think it's only imported and expensive meds that are on shelves in drug stores, even though some people would like to see it that way. we also have domestic
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pharmaceuticals. recently we announced a specific program to that end, and we're now implementing that program to develop domestic pharmaceutical production. i don't remember exactly, but i think 148 billion rubles have been provided last year. and this year, i think 16 in general, 148 billion and maybe 16 billion this year for the promotion of domestic pharmaceutical production. we shouldn't think that the government does not pay attention to this issue. indeed, there was a decrease of affordable domestically produced pharmaceuticals by maybe 2.5% but that was only in accordance to brand names but not in accordance to their chemical formulas. that is, we get like medications
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and this area is regulated by the government. and today, when earnings have gone down, the government has chosen to hold down the prices, to prevent them from growing. prices on important medications. for prices on important pharmaceuticals that went up by 8.5% last year, on other types of drugs. they increased by 16%, 16-plus percent. but producers, manufacturers of pharmaceuticals, they're telling us that this price increase is not enough for them to be sustainable. so our policy of holding down prices on part of the government is viewed by producers, by manufacturers, as something that unaffordable for them, that doesn't benefit them, because a
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lot of their raw materials, the substances, ingredients are imported. imported. we import large quantities of china.om and this aspect, especially rate of thethe ruble, it does not provide for a the costs for this operation to be profitable. and the government is faced with a choice. we need to either subsidize this or let go of the prices for maybe six weeks or two governmentmaybe the should tackle and solve this coming twon the months. thank you. >> we have a representative of a here inutical company the studio. we have them with us today. >> right. we have the owner of a
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plant in some other region. manufactures some products. says that they are very good quality. so what would you say? >> hello. the ausam factory. it's not like i'm looking for excuses. what we've been doing for the 13 years, we've been and middlethe lower price segment. and they are quite good and i use this medicine for myself, for my children, my family, my friends. but mr. putin is right. our products,of we don't make any money making medicines. and actually, we had to drop
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certain products. problem is the ingredients, equipment, we have to purchase all that abroad. foreign currency. and you all know the situation exchange rate. prices are fixed in rubles by the government. and they have been at the same since 2005. areactually, price levels different for russian and pharmaceutical products. foreign products sometimes are 20 times, cost 20 times as much as russian ones. substances are 70% of the price. as substances now cost twice much. and prices are fixed at the 2009 levels. so nobody is going to
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manufacture medicine in this kind of situation. foreign-made pharmaceuticals is the only thing available. mr. president, could you please look into the situation? we really ask you, first of all, same rightsve the as international manufacturers. second, perhaps this will a surprise, but i think the cheapest medicines, segment, there should price limit,no because compensations don't work. mechanism. a market limits,ou drop price there wie more of the cheaper drugs in drug stores. our factories will have to shut those down. prices go up sharply, those drugs will no longer be
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affordable. the government, has promised to take a decision six to eightn weeks. but we have looked at which ways here, which options there are here, to improve the situation. maybe what we need is a balance. but it is a fact, it is true, some of the industries, some of the companies are on the of being profitable at all. is here our colleague exactly correct. >> here is a text message. what lessons do you use, russian or foreign? >> i try to prevent that necessity. i try to have a healthy lifestyle. you have to use medicines? >> well, if i have to, well, i inoculated, to get fluines, especially when period is approaching.
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and i usually take what i'm given. this includes both domestically produced and imparted medicines. and those are actually from the affordable segment. >> all right. let's continue. wemr. president, i suggest return to the issue of foreign policy. man here, the head of our discussion club. aboutk he has a question foreign policy. >> right. hello, mr. president. last september, a man was as your friend, and turkey was almost our strategic partner. you opened a new mosque in together. but now what is it? the end of friendship? moldova, turkey,ll like countries, it seems we are surrounded by enemies.
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is it possible to develop efficiently in this situation for russia? >> we will not be -- we are not and we will not be surrounded by hostile nations. that is out of the question. relations with an overwhelming majority of the world. in the not to mention such a promising shanghaiion as the corporation organization, which accepting powerful members and our new integration the euro-asian economic union, et cetera. mostve good relations with of our neighboring countries. we also view turkey as a and its peopley as a friendly people. we definitely will pursue a relationship with turkey as such. certainissues with
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political leaders in that country. their -- believe their behavior is inadequate and we react to it as we are to.osed but as we see, we are working steadily. we are avoiding any sharp moves. and reacting to hostile action is necessary. you need tothing do. otherwise, you will be abused by countries. and this has happened in our recent history. must prevent going back to that. but, you know, taking into consideration our interests, we will pursue good relations with all of our partners, including neighborhoods. >> mr. president, you said here you would rescue obama if drowning. what about -- who do you rescue first? >> it's a question from a
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12-year-old girl. >> well, the 12-year-old girl, this is a very tough question. to say.even know what i would probably tell you this. determines to drown, you can't save them. but, of course, we are willing helping hand, a friendly hand, to any partner, so long as they want that. past, russians often went to turkey for their vacations. mostly go to crimea. so let's go to crimea now.
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>> we are on the island, the of crimea. we see a bridge being built across the strait. can see the outline of this future bridge. this will be the longest bridge in russia, 19 kilometers long. it on eightlding sites simultaneously. sections will be combined, and there will be one correcting crimea with the mainland. eury here with me. he's in charge of construction particular site w.
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are currently pouring concrete into the second pillar. the third pillar has been finished. installed over 500 metal pillars. this is just a start. some of them will go 90 meters deep. let's take a look at the map. have 19 kilometers here. four. currently at site this is the middle of the bridge. >> thank you. >> so, hello, moscow! hello, colleagues! hello, mr. president! people from crimea here. questions.ome so please go ahead. >> hello, mr. president. my name is olga.
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we, the people of crimea, look to this bridge being finished. crimea should be self-sufficient. since i work in the travel industry, we are preparing for this summer of 2016. provide a high level of service and hospitality for tourists. would really like to invite over russia,ll from all the different parts of our country, to come. to crimea. question is, when will be the next time you come to crimea for your vacation? >> i haven't thought about it yet, but i definitely will come to the crimea, at least for a few days, including for have rest.o thank you for the invitation. ask aboutlly want to turkey. i have been to turkey for
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vacation. so turkey, when do you think air resume to egypt and turkey? >> well, first of all, regarding to see i was interested this latest update on the process of the construction of bridge. usually there are a lot of aspiringrs, a lot of contractors for this kind of project. but this time, to be honest with you, it was difficult for us to find the right company that would be willing and also of undertaking this kind of construction. we were under budgetary restraints but also there were and othererns deliberations. but we have picked a company. meets all of our stringent criteria. several months debating the price of the -- the cost of
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actually, weand have been able to even reduce the end price eventually. hoping that everything will be completed on time and with the due quality. as for traveling to turkey or egypt, you know, this doesn't really depend upon us. this isn't up to us. the reasons for the existing disruption are quite different. in egypt, the government is extremistsombat the that are operating in that country. easy task. not an and we see that there is almost -- there is fighting daily basis, in the ruling party. the advocate of the former activent are still there. it is not safe to travel to that
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country for vacation. probably together with the shouldent of egypt, we develop the kind of procedures security checks, servingmeals on board, airplanes that would make safe for to egypt russians. come acrossave not the right algorithm, the right solution,r such a even though our security agencies have been working with their egyptian colleagues to solve this issue. turkey is a different issue, even though the situation is seemingly similar to there. in our opinion, the government not really fighting radicals as much as it collaborates with them in
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reality. in the south of turkey, there is should callwhat we a civil war raging and going on, even though the international community is vastly reluctant to admit that. is -- they're using heavy armaments, heavy weapons tanks andluding artillery. there are terrorist attacks in turkey, carried out almost on a basis. so no one one able to guarantee in turkeyan tourists would not come under attack. you do remember that there were cases in north africa when shot upon on the beach. they were assaulted on the beach. tourism is an, important source of income for the turkish budget. last year, almost five million traveled toists turkey last year. and, of course, turkey will try
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ensure safest to to the and safe travel country. but will they succeed? we don't know. able toll not be guarantee to russian citizens that traveling to turkey will be safe. to gobe they will be able to crimea. know, why are turkey and egypt so popular? because they're close and traveling there used to be cheap. but now other countries are also reduce their costs to make traveling to those countries more affordable for and alsoourists russian companies are thinking about how to make it cheaper and more affordable. should work on this. >> crimea has another question. >> hello, mr. president. i am a student at crimea university.
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currently we have planned blackouts. but actually, it may be not that because our kids don't pay as much time playing computer games. the energyyou think bridge will start working? theell, as for energy, energy industry as such, the of energy reported to me just some three or four days about the status of this energy bridge construction. that two circuits have been put into operation. the third must come into today, over 300 megawatts. this now approaches the amount of power we used to receive from ukraine. i think within two weeks, we able to launc

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