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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  May 21, 2016 9:00pm-11:01pm EDT

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respected man in the world. you are always welcome here. the message he congress was to extend to everyone, we, who hold high office, to extend our hand and say to americans, you are always welcome here. whos raised by presidents were the embodiment of catholic social doctrine. and i was taught by the sisters of st. joseph in high school. everyone is always welcome in my home. i was taught by my mother that no one was better than me. but that everyone was my equal. i was taught by my father, who
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man,gled, that every everywoman -- he meant everyone -- that regardless of their station in life, regardless of whether or not you agree with him, is entitled to be treated with dignity and respect. that the used to say greatest sin of all was the whether power, economic, political, psychological, or physical. i wrote theason why violence against women legislation. he abhorred the notion of the abuse of power. totally consistent with what his holiness talks about now in our roman catholic faith has taught
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us for over 2000 years. as taught by my family and my faith, that a good life, at its core, this is why i truly like john, is about the personable. it is all getting down to being personable. being engaged. i was taught by my family and my faith to look beyond the caricature of a person, resist the temptation, when you disagree, to ascribe a negative motive. because when you do that, number one, you do not truly know what that person's motive is. and number two, and makes it virtually impossible to reach common ground. i was taught by my family and my academicer to confuse credentials and sophistication
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with gravitas and judgment. to have a heart to try to distinguish between what is meaningful and what is ephemeral. and the head to know the difference between knowledge and judgment. importantly, my family and our faith warned me against the temptation of rationalizing in the pursuit of ambition. i know it is her birthday, but she will not mind, this is an important business trip. i know it is his last game, but i have to take the redeye back to see it. he will understand. i know we have been planning this family vacation, for a
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long, long time, but i have such an opportunity, if i leave. wrong, but if you engage in this rationalization, which everyone does, never underestimate the ability of the human mind to rationalize. you will become very difficult to weather the storm in reality, in truth. and it will. reality will, in truth. in 1972, i was elected the second-youngest man in the history of the united states, i was 29 years old, not old enough to be sworn in. i had to wait. 13 days to be eligible.
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later, reality intruded. i was in washington, hiring my staff, and i got a phone call. a tractor-trailer broadsided my wife and three children, killed my wife, and killed my daughter. boys, it was uncertain. later, fully recovered. elected at 29 to the senate is pretty heady stuff. it is the stuff of which ambition can get out of hand. intruded.y happenedlater, it
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again. many of your parents and people in the audience have gone through worse than i have. myy know, many of you know, beau, theon, miny attorney general of the state of delaware, the most respected in the state, volunteering to go to kosovo to set up a criminal justice system during the war. and john, i just learned the president of kosovo is naming something after miny son, the major joseph r. biden boulevard. volunteer as attorney general, but you do not get an exception because you become federal property when you become a national guard. you go to iraq.
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a year later, he came home and decorated soldier. the delaware conspicuous service cross, in the best physical shape of his life. miles, he had10 to lay down. stage fourith lastoma in the brain. him,ears later, it took after a heroic struggle. and john talked about, my father talked about, you just have to get up. 's last words to me i am not afraid.
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promise me, you will be all right. my dad had an expression. he would say never complain, never explain. did.ver, ever and i think back on it. iat would happen if john and only followed our ambition? missed a, i never birthday or an important thing. thank god, i never missed his game for unimportant political event. said it best, i say to you, when he was attorney commencementg a speech at syracuse in 2011, he
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said you will find peace when there are certain rules that are not malleable. your conscience, your conscience should not be malleable. your values for another, these are the means, along with learning -- the learning you now possess -- they are the things that will guide you/ . they will also be the things to save you. father, i have read some i are oldhow john and school. we used to treat each other with respect, hang out with each other. i are not old-school. we are the american school. you have to restore.
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when progress only comes you deal with your opponent with respect, listening as well as talking. class of 2016, this is not hyperbole. you are the best educated, most tolerant generation in the history of the united states of america. engage in the tireless pursuit of finding common ground. because not only will you be happier, you will be incredibly more successful. that is where you will find your reward. and it will make us all better for it. it is an honor to be here with john, a great honor to receive this medal. may god bless you all. and may god protect our troops. [applause]
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>> thank you. leave, because there is only one thing more important. remember, i said do not prioritize. my granddaughter is graduating from the university of pennsylvania. so, so long. [applause] announcer: commencement coverage includes the university of notre dame. and we are joined by the president, reverend john jenkins, who has been head of university since 2005. you included two notable catholic, the vice president and
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john boehner, presented with medals. what is the meaning of the medal? >> the medal was founded at notre dame in 1883 to honor a catholic, to recognize a catholic in america who had made a contribution, in some way, to broader american society. we have awarded musicians, poets, political leaders, business leaders, religious leaders with this metal. dal. whoreally, these two men, have given such distinguished leadership, two different parties, it was very important so it looked like we were not favoring one over the other, who have been distinguished political leaders in our country, we felt they were very deserving of this country. has been presented to john f. kennedy, former
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speaker tip o'neill, last year it was aaron neville. what did you hear in their message that struck a similar tone? >> well, that is interesting. because at our time in this country, as we all know, such acrimony and divisiveness, and a lot of cynicism about government leaders, what i found so inspiring, the two men expressed great friendship and affection for one another. they disagree so deeply on so many issues. but i found that particularly inspiring. each ofe ways in which them have been inspired, guided by their faith, not to take any particular position, but to serve. vice president biden spoke movingly about the tragedy in his life, losing a wife and a to cancer.cent son
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and how faith helped him get through that. both of them were inspiring and that way, more on the personal level and the sense of serving the common good of our country. >> the commencement speaker was the former chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. martin dempsey, how was he selected and why? >> i have known them for a while. someone who has served, given his whole life in service to our someone who is quite accomplished. it is not so much to be a compliment, but the real sense that iership of service find so inspiring and general dempsey. someone who really is not about himself, but about giving his life to our country. he is also a superb speaker, and knows young people.
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and his commencement address began with a commencement karaoke. he is a very good singer. and he asked our young graduates to sing along with him on a few songs, that were popular when he graduated, decades ago. and now that they are graduating, it was quite entertaining. >> as we wrap up, parents and students who are considering where to go in 2016 and beyond that, what is the reason you would say they should attend notre dame? >> well, perhaps it is embodied in these individuals. asense of compliment, they were all very able and what they did. but central service, that they gave their lives to something bigger, a broader ideal of service. and i hope all the computer game have that aspiration -- to notre dame have that and will consider that. >> president of the university
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of notre dame, thanks for being with us. >> appreciated. >> congratulations to the class of 2016. today is your day of celebration. you have earned it. >> the voices crying for peace and light, because your choices will make all the difference to you and to all of us. >> do not be afraid to take on cases, or new jobs, or new issues that really stretches your boundaries. abroad,ct your summer on real ships, rather than internships, and the specter of living in your parent's basement is not likely to be your greatest concern. announcer: throughout this month, watch commencement speeches to the class of 2016 in their entirety. from colleges and universities across the country by business onders, politicians
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c-span. >> science, business, and technology pioneers briefly discussed commercial space travel at the washington post transformer summit. administrator charles bolden and other space leaders talk about what commercial space travel will look like. later the ceos of twitch and discussed how communication will change online. one hour and 20 minutes. >> before this decade is out, landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the air. 3, 2, 1.4, all engines launched. we have liftoff. >> the space race inspired a generation of scientists and
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innovators. they have contributed immeasurable technological advancements, from satellites to water to aerospace to medical, once more inspiring wonder in a new generation. launching careers. is chris davenport. i am a reporter at the washington post. our next panel is about space. particularly, commercial space. it is a really interesting time, where i think many people who 2011he shuttle retire in that there is not much going on, but there is much going on at sector, commercial enough to fill a book for one of our talents. let me introduce everyone. charles bolden, nasa
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administrator. julie, vice president of advanced space and launch. next her is andy weir. and george whiteside, the ceo of urgin virgin galactic. somethingout to face extraordinary that will happen. and i want you to talk to us about that. we are going to have a launch, from a government site activity space and are -- kennedy space center at cape canaveral, launching at wer astronauts on a commercial vehicle. this is a very big deal. how does this come about? >> it is a huge deal. it actually started back in 2003, after we lost columbia. thelong story short, recommendation was made to the president at the time to face out the space shuttle from
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number of reason. one, we wanted to explore. the shuttle was a low orbiting vehicle. we felt that, as we have worked with industry partners enough, and they were fully capable of providing transportation to cargo and crew, we struck out. we did not invest in commercial crew illicitly. were kind of lukewarm. and president obama provided the impetus. he said we are going to do it. so we started in earnest, and now we are a year and a half away from launching american astronauts from u.s. soil. that will be incredible. >> can you take us back to the early point? to even have cargo, and to rely on the commercial sector in that way, that was a really bold and daring move. do people tell you you were crazy? >> that is ok. i get told i'm crazy all the time. andy might not know this. we talked about mars, and it was not very popular in 2009.
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foras sort of verboten, reasons not be on my believe. but the president, he said this is what we are going to do. he did it and what i consider to be a major space policy address to the nation and the world in april of 2010. nobody paid attention to it. but that is when he gave us two challenges. by humans on an asteroid 2025. that is still strong. and humans on mars in the 2030's. we are well awaited doing both of those things. >> i want to go to george at virgin galactic. different from deep your commercial venture, richard branson part of this, where you os, whatn musk, jeff bez they want to do is create the world's first commercial space line.
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i just like saying that. talk to us. i mean, it is amazing. talk to was a little bit about what the vision is, and what you are going to be doing. george: what we want to do is open space up to the rest of us. and i think that is an inspiring thing. is, how manyhing people have ever been to space? just guess/ . andy: about 600. george: you cannot answer, andy. nobody onstage can answer. the answer is about 550. i am sure you are about to say that. which seems like a remarkably small number considering we have been going for 50 years. what we would like to do is provide the opportunity to travel to space, but also to give rise to this new category of satellites, because that is really an interesting area. we think that by opening up that experience to more people into
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more satellites, the benefits of space can accrue down to earth. that is what we are hoping to do. andome from it as a leader, entrepreneurial space that we are saying, i wonder if we are going to look back at this time in 10-20 years from now and say this is really an extraordinary time. when all of this spaceflight that nasa and the government have done leaped over into the private sector. you know, i think it is an extraordinary time. and i think a lot of the credit goes to administrator bolden and the president. but also the congress and others for taking smart moves to open up innovation in the american launch industry. and the reason why it is important is because we are getting started on a cycle of innovation that should feed on itself over time. hopefully, we can get the price lower, safe access, which then leads to more activity, which
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then drives lower cost. and we can get on this wheel of innovation. and that is so exciting with the thingss, all of these will hopefully have a cycle to them that drive innovation, so that we actually end up in a place 10 times cheaper in the future than we are now. >> there is a side goal of the panel, to provide andy with material for his book. >> i did an analysis once. i presented it at a convention in the bay area. but basically i said, what is the commercial space industry had the same overhead as the modern commercial airline industry? the commercial space industry is in infancy. it is just getting started is an extremely expensive venture. it takes a lot of money. but i thought, what if it ended
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up like having the same efficiency as the modern commercial airline industry, which has had decades and decades of competition. and like refinement and stuff like that. i worked out that i needed numbers, so i said, let us say they have the same fuel overhead ratio. what percentage of all the money that a martial airline makes, how much of that do they spend on fuel? and everything else? and it works out to be pretty much across the board, every commercial airline spends between 70% of all the money they work out on fuel. let us say that was the same for commercial space industry. the user to get down to the kilogram for low earth orbit. which is unthinkable today. >> tell everybody what it is today.
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andy: it is thousands of dollars per kilogram. 9, i thinke falcon it is less than $10,000 per kilogram. but if the falcon heavy is successful, that will be the most efficient, non-subsidized at about $1600 per kilogram. spacex, the big rock in their building, i heard you say you for writing the martian before the new space movement took off. if you want to write the book again, you might include some of this. is that true? andy: definitely true. i am not 100% sure that, because when i wrote the martian, that is my guy. my job i wrote it was, was to entertain. like, that is my only focus, my
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goal writing a book. it is not be 100% realistic. when i was writing the martian i shamelessly took advantage of the apollo era. and the program in the book is very similar in feel and style to the apollo era program. in real life, i'm sure our first manned mission to mars will be -- put into low earth orbit by commercial space industry's, government contract, i think will be a large multinational effort. it will not look anything like it looked in the movie. making so many of the systems and components to go on these vehicles, you guys are really pushing the edge of the innovation and technology. which is what today is all about. you know, things like solar electric propulsion. another thing i like saying to give us a sense of what you guys are working on, that is really cool and how it works in two?
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julie: we support government and commercial. we do primarily propulsion, big inches, motors, those kinds of power. the things we're working on today, we are doing ion propulsion, a form of electric propulsion. we talk about decreasing the cost. everything we throw off the planet has to go on the rocket. the smaller you can make it, the cheaper it can get. so we have solar electric portion on these next missions, working on nasa contracts and orernal, and it will be 1/10 one half of the size. you see the blue glow from the old star trek, it will be just like that. so, we are printing rockets now. we are doing 3-d printing of whole rockets. another people are doing it -- >> does that mean i can legally
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download a rocket? [laughter] julie: you know, rocket technology is still protected. but you get to that. you get a model and you can do that. but you can certainly do the smaller ones. we talk about the small size, we can actually print one in one pass. those are things that bring down not just the cost of the product. they are more efficient. they bring down time. and all of this just continues to fuel the cycle. as george was saying, is really a transformative time. we are building up things we have put in place for the last few decades. but now we can actually take that next that. >> and he talked about what he thought the martian would be like with commercial space available. and he is definitely right. if you look at what nasa is doing today. a big part of my life is spent growing national partners, looking at nontraditional
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partners, countries that want to be a part of the space program but don't have the money or the technical knowledge. working in partnership with commercial entities has been incredible. nasa has never been taped build rocket. we have been building rockets since we were kids. but that is just the way it was done. they were built on this contract. >> we own the rocket. we don't own the rocket anymore. if i want to send my astronauts it should be able to do it. i talked to spacex. and we have two. if we go down to one, there is no more competition. what his community is doing is giving us competition to give the price down.
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it will allow us to do what we did two years ago. we lost a spacex vehicle. we lost a russian cargo vehicle. beat becausess a we had international partners. in the time that they were flying, our american partner was getting on their feet. >> they are now flying to leo. you want usreneurs, talking about going to mars. does it mean competition? >> it does not mean competition at all. spacex recently announced they were in a partnership with us.
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what he is looking at that we want. coming back to the cave and landing somewhere. that is what we call hypersonic. we are talking about reducing the cost of the taxpayer. but as one of the most critical challenges. how do you get big masses on the surface? that is all good information that we need. >> that analogy keeps coming up. every grocery store in america, they need to deliver.
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clearly, they should get to work inventing a truck. the complexity of going to mars. at it, youally look would need a lot of trucks. entity. no single it is going to be a collaboration. in going to take a lot to achieve it. >> or you can send people you don't really like. [laughter] movie,who watched the "the martian", you have to go and read the book. mark and his crew did not land with that. they have been building that up over a number of decades. we are flying p kurt --
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precursors. landers that can go out and survey. >> was in it this year that they selected about 50 potential landing sites? as a general rule, they are looking for water. but you cannot make that determination if you do not have orbiters.
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that is really important. the mars orbiter mission. >> i was close. this for aen doing long time. you have this new entrance. innovation, new money. i wonder if you can talk about the cultural differences and the ease those at a place like virgin or spacex. how are they different? how are they similar? >> it is an amazing organization
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that has a lot of different capabilities. the new companies are doing is trying to do one or two things well. i think it's the most exciting time to be a young aerospace engineer in decades. thereason i say that if are so many different opportunities. younger and middle-aged engineers can come on board and get involved with real hardware that gets else. we have some of these new machines as well. you can work inside some company and work on a boat for five years. now you can build the systems really quickly. is -- it isg
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something i am required to say. >> we are saving money for the taxpayer. [applause] -- [laughter] no matter where you are, you have to move quickly. have ina great thing to our community now. i think we're doing pretty good right now. hopefully we can maintain that spirit going forward. sandy, i wonder from your viewpoint, if you have charlie's
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job, what would you do differently? >> probably drive nothing to the ground. nasa to the ground. nasa, if iing of could have things go the way i concentrate on commercial spaceflight and get as much money into the commercial site as possible because they will quickly drive down the price which makes the mars related missions more affordable. rather than having to go to the hill and asked for more money.
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i would go a little nontraditional. having ant benefit to astronaut on the surface is the astronaut has a brain. a astronaut does not have five-20 minute latency in communicating from mars. the very first humans to mars is area mission will be a whole bunch of rovers on the surface of mars and then humans in orbit controlling them. you talk about envisioning. and we don't talk about a lot of stuff. ahead, you arear not organized. we are. we have got to be thinking 30-50 years out. i come people all the time.
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the very first beings on the surface of mars are going to be robots. think about what we do for american forces around the world. we don't send marines into a hot area first. we try to make fit environment safer for them. going to be ae is fleet of robots that are going to establish the habitat. they are going to go in with 3-d printing. we may find based on what we know that we want to go rather than have cuts on the surface. with the wind that does not exist. i tell my wife it is a movie. it is a very important part.
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there are prefab structures. that is what we are going to do on mars. >> to give you a zero latency communication. it is like driving a remote control car. if the robot reaches some issue, it has to stop. now it is going to be like this. >> you want to be able to have a human on board. some people do not even think we have people in space or. we are building the systems.
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there is a lot of different ways to do it. it is within our reach. . this is a habitat that has expanded out. they have plans for bigger ones. do you see the day where the international space station is replaced? >> i don't see the day. it is inevitable. ands a human made structure feverishlye working to help george and others build
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this structure that is commercial. tothat nasa does not have use taxpayer dollars to maintain the structure. that should not be nasa. commercial entities have full capabilities to do that today. .hat is what we are looking at we are asking for bids and ideas. habitat isatable absolutely critical because for the first time now we will be old to escape the tierney of the launch vehicle diameter. that is what it comes down to. hasything that is in space to fit inside of the launch vehicle. if you have a big inflatable thing, you can have a lot of volume for your service area. >> we talk about habitats, one of the biggest things that is happening now is the cube sat
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revolution. now they are developing salad lights inside of a shoebox. -- satellites inside of a shoebox. printing actually entire subsystems. proponents -- propellants that people can be around all the time. it is revolutionary. you have to get it to be necessary. it is an interesting time. i have been in this industry.
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it is been under a different kind of model. mature enoughare right now. of things that are transporting. the really hard stuff that you're trying to migrate over. nasa pioneered the technology back in the 90's. it is amazing what he is doing there. >> it was the first element is called to send a spacecraft into space. off theaunched international space station.
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station on an the orbital or spacex vehicle. there is an elementary school that can now brag about my spacecraft is up there doing stuff. i did science fairs. i never look back. that theyantee you are never going to be told that you can't do that. this is where nasa does not get enough credit. >> it is really pushed the ball forward. iss, it has been heating the small set market. you cannot launch in their.
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there you can. interesting is that the u.s. is leading a new era, the small satellite sector. we are going to see tremendous growth. the number of geostationary satellites is not really growing right now. you're going to see this huge growth in constellations over the next few years which will establish a new information skin for planet earth. it helps us with navigation and weather. a permanentill be skin around the planet.
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we have a customer called one web. aspired to do the initial deployment. >> just a note, we keep using different terms. an idea ofically whose time has come. the reason they are possible is because of your cell phone. the miniaturization of computer technology because of the market demand for will have these. now these can absolutely be the brains of a cube sat. go back in time 15 years. , even theile phones
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smallest most compact computers were these clunky laptops. take and develop. you don't have to reinvent the wheel. apollo program was the best and worst thing to ever happen to the space industry. i want to ask george, going back to space tourism for a minute. you have 700 people who have bought tickets. what do you see the demand? there is really a demand. >> i think the demand far outstrips the supply for the
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foreseeable future. it is going to be hard to fly these vehicles. i think it is going to be one of .hese markets i think it is a good thing. we will have a very profitable is next. they really help their trying to catalyze something and do something new. where does it go? that is an interesting question. that is one of the things we think about. usis frustrating to all of that we are still going mach .8 in our commercial air travel. we've been going that speed. the average speed has even gone down slightly.
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is inconceivable for us to go to transpacific. is that going to happen in a year or two? no. the technology that we are working on will feed into that. how do you find people safely? those are all the nuts and bolts. those are all the questions that we will be dealing with. then we will be in a much closer place.
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>> we can take a couple of questions from the audience. >> i want to add one thing on the commercial side. the true and will happen when the price points are going in. razor and if you can go into in thend spend a week hotel for $10,000. we are working on it. >> i want to take advantage of the opening george gave me. in the president's budget proposal for the coming year, critical art of it is new aviation horizons. the is not going to build supersonic airplanes in which people like george are going to fly. we are working on the regulatory in. to flyt is illegal
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supersonic over the ground. instead of assuming -- supersonic boom you get this. it is because you change the shape. sound is nothing but energy. it comes off a big spike. that is a part of the new aviation surprise -- horizons. we awarded a contract to lockheed. you have companies like boeing who have plans on the drawing board. they just need the regulation to change. the game is on.
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nasa has done its job. questions in the audience? the world is also depending on space with communications. who is going to manage all the satellites and microsatellites going up? >> george mentioned the critical role that congress is laying. one of them has mandated that will come together and decide how we put into place the instruments for management. we are going to work.
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year but bypen this it,.ime we do >> that affects the hundreds of satellites. >> where there is a profit motive, there is a way. -- planes manage to not crash into each other. you have a bunch of independent international countries flying their own planes over international waters but they to not haveate anything bad happen. because the brains from the telephone and camera that came out of his telephone.
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it is going to have a micro jet. they are going to be able to maneuver around and most importantly, they are going to comply with the law. it will not harm anyone on the ground. . quick one. another >> nasa has been a driver for education. will that continue? we need a lot of help in some areas. >> they do immensely. budgets a $19.3 billion that is focused on stem education. there is not a single thing that that we don't get into classrooms somehow. keep stats, that is getting kids
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interested in science and aerodynamics. does it promote an education? i don't care what the line is in the budget. is line for education usually skimpy. we improvise. company is involved and it is both grassroots. out but we dohem let them plant. we sponsor a number of scholarships.
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it is the key thing. when you look at going to mars, the cool thing is it is not hard to sell that one. you can get a pretty good following. matter -- mars classroom edition, now available. [laughter] >> it is a thing. it is for sale. >> i said oh you might like this. she said, what mom?
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she read it in three days. that is what is so interesting about expecting people to do space again. this is the best time it has ever been. >> you are writing a new book. >> we are big into education. that thing where we got all the sixth-graders in new mexico to do a thing with our engineers. it gets our employees excited. we have an organization called galactic unite. >> i want to hear about the next one.
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80' place in the 20 it takes place in a city on the man. with an economic reason for why there is a on the moon. the main character is a woman who is a low-level criminal there. it is told in the first person style. >> that is all the time we have for today. i want to thank our panelists. [applause] up next, we are going to go from space to done in a. -- dna. thank you very much. [applause]
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>> if we humans were to announce our existence in this universe, how would we do it? more importantly, what would you say? i would say say very likely. it is a human construct.
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it helps us to understand communication. if we are being frank, what is communication? syntax?e word, the to understand what communication all entered all our data into this thing named watson. say that my mind wants to learn something. in this case, how to make an apple pie. what to do? baker andmy favorite ask how to do it. or july? word --t singularity world, communicating may be unnecessary?
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in my people to be transferred immediately. increase the efficiency and decrease the chance of misunderstanding. this copy of beyonce's lemonade that i want, communication is brought with inaccuracies. cannot -- communication never achieves 100% efficiency. , our astronomer faces a problem. at the time the answer chosen was to employ the universal language, mathematics. if we encode the basics of language using mathematical imply ats, we can
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common town. how to send math? we have tried two methods. thing with send a math or we send a mass listing. our buck isbang for to send light. it mes a lot of sense. our planet has been leaping are electromagnetism. you can get the message out all over the place. this comes at a cost. light fades with time and distance. it becomes harder to hear within the cosmic forest. the light that we send will not be anymore detectable.
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ok, let's send a thing. now we want to send ourselves. iser is heavy and it expensive to send weight in space. we have to hope that we are sending at the right way. he tried to send both. what to do? the problem is with the premise. math is a universal concept, not language. it is like light. -- it needs to be a language that is tangible.
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something stable. that thing is dna. it is the only thing that is tangible to a consummate language. fit in anet's data can data form the size of the state of delaware. . instead of sending ourselves on the cosmic fishing expedition, we can send fish with dynamite. we send our basic operating system increasing transfer efficiency. be transfer loss could minimized. how? it is very stable and space is very empty.
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it could hold all representative life on the planet but also life and encoded in the strengths and cells, how to use it. dna sent in all cosmic directions could have a journey be unscathed. synthetic dna could be encoded with our entire planetary history. as a genetic engineer, i must be honest. dna is not a great predictor. rather dna is a great language. ourselves be a dna and send a condensed message of this planet, this silent tangible language.
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dna is cosmic language. now if you excuse me, i have an apple high to bake. [applause] >> how are we going to save the platform? all we need to do is build the platform. why are you asking me? i am not the ceo. say what you will about the chair but it never told me how to build a box.
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>> hello everyone. i am the post-digital culture critic. i am delighted to be on stage executives who oversee the internet communities. i am talking about steve huffman of reddit and the founder of twitch. first things first, i imagine we have maybe a couple of people who are not intimately familiar with reddit and twitch. i want to explain what it is you do. you are not social networks. you are not media companies. what is up? twitch was started originally as a platform for gamers to share their game streams. it was user generated.
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we not only became a video platform, we became a place where users can connect with other gamers and form all of these micro-communities around each broadcaster. read it has a very similar story. we started off a little different. we were just one community. over the years, we have grown
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into many thousands of communities. focus on now is where they can be themselves online. now we have it for sports, relationships and everything in between. we have thousands of communities where they can express themselves. as representative of what is going on in the internet at any point in -- moment in time. >> it was in something you as the founder that intended. >> i would not say if it was controlled by users is the way to express it. we have thought that.
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uncomfortableen -- we try not to screw it up. it has taken of path over the years. there really is an evolution to these things. to build ang platform where communities can grow and thrive. work asing communities well as planned economies are planned cities. it is a bunch of people who were role voluntarily and your is more of a gardener.
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you have to have the community thrive and grow. that, can forcibly make you are going to have a bad time. you cannot force people to want to engage in each other. provide favorable conditions and hope that it happens in a good way. like any garden, you wind up with issues like weeds. you put a lot of attention into what should be growing hair. what will make that likely? like any fertile environment, you are going to get a favorable environment for something you don't want. pesticidesere to use , you might kill your plants. >> that is exactly what happens. you start playing the round up of having to heavy hand.
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thing dice.le that happens to a lot of communities that get overzealous trying to stamp out and put too many hurdles in the way. you wind up eliminating a lot of interesting and good behavior. >> as much as i love the garden metaphor, i would like to talk about how it works practically. if you have had some pretty profile incidents. with hate speech on reddit. i wonder if you can tell us a little bit about your philosophy of monitoring that type of speech and how it is changed. days, when wey were a very small team and just , we do notmunity think too hard about it. speech wee hate
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didn't really talk about it. over the years reddit has grown much larger and encompass many more viewpoints that are not representative of my own for the companies. moderatorsalso have that did not exist in the early days. these communities are created by our users. use it anyway they want to. these policies are only as good as that we can force it. enforceto make sure to the rules that we have. we have overwhelmingly good people. their anu make
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environment to grow and thrive? we think of ourselves as a platform where people can express themselves freely even if the things that they are expressing makes us very incomparable. this has become very complex over the years. we have done very good at managing it. twitch, i had the benefit of watching reddit go through some of this. this was before we started setting up our policies so we a justification for that- removing anyone doesn't relate to our values. what we have found problematic values: twitch is
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a platform for the creator. it is creator first. when there is a tension between the viewer and broadcaster, we becausehe broadcaster there needs to be a home online for them to have control and run their own editorial policy. we give them powerful tools to manage their community. great as long as you're dealing with broadcasters who all have excellent taste and the problem that arises is we want good behavior over the whole site. we want to give broadcasters power.
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they don't control the community well enough and you a lot about action. -- bad action. the last thing we want to do to a creator is tell them that we know better than you how to run your community. that makes the problem much harder than just jumping into it straight away. >> i like that you bring that up. you both have a model of moderation that is very old-school internet. obviously platforms like facebook and twitter have taken youpposite approach and do have any pressure to take those moderation duties internally? it is something we think about but we would never do that. when you get on reddit that you
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don't get on facebook or twitter is a place where you can really be yourself. people come out on reddit all the time. when they are nervous about doing that, they can come to reddit for support. is very there is always a trade-off there, and intention there. isre we focus our time building the tools were you can thrive in that environment and not negatively affect others. we are very heavy-handed. we're seeing that more and more. i've seen that three times on reddit. we are very different viewpoints
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colliding. if they are not making others have about time. >> we do have a lot of moderation in-house. we used to have all english-language moderators. neede now have realized we all kinds of language moderators. have big internet populations. , when you have something on the order of 2.5 million people a day publicly
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posting messages to each other, employing staff to moderate that time messages.l the entire weekend of impact is -- 30 seconds after the senate. we wound up going to the distribution moderator route. there is no other way to moderate a real-time chat community. the -- we view our role in that as going to build excellent tools that amplify the effect. identify the people that are being a force for moderation. empower them with tools that
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amplify what their actions are. giving them more powerful tools to moderate all at once. time, ournd a lot of focus almost -- is on using systemic issues. groups of users who are harassing other users, spam. tools and teams to identify these bad actors who without them, everyone would be fine. where we are heavy-handed is identifying those people and trying to get them out. hopefully everyone else can flourish. we believe that people on reddit
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and the real world for fundamentally good. they have a fundamental desire to share and to grow. that is low we are really trying to protect. i am curious, you took over as ceo 10 months ago. at the timeheadline that you were trying to save reddit from itself. art -- have you done that? >> to provide some back story, my number one value at reddit is a bald. -- involved. evolve. the company was in disarray. i was watching that it goes this difficult time.
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when i came back, it was a big push to looking towards the future. folks thatreminding there was libertarian free speech route. know how we fell in the early days of opposition. , there wereand these large groups in open revolt. there were communities that were stirring a lot of stuff. i try to squash that group of users who were stirring the set. there has been a lot of culture rebuilding. values and new
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reminding everyone what our purpose is. to answer your question, are we done? no. have we made great strides? yes. >> as an editor, i would agree with you. it is hard to see from the outside when you look at a community site, there is no when you can bring in that is allowed to change the direction other than a founder. is only the founder that has the moral authority to say that this is what the website is about.
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there has been a bunch of things that reddit has done over the past 10 months. i have a lot of sympathy for people that come in as a ceo and not the founder. it is very hard. >> something unique to the area , ithe internet you are you is quite possible for the company to develop a myth about itself. to diverge in a direction that is not maybe the one you plan. it is maybe not profitable. had he do with this issues? reddit was the first thing i did out of college.
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to summarize, it has been an incredible learning experience. the company at the same time. we have made a lot of mistakes over the years. we keep using this lessons. it would grow in a direction that we didn't intend. we have gotten a lot more savvy at learning how to steer these. when i returned to nine months ago, i said what reddit needed was a clear line. publicly.ther
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i wish i could go back and tell myself that it is impossible to draw a line. wherever you draw that line, that isll be someone, looking for the loophole. i have people who did work for facebook and twitter and said that you need to be specifically vague. you need to give yourself some wiggle room. is those lessons that could have been taught. i had to learn the hard way. i am forever thankful for this. >> the thing i noticed at twitch was we had to deal with a poor
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porn issue. we did that mistake. we tried to define it. you just try writing down a formal definition for what is and what is not allowed. either you are banning things that are perfectly ok or you are allowing pornography >> and so it is a -- it is way -- i didn't think, when i started an internet company, that i would wind up dealing with fundamental questions, like what is creative expression really? but that actually is a huge part of my job, it turns out. i can talk about moderation all day. this is fascination. but i want to make sure you have talk about your future plans a little bit. twitch has expanded.
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think you recently had a julia childs marathon, right? >> we recently added a creative twitch. to basically due to user demand. we had a bunch of broadcasters who wanted to broadcast themselves doing creative work. and we thought that was basically in line with our which is empowering these gaming creators. the platform for creative broadcasting as well. actually, the launch partnership ross.b we got the bob ross estate to a marathon of -- do a marathon of all the bob channels. and we recently did julia child, channel. but like gaming, mostly of peopleated, a lot sharing themselves painting or blacksmithing or making costumes. that community is actually really awesome, really vibrant,
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growing super fast. think that, you know, it sort of is in line with the greater mission, which is, how we empower creators to share their passions and to make a living doing so? i'm most proud about with twitch is the hundreds of people who have managed to quit jobs, carpet cleaning, doing telemarketing lawyers, and now get to broadcast themselves streaming video games or art as living. i don't think there's a cooler thing than to enable something something -- somebody to do that. right?e stream, what is your plan for internet domination? >> our plan for internet domination, actually, so we're in this interesting position classes ofve two users. we have our users who love reddit, loyal to the end. them.ur logo tattooed on
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i'm certain there are more personaliens tattooed on than there are facebooks and twitter and whatnot. supremely loyal users. we have many, many like hundreds of millions of users loyalty yet,e that who don't know what reddit is. i bet the you go to reddit's after hearing this talk, you're going to be like, is he talking about the same thing? ha! because it's not at all representative of what reddit is. big challenge we have right now, and the thing that i'm spending a lot of time do weng about, is how make the fact that reddit is incredibly broad and incredibly to our transient users? you know, we have a ton of users think that reddit is the center of the universe for the nfl. which it is. but they don't know that we have all the other stuff that we do. and so connecting that, educating our users that, hey,
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you cana place where get relationship advice, look at the world's greatest collection of ships, you know. this is a place where you can if you'reney match, in need of one of those. message that i want viewer on reddit to understand as fast as possible. so we have a lot of work to do there. the most fun work we can do. we're really excited about it. >> i look forward to that. guys, that's all the time we have today, unfortunately, but thank you so much for me, and before we leave, i'd like to invite lois back on the stage. >> we are finally freeing you for lunch. i hope you all enjoyed the morning. fun.s really great, great so please be back in an hour. we're going to try to catch up time.ittle bit of and please take everything you brought into the room with you out of the room.
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you! and we'll see you back here in an hour. [applause] ♪[music] >> c-span's wall street journal live every day with news and policyishes that impact you. sunday morning, associate editor and reporter po politico will join us. deputy former administrator for the transportation security administration will be on to and about the recent delays long lines at airport security checkpoints, its impact on what we can expect as the summer traveler season approaches. chief national security correspondent will talk about president obama becoming the president to visit vietnam. he will join us to discuss the significance of the trip and the agenda as the president visits a once former
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wartime foe. sure to watch c-span's washington journal beginning 7:00 eastern sunday morning. join the discussion! >> on wednesday at the white house, president obama awarded the national medals of science and technology. recognized for achievements in genetics, cancer treatment and innovations in manufacturing and medical devices. this is 25 minutes. >> welcome to the white house! have the privilege to present our nation's highest scientific and technological achievement. the national medals of science and technology. and innovation. amount of brainpower in this astonishing!w is [laughter] these when you talk to
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brilliant men and women, it's clear the honor has not yet gone heads.r coatstill put their lab on, one arm at a time. joining us to celebrate these achievements are members of congress, secretary of energy, moniz, a pretty good scientist himself. science advisor, john holdren, the director of the foundation,ence france cordova, the director of the u.s. patent and trademark office, michelle lee. rathman from the national medals of science and technology foundation. to thank them for all the work that they do each year to us organize and honor the scientists and innovators in of ours.t nation of, we are engaging in a lot science and tinkering here at the white house. we'vegot astronomy night,
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code-a-thons,ns, science fairs, maker fairs. it is fun! i have loved this stuff. get to test out some of the cool stuff that ends up here in house.te this year's science fair, one named jacobd leggette turned the tables on me we needed to that start a kids advisory group, so young people can help us understanding what's interesting to them when it comes to education, which i thought was a pretty good idea. announce that we are launching a kid science advisories campaign for young innovators to send in their suggestions for what we should be doing to support science and technology inspire the next generation of scientists and innovators. young people out there listening, go to our website, we're going to be looking for
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some advisories, some advice. [laughter] >> the real reason we do this, teache said before, is to our young people that it's not just the winner of the super or the ncaa tournament that deserves a celebration. winners oft the science fairs. we want those who have invented products and lifesaving are engineering our future to be celebrated as well, because immersing young people in science, math, engineering, that's what's going the american spirit of innovation through the 21st century and beyond. that's what the honorees who are here today represent. humble orem came from ordinary beginnings, but along the way, someone or something their curiosity. someone brought them their first
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computer. someone introduced them to a lab. a child in their lives needed specialized medical help. and because they lived in an fasters curiosity and invests in investigation and values science as important to were able to they find their calling and do extraordinary things. so there are few better examples for our young people to follow that we honorcans today. just to take a couple of examples, shirley ann jackson, who is part of my science advisory group, grew up right here in washington, d.c. was a quiet childhood. her first homemade experiment collecting and ca herloging bumble bees in backyard. two events happened that would not only change our country's shirley's. in brown vs. board of education,
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the supreme court handed down a decision that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal and the soviets launched sputnik up in the spaceparking race. as shirley put it, those two events in history changed my good.or she went on to become the first african-american to earn a in physics from m.i.t., the second woman to do so anywhere in america. and over the years, dr. jackson has revolutionized the way informs public policy from rethinking safety at our nuclear plants to training a new generation of scientists and engineers that looks more like the diverse and inclusive that she loves. and you have mark humayan, who emigrated to the united states ninehis family when he was years old. when his diabetic grandmother lost her vision, he began studying to become an ophthalmologist, opening he could save the sight of others.
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mark helprd create the "argus ii," a bionic eye that has thatred vision to patients have been blind up to 50 years. he says the moment he witnessed miracleexperiencing the of sight for the first time in decades, those moments have been some of the happiest and most rewarding of his professional career. punis words, and i think no is intended, there wasn't a dry eye in the operating room. halv[laughter] chicago,g up in mary-claire king's dad would sit t.v.her in front of the for cubs and white sox games. [laughter] >> and make up story problems for her to solve about the players on the field. she just thought that's how everyone watched baseball, which explains why, when a college advisory encouraged her to take
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she said icourse, couldn't believe anything could be so fun. but every single american should be grateful for mary-claire king's path. we're glad she thought it was fun, because at a time when most scientists believed that cancer shecaused by viruses, relentlessly pursued her hunch certain cancers were linked to inherited genetic mutations. this self-described stu stubborn until shekept going proved herself right. she discovered a single gene that predisposes women to breast cancer. that has empowered women and theors to better understand choices that they make when it comes to their health and their future. so these are just three examples thate remarkable stories are represented here today.
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they illustrate why this is such be atraordinary moment to scientist in this country. sciences progress in and technology has countless discoveries within our reach, new materials, formsed atom by atom, new of clean energy, new breakthroughs in cleaning cancer and ending the wait for organ transplants, private humanlight, a planned mission to mars, a nasa probe that broke free from the solar system three years ago and it just kept on going. that's some of what america can do. why we're constantly pushing congress to fund the work of our scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and dreamers to keep america on the cutting edge. president, i'm proud to honor each of you for your our nation.s to as an american, i'm proud of everything that you have done to fearlesse to that spirit of innovation that's made
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us who we are and that doesn't just benefit our citizens but benefits the world. what you'veroud of done. so congratulations to all of you! that, let's read the citations and present the awards. [applause] >> national medals of science, armand paul alivisatos. [applause] >> national medal of science to armand paul alivisatos. university of california, and berkeley national lab, foundationalor his contributions to the field of nano science, for the development of nano crystals as building block of nano technologies and for his nano science the
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community. [applause] >> michael artin. [applause] national medal of science to michael artin, massachusetts institute of technology, massachusetts, for his algebraic in modern geometry, including three major of work. [applause]
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>> albert bandura. [applause] medal of science to albert bandura, stafford university -- stanford university, california, for fundamental advances in the understanding of social learning and thinking processes in motivation an behave change and for the cognitivet of social theory of human action and psychological development. [applause]
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>> stanley falkow. [applause] medal of science to stanley falkow, stanford university school of medicine, his monumental contributions toward causetanding how microbes disease and resist the effects inspiringtics and for mentorship in the field of molecular microbial pathogenesis. [applause] jackson.y ann [applause]
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tonational medal of science shirley ann jackson, rensselaer polytechnic institute, new york, for her insightful work in condensed matter physics and for her publics, policy achievements and for her inspiration to the next generation of professionals in the science, technology, engineering and math fields. [applause] >> rakesh k. jain. [applause] >> national medal of science to
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jain, harvard medical school and massachusetts general hospital, massachusetts, for pioneering research at the interface of engineering and including drug forvery and imaging and groundbreaking discoveries for treatment of cancer and noncancerous diseases. [applause] >> mary-claire king. [applause] >> national medal of science to mary-claire king, university of washington, washington. for pioneering contributions to human genetics, including the brca1ery of the
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cancer.ble for breast [applause] >> simon asher levin. [applause] medal of science to simon asher levin, princeton forersity, new jersey, international leadership in environmental science, appliedng ecology and mathematics to promote impact onon, for his a generation of environmental scientists and for his critical to epidemiology, applied mathematics and evolution. [applause]
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>> geraldine richmond. [applause] medal of science to geraldine richmond, university of oregon, oregon, for her landmark discovers of the molecular characteristics of surfaces, for her creative demonstration of how her impacted many technological processes and for s in theaordinary effort united states and around the globe to promote women in science. [applause]
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>> national medals of technology and innovation. joseph n. desimone. [applause] >> national medal of technology to joseph n.n desimone, university of north hill, northchapel carolina state university, for pioneering innovations in science that led to the development of technologies in diverse fields from andfacturing to medicine for innovative and inclusive leadership in higher education and entrepreneurship. [applause] >> robert e. fischell. [applause]
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of technologydal and innovation to robert e. fischell, university of maryland park, maryland, for invention of novel medical devices used in the treatment of many illnesses, thereby improving the health and saving lives of millions of patients around the world. [applause] >> arthur gossard. [applause] >> national medal of technology and innovation to arthur gossard, university of california, santa barbara, innovation,for development and application of
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structured qan taum in today'ssed digital infrastructure. [applause] >> nancy ho. [applause] >> national medal of technology ho,innovation to nancy green tech america incorporated purdue university, indiana, for the development of a yeast-based technology to produce ethanol and for optimizing this technology for cost-effective production of renewable biofuels
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industrial chemicals. [applause] >> chenming hu. [applause] >> national medal of technology to chenming hu, university of california, berkeley, california, for pioneering innovations in microelectronics, including reliability technologies, the first industry standard model for circuit design and the first transistors.onal
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[applause] >> mark humayan. [applause] >> national medal of technology humayan,ation to mark university of southern california, california, for the invention, development and application of bioelectronics in medicine, including a retinal sis for rescoring vision to the blind, thereby significantly improving a patient's quality of life. [applause] cato t. laurencin.
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[applause] >> national medal of technology to catovation laurencin, university of forecticut, connecticut, musculoskeletal solutions, in the design of forment regeneration and extraordinary work in promoting diversity and excellence in science. [applause] >> jonathan marc rothberg. [applause]
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of technologydal and innovation to jonathan marc rothberg, four catalyzer corporation and yale school of forcine, connecticut, pioneering innovations of next-generation d.n.a. sequencing technologies making informationnome faster and more cost-effective for researchers around the world. [applause] another big round of applause to our honorees! [cheering] [applause] >> let's give a big round of applause to my military aid, who
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had to read those citations, complicatedf pretty phrases in them. [applause] >> you were practicing, weren't you? [laughter] >> the -- well, it just goes to can all learn science. [laughter] >> science rocks! you very much, everybody! please enjoy the reception. to our honorees! have a wonderful afternoon! thank you very much, everybody! [applause] ♪[music]
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>> president obama has departed for a week-long trip to asia. he'll spend three days in with thateeting nation's president, with stops .he then travels on to japan for g7 summit of world leaders. hiroshima,visit where he'll lay a wreath at the hiroshima memorial, becoming the first u.s. sitting president to visit the site with an atomic was dropped during world war ii. next, we'll show you some of commencement speakers. we begin with supreme court justice clarence thomas at hillsdale college. then filmmaker and activist spike lee at johns hopkins. after that, vice president biden and former house speaker john boehner ar


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